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Biodiesel Feedstock Publications

This page lists all biodiesel feedstock journal publications from University of Idaho. Please provide us feedback if you see any errors in this listing or you would like to report any articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. Life Cycle Analysis and Production Potential of Camelina Biodiesel in the Pacific Northwest
    Abstract

    Dangol, N.; Shrestha, D. S.; Duffield, J. A. 2015. Life Cycle Analysis and Production Potential of Camelina Biodiesel in the Pacific Northwest. Transactions of the ASABE. 58(2) 465-475

    Camelina sativa could be a potential feedstock to help meet the U.S. biodiesel production goal of 36 billion gallons by 2022, as set forth by Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. This research is focused on assessing the energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of camelina biodiesel production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the U.S. Field data were collected from a camelina farm in the region, and crushing and transesterification data were measured using facilities at the University of Idaho. It was estimated that use of camelina biodiesel reduces GHG emissions by 69% compared to 2005 baseline diesel. However, camelina biodiesel does not meet the ASTM D6751 specification for oxidative stability without an additive. Camelina has a smaller seed size compared to canola and required 23% more energy for crushing. The net energy ratio for camelina biodiesel was found to be 3.6, and the fossil energy ratio was found to be 4.2. From an agronomic standpoint, camelina can be incorporated into low rainfall areas of the PNW as a rotational crop. Wheat areas of the PNW with annual rainfall of 19 to 38 cm that currently incorporate fallow into their rotations were considered as potential areas for camelina production. There were 846,500 ha (2.1 million acres) of land meeting the criteria in the region that could potentially produce 443.0 million L of biodiesel (117.1 million gal) and 1.2 billion kg of meal per year. This is 12.1% of the approved amount of camelina meal that could be used in livestock feed within the PNW. It was concluded that camelina biodiesel qualifies as an advanced biofuel, and camelina meal has potential to be consumed locally as a feed mix for livestock.
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  2. Characterization of Microalgae for the Purpose of Biofuel Production
    Abstract

    Bi, Z.; He, B. B. 2013. Characterization of Microalgae for the Purpose of Biofuel Production. Transactions of the Asabe. 56(4) 1529-1539

    It is now widely accepted that microalgae are promising candidate feedstocks for biofuel production, especially for biodiesel. Microalgae consist of a vast number of species that contain complex chemical constituents and physical structures. The purpose of this study is to understand the physical and chemical properties of selected microalgae, which is critical to the design of appropriate processes for commercial biofuel production. ASTM standard methods were implemented to examine the microalgae properties, including proximate and ultimate analyses. Among the microalgae studied, green microalgae have more volatile matter than brown microalgae, while the latter contain much higher ash content (as high as 43.4%wt +/- 0.20%wt dry basis). The lowest ash content was found in the samples of green microalgae (14.3%wt +/- 0.10%wt dry basis). Ultimate analysis showed that brown microalgae have less carbon content (approx. 25%wt dry basis) as compared to green microalgae (49%wt to 58%wt dry basis). All samples of microalgae were high in sulfur content (0.4%wt to 1.0%wt dry basis). Mineral contents of all microalgal samples were similar to those commonly present in other biomass. Brown microalgae contain significantly higher amounts of carbohydrates (72.9%wt to 75.5%wt dry basis) than green microalgae. On the other hand, green microalgae contain more crude fat (17.1%wt to 27.8%wt dry basis) than brown microalgae. The fatty acid profiles show that the primary fatty acids in microalgal lipids are similar to those of vegetable oils such as soybean oil. However, there are also many odd-numbered fatty acids, such as C15:0, C17:0, and C19:0, which are not typically seen in other seed oils.
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  3. Biodiesel from oilseed crops
    Abstract

    Shrestha, D.; VanGerpen, J. H. 2010. Biodiesel from oilseed crops. Industrial Crops and Uses. 1140-156

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  4. A high-oleic-acid and low-palmitic-acid soybean: agronomic performance and evaluation as a feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Graef, G.; LaVallee, B. J.; Tenopir, P.; Tat, M.; Schweiger, B.; Kinney, A. J.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Clemente, T. E. 2009. A high-oleic-acid and low-palmitic-acid soybean: agronomic performance and evaluation as a feedstock for biodiesel. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 7(5) 411-421

