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Literature on Biodiesel Toxicity

This page lists articles published worldwide in journal, book, magazine or otherwise about Biodiesel toxicity. Please provide us a feedback feedback if you see any error in this listing or you would like to report and articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. A comparative analysis of chemical components and cell toxicity properties of solid and semi-volatile PM from diesel and biodiesel blend
    Abstract

    Gali, N. K.; Yang, F. H.; Cheung, C. S.; Ning, Z. 2017. A comparative analysis of chemical components and cell toxicity properties of solid and semi-volatile PM from diesel and biodiesel blend. Journal of Aerosol Science. 11151-64

    Alternative fuel has raised increasing attention in recent years for better fuel economy and emission reduction. The biodiesel fuel is natively produced from vegetable and animal oils with large number of organic compounds with varying groups and characteristics. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from the biodiesel blend are often complicated by the volatility of the different organic components. We here report the chemical and toxicological characterization of solid-PM and semi-volatile PM (SV-PM) from diesel and biodiesel blend (BD30) exhausts, using front and backup filter, respectively. While total PM emission was lower for BD30 in general, it contained 19% higher organic compounds (OC) in SV-PM compared to diesel, which on the other hand noted 24% more solid-PM. These organic compounds were further analyzed with OCEC thermograph to confirm the dominant existence of highly volatile OC in SV-PM. We further extracted water-soluble components from the solid- and SV-PM samples, and subjected to RAW 264.7 macrophage cell exposure. More than 2-fold increase of oxidative potential was observed in SV-PM samples over solid-PM with elevated levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a significant correlation with OC concentration. Instead, non-cellular assay for ROS quantification showed the change in oxidative potential is greatly influenced by solid-PM. And non-cellular ROS due to SV-PM is 2-fold less than cell-based assay. Hence, the semi-volatiles, though produced in small quantities, need great attention in assessing health hazards and could well be a scope for further research.
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  2. A comparative analysis of in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particles from combustion of 1st- and 2nd-generation biodiesel fuels in relation to their physicochemical properties-the FuelHealth project
    Abstract

    Lankoff, A.; Brzoska, K.; Czarnocka, J.; Kowalska, M.; Lisowska, H.; Mruk, R.; Ovrevik, J.; Wegierek-Ciuk, A.; Zuberek, M.; Kruszewski, M. 2017. A comparative analysis of in vitro toxicity of diesel exhaust particles from combustion of 1st- and 2nd-generation biodiesel fuels in relation to their physicochemical properties-the FuelHealth project. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int.

    Biodiesels represent more carbon-neutral fuels and are introduced at an increasing extent to reduce emission of greenhouse gases. However, the potential impact of different types and blend concentrations of biodiesel on the toxicity of diesel engine emissions are still relatively scarce and to some extent contradictory. The objective of the present work was to compare the toxicity of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) from combustion of two 1st-generation fuels: 7% fatty acid methyl esters (FAME; B7) and 20% FAME (B20) and a 2nd-generation 20% FAME/HVO (synthetic hydrocarbon biofuel (SHB)) fuel. Our findings indicate that particulate emissions of each type of biodiesel fuel induce cytotoxic effects in BEAS-2B and A549 cells, manifested as cell death (apoptosis or necrosis), decreased protein concentrations, intracellular ROS production, as well as increased expression of antioxidant genes and genes coding for DNA damage-response proteins. The different biodiesel blend percentages and biodiesel feedstocks led to marked differences in chemical composition of the emitted DEP. The different DEPs also displayed statistically significant differences in cytotoxicity in A549 and BEAS-2B cells, but the magnitude of these variations was limited. Overall, it seems that increasing biodiesel blend concentrations from the current 7 to 20% FAME, or substituting 1st-generation FAME biodiesel with 2nd-generation HVO biodiesel (at least below 20% blends), affects the in vitro toxicity of the emitted DEP to some extent, but the biological significance of this may be moderate.
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  3. Development of novel alternative biodiesel fuels for reducing PM emissions and PM-related genotoxicity
    Abstract

    Yang, P. M.; Wang, C. C.; Lin, Y. C.; Jhang, S. R.; Lin, L. J.; Lin, Y. C. 2017. Development of novel alternative biodiesel fuels for reducing PM emissions and PM-related genotoxicity. Environmental Research. 156512-518

    This paper intend to investigate the effects of biodiesel fuel blends comprising of waste-cooking oil and butanol-diesel (B10W10-B10W40) under steady-state conditions. Both particulate organic carbon (OC) and PM including PM2.5 and PM10 significantly decreased with the increasing percentage of biodiesel fuel blends. The fuel blend of B10W40 also demonstrated the most effective function in reducing the emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 in the volume by 59.4% and 57.7%, respectively. Moreover, the emissions of nitrogen oxides decreased with the blending of B10W10-B10W40 (13.9-28.5%), while the brake specific fuel consumption was substantially increased (5.69-13.4%). The overall biological toxicity of PM10 generated from the fuel tested in this study was determined according to Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis assay in human alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells and micronucleus assay in CHO-K1 cells. In addition, the volume of more than 20% waste-cooking oil (B10W20 and B10W40) significantly reduced diesel-induced genotoxicity in lung cells and micronucleus formation in CHO-K1 cells. Collectively, these results indicated that biodiesel fuel blends with the butanol could be a potential alternative fuels for diesel engines because of its substantial property with a significant reduction of the PM related genotoxicity and the emissions of PM, particulate OC, and NOx.
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  4. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity
    Abstract

    Martin, N.; Lombard, M.; Jensen, K. R.; Kelley, P.; Pratt, T.; Traviss, N. 2017. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity. Science of the Total Environment. 586409-418

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24 h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 33 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (p < 0.05) in a BEAS-2B cell line. This study contributes novel data on real-world, nonroad engine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure, composition and toxicity are not straightforward. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  5. Exposure to sub-10 nm particles emitted from a biodiesel-fueled diesel engine: In vitro toxicity and inflammatory potential
    Abstract

    Malorni, L.; Guida, V.; Sirignano, M.; Genovese, G.; Petrarca, C.; Pedata, P. 2017. Exposure to sub-10 nm particles emitted from a biodiesel-fueled diesel engine: In vitro toxicity and inflammatory potential. Toxicology Letters. 27051-61

    Objectives: The inflammatory effects of organic sub-10 nm particles generated and emitted from a diesel engine fueled with a biodiesel and a commercial diesel oil are analyzed in this paper. Diesel combustion is the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in the environment, particularly in urbanized areas. In the last years, there is an increasing use of biomass-derived fuels because they are a renewable source of energy that may mitigate climate change through the reduction of net CO2 with respect to conventional fossil fuels. Although there is a general agreement on biofuels ability to reduce conventional pollutants, new and potentially harmful pollutants can be formed during biofuel combustion. In particular, the emission of sub-10 nm particles is strongly increased with respect to that of larger soot particles.
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  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ECOTOXICITY OF PALM-BASED METHYL ESTER SULPHONATES (MES) TO TILAPIA AND Daphnia magna
    Abstract

