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Biodiesel Use Publicaitons

This page lists all publications from University of Idaho related to biodiesel use. Please provide us a feedback feedback if you see any error in this listing or you would like to report and articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. Characterization of Microalgae for the Purpose of Biofuel Production
    Abstract

    Bi, Z.; He, B. B. 2013. Characterization of Microalgae for the Purpose of Biofuel Production. Transactions of the Asabe. 56(4) 1529-1539

    It is now widely accepted that microalgae are promising candidate feedstocks for biofuel production, especially for biodiesel. Microalgae consist of a vast number of species that contain complex chemical constituents and physical structures. The purpose of this study is to understand the physical and chemical properties of selected microalgae, which is critical to the design of appropriate processes for commercial biofuel production. ASTM standard methods were implemented to examine the microalgae properties, including proximate and ultimate analyses. Among the microalgae studied, green microalgae have more volatile matter than brown microalgae, while the latter contain much higher ash content (as high as 43.4%wt +/- 0.20%wt dry basis). The lowest ash content was found in the samples of green microalgae (14.3%wt +/- 0.10%wt dry basis). Ultimate analysis showed that brown microalgae have less carbon content (approx. 25%wt dry basis) as compared to green microalgae (49%wt to 58%wt dry basis). All samples of microalgae were high in sulfur content (0.4%wt to 1.0%wt dry basis). Mineral contents of all microalgal samples were similar to those commonly present in other biomass. Brown microalgae contain significantly higher amounts of carbohydrates (72.9%wt to 75.5%wt dry basis) than green microalgae. On the other hand, green microalgae contain more crude fat (17.1%wt to 27.8%wt dry basis) than brown microalgae. The fatty acid profiles show that the primary fatty acids in microalgal lipids are similar to those of vegetable oils such as soybean oil. However, there are also many odd-numbered fatty acids, such as C15:0, C17:0, and C19:0, which are not typically seen in other seed oils.
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  2. Minimizing the Cost of Biodiesel Blends for Specified Cloud Points
    Abstract

    Wang, P. S.; Thompson, J.; Van Gerpen, J. 2011. Minimizing the Cost of Biodiesel Blends for Specified Cloud Points. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 88(4) 563-572

    When used as a biodiesel fuel, isopropyl esters are expensive compared to the more common methyl esters. However, isopropyl esters have better cold flow properties than methyl esters, allowing the use of highly saturated feedstocks such as tallow or lard. It has not been determined if isopropyl esters can be part of an economical biodiesel (B100) blend for a specified cloud point, which allows for an objective material cost comparison. This work explores this question through the use of an empirical cloud point model that has been developed and validated. Constrained costminimization was performed using the cloud point model and historical prices for alcohols and triglycerides. Case studies using 2003 and 2006 average prices are presented. The results indicate that an expensive component such as isopropyl ester can be part of an economical blend under the market conditions. For isopropyl esters to be feasible as an economical blend component, they have to be derived from a highly saturated feedstock that is less expensive than soybean oil by $0.10/lb. This price differential is most applicable to a biodiesel blend that has a cloud point between 5 and 10 degrees C.
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  3. Soap and Glycerin Removal from Biodiesel Using Waterless Processes
    Abstract

    Wall, J.; Van Gerpen, J.; Thompson, J. 2011. Soap and Glycerin Removal from Biodiesel Using Waterless Processes. Transactions of the Asabe. 54(2) 535-541

    Biodiesel is a proven alternative to petroleum diesel fuel. During production of biodiesel, the free fatty acids in the oil react with the sodium or potassium catalyst to form soaps. After the biodiesel and by-product glycerin are separated, trace amounts of glycerin remain in the biodiesel. These soap and glycerin impurities in the biodiesel can lead to engine operation and fuel storage problems. Traditionally, soap and glycerin are removed from the biodiesel by water washing. Water washing has several disadvantages, such as producing large amounts of waste water that requires treatment and Causing plant operational problems such as emulsion formation. Recently, several alternative "waterless" purification procedures have been developed, such as ion exchange resins and solid adsorbents. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of ion exchange resins and characterize their performance so that biodiesel plant operators can use them more effectively. Four different mechanisms were identified for soap and glycerin removal. These mechanisms are filtration, physical adsorption, ion exchange, and soap removal by glycerin affinity. It was found that ion exchange resins can reduce soap levels from 1200 ppm to below 50 ppm for about 550 bed volumes (BV) of processed biodiesel. Glycerin levels can be reduced from 0.08% to below 0.02% for about 200 BV of processed biodiesel.
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  4. Biodiesel from oilseed crops
    Abstract

    Shrestha, D.; VanGerpen, J. H. 2010. Biodiesel from oilseed crops. Industrial Crops and Uses. 1140-156

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  5. Biodiesel Production and Properties
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J. H.; He, B. 2010. Biodiesel Production and Properties. Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals. 382-415

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  6. Biosensors for Biodiesel Quality Sensing
    Abstract

    Hossain, M.D.; Shrestha, D. S.; Kleve, M. G. 2010. Biosensors for Biodiesel Quality Sensing. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science. 64(0) 80-85

    A biosensor is an analytical device that uses biomaterials as elements of the sensing system and converts a biological response into an electrical signal. Biodiesel is a bio-based alternative, biodegradable, renewable, nontoxic diesel fuel made from a chemical reaction between alcohol (usually methanol or ethanol) and plant oil or animal fat. A need to provide accurate, real-time information for the quality sensing of biodiesel properties such as free and total glycerol has led to an ever-increasing demand for biosensor development. Being able to monitor specific physical and chemical properties is the prerequisite for developing a biosensor for quality sensing of the biodiesel. This article proposes a method for detection of the blend level of degraded biodiesel and lipase as a bioelement of biosensor systems. A design of an electrochemical potentiometric biosensor for quality sensing of biodiesel properties is proposed and discussed in detail. However, experimental trials, actual implementation and evaluations are necessary to understand the feasibility of the proposed biodiesel biosensor.
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  7. Exergy analysis of engines fuelled with biodiesel from high oleic soybeans based on experimental values
    Abstract

    Caliskan, H.; Tat, M. E.; Hepbasli, A.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 2010. Exergy analysis of engines fuelled with biodiesel from high oleic soybeans based on experimental values. International Journal of Exergy. 7(1) 20-36

    This study dealt with energy and exergy analyses of a John Deere 4045T diesel engine run with no. 2 diesel fuel, Soybean oil Methyl Ester (SME) and High-Oleic soybean oil Methyl Ester (HOME) at 1400 1/min. It was aimed at determining energy and exergy efficiencies, energy losses and exergy destructions of the combustion process and comparing exergetically the fuels used. The specific exergy of the fuels was calculated to be εfuel,No.2 Diesel > εfuel,HOME > εfuel,SME, while energy (thermal) and exergy efficiencies were 40.5% and 37.8%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the fuels based on the Tukey method.
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  8. Biodiesel Feedstock and Blend Level Sensing Using Visible Light Spectra and Neural Network
    Abstract