    Phenotypic characterization of soybean event 335-13, which possesses oil with an increased oleic acid content (> 85%) and reduced palmitic acid content (< 5%), was conducted across multiple environments during 2004 and 2005. Under these conditions, the stability of the novel fatty acid profile of the oil was not influenced by environment. Importantly, the novel soybean event 335-13 was not compromised in yield in both irrigated and non-irrigated production schemes. Moreover, seed characteristics, including total oil and protein, as well as amino acid profile, were not altered as a result of the large shift in the fatty acid profile. The novel oil trait was inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. The event 335-13 was also evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel. Extruded oil from event 335-13 produced a biodiesel with improved cold flow and enhanced oxidative stability, two critical fuel parameters that can limit the utility of this renewable transportation fuel.
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  5. Sulfur Content in Selected Oils and Fats and Their Corresponding Methyl Esters
    Abstract

    He, B. B.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Thompson, J. C. 2009. Sulfur Content in Selected Oils and Fats and Their Corresponding Methyl Esters. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 25(2) 223-226

    According to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, the use of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) has been mandated for all on-highway transportation diesels since 2006. To comply with the EPA regulations, biodiesel must meet the same ULSD standard for total sulfur which is set at a maximum of 15 ppm. Generally, biodiesel contains lower sulfur than fossil diesel. However, due to the diversity of biodiesel feedstocks, questions have been raised about their sulfur content and the sulfur content of the biodiesel made from them. The objective of this research was to gain basic knowledge about how the sulfur content in biodiesel is affected by the sulfur content of different feedstocks. Sulfur in oilseeds, seed meals, oils and fats, and biodiesel were investigated according to ASTM D5453. Samples of different feedstocks for biodiesel production were investigated. Results showed that sulfur content varies greatly from one source to another The highest sulfur in seeds and meals was found in rapeseed and mustard, at the level of 9,000 and 15,000 ppm, respectively. Oils from mechanical expeller presses contained very low levels of sulfur, although some were still higher than 15 ppm. Animal fats and waste vegetable oils contained relatively higher sulfur levels and were frequently above 15 ppm. It was observed that sulfur was significantly reduced when the oils and fats were processed into biodiesel. Results showed that most of the biodiesel samples investigated in this study contained less than 15-ppm sulfur Feedstocks which contain a high percentage of free fatty acids (FFA) must be treated with sulfuric acid to reduce the FFA level before transesterification. In these cases, care is needed during phase separation to exclude sulfur from the fuel layer.
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  6. Convergence of Agriculture and Energy: III. Considerations in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, Jon; Gray, Allan; Shanks, Brent H.; Calabotta, Beth; Kershen, Drew; Weber, Alan; Joost, Richard; Peterson, Todd A. 2008. Convergence of Agriculture and Energy: III. Considerations in Biodiesel Production. .

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  7. Exhaust emissions from an engine fueled with biodiesel from high-oleic soybeans
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Wang, P. S.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Clemente, T. E. 2007. Exhaust emissions from an engine fueled with biodiesel from high-oleic soybeans. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 84(9) 865-869

    Biodiesel is a fuel comprising mono-alkyl esters of medium to long-chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Typically, engines operated on soybean-based biodiesel exhibit higher emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compared with petroleum diesel. The increase in NOx emissions might be an inherent characteristic of soybean oil's polyunsaturation, because the level of saturation is known to affect the biodiesel's cetane number, which can affect NOx. A feedstock that is mostly monounsaturated (i.e. oleate) helps to balance the tradeoff between cold flow and oxidative stability. Genetic modification has produced a soybean event, designated 335-13, with a fatty acid profile high in oleic acid (> 85%) and with reduced palmitic acid (< 4%). This high-oleic soybean oil was converted to biodiesel and run in a John Deere 4045T 4.5-L four-stroke, four-cylinder, turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine. The exhaust emissions were compared with those from conventional soybean oil biodiesel and commercial No. 2 diesel fuel. There was a significant reduction in NOx emissions (alpha = 0.05) using the high-oleic soybean biodiesel compared with regular soybean oil biodiesel. No significant differences were found between the regular and high-oleic biodiesel for unburned hydrocarbon and smoke emissions.
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  8. Building a successful biodiesel business: Technology considerations, developing the business, analytical methodologies
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J.; Pruszko, R.; Celments, D.; Shanks, B.; Knothe, G. 2006. Building a successful biodiesel business: Technology considerations, developing the business, analytical methodologies. . 2nd