    Razmah, G.; Afida, I. S.; Zulina, A. M.; Noorazah, Z.; Hazimah, A. H. 2016. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ECOTOXICITY OF PALM-BASED METHYL ESTER SULPHONATES (MES) TO TILAPIA AND Daphnia magna. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 28(3) 387-392

    Methyl ester sulphonates (MES) is a surfactant derived from plant resources, suitable as active ingredient in detergents. MES possesses good surface-active properties, good detergency and tolerant to water hardness. In this study, the ecotoxicity of MES was evaluated through the 48 hr Daphnia magna immobilisation test and the 96 hr fish acute toxicity test with Tilapia. MES samples with different alkyl chain lengths (C14, C16 and C16:18) produced by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) and commercial MES (C16:18) were tested. Results from all tests indicated that Daphnia was more sensitive to toxic effects from MES than was Tilapia. There is also significant difference in ecotoxicity responses for palm-based MES of various chain lengths regardless of the species tested. The ecotoxicity increased as the hydrophobicity of the MES increased due to increase of alkyl chain length. However, less than 30% of MES is used in detergent products and will not pose environmental effects on aquatic organisms. MES is therefore suitable for environmental compatible cleaning products in view of its ecotoxicity that is on par to the widely used anionic surfactants, such as linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS). The use of MES in cleaning products may help the industry to fulfil its social responsibility to a cleaner and better environment.
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  7. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells
    Abstract

    Mullins, B. J.; Kicic, A.; Ling, K. M.; Mead-Hunter, R.; Larcombe, A. N. 2016. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells. Environmental Toxicology. 31(1) 44-57

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 44-57, 2016.
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  8. Comparative analysis of toxicity of diesel engine particles generated from the combustion of 1st and 2nd generation biodiesel fuels in vitro
    Abstract

    Lankoff, A.; Kowalska, M.; Wegierek-Ciuk, A.; Lisowska, H.; Czarnocka, J.; Odziemkowska, M.; Mruk, R.; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, J.; Dziendzikowska, K.; Oczkowski, M.; Meczynska-Wielgosz, S.; Wojewodzka, M.; Ovrevik, J.; Oddvar, M.; Magnusson, P.; Kruszewski, M. 2016. Comparative analysis of toxicity of diesel engine particles generated from the combustion of 1st and 2nd generation biodiesel fuels in vitro. Toxicology Letters. 259S73-S73

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  9. Are Biofuels The Answer? A Preliminary Investigation Of Standard Diesel Versus Biodiesel Toxicity In Lung Cells
    Abstract

    Sturrock, A.; Ghiassi, S.; Baker, J.; Lighty, J.; Paine, R. 2015. Are Biofuels The Answer? A Preliminary Investigation Of Standard Diesel Versus Biodiesel Toxicity In Lung Cells. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 191

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  10. Comparative Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of particles and aerosols emitted by the combustion of standard vs. rapeseed methyl ester supplemented bio-diesel fuels Impact of after treatment devices: Oxidation catalyst and particulate filter
    Abstract

    Andre, V.; Barraud, C.; Capron, D.; Preterre, D.; Keravec, V.; Vendeville, C.; Cazier, F.; Pottier, D.; Morin, T. J. P.; Sichel, F. 2015. Comparative Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of particles and aerosols emitted by the combustion of standard vs. rapeseed methyl ester supplemented bio-diesel fuels Impact of after treatment devices: Oxidation catalyst and particulate filter. Mutation Research-Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 77733-42

    Diesel exhausts are partly responsible for the deleterious effects on human health associated with urban pollution, including cardiovascular diseases, asthma, COPD, and possibly lung cancer. Particulate fraction has been incriminated and thus largely investigated for its genotoxic properties, based on exposure conditions that are, however, not relevant for human risk assessment. In this paper, original and more realistic protocols were used to investigate the hazards induced by exhausts emitted by the combustion of standard (DFO) vs. bio-diesel fuels (DF7 and DF30) and to assess the impact of exhaust treatment devices (DOC and DPF). Mutagenicity and genotoxicity were evaluated for (1) resuspended particles ("off line" exposure that takes into account the bioavailability of adsorbed chemicals) and for (2) the whole aerosols (particles + gas phase components) under continuous flow exposure ("on line" exposure). Native particles displayed mutagenic properties associated with nitroaromatic profiles (YG1041), whereas PAHs did not seem to be involved. After DOC treatment, the mutagenicity of particles was fully abolished. In contrast, the level of particle deposition was low under continuous flow exposure, and the observed mutagenicity in TA98 and TA102 was thus attributable to the gas phase. A bactericidal effect was also observed in TA102 after DOC treatment, and a weak but significant mutagenicity persisted after DPF treatment for bin-diesel fuels. No formation of bulky DNA-adducts was observed on A549 cells exposed to diesel exhaust, even in very drastic conditions (organic extracts corresponding to 500 mu g equivalent particule/mL, 48 h exposure). Taken together, these data indicate that the exhausts issued from the biodiesel fuels supplemented with rapseed methyl ester (RME), and generated by current diesel engines equipped with after treatment devices are less mutagenic than older ones. The residual mutagenicity is linked to the gas phase and could be due to pro-oxydants, mainly for RME-supplemented fuels. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  11. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of soy-biodiesel and petroleum-diesel emissions: overview of studies from the US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC
    Abstract

    Madden, M. C. 2015. Comparative toxicity and mutagenicity of soy-biodiesel and petroleum-diesel emissions: overview of studies from the US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. Inhalation Toxicology. 27(11) 511-514

    Biodiesel use as a fuel is increasing globally as an alternate to petroleum sources. To comprehensively assess the effects of the use of biodiesel as an energy source, end stage uses of biodiesel such as the effects of inhalation of combusted products on human health must be incorporated. To date, few reports concerning the toxicological effects of the emissions of combusted biodiesel or blends of biodiesel on surrogates of health effects have been published. The relative toxicity of the combusted biodiesel emissions compared to petroleum diesel emissions with short term exposures is also not well known. To address the paucity of findings on the toxicity of combusted biodiesel emissions, studies were undertaken at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency laboratories in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The studies used a variety of approaches with nonhuman animal models to examine biological responses of the lung and cardiovascular systems induced by acute and repeated exposures to pure biodiesel and biodiesel blended with petroleum diesel. Effects of the emissions on induction of mutations in bacterial test strains and mammalian DNA adducts were also characterized and normalized to engine work load. The emissions were characterized as to the physicochemical composition in order to determine the magnitude of the differences among the emissions utilized in the studies. This article summarizes the major finding of these studies which are contained within this special issue of Inhalation Toxicology. The findings provided in these articles provide information about the toxicity of biodiesel emissions relative to petroleum diesel emissions and which can be utilized in a life cycle analyses of the effects of increased biodiesel usage.
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  12. Comparing the Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Biodiesel, Diesel and 5 % Biodiesel/Diesel Blend on Oreochromis niloticus Using Histological Biomarkers
    Abstract