    Zawadzki, A.; Shrestha, D. S. 2009. Biodiesel Feedstock and Blend Level Sensing Using Visible Light Spectra and Neural Network. Transactions of the Asabe. 52(2) 539-542

    Even after biodiesel meets ASTM D6751 specifications, biodiesels from different feedstocks may have different properties. Biodiesel blend level influences the fuel properties, such as cloud point and emissions. Therefore, whether for performance reasons or other reasons, it is often required to detect the biodiesel percentage in a diesel-biodiesel blend. This research used a spectrophotometer to scan the blends of U.S. No. 2 diesel and biodiesel from three different feedstocks (rapeseed, soybean. and mustard. oil) in the visible wavelength range of 380-530 nm. It was found that the shape of the absorption curve varied according to biodiesel feedstock; however, relative absorbance was proportional to the blend level. If the absorbance of the parent biodiesel can be measured, such as in a blending facility, then a single wavelength between 470 and 490 nm could be used to measure the biodiesel blend level with +/- 1.85% standard error at 95% confidence interval. A neural network was trained to measure the blend level when the parent biodiesel spectrum was unknown. It was concluded that even if the absorption spectrum of the parent biodiesel is not known, the absorption spectrum of the blend from 380530 nm can be used along with a neural network to detect the biodiesel feedstock and for rough blend level estimation.
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  9. Energy Life Cycle Assessment of Soybean Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Pradhan, A.; Shrestha, D. S.; McAloon, A. J.; Yee, W. C.; Haas, M. J.; Duffield, J.; Shapouri, H. 2009. Energy Life Cycle Assessment of Soybean Biodiesel. . 845

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  10. Glycerol Sensing in Biodiesel Using Turbidimetry
    Abstract

    Zawadzki, A.; Shrestha, D. S. 2009. Glycerol Sensing in Biodiesel Using Turbidimetry. Transactions of the Asabe. 52(4) 1261-1265

    Free glycerol and total glycerol are the key quality parameters of biodiesel. Turbidity caused by emulsion formation when biodiesel is mixed with water was investigated as a method to sense free glycerol (FG) and bound glycerol (BG). Turbidity was measured as the absorbance at 600 nm. Six batches of biodiesel samples were spiked with 0%, 0.01%, 0.02%, and 0.03% of FG prepared with glycerol-ethanol solution. A small amount of deionized water was added, and the prepared sample was shaken in a shaker. The turbidity was measured at 3 rain intervals at up to 27 min of shaking. Initially, the turbidity increased rapidly with shaking, but it soon leveled off. A linear relationship was found between FG and the square root of turbidity measured after 12 min of shaking (R(2) = 0.87). Although ANOVA showed a significant difference in mean measured turbidities with different levels of FG and BG, a mathematical relationship could not be derived relating BG to turbidity measurement. It is pointed out that the variation in turbidity could have come from unmeasured sterols rather than from BG itself. This method of predicting FG from turbidity was shown to be useful in screening biodiesel batches that need further glycerol removal through additional water washing or other techniques in a biodiesel production process. An absorbance value of less than 0.12 corresponded to an FG value of less than 0.02% with a 95% confidence interval. Four production samples of biodiesel showed that the absorbance limit of 0.12 is adequately conservative because the turbidity of the production samples was found to be slightly higher for the same amount of free glycerol compared to the spiked samples. This observation was ascribed to the presence of other impurities in the production samples, which were maintained at zero level for the control samples.
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  11. Life Cycle Analysis of Soybean Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Anup, Pradhan; Dev Sagar, Shrestha 2009. Life Cycle Analysis of Soybean Biodiesel Production. 2009 Reno, Nevada, June 21 - June 24, 2009.

    Life Cycle Analysis of Soybean Biodiesel Production Life Cycle Analysis of Soybean Biodiesel Production Developing renewable fuels, such as biodiesel, is desirable because they are derived from sustainable sources of energy, whereas petroleum fuels come from a finite resource that is rapidly being depleted. However, the production of renewable fuels generally involves a significant amout of fossil energy. The renewability of biofuel is largely a factor of the amount of fossil energy used for its production, hence it is essential to estimate the amount of fossil energy used over the entire life cycle of the biodiesel production. The comprehensive Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of soybean biodiesel production was conducted by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in 1998. Because of increasing changes in land use and production process, the LCA conducted few years ago is no longer representative of current practices. This research updated the Energy Life Cycle Analysis (ELCA) of the NREL model and estimated the Fossil Energy Ratio (FER) to be 4.56 based on data from 2002 soybean production in the United States. This is a significant improvement (43%) over the 1998 NREL study that reported a FER of 3.2. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) projects soybean yield to increase annually by 0.4 to 0.5 bushel/acre through the year 2017. For every one bushel increase in soybean yield, FER increases by about 0.45 percent. Holding all other variables constant, the FER of soybean biodiesel is estimated to reach 4.69 in the year 2015 when soybean yield is projected to increase to 45.3 bushels per acre. The FER will continue to improve overtime with increasing trend of soybean yield and improvement in the energy efficiency of the crushing and biodiesel plants. In addition to ELCA, four commonly referenced models were compared for the GHG emission savings. The analysis revealed that the most significant factors in altering the results in GHG emissions were differences in data citations, system boundaries, and coproduct allocations.
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  12. Sulfur Content in Selected Oils and Fats and Their Corresponding Methyl Esters
    Abstract

    He, B. B.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Thompson, J. C. 2009. Sulfur Content in Selected Oils and Fats and Their Corresponding Methyl Esters. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 25(2) 223-226

    According to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, the use of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) has been mandated for all on-highway transportation diesels since 2006. To comply with the EPA regulations, biodiesel must meet the same ULSD standard for total sulfur which is set at a maximum of 15 ppm. Generally, biodiesel contains lower sulfur than fossil diesel. However, due to the diversity of biodiesel feedstocks, questions have been raised about their sulfur content and the sulfur content of the biodiesel made from them. The objective of this research was to gain basic knowledge about how the sulfur content in biodiesel is affected by the sulfur content of different feedstocks. Sulfur in oilseeds, seed meals, oils and fats, and biodiesel were investigated according to ASTM D5453. Samples of different feedstocks for biodiesel production were investigated. Results showed that sulfur content varies greatly from one source to another The highest sulfur in seeds and meals was found in rapeseed and mustard, at the level of 9,000 and 15,000 ppm, respectively. Oils from mechanical expeller presses contained very low levels of sulfur, although some were still higher than 15 ppm. Animal fats and waste vegetable oils contained relatively higher sulfur levels and were frequently above 15 ppm. It was observed that sulfur was significantly reduced when the oils and fats were processed into biodiesel. Results showed that most of the biodiesel samples investigated in this study contained less than 15-ppm sulfur Feedstocks which contain a high percentage of free fatty acids (FFA) must be treated with sulfuric acid to reduce the FFA level before transesterification. In these cases, care is needed during phase separation to exclude sulfur from the fuel layer.
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  13. An Update on Energy Balance of Soybean Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Anup, Pradhan; Dev Sagar, Shrestha; James, Duffield; Hosein, Shapouri; Michael, Haas; Andrew, McAloon 2008. An Update on Energy Balance of Soybean Biodiesel Production. 2008 Providence, Rhode Island, June 29 – July 2, 2008.