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  9. Enzymatic Isolation and Enrichment of Erucic Acid from HEA Seed Oils: Current Status
    Abstract

    Tao, C.; He, B. B. 2005. Enzymatic Isolation and Enrichment of Erucic Acid from HEA Seed Oils: Current Status. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 48(4)

    Erucic acid (EA), a fatty acid of 22-carbon chain with one isolated double bond, has broad industrial applications. Currently, erucic acid is isolated from Crucifereae plant oils through steam splitting, namely the Colgate-Emery process, followed by fractional distillation. This two-step process involves drastic conditions, low energy efficiency, and extensive product degradation. Enzymatic approaches, on the other hand, have many advantages including mild operating conditions and high selectivities. To develop a more efficient alternative process, researchers have studied enzymatic approaches for EA isolation and enrichment for about two decades. Lipases have shown three types of specificities in catalyzing high-erucic-acid (HEA) oils, namely fatty-acid-specific, region-specific, and non-specific. With lipases of certain specificities, various processes of hydrolysis, esterification, interesterification, and transesterification have been studied. Research has also been conducted on investigating the effects of process parameters, including operating temperature, lipase content, and water content, on the process efficiency. The enzymatic approach has shown its potential in isolating and enriching EA from different Crucifereae seed oils. This article reviews the current status of the studies, especially the performance of different lipases and corresponding enzymatic reactions, for EA enrichment from Crucifereae plant oils.
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  10. Potential production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. 2005. Potential production of biodiesel. The biodiesel handbook. 231-238

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  11. The effect of biodiesel feedstock on regulated emissions in chassis dynamometer tests of a pickup truck
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Taberski, J. S.; Thompson, J. C.; Chase, C. L. 2000. The effect of biodiesel feedstock on regulated emissions in chassis dynamometer tests of a pickup truck. Transactions of the ASAE. 43(6) 1371-1381

    Six different vegetable oil esters (coconut ethyl ester used hydrogenated soy methyl ester, rapeseed ethyl ester, mustard ethyl ester, safflower ethyl ester, and a commercial methyl ester of soy oil) were selected to represent a range of iodine numbers from 7.88 to 133. These vegetable oil esters were tested neat and in 20% biodiesel/80% diesel blends in comparison with low sulfur diesel fuel or the effect on regulated emissions. The test vehicle was a pickup truck with a 5.9 L turbo-charged and inter-cooled direct injection diesel engine. The emissions rests were conducted at the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority Emissions Testing Facility on a chassis dynamometer. It was found that lower iodine numbers correlated with reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx). As iodine number increased from 7.88 to 129.5 the NOx increased 29.3%. Fatty acids with two double bonds appeared to have more effect on increasing NOx emissions than did fatty acids with one double bond. Changes in carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and particulate matter (PM) were not linearly correlated with iodine number It is apparent that the type of feedstock oil affects the characteristics of the biodiesel fuel. The most obvious difference is that the pour point changes with fatty acid composition, however other fuel characteristics, some of which effect combustion, are also changed. This article reports on a study of biodiesel iodine number on changes in regulated emissions. The results of this and similar studies provide information for developing triglycerides specifically for optimum use in biodiesel. Modern chemical processes and/or plant breeding should make this possible
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  12. The influence of trace components on the melting point of methyl soyate
    Abstract

    Yu, Liangping; Lee, Inmok; Hammond, Earl G.; Johnson, Lawrence A.; Van Gerpen, Jon H. 1998. The influence of trace components on the melting point of methyl soyate. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 75(12) 1821-1824

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various amounts of unsaponifiables and bound glycerol on the crystallization temperatures of methyl soyate used as biodiesel. The preparation of methyl esters did not affect the amount of unsaponifiable matter in biodiesel. A synthetic unsaponifiable mixture added to distilled methyl soyate and blends of methyl soyate and No. 1 diesel fuel (20:80, vol/vol) did not affect the crystallization onset temperature, cloud point, or pour point at concentrations up to 3% by weight. The amounts of monoglycerides and diglycerides in methyl soyate decreased from 2.60 and 9.87%, respectively, to 0% as the methanol/soybean oil ratio increased from 90 to 200% of the theoretical requirement. Transesterification reactions conducted with less than 130% of the theoretical amount of methanol resulted in methyl soyate with a higher cloud point because of the presence of saturated mono- and diglycerides. Pure mono- and diglycerides added to distilled methyl soyate at 0 to 1.0% did not change the pour point of the esters, but the cloud point of esters increased with increasing amount of saturated mono- or diglyceride. Pure saturated mono- or diglyceride presented in concentrations as low as 0.1% increased the cloud point of methyl soyate. Similar results were obtained with mono- and diglyceride mixtures present in incompletely converted methyl soyate.
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  13. Impacts of contaminations on biodiesel quality
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J.; Monyem, A.; Canakci, M. 1997. Impacts of contaminations on biodiesel quality. Commercialization of Biodiesel: Producing a quality fuel. 1-13