    Leite, M. B. N. L.; da Cruz, A. L.; Rodrigues, L. E. A.; Yamashita, S. R.; Carqueija, C. R. G.; Nascimento, I. A. 2015. Comparing the Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Biodiesel, Diesel and 5 % Biodiesel/Diesel Blend on Oreochromis niloticus Using Histological Biomarkers. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 95(5) 574-581

    This study estimated end compared the potential toxic effects of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of biodiesel (B100), diesel and the commercial biodiesel (B5) on Oreochromis niloticus. After a 24 h-exposition to WSF-0 % (control) and WSF-serial concentrations of 4.6 %, 10 %, 22 %, 46 % and 100 %, samples of gill and liver of the exposed fishes were fixed in Bouin's solution, processed, stained using hematoxylin/eosin and analyzed by light-microscopy. WSF-hydrocarbons and methanol contents, analyzed by gas chromatography, were checked against the occurrence of abnormal histopathological alterations. These were not found in the control and WSF-4.6 % exposed fishes, while exposures to or above 10 %-WSF resulted in histopathological alterations whose severity increased in a dose-dependent manner, being higher in fishes exposed to WSF-diesel, or WSF-B5 when compared to biodiesel. These results, which were corroborated by the chemical analyses, highlighted the histological technique as an appropriate diagnostic tool that can be used for the preservation of water bodies' quality.
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  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their genotoxicity in exhaust emissions from a diesel engine during extended low-load operation on diesel and biodiesel fuels
    Abstract

    Vojtisek-Lom, M.; Pechout, M.; Dittrich, L.; Beranek, V.; Kotek, M.; Schwarz, J.; Vodicka, P.; Milcova, A.; Rossnerova, A.; Ambroz, A.; Topinka, J. 2015. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their genotoxicity in exhaust emissions from a diesel engine during extended low-load operation on diesel and biodiesel fuels. Atmospheric Environment. 1099-18

    This paper investigates the effects of emissions including carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (cPAH) of a conventional diesel engine without a particle filter. Experiments were carried on during extended idle and during a loaded operation immediately following the extended idle. Extended low-load operation of diesel engines due to idling and creep at border crossings, loading areas and in severe congestion has been known to deteriorate the combustion and catalytic device performance and to increase the emissions of particulate matter (PM). A conventional diesel engine was coupled to a dynamometer and operated on diesel fuel and neat biodiesel alternately at idle speed and 2% of rated power and at 30% and 100% load at intermediate speed. Exhaust was sampled on fiber filters, from which the content of elemental and organic carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), including cPAH and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been determined. The emissions of cPAH and B[a]P have increased 4-6 times on diesel fuel and by 4-21% on biodiesel during extended idling relative to a short idle and 8 times on diesel fuel and 2-20 times on biodiesel during subsequent operation at full load relative to stabilized operation at full load. The total "excess" cPAH emissions after the transition to full load were on the same order of magnitude as the total "excess" cPAH during extended idling. The absolute levels of PAH, cPAH and B[a]P emissions under all operating conditions were lower on biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. Genotoxicity of organic extracts of particles was analysed by acellular assay with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) and was consistently higher for diesel than for biodiesel. The exhaust generated during extended idle and subsequent full load exhibited the highest genotoxicity for both fuels. These two regimes are characterized by significant formation of cPAH as well as other DNA reactive compounds substantially contributing to the total genotoxicity. Oxidative DNA damage by all tested extracts was negligible. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  14. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test
    Abstract

    Hallare, A. V.; Ruiz, P. L. S.; Carino, J. C. E. D. 2014. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 21(9) 6044-6056

    Consequent to the growing demand for alternative sources of energy, the seeds from Jatropha curcas remain to be the favorite for biodiesel production. However, a significant volume of the residual organic mass (seed cake) is produced during the extraction process, which raises concerns on safe waste disposal. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of J. curcas seed cake using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test. Within 1-h post-fertilization (hpf), the fertilized eggs were exposed to five mass concentrations of J. curcas seed cake and were followed through 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Toxicity was evaluated based on lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos namely egg coagulation, non-formation of somites, and non-detachment of tail. The lowest concentration tested, 1 g/L, was not able to elicit toxicity on embryos whereas 100 % mortality (based also on lethal endpoints) was recorded at the highest concentration at 2.15 g/L. The computed LC50 for the J. curcas seed cake was 1.61 g/L. No further increase in mortality was observed in the succeeding time points (48 and 72 hpf) indicating that J. curcas seed cake exerted acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. Sublethal endpoints (yolk sac and pericardial edema) were noted at 72 hpf in zebrafish embryos exposed to higher concentrations. The observed lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos were discussed in relation to the active principles, notably, phorbol esters that have remained in the seed cake even after extraction.
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  15. Biodegradation and Phytotoxicity of Biodiesel, Diesel, and Petroleum in Soil
    Abstract

    Cruz, J. M.; Tamada, I. S.; Lopes, P. R. M.; Montagnolli, R. N.; Bidoia, E. D. 2014. Biodegradation and Phytotoxicity of Biodiesel, Diesel, and Petroleum in Soil. Water Air and Soil Pollution. 225(5)

    The study aimed to investigate the biodegradation of contaminated soil with biodiesel, diesel, and petroleum by autochthonous soil microorganisms and also enriched with Bacillus subtilis by means of colorimetric method. The phytotoxicity was evaluated in recently contaminated soil and after 240 days to ensure the decrease of toxicity. The biodegradation assessment was carried out with redox 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) indicator and by the extraction of the contaminant in the soil with hexane. The amount of contaminant extracted from recently contaminated soil was compared to the amount found on the buried samples for 240 days. The phytotoxicity rates were evaluated by the use of Lactuca sativa seeds. Values of root and hypocotyl elongation were subjected to analysis of variance using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results revealed that the autochthonous microorganisms were active on recently contaminated soil with biodiesel, because all biodiesel was biodegraded. Hence, only 0.001 g of biodiesel was extracted, and the phytotoxicity decreased after 240 days. On the other hand, the contaminated soil with diesel and petroleum was little active in 2,6-DCPIP test, and consequently, there was a large contaminant amount in soil after 240 days. Furthermore, petroleum and diesel were phytotoxic after biodegradation. The complex composition of the petroleum and diesel requires interactions of the microbial community able to biodegrade hydrocarbons and also metabolites from biodegradation. The naturally present microorganisms in the soil were capable of degrading the pollutant as much as the samples enriched with B. subtilis. The 2,6-DCPIP test is a simple and inexpensive methodology to analyze the potential biodegradation of all microorganisms of the soil and if the inoculation of the biodegrading microorganisms it will be necessary. Therefore, it would be helpful in bioremediation strategies.
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  16. Biodiesel Exhaust Induced Cytotoxicity and Pro-Inflammatory Mediator Production in Healthy Human Airway Epithelial Cells
    Abstract