    An Update on Energy Balance of Soybean Biodiesel Production An Update on Energy Balance of Soybean Biodiesel Production Abstract.
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  14. Biodiesel production technology, a workshop for the 2008 biodiesel conference and expo
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J. 2008. Biodiesel production technology, a workshop for the 2008 biodiesel conference and expo. .

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  15. Effectiveness of Cold Flow Additives on Various Biodiesels, Diesel, and Their Blends
    Abstract

    Shrestha, D. S.; Gerpen, J. Van; Thompson, J. 2008. Effectiveness of Cold Flow Additives on Various Biodiesels, Diesel, and Their Blends. Transactions of the Asabe. 51(4) 1365-1370

    Effectiveness of Cold Flow Additives on Various Biodiesels, Diesel, and Their Blends Effectiveness of Cold Flow Additives on Various Biodiesels, Diesel, and Their Blends One of the major reasons hindering the use of biodiesel is its filter plugging temperature, which is higher than that of No. 2 diesel. Cloud point (CP) and pour point (PP) temperatures have been shown to be well correlated with filter plugging point, which primarily determines the operability of a diesel engine in cold weather. Many biodiesel cold flow additives are available in the market that claim to reduce pour point. In this study, neat and blended biodiesel fuels from different feedstocks were tested for change in CP and PP with various cold flow additives at 100%, 200%, and 300% of the specified loading (application) rate. The additives in general worked better for ethyl esters than for methyl esters. Average reductions in CP and PP for neat mustard methyl esters were 0.3°C and 7.2°C, respectively, compared to 3°C and 19.4°C for mustard ethyl ester at the recommended loading rate. In general, mustard biodiesel responded to additives better than soybean or used vegetable oil biodiesel for reducing PP. The effect of additives on CP of diesel fuel was not statistically significant, but PP was reduced to
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  16. Biodiesel blend level detection using ultraviolet absorption spectra
    Abstract

    Zawadzki, A.; Shrestha, D. S.; He, B. 2007. Biodiesel blend level detection using ultraviolet absorption spectra. Transactions of the Asabe. 50(4) 1349-1353

    Biodiesel is often blended with regular U.S. No. 2 diesel. The blending level influences engine performance, emissions, and fuel cold-flow properties. In this article, ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy is presented as a reliable and affordable technology for blend level detection based on the absorbance patterns of the aromatic compounds in the proposed spectrum. Blends of biodiesel from six different feedstocks and U.S. No. 2 diesels from five different sources were used to test the robustness of the method. Since the absorbance of undiluted samples was too high to measure reliably, the samples were diluted with n-heptane. It was found that the feedstock and alcohol used (methyl or ethyl) did not make a significant difference in the absorbance of diluted biodiesel in the 245 to 305 nm range, while absorbance from 254 to 281 nm was correlated with blend level with R-2 >= 0.99. It was also observed that if the absorbance of the diesel source was known, then a single wavelength could be used to detect the biodiesel blend level. However, a single wavelength was inadequate when the diesel source was unknown because of variation in the level of aromatics in diesel fuel. Absorbances at 265, 2 73, and 280 nm were used to calculate the absorbance index, which was found to be independent of the diesel fuel used. Using three wavelengths captured the shape information of the absorbance curve and eliminated the variation from the aromatics content. The root mean square error in determining blend level with this method was estimated to be 2.88%, and the R-2 for the linear model was 0.99. The method worked well with biodiesel from the different feedstocks tested in this research and was independent of the diesel fuel used.
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  17. Biodiesel: An Alternative Fuel for Compression Ignition Engines
    Abstract

    Jon, H. Van Gerpen 2007. Biodiesel: An Alternative Fuel for Compression Ignition Engines. Biodiesel: An Alternative Fuel for Compression Ignition Engines. ASAE Distinguished Lecture No. 31, pp. 1-22..

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  18. Exhaust emissions from an engine fueled with biodiesel from high-oleic soybeans
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Wang, P. S.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Clemente, T. E. 2007. Exhaust emissions from an engine fueled with biodiesel from high-oleic soybeans. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 84(9) 865-869

    Biodiesel is a fuel comprising mono-alkyl esters of medium to long-chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Typically, engines operated on soybean-based biodiesel exhibit higher emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compared with petroleum diesel. The increase in NOx emissions might be an inherent characteristic of soybean oil's polyunsaturation, because the level of saturation is known to affect the biodiesel's cetane number, which can affect NOx. A feedstock that is mostly monounsaturated (i.e. oleate) helps to balance the tradeoff between cold flow and oxidative stability. Genetic modification has produced a soybean event, designated 335-13, with a fatty acid profile high in oleic acid (> 85%) and with reduced palmitic acid (< 4%). This high-oleic soybean oil was converted to biodiesel and run in a John Deere 4045T 4.5-L four-stroke, four-cylinder, turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine. The exhaust emissions were compared with those from conventional soybean oil biodiesel and commercial No. 2 diesel fuel. There was a significant reduction in NOx emissions (alpha = 0.05) using the high-oleic soybean biodiesel compared with regular soybean oil biodiesel. No significant differences were found between the regular and high-oleic biodiesel for unburned hydrocarbon and smoke emissions.
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  19. Fuel property effects on injection timing, ignition timing, and oxides of nitrogen emissions from biodiesel-fueled engines
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Van Gerpen, J.; Wang, P. S. 2007. Fuel property effects on injection timing, ignition timing, and oxides of nitrogen emissions from biodiesel-fueled engines. Transactions of the ASABE. 50(4) 1123-1128

    Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative diesel fuel consisting of the alkyl monoesters of fatty acids. It is obtained from triglycerides through the transesterification process. Biodiesel has been observed to reduce most engine exhaust pollutant emissions with the exception of oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), which generally increase by 5% to 15%. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between changes in combustion timing caused by differences in the fuel properties between diesel fuel and biodiesel and the NO x increase. The properties investigated in this research included the lower heating value, density, speed of sound, bulk modulus, and cetane number of biodiesel. It was found that half of the start of combustion advance associated with biodiesel originated from a start of injection advance that was split approximately evenly between the automatic timing advance of the pump as it injects more fuel to compensate for the lower heating value of biodiesel and the effect of the bulk modulus, viscosity, and density of the fuel. At the same temperature, the fuel delivery of biodiesel was higher than for petroleum-based diesel fuel because of the higher viscosity of biodiesel. At the same viscosity level, it was found that the fuel delivery of petroleum-based diesel fuel was higher than for biodiesel. This was attributed to the metering orifices in the fuel injection pumps restricting the amount of fuel flow for denser fuels. The other half of the start of combustion timing advance was due to the higher cetane number of the biodiesel.
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  20. Impact of Some Common Impurities on Biodiesel Cloud Point
    Abstract

    Anup, Pradhan; Dev Sagar, Shrestha 2007. Impact of Some Common Impurities on Biodiesel Cloud Point. 2007 ASAE Annual Meeting.

    Impact of Some Common Impurities on Biodiesel Cloud Point Impact of Some Common Impurities on Biodiesel Cloud Point Commercial biodiesel is allowed to contain some impurities, such as free and bound glycerin, residual alcohol, soap and moisture within a limit specified in ASTM D6751. Compared to conventional diesel fuel, biodiesel has an unfavorable cold flow property. Cold flow properties of biodiesel depend both on fatty acid profile and, amount and types of impurities. This study reports the impact of biodiesel impurities on its cloud point. Commonly used biodiesel (methyl and ethyl esters of canola and soybean) and their blends were considered for viscosity, soap content, free and total glycerin, moisture content, and alcohol content test. The tests indicated that the blend level has the major impact on CP of the biodiesel. The presence of higher level of total glycerol in soy esters significantly increased CP (R2 ~ 0.93), but no strong relation was observed for canola esters. The combined effect of total glycerol and moisture level improved the regression coefficients for all feedstock, but 95% confidence interval for moisture showed that the impact of moisture was negligible. The completeness of the transesterification reaction is essential to keep the total glycerol level low and to lower CP of the biodiesel. The impact of other impurities under study did not have significant effect on the biodiesel CP.
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  21. Moisture absorption in biodiesel and its petro-diesel blends
    Abstract

    He, B. B.; Thompson, J. C.; Routt, D. W.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 2007. Moisture absorption in biodiesel and its petro-diesel blends. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 23(1) 71-76

    Biodiesel has the characteristic of absorbing more moisture than petroleum diesel. High moisture content in biodiesel can cause problems such as water accumulation and microbial growth in fuel handling, storage, and transportation equipment. Currently, there is a lack of information on moisture absorbance in biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blends. Experiments were conducted to determine the water absorbance in biodiesel of different feedstocks (three vegetable oils and two primary alcohols) at three temperatures. The effects of temperature and blending levels were explored through a central composite experimental design. Dynamic moisture absorption was studied at three constant relative humidities. Petroleum diesel was used as a reference. It was found that there were no significant differences in moisture absorbence among the biodiesel samples of different origins at given temperatures. Saturation moisture in biodiesel ranged from 0.10 to 0.17%wt in the temperature range of 4 V to 35 V, which was 15 to 25 times higher than that of diesel. Results also showed that in biodiesel/diesel blends, both temperature and level of blending affected the moisture absorbence. Moisture content of the blends was not a simple addition of the two moisture contents of biodiesel and petro-diesel. Blending created a mixture that had a lower capacity for moisture absorption.
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  22. An Update on Life Cycle Study of Soybean Oil Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Anup, Pradhan; Dev Sagar, Shrestha 2006. An Update on Life Cycle Study of Soybean Oil Biodiesel Production. 2006 ASAE Annual Meeting.

    An Update on Life Cycle Study of Soybean Oil Biodiesel Production An Update on Life Cycle Study of Soybean Oil Biodiesel Production The life cycle analysis of soybean oil biodiesel production was performed to estimate the net fossil energy balance of soybean oil biodiesel. The energy inputs were found to be less than the energy contained in the biodiesel. The net energy return of biodiesel was found to be in the range of 2.64 to 2.78 using the NREL energy allocation approach. The addition of labor, farm machinery and soybean transportation energy to this approach didn’t show much difference. Pimentel and Patzek energy allocation approach gave the net energy return in the range of 0.85:1 to 0.88:1. However, allocating energy as in NREL study, this method yielded in the net energy return above five folds (5.69 to 5.93), thus giving an energy gain that is even higher than the 3.2 value from the NREL report. The energy allocation approach plays the crucial role in the variation of the net energy return. The net gain in the energy from soybean oil biodiesel showed the effective use of fossil energy resources. This confirms the renewable nature of soybean oil biodiesel.
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  23. Building a successful biodiesel business: Technology considerations, developing the business, analytical methodologies
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J.; Pruszko, R.; Celments, D.; Shanks, B.; Knothe, G. 2006. Building a successful biodiesel business: Technology considerations, developing the business, analytical methodologies. . 2nd

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  24. Cetane number testing of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J. 2006. Cetane number testing of biodiesel. NBB.

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  25. Comparison of esterified and non-esterified oils from rapeseed, canola and yellow mustard as diesel fuel additives
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Thompson, J.; Kinsey, K. 2006. Comparison of esterified and non-esterified oils from rapeseed, canola and yellow mustard as diesel fuel additives. .

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  26. Ultraviolet absorption spectra for biodiesel quality sensing
    Abstract

    Zawadzki, A.; Shrestha, D. 2006. Ultraviolet absorption spectra for biodiesel quality sensing. ASAE Annual Meeting.