    The methyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, known as biodicsel, arc receiving increasing attention as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Although the production of biodiesel involves a relatively simple chemical process, there is potential for various contaminants to be present in the fuel. These contaminants include water, free glycerin, bound glycerin, alcohol, free fatty acids, soaps, catalyst, unsaponifiable matter and the products of oxidation. The objective of this paper is to present data showing the effect of contanrinants on biodiesel quality. Small amounts of these various contaminants were added to biodiesel and their impact on the properties and performance of the biodiescl was measured. Samples of biodicsel were also oxidized to varying degrees to study its effect on biodicsel. The study identifies water contamination, bound glycerin, and oxidation as three areas of concern. Biodiesel can absorb up to 40 times more water than conventional diesel fuel. High levels of bound glycerin can cause crystallization and increased viscosity. Oxidation can produce chemical compounds that improve cetanc number but also increase the acidity and viscosity of the fuel.
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  14. Potential of High Erucic Acid Rapeseed (Brassica Napus, var. Dwarf Essex) Oil as a Hydraulic Fluid.
    Abstract

    Harish, V.V.; Thompson, J.C.; Peterson, C.L. 1997. Potential of High Erucic Acid Rapeseed (Brassica Napus, var. Dwarf Essex) Oil as a Hydraulic Fluid. . Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 13(4) 7

    Rapeseed oil has been found to be a potentially useful subsititute for petroleum-based hydraulic fluid. This article compares the hydraulic fluid properties of raw rapeseed oil with three commercially available hydraulic fluids: Mobil EAL 224H, PlantoHyd 40, and Hy-TransPlus.
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  15. Processing, characterization, and performance of eight fuels from lipids
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Hammond, B. L.; Thompson, J. C.; Beck, Sidney M. 1997. Processing, characterization, and performance of eight fuels from lipids. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 13(1) 71-79

    Test quantities of ethyl and methyl esters of four renewable fuels were processed, characterized and performance tested. Canola, rapeseed, soybean oils, and beef tallow were the feedstocks for the methyl and ethyl esters. A complete set of fuel properties and a comparison of each fuel in engine performance tests are reported. The study examines short term engine tests with both methyl and ethyl ester fuels compared to number 2 diesel fuel (D2). Three engine performance tests were conducted including an engine mapping procedure, an injector coking screening test, and an engine power study. The gross heat contents of the biodiesel fuels, on a mass basis, were 9 to 13% lower than D2. The viscosities of biodiesel were twice that of diesel. The cloud and pour points of D2 were significantly lower than the biodiesel fuels. The biodiesel fuels produced slightly lower power and torque and higher fuel consumption than D2. In general, the physical and chemical properties and the performance of ethyl esters were comparable to those of the methyl esters. Ethyl and methyl esters have almost the same energy. The viscosity of the ethyl esters is slightly higher and the cloud and pour points are slightly lower than those of methyl esters. Engine tests demonstrated that methyl esters produced slightly higher power and torque than ethyl esters. Fuel consumption when using the methyl and ethyl esters is nearly identical. Some desirable attributes of the ethyl esters over methyl esters were: significantly lower smoke opacity, lower exhaust temperatures, and lower pour point. The ethyl esters tended to have more injector coking than the methyl esters, and the ethyl esters had a higher glycerol content than the methyl esters
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  16. Development of Rapeseed Biodiesel for Use in High Speed Diesel Engines
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Thompson, J. L.; Zhang, Xiulin; Hammond, B. L.; Beck, Sid 1996. Development of Rapeseed Biodiesel for Use in High Speed Diesel Engines. .

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  17. Making and Testing a Biodiesel Fuel Made from Waste French Fry Oil
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Hammond, B. J.; Thompson, J. C.; Beck, S. 1995. Making and Testing a Biodiesel Fuel Made from Waste French Fry Oil. .