    Larcombe, A.; Kicic, A.; Ling, K.; Mead-Hunter, R.; Mullins, B. 2014. Biodiesel Exhaust Induced Cytotoxicity and Pro-Inflammatory Mediator Production in Healthy Human Airway Epithelial Cells. Respirology. 1944-44

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  17. Carbonyl emission and toxicity profile of diesel blends with an animal-fat biodiesel and a tire pyrolysis liquid fuel
    Abstract

    Ballesteros, R.; Guillen-Flores, J.; Martinez, J. D. 2014. Carbonyl emission and toxicity profile of diesel blends with an animal-fat biodiesel and a tire pyrolysis liquid fuel. Chemosphere. 96155-166

    In this paper, two diesel fuels, an animal-fat biodiesel and two diesel blends with the animal-fat biodiesel (50 vol.%) and with a tire pyrolysis liquid (TPL) fuel (5 vol.%) have been tested in a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, turbocharged, intercooled, 2.0 L Nissan diesel automotive engine (model MID) with common-rail injection system and diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC). Carbonyl emissions have been analyzed both before and after DOC and specific reactivity of carbonyl profile has been calculated. Carbonyl sampling was carried out by means of a heated line, trapping the gas in 2,4-DNPH cartridges. The eluted content was then analyzed in an HPLC system, with UV-VIS detection.
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  18. Synthesis and post-modification of low cytotoxicity active ester polymers based on salicylic acid and methyl salicylate
    Abstract

    He, L. R.; Zhao, H.; Szameit, K.; Hahn, U.; Theato, P. 2014. Synthesis and post-modification of low cytotoxicity active ester polymers based on salicylic acid and methyl salicylate. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 248

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  19. Cell Toxicity and Oxidative Potential of Engine Exhaust Particles: Impact of Using Particulate Filter or Biodiesel Fuel Blend
    Abstract

    Gerlofs-Nijland, M. E.; Totlandsdal, A. I.; Tzamkiozis, T.; Leseman, D. L. A. C.; Samaras, Z.; Lag, M.; Schwarze, P.; Ntziachristos, L.; Cassee, F. R. 2013. Cell Toxicity and Oxidative Potential of Engine Exhaust Particles: Impact of Using Particulate Filter or Biodiesel Fuel Blend. Environmental Science & Technology. 47(11) 5931-5938

    The link between emissions of vehicular particulate matter (PM) and adverse health effects is well established. However, the influence of new emission control technologies and fuel types on both PM emissions and health effects has been less well investigated. We examined the health impact of PM emissions from two vehicles'; equipped with or without a diesel particulate filter (DPF). Both vehicles were powered either with diesel (B0) or a 50% v/v biodiesel blend (B50). The DPP effectively decreased PM mass emissions (similar to 85%), whereas the fuel B50 without DPF lead to less reduction (similar to 50%). The hazard of PM per unit distance driven was decreased for the DPF-equipped vehicle as indicated by a reduced cytotoxicity, oxidative, and pro-inflammatory potential. This was not evident and even led to an increase when the hazard was expressed on a per unit of mass basis. In general, the PM oxidative potential was similar or reduced for the B50 compared to the 130 powered vehicle. However, the use of B50 resulted in increased cytotoxicity and IL-6 release in BEAS-2B cells irrespective of the expression metric. This study shows that PM mass reduction achieved by the use of B50 will not necessarily decrease the hazard of engine emissions, while the application of a DPF has a beneficial effect on both PM mass emission and PM hazard.
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  20. Composition and toxicity of biodiesel vs. conventional diesel
    Abstract

    McDonald, J. D. 2013. Composition and toxicity of biodiesel vs. conventional diesel. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 246

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  21. Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory Biomarkers, and Toxicity in Mouse Lung and Liver after Inhalation Exposure to 100% Biodiesel or Petroleum Diesel Emissions
    Abstract

    Shvedova, A. A.; Yanamala, N.; Murray, A. R.; Kisin, E. R.; Khaliullin, T.; Hatfield, M. K.; Tkach, A. V.; Krantz, Q. T.; Nash, D.; King, C.; Gilmour, M. I.; Gavett, S. H. 2013. Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory Biomarkers, and Toxicity in Mouse Lung and Liver after Inhalation Exposure to 100% Biodiesel or Petroleum Diesel Emissions. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health-Part a-Current Issues. 76(15) 907-921

    Over the past decade, soy biodiesel (BD) has become a first alternative energy source that is economically viable and meets requirements of the Clean Air Act. Due to lower mass emissions and reduced hazardous compounds compared to diesel combustion emissions (CE), BD exposure is proposed to produce fewer adverse health effects. However, considering the broad use of BD and its blends in different industries, this assertion needs to be supported and validated by mechanistic and toxicological data. Here, adverse effects were compared in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation exposure (0, 50, 150, or 500 g/m(3); 4 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 4 wk) to CE from 100% biodiesel (B100) and diesel (D100). Compared to D100, B100 CE produced a significant accumulation of oxidatively modified proteins (carbonyls), an increase in 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reduction of protein thiols, a depletion of antioxidant gluthatione (GSH), a dose-related rise in the levels of biomarkers of tissue damage (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) in lungs, and inflammation (myeloperoxidase, MPO) in both lungs and liver. Significant differences in the levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, interferon (IFN) , and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- were detected in lungs and liver upon B100 and D100 CE exposures. Overall, the tissue damage, oxidative stress, inflammation, and cytokine response were more pronounced in mice exposed to BD CE. Further studies are required to understand what combustion products in BD CE accelerate oxidative and inflammatory responses.
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  22. An overview of biodiesel soil pollution: data based on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessments
    Abstract

    Leme, D. M.; Grummt, T.; Heinze, R.; Sehr, A.; Renz, S.; Reinel, S.; de Oliveira, D. P.; Ferraz, E. R.; de Marchi, M. R.; Machado, M. C.; Zocolo, G. J.; Marin-Morales, M. A. 2012. An overview of biodiesel soil pollution: data based on cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessments. J Hazard Mater. 199-200343-9

    Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a nonpolluting fuel. However, this assertion has been based on its biodegradability and reduction in exhaust emissions. Assessments of water and soil biodiesel pollution are still limited. Spill simulation with biodiesel and their diesel blends in soils were carried out, aiming at analyzing their cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials. While the cytotoxicity observed may be related to diesel contaminants, the genotoxic and mutagenic effects can be ascribed to biodiesel pollutants. Thus, taking into account that our data stressed harmful effects on organisms exposed to biodiesel-polluted soils, the designation of this biofuel as an environmental-friendly fuel should be carefully reviewed to assure environmental quality.
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  23. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of airborne particulate matter emitted from stationary engine fuelled with diesel and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel
    Abstract