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  27. Cold flow properties of biodiesel and effect of commercial additives
    Abstract

    Shrestha, D.; Van Gerpen, J.; Zawadzki, A. 2005. Cold flow properties of biodiesel and effect of commercial additives. ASABE Annual Meeting Paper No. 056121. (ASABE Paper No. 981010)

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  28. Engine oil analysis of biodiesel-fueled engines
    Abstract

    Schumacher, L. G.; Peterson, C. L.; Van Gerpen, J. 2005. Engine oil analysis of biodiesel-fueled engines. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 21(2) 153-158

    The University of Missouri-Columbia and the University of Idaho monitored 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1998, and 1999 Dodge pickup trucks equipped with 5.9-L (360-in.(3)) Cummins diesel engines from 1991 through 2001. These pickups have been fueled with 0, 1%, 3%, 20%, 50%, and 100% blends of methyl-esters and ethyl-esters of soybean, canola, and rapeseed oil (biodiesel). Analysis of engine lubricating oil, taken when the oil was changed on the vehicles, was compared to the analysis of oil samples taken from 100% petroleum fueled diesel engines. The findings indicated that the biodiesel and biodiesel blend fueled engines were wearing at a normal rate
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  29. Fueling direct injected diesel engines with 2% biodiesel blend
    Abstract

    Schumacher, L. G.; Soylu, S.; Van Gerpen, J.; Wetherell, W. 2005. Fueling direct injected diesel engines with 2% biodiesel blend. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 21(2) 149-152

    The Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Missouri-Columbia has monitored the fueling of a 1996 Dodge pickup truck equipped with a 5.9-L (360-in.(3)) Cummins engine with a 2% blend of methyl-ester soybean oil (soydiesel/biodiesel) and petroleum diesel fuel (B2) for more than 65,352 km (40,608 miles). The pickup averaged 7.91 km/L (18.61 mile/gal). Analysis of engine lubrication oil suggested that the engine was wearing at a normal rate. Exhaust emissions were measured at Iowa State University. The black exhaust smoke normally observed when a diesel engine accelerates was reduced each time the engine was fueled with B2, but CO, HC and NOx were not affected
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  30. Spray, Ignition, and Combustion Modeling of Biodiesel Fuels for Investigating NOx Emissions
    Abstract

    Yuan, W.; C. Hansen, A.; E. Tat, M.; H. Van Gerpen, J.; Tan, Z. 2005. Spray, Ignition, and Combustion Modeling of Biodiesel Fuels for Investigating NOx Emissions. Transactions of the ASAE. 48(3) 933

    The objective of this research was to develop a detailed numerical spray atomization, ignition, and combustion model for direct-injection diesel engines using KIVA3V code that could be applied to biodiesel fuels for investigating NOx emissions. Several modified or recalibrated submodels were incorporated into KIVA3V, including a KH-RT spray breakup model, a Shell ignition model, and a single-step kinetic combustion model. This modified model was applied to a John Deere 4045T direct-injection diesel engine fueled by a soybean methyl ester, a yellow grease methyl ester, and No. 2 diesel fuel. The output of the model was in close agreement with the experimental measurements of cylinder pressure and heat release rate from this engine. It was predicted from the modeling results that the two biodiesel fuels had shorter ignition delay and higher overall cylinder temperatures than diesel fuel. The in-cylinder spray analysis indicated that the soybean methyl ester had slightly longer penetration than diesel fuel, but the yellow grease methyl ester had shorter penetration than diesel fuel. Fewer particle numbers were predicted for the two biodiesel fuels. Both soybean methyl ester and yellow grease methyl ester had more widespread high-temperature distribution areas than diesel fuel, which could account for the increases in NOx emissions typically measured for biodiesel fuels.
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  31. The production of fatty acid isopropyl esters and their use as a diesel engine fuel
    Abstract

    Wang, P. S.; Tat, M. E.; Van Gerpen, J. 2005. The production of fatty acid isopropyl esters and their use as a diesel engine fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 82(11) 845-849

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that consists of the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Currently, most biodiesel consists of methyl esters, which have poor cold-flow properties. Methyl esters of soybean oil will crystallize and plug fuel filters and lines at about 0 degrees C. However, isopropyl esters have better cold-flow properties than methyl esters. This paper describes the production of isopropyl esters and their evaluation in a diesel engine. The effects of the alcohol amount, the catalyst amount, and two different catalysts on producing quality biodiesel were studied. Both sodium isopropoxide and potassium isopropoxide were found to be suitable for use in the transesterification process. A 20:1 alcohol/TG molar ratio and a catalvst amount equal to 1% by weight (based on the TG amount) of sodium metal was the most cost-effective way to produce biodiesel fuel. The emissions from a diesel engine running on isopropyl esters made from soybean oil and yellow grease were investigated by comparing them with No. 2 diesel fuel and methyl esters. For nitrogen oxide emission, the difference between the biodiesel produced from soybean oil and yellow grease was greater than the difference between the methyl and isopropyl esters of both feedstocks. The other emissions from using isopropyl esters were about 50% lower in hydrocarbons, 10-20% lower in carbon monoxide, and 40% lower in smoke number when compared with No. 2 diesel fuel
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  32. Use of a spectrophotometer for biodiesel quality sensing
    Abstract

    Zawadzki, A.; Shrestha, D.; He, B. 2005. Use of a spectrophotometer for biodiesel quality sensing. ASAE PNW meeing.

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  33. Colorimetry of biodiesel blends for possible quick concentration detection
    Abstract

    He, B.; Thompson, J. C. 2004. Colorimetry of biodiesel blends for possible quick concentration detection. .

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  34. Biodiesel blend detection with a fuel composition sensor
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 2003. Biodiesel blend detection with a fuel composition sensor. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 19(2) 125-131

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel consisting of the alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel can be used in diesel engines as a pure fuel or in blends with petroleum-based diesel fuel. To maintain optimum performance and meet emission regulations, it may be necessary to measure the composition of blended fuels and adjust the fuel injection timing and other injection parameters during operation. The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of using a commercial Flexible Fuel Composition Sensor for the detection of biodiesel composition in biodiesel/diesel fuel blends. Twelve different biodiesel fuel samples were tested including pure esters and esters from soybean oil, tallow, lard, canola oil, and yellow grease. The sensor produced a frequency output between 58.75 and 60.23 Hz for all of the biodiesel samples. Six different diesel fuel samples were also tested including commercial No. 1 diesel fuel and EPA emission certification fuel. All of the diesel fuel samples gave frequencies between 51.84 and 52.62 Hz. The frequency output of the sensor was linearly proportional to the percentage of biodiesel in the blend. The 7.14-Hz average difference from diesel fuel to biodiesel is sufficient to use this fuel composition sensor for blend detection of biodiesel blended fuels.
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  35. Comparison of engine performance and emissions for petroleum diesel fuel, yellow grease biodiesel, and soybean oil biodiesel
    Abstract

    Canakci, M.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 2003. Comparison of engine performance and emissions for petroleum diesel fuel, yellow grease biodiesel, and soybean oil biodiesel. Transactions of the ASAE. 46(4) 937-944