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  18. Potential Production of Agricultural Produced Fuels
    Abstract

    Peterson, C.L.; Casada, M.E.; Safley Jr., L.M.; Broder, J.D. 1995. Potential Production of Agricultural Produced Fuels. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 11(6) 6

    Developing fuel sources from agriculture that can make a significant impact on the large petroleum consumption of the United States will require utilization of every avilable biomass resource and will require a large capital investment. Vegetable oil, ethanol, and methane have a significant potential for reducing this petroleum consumption. Vegetable oil could be used to replace an equivalent of the 10.6 GL [2.8 billion (109) gal] of diesel fuel used per year in production agriculture, requiring 7 to 8% of the agricultural land, with the additional potential for doubling this production. The current U.S. ethanol production of 3.8 GL (1 billion gal) per year could be increased to blend with all of the gasoline used in the United States at the 10% rate yielding 37.9 GL (10 billion gal), requiring 16.2 Mha equivalent to 17 GL (4.4 billion gal) of gasoline per year could be produced if all animal waste currently collected was digested. Each of these agriculturally produced fuels have one more more of the following advantages: renewable, biodegradable and/or cleaner buring than their petroleum counterparts. Disadvantages are cost of production, lack of production facilities, and use of agricultural land currently used for food. Development of reasonable amounts of each of these fuel sources could allow agriculture to achieve full production. Energy is a crop that could never be produced in surplus.
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  19. Rapeseed Oil as Diesel Fuel, an Overview
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Brown, J.; Guerra, D.; Drown, D. C.; Withers, R. V. 1993. Rapeseed Oil as Diesel Fuel, an Overview. .

    For more than a decade, Idaho researchers have been evaluating the potential of vegetable oil based fuels as a diesel substitute. The investigations began by using unmodified vegetable oils in diesel engines, then progressed to the use of modified vegetable oil through the transesterification process. The fuel production process was identified, developed, optimized, evaluated and improved. The oilseeds used for the process are from several cultivars of rapeseed developed by Idaho workers and grown locally.
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  20. Agriculturally Produced Fuels
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L. ; Casada, M. E.; Safley Jr., L. M.; Broder, J. D.; Perkins, L.; Auld, D. L. 1990. Agriculturally Produced Fuels. .

    The United States is almost totally dependent upon petroleum for its liquid energy source. Stout (1984) reports that 71.5 percent of our total energy is from oil and natual gas while only 2 percent comes from biomass. In 1989, the U.S. used about 3.2 million barrels/day of distillate fuel and 7.4 million barrels/day of gasoline. For agriculturally produced renewable fuels to make a significant contribution to this mammoth energy use would require the use of every forseeable alternative energy source which can be developed. This paper will report in the status and contribution of three widely discussed alternative fuels from agriculture: vegetable oil, alcohol and methane.
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  21. Combustion of Winter Rape Products in a Residential Stove
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Thompson, J.; Feldman, M. E.; Vander Griend, L. 1990. Combustion of Winter Rape Products in a Residential Stove. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 6(4)

    The characteristics of winter rapeseed have been investigated to determine its potential as a fuel in residential stoves. The study included the plant residue and the seed meal which remains after removal of the oil with a mechanical press. Dwarf Essex, a variety grown for industrial applications, was pelleted for use in combustion tests. A commercially produced residential pellet stove was used to determine the emissions characteristics and the long term effects of the direct combustion of winter rape products.
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  22. Modeling Combustion of Alternate Fuels in a DI Diesel Engine Using KIVA
    Abstract

    Vander Griend, L.; Feldman, M. E.; Peterson, C. L. 1990. Modeling Combustion of Alternate Fuels in a DI Diesel Engine Using KIVA. Transactions of the ASAE. 33(2) 9

    The KIVA engine simulation developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory was used to characterize the combustion of alternate fuels in a direct injection diesel engine. The fuels included the oil of winter rapeseed and its methyl ester. The engine parameters and the fuel properties used in the simulations are described. Output is compared to measured pressure traces. Simulation results are good for the methyl ester and for hexadecane which was used as a reference fuel. The KIVA model predicted lower pressures for the rape oil than those which were experiementally observed.
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  23. Transesterification of Vegetable Oil for Use as a Diesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Cruz, R.; Perkins, L.; Korus, R.; Auld, D. L. 1990. Transesterification of Vegetable Oil for Use as a Diesel Fuel. .