    Betha, R.; Pavagadhi, S.; Sethu, S.; Hande, M. P.; Balasubramanian, R. 2012. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of airborne particulate matter emitted from stationary engine fuelled with diesel and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Atmospheric Environment. 6123-29

    Biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil (WCO) is gaining increased attention as an alternative fuel due to lower particulate emissions and other beneficial factors such as low cost and utilization of waste oil. However, very little information is available on toxicity of airborne particulate matter (PM) emitted from biodiesel combustion. In this study, PM emitted from WCO-derived biodiesel (B100) was analyzed for its toxic potential together with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) as a reference fuel and their blend (B50). Human lung epithelial carcinoma cells (A549) were used for this comparative toxicity study. Results indicate that cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were higher for B100 relative to ULSD. Furthermore, caspase 3/7 activity indicates that cell death induced by B100 was due to either caspase independent apoptotic process or other programmed cell death pathways. The toxicity was also evaluated for different engine load conditions. It was observed that at lower loads there was no significant difference in the toxicological response of B100 and ULSD. However, with increase in the engine load, B100 and 650 showed significantly higher toxicity and oxidative stress compared to ULSD. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  24. Composition and comparative toxicity of particulate matter emitted from a diesel and biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine
    Abstract

    Gangwar, J. N.; Gupta, T.; Agarwal, A. K. 2012. Composition and comparative toxicity of particulate matter emitted from a diesel and biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine. Atmospheric Environment. 46472-481

    There is a global concern about adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust. In the current study, parametric investigations were carried out using a CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection) diesel engine operated at different loads at two different engine speeds (1800 and 2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to collect and measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend collected on a 47 mm quartz substrate. The collected PM (particulate matter) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). For both diesel and biodiesel, BSOF results showed decreasing levels with increasing engine load. B20 showed higher BSOF as compared to those measured with diesel. The concentration of different trace metals analyzed also showed decreasing trends with increasing engine loads. In addition, real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out on the primary engine exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. Analysis of OC/EC data suggested that the ratio of OC to EC decreases with corresponding increase in engine load for both fuels. A peak in PAH concentration was observed at 60% engine load at 1800 rpm and 20% engine load at 2400 rpm engine speeds almost identical for both kinds of fuels. Comparison of chemical components of PM emitted from this CRDI engine provides new insight in terms of PM toxicity for B20 vis-a-vis diesel. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  25. Estimation of Biodiesel Cytotoxicity by Using Acid Phosphatase as a Biomarker of Lysosomal Integrity
    Abstract

    da Cruz, A. C. S.; Leite, M. B. N. L.; Rodrigues, L. E. A.; Nascimento, I. A. 2012. Estimation of Biodiesel Cytotoxicity by Using Acid Phosphatase as a Biomarker of Lysosomal Integrity. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 89(2) 219-224

    Biodiesel is promoted as environmentally less harmful than diesel fuel. Nevertheless its water-soluble-fraction (WSF) may contain methanol, which appears by a reversion of the transesterification reaction, when biodiesel contacts water. This paper evaluated the loss of the lysosomal membrane integrity in liver homogenate of juvenils Tilapia exposed to biodiesels-WSF, through the increase of the acid phosphatase activity, as an evidence of citotoxicity. Differences in the enzyme activity levels (3.4, 2.3 and 0.8 mU mg(-1) total protein over the control value, which was 1.6 mU mg(-1) total protein), found for castor oil, waste cooking-oil and palm oil-biodiesels, respectively, were indicative of their toxicity according to this decreasing trend. WSF-chromatograms suggest the cytotoxicity as related to methanol.
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  26. Genotoxicity assessment of water soluble fractions of biodiesel and its diesel blends using the Salmonella assay and the in vitro MicroFlow (R) kit (Litron) assay
    Abstract

    Leme, D. M.; Grummt, T.; de Oliveira, D. P.; Sehr, A.; Renz, S.; Reinel, S.; Ferraz, E. R. A.; de Marchi, M. R. R.; Machado, M. C.; Zocolo, G. J.; Marin-Morales, M. A. 2012. Genotoxicity assessment of water soluble fractions of biodiesel and its diesel blends using the Salmonella assay and the in vitro MicroFlow (R) kit (Litron) assay. Chemosphere. 86(5) 512-520

    The designation of biodiesel as an environmental-friendly alternative to diesel oil has improved its commercialization and use. However, most biodiesel environmental safety studies refer to air pollution and so far there have been very few literature data about its impacts upon other biotic systems, e.g. water, and exposed organisms. Spill simulations in water were carried out with neat diesel and biodiesel and their blends aiming at assessing their genotoxic potentials should there be contaminations of water systems. The water soluble fractions (WSF) from the spill simulations were submitted to solid phase extraction with C-18 cartridge and the extracts obtained were evaluated carrying out genotoxic and mutagenic bioassays [the Salmonella assay and the in vitro MicroFlow (R) kit (Litron) assay]. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects were observed, respectively, in the Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay and the in vitro MN test carried out with the biodiesel WSF. This interesting result may be related to the presence of pollutants in biodiesel derived from the raw material source used in its production chain. The data showed that care while using biodiesel should be taken to avoid harmful effects on living organisms in cases of water pollution. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  27. Genotoxicity assessment of water soluble fractions of biodiesel and its diesel blends using the Salmonella assay and the in vitro MicroFlow(R) kit (Litron) assay
    Abstract

    Morais Leme, D.; Grummt, T.; Palma de Oliveira, D.; Sehr, A.; Renz, S.; Reinel, S.; Ferraz, E. R.; Rodrigues de Marchi, M. R.; Machado, M. C.; Zocolo, G. J.; Marin-Morales, M. A. 2012. Genotoxicity assessment of water soluble fractions of biodiesel and its diesel blends using the Salmonella assay and the in vitro MicroFlow(R) kit (Litron) assay. Chemosphere. 86(5) 512-20

    The designation of biodiesel as an environmental-friendly alternative to diesel oil has improved its commercialization and use. However, most biodiesel environmental safety studies refer to air pollution and so far there have been very few literature data about its impacts upon other biotic systems, e.g. water, and exposed organisms. Spill simulations in water were carried out with neat diesel and biodiesel and their blends aiming at assessing their genotoxic potentials should there be contaminations of water systems. The water soluble fractions (WSF) from the spill simulations were submitted to solid phase extraction with C-18 cartridge and the extracts obtained were evaluated carrying out genotoxic and mutagenic bioassays [the Salmonella assay and the in vitro MicroFlow(R) kit (Litron) assay]. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects were observed, respectively, in the Salmonella/microsome preincubation assay and the in vitro MN test carried out with the biodiesel WSF. This interesting result may be related to the presence of pollutants in biodiesel derived from the raw material source used in its production chain. The data showed that care while using biodiesel should be taken to avoid harmful effects on living organisms in cases of water pollution.
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  28. Microtox aquatic toxicity of petrodiesel and biodiesel blends: The role of biodiesel's autoxidation products
    Abstract