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic, biodegradable and renewable alternative fuel that can be used with little or no engine modifications. Biodiesel is currently expensive but would be more cost effective if it could be produced from low-cost oils (restaurant waste, frying oils, animal fats). These low-cost feedstocks are more challenging to process because they contain high levels of free fatty acids. A process for converting these feedstocks to fuel-grade biodiesel has been developed and described previously. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the biodiesel produced from high free fatty acid feedstocks on engine performance and emissions. Two different biodiesels were prepared from animal fat-based yellow grease with 9% free fatty acids and from soybean oil. The neat fuels and their 20% blends with No. 2 diesel fuel were studied at steady-state engine operating conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine. Although both biodiesel fuels provided significant reductions in particulates, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons, the oxides of nitrogen increased by 11% and 13% for the yellow grease methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester, respectively. The conversion of the biodiesel fuel's energy to work was equal to that from diesel fuel
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  36. Effect of temperature and pressure on the speed of sound and isentropic bulk modulus of mixtures of biodiesel and diesel fuel
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 2003. Effect of temperature and pressure on the speed of sound and isentropic bulk modulus of mixtures of biodiesel and diesel fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 80(11) 1127-1130

    The density and speed of sound of blends of biodiesel with No. 2 and No. 1 diesel fuels were measured from atmospheric pressure to 32.46 MPa at temperatures of 20 and 40degreesC. The isentropic bulk modulus was calculated from these quantities. The results show that the density and isentropic bulk modulus can be accurately modeled as having a linear variation with blend percentage. Speed of sound is better correlated by a second-order equation. Correlation equations are given and a blending rule is developed that allows the density, speed of sound, and isentropic bulk modulus of blends to be calculated from the properties of the biodiesel and diesel fuel.
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  37. Fuel property effect on biodiesel
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Van Gerpen, J. 2003. Fuel property effect on biodiesel. ASAE Annual International Meeting.

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  38. Speed of sound and isentropic bulk modulus of alkyl monoesters at elevated temperatures and pressures
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 2003. Speed of sound and isentropic bulk modulus of alkyl monoesters at elevated temperatures and pressures. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 80(12) 1249-1256

    Biodiesel is a biodegradable, sulfur-free, oxygenated, and renewable alternative diesel fuel consisting of the alkyl monoesters of FA from vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel can be used in existing diesel engines without significant modifications. However, differences in physical properties between biodiesel and petroleum-based diesel fuel may change the engine's fuel injection timing and combustion characteristics. These altered physical and chemical properties also may cause the exhaust emissions and performance to differ from the optimized settings chosen by the engine manufacturer. In particular, the density, speed of sound, and isentropic bulk modulus have a significant effect on the fuel injection system and combustion. The objective of this study was to measure these three properties for biodiesel (and the pure esters that are the constituents of biodiesel) at temperatures from 20 to 100degreesC and at pressures from atmospheric to 32.5 MPa. Ten different biodiesel fuels, 16 different pure FA esters, three hydrocarbons, and one diesel fuel were tested. The measured values of density, speed of sound, and isentropic bulk modulus are presented. Correlations between pressure and temperature are demonstrated. Speed of sound and isentropic bulk modulus tend to increase as the degree of unsaturation increases and as the chain length increases. However, density increased with shorter chain length and decreased with saturation.
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  39. Effects of subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from a diesel engine burning soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel
    Abstract

    Finch, G. L.; Hobbs, C. H.; Blair, L. F.; Barr, E. B.; Hahn, F. F.; Jaramillo, R. J.; Kubatko, J. E.; March, T. H.; White, R. K.; Krone, J. R.; Menache, M. G.; Nikula, K. J.; Mauderly, J. L.; Van Gerpen, J.; Merceica, M. D.; Zielinska, B.; Stankowski, L.; Burling, K.; Howell, S. 2002. Effects of subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from a diesel engine burning soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel. Inhalation Toxicology. 14(10) 1017-1048

    There is increasing interest in diesel fuels derived from plant oils or animal fats ( "biodiesel"), but little information on the toxicity of biodiesel emissions other than bacterial mutagenicity. F344 rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day, 5 days/ wk for 13 wk to 1 of 3 dilutions of emissions from a diesel engine burning 100% soybean oil-derived fuel, or to clean air as controls. Whole emissions were diluted to nominal NOx concentrations of 5, 25, or 50 ppm, corresponding to approximately 0.04, 0.2, and 0.5 mg particles/m(3), respectively. Biologically significant, exposure-related effects were limited to the lung, were greater in females than in males, and were observed primarily at the highest exposure level. There was a dose-related increase in the numbers of alveolar macrophages and the numbers of particles in the macrophages, as expected from repeated exposure, but no neutrophil response even at the highest exposure level. The macrophage response was reduced 28 days after cessation of the exposure. Among the high-level females, the group mean lung weight/body weight ratio was increased, and minimal, multifocal bronchiolar metaplasia of alveolar ducts was observed in 4 of 30 rats. Lung weights were not significantly increased, and metaplasia of the alveolar ducts was not observed in males. An increase in particle-laden macrophages was the only exposure-related finding in lungs at the intermediate and low levels, with fewer macrophages and fewer particles per macrophage at the low level. Alveolar histiocytosis was observed in a few rats in both exposed and control groups. There were statistically significant, but minor and not consistently exposure-related, differences in body weight, nonpulmonary organ weights, serum chemistry, and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the brain. There were no significant exposure-related effects on survival, clinical signs, feed consumption, ocular toxicity, hematology, neurohistology, micronuclei in bone marrow, sister chromatid exchanges in peripheral blood lymphocytes, fertility, reproductive toxicity, or teratology. This study demonstrated modest adverse effects at the highest exposure level, and none other than the expected physiological macrophage response to repeated particle exposure at the intermediate level
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  40. Physical properties and composition detection of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Van Gerpen, J. 2002. Physical properties and composition detection of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends. ASAE Annual International Meeting.

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  41. The effect of biodiesel oxidation on engine performance and emissions
    Abstract

    Monyem, A.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 2001. The effect of biodiesel oxidation on engine performance and emissions. Biomass & Bioenergy. 20(4) 317-325

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel consisting of the alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. Previous research has shown that biodiesel-fueled engines produce less carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel. One drawback of biodiesel is that it is more prone to oxidation than petroleum-based diesel fuel. In its advanced stages, this oxidation can cause the fuel to become acidic and to form insoluble gums and sediments that can plug fuel filters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of oxidized biodiesel on engine performance and emissions. A John Deere 4276T turbocharged DI diesel engine was fueled with oxidized and unoxidized biodiesel and the performance and emissions were compared with No. 2 diesel fuel. The neat biodiesels, 20% blends, and the base fuel (No. 2 diesel) were tested at two different loads (100 and 20%) and three injection timings (3 degrees advanced, standard; 3 degrees retarded). The tests were performed at steady-state conditions at a single engine speed of 1400 rpm. The engine performance of the neat biodiesels and their blends was similar to that of No. 2 diesel fuel with the same thermal efficiency, but higher fuel consumption. Compared with unoxidized biodiesel, oxidized neat biodiesel produced 15 and 16% lower exhaust carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between the oxides of nitrogen and smoke emissions from oxidized and unoxidized biodiesel. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  42. The effect of timing and oxidation on emissions from biodiesel-fueled engines
    Abstract