    The methyl ester or winter rape (MEWR) has been found to be a potentially useful substitute for diesel fuel. This paper discusses the procedure used to produce MEWR for use as a diesel fuel substitute. Reaction variables, rates, equipment and detailed procedures for making 756 1 (200 gal) batches of MEWR. Systems for methanol and glycerol recovery are discussed. Zero profit economic data are also presented.
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  24. Diesel Engine Durability When Fueled with Methyl Ester of Winter Rapeseed Oil
    Abstract

    Zhang, Q.; Feldman, M.; Peterson, C.L. 1988. Diesel Engine Durability When Fueled with Methyl Ester of Winter Rapeseed Oil. .

    Methyl ester of winter rapeseed oil is more suitable as a diesel fuel substitute than pure rapeseed oil. The ester has a lower viscosity and a higher cetane rating. This paper reports on two replicates of 200-hour EMA (Engine Manufacturer's Association) screening tests which were performed to evaluate engine durability when methyl ester of winter rapeseed oil is used as fuel.
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  25. Direct Combustion of Winter Rape Products
    Abstract

    Vander Griend, L.; Feldman, M.; Peterson, C.L.; Thompson, J. 1988. Direct Combustion of Winter Rape Products. .

    The characteristics of winter rapeseed have been investigated to determine its potential as a fuel in residential stoves. The study included the plant residue and the seed meal which remains after removal of the oil through expression. Dwarf Essex, a variety grown for industrial applications, was pelleted for use in combustion tests. A commercially produced residential pellet stove was used to determine the emissions characteristics and the long term effects of the direct combustion of winter rape prodcuts.
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  26. Properties of Rape Oil and Its Methyl Ester Relevant to Combustion Modeling
    Abstract

    Vander Griend, L.; Feldman, M.; Peterson, C.L. 1988. Properties of Rape Oil and Its Methyl Ester Relevant to Combustion Modeling. .

    Several properties of rapeseed oil and its methyl ester were determined. The results of these tests and data from other sources are presented to provide a compilation of properties useful in combustion modeling. The droplet size distributions under diesel engine injection conditions are presented.
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  27. Use of Vegetable Oil as a Fuel in Time of Emergency
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Korus, R. A.; Auld, D. L. 1988. Use of Vegetable Oil as a Fuel in Time of Emergency. .

    Routine use of vegetable oil as a replacement for diesel fuel is not yet recommended, but in an emergency, vegetable oil could be used as a subsitiute for diesel fuel. However, the engine operator should be aware that engine damage may result -- filter plugging, cold starting problems, injector coking, formation of carbon deposits in the combustion chamber and contamination of the lubricating oil.
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  28. Winter Rape as an Alternative Source of Fuel
    Abstract

    Peterson, C.L.; Korus, R.A.; Auld, D. L. 1988. Winter Rape as an Alternative Source of Fuel. .

    At the University of Idaho, research is being directed at using rapeseed as a fuel -- oil as a diesel fuel substitute and the meal and plant biomass as a woodstove or boiler feedstock. Use of vegetable oil as a fuel has been underway since 1979 when a blend of sunflower and diesel was used to power an agricultural tractor. Since that time most of the work has concentrated on winter rape oil as a replacement for diesel fuel. This highly saturated oil has consistently, in our tests, been superior to other vegetable oils as a possible engine fuel.
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  29. The Effect of Fumigation and Transesterification on Injector Coking
    Abstract

    Mora, P.G.; Peterson, C. L. 1985. The Effect of Fumigation and Transesterification on Injector Coking. .

    A series of short term test cycles with a direct injection CI engine were used to determine the relative merits of fumigation and transesterification in reducing injector coking problems that occur with the use of vegetable oil fuels. A fixed nominal rate of 10% fumigation with propane was investigated in an attempt to reduce injector coking with Oleic and Linoleic Safflower oils. Variable nominal rates of 5, 10, and 15% propane fumigation were used in an effort to reduce injector coking with Winter Rape oil.
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  30. Effect of Vegetable Oil Fatty Acid Composition on Engine Deposits
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Auld, D. L.; Korus, R. A. 1984. Effect of Vegetable Oil Fatty Acid Composition on Engine Deposits . .