    Yassine, M. H.; Wu, S. Y.; Suidan, M. T.; Venosa, A. D. 2012. Microtox aquatic toxicity of petrodiesel and biodiesel blends: The role of biodiesel's autoxidation products. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 31(12) 2757-2762

    The acute Microtox toxicity of the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of six commercial soybean biodiesel/petrodiesel blends was investigated at different oil loads. We analyzed five fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), C10C24 n-alkanes, four aromatics, methanol, and total organic carbon (TOC) content. At high oil loads, the WAFs' toxicity was significantly higher for blends containing biodiesel. At the lowest load, the WAFs' toxicity decreased almost linearly with decreasing biodiesel in the blend. At intermediate loads, the WAFs of all the blends appeared to have a similar toxicity. Analysis of WAFs confirmed the presence of autoxidation byproducts of FAMEs at high oil loads. Pure unsaturated FAMEs and n-alkanes were nontoxic when present in water at their reported solubility limits. However, 24-h equilibrated WAFs of pure FAMEs were highly toxic for C18:1 and C18:3, but not for C18:2. The authors concluded that at high oil loads, the acute toxicity of the WAFs was caused by FAMEs' autoxidation byproducts, whereas at low oil loads, the toxicity appeared to be caused primarily by the aromatic compounds present in petrodiesel. The addition of a synthetic antioxidant in biodiesel did not appear to affect the concentration of autoxidation byproducts in the WAF but resulted in a slight decrease in its toxicity. The major autoxidation byproducts identified in the WAF of commercial biodiesel were present neither in the WAFs of pure unsaturated FAMEs nor in the WAF of a different soybean biodiesel that was transesterified in our laboratory, which was nontoxic. We concluded that the process of transesterification of biodiesel might be a more critical factor in determining the aquatic toxicity of the fuel than the source of feedstock itself. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2012; 31: 27572762. (c) 2012 SETAC
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  29. PM, Carbon, PAH, and Particle-Extract-Induced Cytotoxicity Emissions from a Diesel Generator Fueled with Waste-Edible-Oil-Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Tsai, J. H.; Chen, S. J.; Huang, K. L.; Lin, T. C.; Chaung, H. C.; Chiu, C. H.; Chiu, J. Y.; Lin, C. C.; Tsai, P. Y. 2012. PM, Carbon, PAH, and Particle-Extract-Induced Cytotoxicity Emissions from a Diesel Generator Fueled with Waste-Edible-Oil-Biodiesel. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 12(5) 843-855

    This study used pure fossil diesel (D100) and a 20% (v/v, volume percent) waste-edible-oil-biodiesel blend (W20, 20% waste-edible-oil-biodiesel + 80% diesel) as the fuels for a generator to investigate the mass concentrations of various sized PMs (PM0.01-0.056 (nano particles), PM0.01-0.1 (ultrafine particles), PM0.01-1 (submicron particles), PM0.01-2.5 (fine particles), PM0.01-10 and PM0.01-18) and particle-bound carbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and PAHs' toxicity equivalences (BaPeq) in generator emissions. The engine load was set as either 0 or 3 kW. MOUDIs and Nano-MOUDIs were used as the samplers. Human male single cells (U937) and the method MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) were used to test the cell toxicity of particle extracts (obtained from organic-solvent extraction). The results showed that, compared with D100, using W20 effectively reduced the PM (by 21.0-72.8%), particulate EC (by 2.69-57.3%), particulate OC (by 30.8-47.5%), Total-PAHs (by 64.1-81.9%), and Total-BaPeq (by 70.9-92.6%) in all sized particles emitted from the diesel generator, regardless of engine load. The reduction of PM0.01-18 (81.3%) was higher in the lung respirable accumulation mode particles (PM0.1-1). Regardless of fuel and loading, the emitted PM0.01-18 exhibited a single-modal distribution and peaked in the submicron size range (0.18-0.32 mu m). Compared with no engine load, with the exception of PM0.01-0.1 and PM0.01-0.056, the OC contents of various particle sizes in PM at 3 kW engine load using D100 and W20 were all reduced (by 13.3-15.0% and 28.9-31.7%, respectively), while the EC content increased (by 27.5-29.1% and 37.9-41.4%, respectively). Moreover, the cell toxicity to U937 (per mu g PM) of particle extract was higher for nano (PM0.01-0.056) and ultrafine (PM0.056-0.1) particles than for the other sized ones. However, compared with D100, using W20 could reduce the cell toxicity to U937 (per mu g PM) of extracts from all sized particles, especially for nano and ultrafine particles (reduction = 32-46%) at 3 kW engine load.
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  30. Toxicity of biodiesel, diesel and biodiesel/diesel blends: comparative sub-lethal effects of water-soluble fractions to microalgae species
    Abstract

    Pereira, S. A.; Araujo, V. Q.; Reboucas, M. V.; Vieira, F. S. V.; de Almeida, M. V. A.; Chinalia, F. A.; Nascimento, I. A. 2012. Toxicity of biodiesel, diesel and biodiesel/diesel blends: comparative sub-lethal effects of water-soluble fractions to microalgae species. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 88(2) 234-238

    The water-soluble-fractions (WSF) from biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blends were compared to diesel in their sub-lethal toxicity to microalgae. Chemical analyses of aromatics, non-aromatics hydrocarbons and methanol were carried out in the WSF, the former showing positive correlation with increasing diesel concentrations (B100 < B5 < B3 < B2 < D). Biodiesel interacted with the aqueous matrix, generating methanol, which showed lower toxicity than the diesel contaminants in blends. The WSF caused 50% culture growth inhibition (IC50-96 h) at concentrations varying from 2.3 to 85.6%, depending on the tested fuels and species. However, the same species sensitivity trend (S. costatum > N. oculata > T.chuii > P. subcapitata) was observed for all the tested fuels.
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  31. Cytotoxicity of water-soluble fraction from biodiesel and its diesel blends to human cell lines
    Abstract

    Leme, D. M.; Grummt, T.; Heinze, R.; Sehr, A.; Skerswetat, M.; de Marchi, M. R.; Machado, M. C.; de Oliveira, D. P.; Marin-Morales, M. A. 2011. Cytotoxicity of water-soluble fraction from biodiesel and its diesel blends to human cell lines. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 74(8) 2148-55