    Monyem, A.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Canakci, M. 2001. The effect of timing and oxidation on emissions from biodiesel-fueled engines. Transactions of the ASAE. 44(1) 35-42

    The alkyl monoesters of fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, known as biodiesel, are attracting considerable interest as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel-fueled engines produce less carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate emissions than diesel-fueled engines. However biodiesel has different chemical and physical properties than diesel fuel, including a larger bulk modulus and a higher cetane number Some of these properties can be affected by oxidation of the fuel during storage. These changes can affect the timing of the combustion process and potentially cause increases in emissions of oxides of nitrogen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of injection and combustion timing on biodiesel combustion and exhaust emissions. A John Deere diesel engine was fueled with two different biodiesel fuels, one of which had been deliberately oxidized, and with their 20% blends with No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine was operated at three different timings and two loads at a single engine speed of 1400 rpm. The engine performance of the biodiesel was similar to that of No. 2 diesel fuel with nearly the same thermal efficiency. The range of injection timings studied produced changes of 50% and 34% in the CO and HC emissions, respectively. A reduction in NOx emissions of 35% to 43% was observed for a 30 retarded injection timing compared with a 30 advanced injection timing. A common linear relationship was found between the start of injection and the NOx emissions for all the fuels studied. When compared at the same start of combustion, the near biodiesel produced lower NOx emissions than the No. 2 diesel fuel
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  43. Used vegetable oil fuel blend comparisons using injector coking in a DI diesel engine
    Abstract

    Jones, S.; Peterson, C. L.; Thompson, J. C. 2001. Used vegetable oil fuel blend comparisons using injector coking in a DI diesel engine. ASAE Meeting Presentation.

    An imaging system was used to compare injector coking when used vegetable oil
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  44. Investigation of biodiesel thermal stability under simulated in-use conditions
    Abstract

    Monyem, A.; Canakci, M.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 2000. Investigation of biodiesel thermal stability under simulated in-use conditions. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 16(4) 373-378

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats. While biodiesel products numerous environmental benefits such as reduced exhaust emissions, it is more prone to oxidation than petroleum-based diesel fuel and this can alter its properties. When oxidation occurs at ordinary temperatures, the initial products are hydroperoxides. As the oxidation continues, the peroxides may split and form aldehydes, ketones, and short chain acids that produce unpleasant odors. Sediment and gums are formed through polymerization of the peroxides and can cause fuel filter plugging. The objective of this study was to relate the chemical and physical processes associated with biodiesel oxidation to the conditions that affect diesel fuel system performance. A relationship was sought between the test that is used by the engine industry to define engine fuel stability requirements (ASTM D2274) and the tests used by the fats and oils industry to characterize oxidation (Peroxide Value and Acid Value). It was found during the course of this study that the ASTM fuel stability method is not suitable for biodiesel. While oxidation causes the fuel viscosity to increase, fuel filter plugging was not necessarily a natural consequence of biodiesel oxidation even when the fuel was oxidized to a level beyond what would be observed in practice. The effect of fuel temperature and blending with diesel fuel on the oxidation was investigated and the interrelationship between the fuel's acid value and viscosity is shown.
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  45. The effect of biodiesel feedstock on regulated emissions in chassis dynamometer tests of a pickup truck
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Taberski, J. S.; Thompson, J. C.; Chase, C. L. 2000. The effect of biodiesel feedstock on regulated emissions in chassis dynamometer tests of a pickup truck. Transactions of the ASAE. 43(6) 1371-1381

    Six different vegetable oil esters (coconut ethyl ester used hydrogenated soy methyl ester, rapeseed ethyl ester, mustard ethyl ester, safflower ethyl ester, and a commercial methyl ester of soy oil) were selected to represent a range of iodine numbers from 7.88 to 133. These vegetable oil esters were tested neat and in 20% biodiesel/80% diesel blends in comparison with low sulfur diesel fuel or the effect on regulated emissions. The test vehicle was a pickup truck with a 5.9 L turbo-charged and inter-cooled direct injection diesel engine. The emissions rests were conducted at the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority Emissions Testing Facility on a chassis dynamometer. It was found that lower iodine numbers correlated with reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx). As iodine number increased from 7.88 to 129.5 the NOx increased 29.3%. Fatty acids with two double bonds appeared to have more effect on increasing NOx emissions than did fatty acids with one double bond. Changes in carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and particulate matter (PM) were not linearly correlated with iodine number It is apparent that the type of feedstock oil affects the characteristics of the biodiesel fuel. The most obvious difference is that the pour point changes with fatty acid composition, however other fuel characteristics, some of which effect combustion, are also changed. This article reports on a study of biodiesel iodine number on changes in regulated emissions. The results of this and similar studies provide information for developing triglycerides specifically for optimum use in biodiesel. Modern chemical processes and/or plant breeding should make this possible
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  46. The specific gravity of biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 2000. The specific gravity of biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 77(2) 115-119

    The specific gravities of biodiesel and 75, 50, and 20% blends with No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels were measured as a function of temperature from the onset of crystallization to 100 degrees C. The results indicate that biodiesel and its blends demonstrate temperature-dependent behavior that is qualitatively similar to the diesel fuels. The temperature dependence of the specific gravity for biodiesel and its blends was compared with the ASTM D 1250-80 procedure for the temperature correction of hydrocarbon fuels, and the procedure was found to provide accurate corrections. A blending equation was developed that allows the specific gravity of blends to be calculated from the specific gravities of the biodiesel and diesel fuels.
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  47. The speed of sound and isentropic bulk modulus of biodiesel at 21 degrees C from atmospheric pressure to 35 MPa
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Soylu, S.; Canakci, M.; Monyem, A.; Wormley, S. 2000. The speed of sound and isentropic bulk modulus of biodiesel at 21 degrees C from atmospheric pressure to 35 MPa. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 77(3) 285-289

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel consisting of the alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils and animal fats, can be used in existing diesel engines without modification. However, property changes associated with the differences in chemical structure between biodiesel and petroleum-based diesel fuel may change the engine's injection timing. These injection timing changes can change the exhaust emissions and performance from the optimized settings chosen by the engine manufacturer. This study presents the results of measurements of the speed of sound and the isentropic bulk modulus for methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids from soybean oil and compares them with No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuel. Data are presented at 21 +/- 1 degrees C and for pressures from atmospheric to 34.74 MPa. The results indicate that the speed of sound and bulk modulus of the monoesters of soybean oil are higher than those for diesel fuel and these can cause changes in the fuel injection timing of diesel engines. Linear equations were used to fit the data as a function of pressure, and the correlation constants are given.
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  48. Accelerated oxidation processes in biodiesel
    Abstract