    High oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower were selected for utilization in an EMA test cycle evaluation of the effect of vegetable oil unsaturation level on engine deposits. Six individual engines, two on diesel, and two on each of the vegetable oils, have been utilized in the tests. The oils were also tested in short term performance test. In summary, engines operated on the oleic oils did have somewhat less engine deposits at the conclusion of the tests than did the two operated on linoleic safflower, but both were high in deposits when compared to the engines operated on diesel fuel.
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  31. Experiments with vegetable oil expression
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Auld, D. L.; Thompson, J. C. 1983. Experiments with vegetable oil expression. Transactions of the ASAE. 26(5) 1298-1302

    University of Idaho seed processing research in centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 h or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The equipment has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78% . Winter rape, safflower, and sunflower have been the principle crops used in the study.
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  32. Vegetable Oil Substitutes for Diesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Wagner, G. L.; Auld, D. L. 1983. Vegetable Oil Substitutes for Diesel Fuel. ASAE. 26(2) 7

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  33. Winter Rape Oil Fuel for Diesel Engines: Recovery and Utilization
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Auld, D. L.; Korus, R. A. 1983. Winter Rape Oil Fuel for Diesel Engines: Recovery and Utilization. JAOCS. 60(8)

    Although vegetable oil cannot yet be recommended as a fuel for general use, considerable progress in recovery and use of rapeseed oil (Brassica napus L.) for diesel operation has been made. Operation of a small-scale screwpress plant (40 kg/hr) was demonstrated. Maintenance of screw and end rings was a major problem. The plant has operated with a recovery efficiency of 77% and has processed 10,100 kg of seed in 230 hr. High viscosity of the rapeseed oil and its tendency to polymeriz within the cylinder were major chemical and physical problems encountered. Attempts to reduce the viscosity of the vegetable oil by preheating the fuel were not successful in sufficiently increasing the temperature of the fuel at the injector to be of value. Short-term engine performance with vegetable oils as a fuel in any proportion show power output and fuel consumption to be equivalent to the diesel-fueled engines. Severe engine damage occurred in a very short time period in tests of maximum power with varying engine rpm. Additional torque tests with all blends need to be conducted. A blend of 70/30 winter rape and No. 1 diesel has been used successfully to power a small single-cylinder diesel engine for 850 hr. No adverse wear, effect on lubricating oil or effect on power output were noted.
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  34. Extraction and Utilization of Winter Rape (Brassica Napus) as a Diesel Fuel Extender
    Abstract

    Peterson, C.L.; Thompson, J.C.; Wagner, G.L.; Auld, D. L.; Korus, R.A. 1982. Extraction and Utilization of Winter Rape (Brassica Napus) as a Diesel Fuel Extender. .

    Most of the winter rape in the United States is grown in the Palouse area of Eastern Washington and Northern Idaho. Even though the total acreage is presently small, the adaptability of the crop, yield of oil per acre, and low iodine number make it an attractive source of emergency fuel to guarantee the continued agricultural production of the area in case of a petroleum shortage. The varieties of winter rape presently grown are high in erucic acid, high in glucosinolates, and the oild produced has a viscosity about 17 times that of diesel fuel. These factors present problems requiring special consideration if winter rape is to be economically and reliably used as a fuel. The University of Idaho program on this oil is interdisciplinary involving plant scientists, chemical and agricultural engineers, animal scientists and agricultural economists seeking solutions to production, extraction, and utilization of both oil and meal.
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  35. Fuel Characteristics of Vegetable Oil from Oilseed Crops in the Pacific Northwest
    Abstract

    Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.; Auld, D. L.; Driscoll, D.J.; Peterson, E.D. 1982. Fuel Characteristics of Vegetable Oil from Oilseed Crops in the Pacific Northwest. Agronomy Journal. 745

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate vegetable oil from various oilseed crops addapted to the Pacific Northwest as a potential source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), oleic and linoleic safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.), and low and high erucic acid rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) oils were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity, and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. The long term effects of using linoleic safflower oil as a fuel was evaluated in a single cylinder diesel engine operated for 830 hours.
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  36. Quality of Vegetable Oil From a Small-Scale Extraction Plant
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Thompson, J. C.; Auld, D. L. 1982. Quality of Vegetable Oil From a Small-Scale Extraction Plant. .

    University of Idaho seed processing research is centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed pre-heater auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. The press, preheater, cake removal auger, and oil transfer pump are tied into a central panel where energy use is measured and the process controlled. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 hours or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The plant has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78 percent.
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