    The designation of biodiesel as a green fuel has increased its commercialization and use, making its fate in the environment a matter of concern. Fuel spills constitute a major source of aquatic pollution and, like diesel spills, biodiesel can produce adverse effects on aquatic environments, animals and humans. The present study assessed cytotoxic effects of water systems contaminated with neat biodiesel and its diesel blends by means of different procedures on human T cell leukemia (Jurkat) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells [detection of changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE), apoptosis recognition by Annexin V and impedance real-time cell analyzer (xCELLigence system)]. The data obtained showed concordance across the different bioassays, with cytotoxic effects observed as a dose-dependent response only for waters contaminated with pure diesel (D100) and B5 blend, which is characterized by a mixture of 95% diesel and 5% biodiesel. The data can also lead us to hypothesize that diesel accounts for the harmful effects observed, and that biodiesel does not worsen the impacts caused by diesel pollution.
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  32. Particle-bound PAHs and Particle-extract-induced Cytotoxicity of Emission from a Diesel-generator Fuelled with Soy-biodiesel
    Abstract

    Tsai, J. H.; Huang, K. L.; Chiu, C. H.; Lin, C. C.; Kuo, W. C.; Lin, W. Y.; Chaung, H. C.; Yang, T. H.; Chen, S. J. 2011. Particle-bound PAHs and Particle-extract-induced Cytotoxicity of Emission from a Diesel-generator Fuelled with Soy-biodiesel. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 11(7) 822-836

    This study investigates the size distribution of nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and the PAH-associated carcinogenic potency/cytotoxicity of the exhaust from a generator that is fuelled with D100 (pure petroleum diesel) and S20 (v/v = 20% soy-biodiesel/80% D100) and operated at stable energy output loads (0 and 3 kW). A micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) and a Nano-MOUDI (with aerodynamic diameters of 0.01-18 mu m) were used to collect PM samples. The cytotoxicity of the organic solvent extracts of PM samples to the human male monocytic cell strain (U937) was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) method. The results indicate that at both loads, using S20 in place of D100 effectively reduced the emissions of DEPs, PAHs in the DEPs, and PAHs-associated BaPeq; furthermore, the unit mass cytotoxicity of ultrafine particles and nano-particles in the DEPs was also lowered (by an average of 52.6%). Therefore, soybean biodiesel (S20) can be used as an alternative fuel to petroleum diesel to reduce the hazards of emissions from diesel engines to human health.
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  33. Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Biodiesel Fuels Derived from Castor Oil, Palm Oil, and Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Leite, M. B. N. L.; de Araujo, M. M. S.; Nascimento, I. A.; da Cruz, A. C. S.; Pereira, S. A.; do Nascimento, N. C. 2011. Toxicity of Water-Soluble Fractions of Biodiesel Fuels Derived from Castor Oil, Palm Oil, and Waste Cooking Oil. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 30(4) 893-897

    Concerns over the sustained availability of fossil fuels and their impact on global warming and pollution have led to the search for fuels from renewable sources to address worldwide rising energy demands. Biodiesel is emerging as one of the possible solutions for the transport sector. It shows comparable engine performance to that of conventional diesel fuel, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the toxicity of products and effluents from the biodiesel industry has not yet been sufficiently investigated. Brazil has a very high potential as a biodiesel producer, in view of its climatic conditions and vast areas for cropland, with consequent environmental risks because of possible accidental biodiesel spillages into water bodies and runoff to coastal areas. This research determined the toxicity to two marine organisms of the water-soluble fractions (WSF) of three different biodiesel fuels obtained by methanol transesterification of castor oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Microalgae and sea urchins were used as the test organisms, respectively, for culture-growth-inhibition and early-life-stage-toxicity tests. The toxicity levels of the analyzed biodiesel WSF showed the highest toxicity for the CO, followed by WCO and the PO. Methanol was the most prominent contaminant; concentrations increased over time in WSF samples stored up to 120 d. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 201 l;30:893-897. (C) 2011 SETAC
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  34. Acute Cardiovascular and Inflammatory Toxicity Induced by Inhalation of Diesel and Biodiesel Exhaust Particles
    Abstract

    Brito, J. M.; Belotti, L.; Toledo, A. C.; Antonangelo, L.; Silva, F. S.; Alvim, D. S.; Andre, P. A.; Saldiva, P. H. N.; Rivero, D. H. R. F. 2010. Acute Cardiovascular and Inflammatory Toxicity Induced by Inhalation of Diesel and Biodiesel Exhaust Particles. Toxicological Sciences. 116(1) 67-78

    Analysis of fuel emissions is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of mortality because of air pollution. The objective of this study is to assess cardiovascular and inflammatory toxicity of diesel and biodiesel particles. Mice were exposed to fuels for 1 h. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability, and blood pressure were obtained before exposure, as well as 30 and 60 min after exposure. After 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, and bone marrow were collected to evaluate inflammation. B100 decreased the following emission parameters: mass, black carbon, metals, CO, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds compared with B50 and diesel; root mean square of successive differences in the heart beat interval increased with diesel (p < 0.05) compared with control; low frequency increased with diesel (p < 0.01) and B100 (p < 0.05) compared with control; HR increased with B100 (p < 0.05) compared with control; mean corpuscular volume increased with B100 compared with diesel (p < 0.01), B50, and control (p < 0.001); mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased with B100 compared with B50 (p < 0.001) and control (p < 0.05); leucocytes increased with B50 compared with diesel (p < 0.05); platelets increased with B100 compared with diesel and control (p < 0.05); reticulocytes increased with B50 compared with diesel, control (p < 0.01), and B100 (p < 0.05); metamyelocytes increased with B50 and B100 compared with diesel (p < 0.05); neutrophils increased with diesel and B50 compared with control (p < 0.05); and macrophages increased with diesel (p < 0.01), B50, and B100 (p < 0.05) compared with control. Biodiesel was more toxic than diesel because it promoted cardiovascular alterations as well as pulmonary and systemic inflammation.
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  35. Acute cardiovascular and inflammatory toxicity induced by inhalation of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles
    Abstract

    Brito, J. M.; Belotti, L.; Toledo, A. C.; Antonangelo, L.; Silva, F. S.; Alvim, D. S.; Andre, P. A.; Saldiva, P. H.; Rivero, D. H. 2010. Acute cardiovascular and inflammatory toxicity induced by inhalation of diesel and biodiesel exhaust particles. Toxicol Sci. 116(1) 67-78

    Analysis of fuel emissions is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of mortality because of air pollution. The objective of this study is to assess cardiovascular and inflammatory toxicity of diesel and biodiesel particles. Mice were exposed to fuels for 1 h. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability, and blood pressure were obtained before exposure, as well as 30 and 60 min after exposure. After 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage, blood, and bone marrow were collected to evaluate inflammation. B100 decreased the following emission parameters: mass, black carbon, metals, CO, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds compared with B50 and diesel; root mean square of successive differences in the heart beat interval increased with diesel (p < 0.05) compared with control; low frequency increased with diesel (p < 0.01) and B100 (p < 0.05) compared with control; HR increased with B100 (p < 0.05) compared with control; mean corpuscular volume increased with B100 compared with diesel (p < 0.01), B50, and control (p < 0.001); mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased with B100 compared with B50 (p < 0.001) and control (p < 0.05); leucocytes increased with B50 compared with diesel (p < 0.05); platelets increased with B100 compared with diesel and control (p < 0.05); reticulocytes increased with B50 compared with diesel, control (p < 0.01), and B100 (p < 0.05); metamyelocytes increased with B50 and B100 compared with diesel (p < 0.05); neutrophils increased with diesel and B50 compared with control (p < 0.05); and macrophages increased with diesel (p < 0.01), B50, and B100 (p < 0.05) compared with control. Biodiesel was more toxic than diesel because it promoted cardiovascular alterations as well as pulmonary and systemic inflammation.
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  36. A comparison of acute toxicity of biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and diesel on aquatic organisms
    Abstract

    Khan, N.; Warith, M. A.; Luk, G. 2007. A comparison of acute toxicity of biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and diesel on aquatic organisms. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association. 57(3) 286-296

    The increased demand of alternative energy sources has created interest in biodiesel and biodiesel blends; biodiesel is promoted as a diesel substitute that is safer, produces less harmful combustion emissions, and biodegrades more easily. Like diesel spills, biodiesel can have deleterious effects on the aquatic environments. The effect of neat biodiesel, biodiesel blends, and diesel on Oncorhynchus mykiss and Daphnia magna was evaluated using acute toxicity testing. Static nonrenewal bioassays of freshwater organisms containing B100, B50, B20, B5, and conventional diesel fuel were used to compare the acute effects of biodiesel to diesel. Mortality was the significant end point measured in this study; percent mortality and lethal concentration (LC50) at different exposure times were determined from the acute toxicity tests performed. Trials were considered valid if the controls exhibited > 90% survival. Based on percentage of mortality and LC50 values, a toxicity ranking of fuels was developed.
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  37. CHED 222-Comparative ecotoxicity of petroleum diesel, biodiesel from waste fryer oil and biodiesel from unused fryer oil
    Abstract

    Boucher, M. A.; Specht, K. M. 2007. CHED 222-Comparative ecotoxicity of petroleum diesel, biodiesel from waste fryer oil and biodiesel from unused fryer oil. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 234

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  38. Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester: A potential protector against gentamicin ototoxicity
    Abstract

    Nordang, L.; Anniko, M. 2005. Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester: A potential protector against gentamicin ototoxicity. Acta Oto-Laryngologica. 125(10) 1033-1038

    Conclusion. The nitric oxide (NO) inhibitor nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) may act as an otoprotectant against high-frequency hearing loss caused by gentamicin, but further studies are needed to confirm this. Objective. Aminoglycoside antibiotics are still widely used by virtue of their efficacy and low cost. Their ototoxicity is a serious health problem and, as their ototoxic mechanism involves the production of NO, we need to assess the use of NO inhibitors for the prevention of aminoglycoside-induced sensorineural hearing loss. Material and methods. In this experimental study we used 30 Sprague-Dawley rats, 27 of which had gentamicin instilled into the middle ear. The otoprotectant L-NAME was administered topically to 12/27 animals. Its effect was determined in terms of attenuation of hearing loss, measured by shifts in the auditory brainstem response threshold. Results. L-NAME reduced gentamicin-induced hearing loss in the high-frequency range, but gave no protection in the middle or low frequencies.
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  39. DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by minor groove binding methyl sulfonate esters
    Abstract

    Varadarajan, S.; Shah, D.; Dande, P.; Settles, S.; Chen, F. X.; Fronza, G.; Gold, B. 2003. DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by minor groove binding methyl sulfonate esters. Biochemistry. 42(48) 14318-14327

    Minor groove specific DNA equilibrium binding peptides (lex) based on N-methylpyrrole-carboxamide and/or N-methylimidazolecarboxamide subunits have been modified with an O-methyl sulfonate ester functionality to target DNA methylation in the minor groove at Ade/Thy- and/or Gua/ Cyt-rich sequences. HPLC and sequencing gel analyses show that the Me-lex compounds all selectively react with DNA to afford N3-alkyladenine as a major adduct. The formation of the N3-alkyladenine lesions is sequence-dependent based on the equilibrium binding preferences of the different lex peptides. In addition to the reaction at adenine, the molecules designed to target Gua/Cyt sequences also generate lesions at guanine; however, the methylation is not sequence dependent and takes places in the major groove at the N7-position. To determine if and how the level of the different DNA adducts and the sequence selectivity for their formation affects cytotoxicity, the Me-lex analogues were tested in wild type Escherichia coli and in mutant strains defective in base excision repair (tag and/or alkA or apn). The results demonstrate the importance of 3-methyladenine, and in some cases 3-methylguanine, lesions in cellular toxicity, and the dominant protective role of the DNA glycosylases. There is no evidence that the sequence specificity is related to toxicity.
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  40. DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by minor groove binding methyl sulfonate esters minor groove binding methyl sulfonate esters.
    Abstract

    Varadarajan, S.; Shah, D.; Dande, P.; Settles, S.; Gold, B. 2003. DNA damage and cytotoxicity induced by minor groove binding methyl sulfonate esters minor groove binding methyl sulfonate esters.. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 226U327-U327

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  41. Synergistic Cytotoxicity for L929-Cells of Polyriboinosinic-Polyribocytidylic Acid and Amphotericin-B Methyl-Ester
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    Borden, E. C. 1978. Synergistic Cytotoxicity for L929-Cells of Polyriboinosinic-Polyribocytidylic Acid and Amphotericin-B Methyl-Ester. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 60(6) 1309-1311

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    Lawrence, R. M.; Hoeprich, P. D. 1976. Comparison of Amphotericin-B and Amphotericin-B Methyl-Ester - Efficacy in Murine Coccidioidomycosis and Toxicity. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 133(2) 168-174

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  43. Reduced Toxicity of Amphotericin-B Methyl-Ester (Ame) Vs Amphotericin-B and Fungizone in Tissue-Culture
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    Fisher, P. B.; Goldstein, N. I.; Bryson, V.; Schaffner, C. P. 1976. Reduced Toxicity of Amphotericin-B Methyl-Ester (Ame) Vs Amphotericin-B and Fungizone in Tissue-Culture. In Vitro-Journal of the Tissue Culture Association. 12(2) 133-140

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  44. Toxicity of Amphotericin-B and Its Methyl-Ester toward Normal and Tumor-Cell Lines
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    Fisher, P. B.; Goldstein, N. I.; Bonner, D. P.; Mechlinski, W.; Bryson, V.; Schaffner, C. P. 1975. Toxicity of Amphotericin-B and Its Methyl-Ester toward Normal and Tumor-Cell Lines. Cancer Research. 35(8) 1996-1999

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