    Canakci, M.; Monyem, A.; Van Gerpen, J. 1999. Accelerated oxidation processes in biodiesel. Transactions of the ASAE. 42(6) 1565-1572

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that can be produced from renewable feedstocks such as vegetable oil and animal fats. These feedstocks are reacted with an alcohol to produce alkyl monoesters that can be used in conventional diesel engines with little or no modification. Biodiesel, especially if produced from highly unsaturated oils, oxidizes more rapidly than diesel fuel. This article reports the results of experiments to track the chemical and physical changes that occur in biodiesel as it oxidizes. These results show the impact of time, oxygen flow rate, temperature, metals, and feedstock type on the rate of oxidation. Blending with diesel fuel and the addition of antioxidants are explored also. The data indicate that without antioxidants, biodiesel will oxidize very quickly at temperatures typical of diesel engines. This oxidation results in increases in peroxide value, acid value, and viscosity. While the peroxide value generally reaches a plateau of about 350 meq/kg ester the acid value and viscosity increase monotonically as oxidation proceeds
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  49. Long-range on-road test with twenty-percent rapeseed biodiesel
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Thompson, J. C.; Taberski, J. S.; Reece, D. L.; Fleischman, G. 1999. Long-range on-road test with twenty-percent rapeseed biodiesel. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 15(2) 91-101

    A heavy-duty pickup truck with a 5.9-L diesel engine was targeted to operated on a blend of 20% methyl ester of rapeseed rapeseed oil (RME) and 80% 2-D diesel (2-D) for 161 000 km (100,000 miles). The actual blend used was 27.9% RME. The engine was unmodified, but modifications were made to the vehicles for the convenience of the test. Fuel mixing was done on-board to extend rite driving range to over 5000 km (3,100 miles) between biodiesel fill ups. Rusting of the mild steel fuel tanks contributed to fuel filter plugging which was eventually solved by changing to stainless steel tanks and switching to a different fuel supplier: Chassis dynamometer testing, injector coking, engine compression, injector valve opening pressures, and engine oil analyses were completed at regularly scheduled intervals to monitor the engine performance parameters. RME produced 5% less power than 2-D, while 20RME produced 1.5% less power than 2-D. Smoke density was reduced 32% with RME, while 20RME increased smoke density, 6.6% higher than that of 2-D. The results of the oil analysis showed that there was no unusual deterioration of the engine, or any unusual change in oil composition from rising the biodiesel fuel. Using aluminum and iron as comparison analysis, the test vehicle averaged 2.2 ppm for aluminum and 8.0 ppm for iron, the first check vehicle averaged 2.4 ppm for aluminum and 8.5 ppm for iron, the second check vehicle averaged 5.4 ppm for aluminum and 20.0 ppm for iron, and a third check vehicle averaged 5.7 ppm for aluminum and 64 ppm for iron (the third of four samples showed iron nt 183 ppm with the others at 20-28 ppm.) Engine compression and injector valve opening pressure remained constant throughout the test. Emissions tests with a chassis transient dynamometer at the Los Angeles Metropolitan Authority Emissions Test Facility resulted in a decrease in HC (20%), CO (25%), NOx (2.6%), PM (10.9%), and there was no difference in CO2 with 20RME compared to 2-D, When the vehicle reached 163 800 km (101,785 miles) the diesel engine was removed from the truck and shipped to Cummins Engine Company in Columbus, Indiana, for analysis. The condition of the engine obviously reflected the light load condition used in the pickup, However; it was generally considered to be in a condition which could be characterized as good or better than that which would have been expected with diesel fuel. Engine parts were clean and showed little wear Adverse effects were hardening of the crankshaft seals which made a slight depression where they made contact with the shaft; and rusting of the fuel filter attachment stud The fuel pump, although showing varnish, was found to be in good condition in the bench test
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  50. One-thousand-hour engine durability test with HySEE and using a 5X-EMA test cycle
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Thompson, J. C.; Taberski, J. S. 1999. One-thousand-hour engine durability test with HySEE and using a 5X-EMA test cycle. Transactions of the ASAE. 42(1) 23-30

    A modified 1000-h EMA-based test was run on three Yanmar 3TN75E-S 15 kW (20 hp) diesel engines fueled with three different blends of hydrogenated soy ethyl ester (HySEE). Fuels used in the test were 100%, 50%, and 25% blends of HySEE with type 2 diesel fuel (D2). Eight-thousand one-hundred and five liters (2141 gal) of HySEE were produced for the test using the process developed at the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at the University of Idaho. The blends of HySEE performed adequately compared to diesel fuel. However; cold weather operation was a continual challenge. At each of the normal oil change intervals, oil analysis results for wear metals for the 100% HySEE engine were equal to or better than either the 25% HySEE or the 50% HySEE fueled engine. Engine injector pressure and compression was essentially unchanged for all engines over the course of the 1000 h. The engine fueled with 100% HySEE was cleaner and brighter internally than either the 25% HySEE or the 50% HySEE fueled engine. The 25% HySEE fueled engine was overfueled in the torque range according to a post injector pump test
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  51. The kinematic viscosity of biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 1999. The kinematic viscosity of biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 76(12) 1511-1513

    As the use of biodiesel becomes more widespread, engine manufacturers have expressed concern about biodiesel's higher viscosity. In particular, they are concerned that biodiesel may exhibit different viscosity-temperature characteristics that could result in higher fuel injection pressures at low engine operating temperatures. This study presents data for the kinematic viscosity of biodiesel and its blends with No. 1 and No. 2 diesel fuels at 75, 50, and 20% biodiesel, from close to their melting point to 100 degrees C. The results indicate that while their viscosity is higher, biodiesel and its blends demonstrate temperature-dependent behavior similar to that of No. land No. 2 diesel fuels. Equations of the same general form are shown to correlate viscosity data for both biodiesel and diesel fuel, and for their blends: A blending equation is presented that allows the kinematic viscosity to be calculated as a function of the biodiesel fraction. Paper no. J9166 in JAOCS 76, 1511-1513 (December 1999).
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  52. Biodegradability of biodiesel in the aquatic environment
    Abstract

    Zhang, X.; Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Haws, R.; Moller, G. 1998. Biodegradability of biodiesel in the aquatic environment. Transactions of the ASAE. 41(5) 1423-1430

    The biodegradability of various biodiesel fuels was examined by the CO2 evolution method (EPA 560/6-82-003), BOD5 (EPA 405.1), COD (EPA 410), and gas chromatography (GC) analyses in an aquatic system. The fuels examined included the methyl- and ethyl-esters of rapeseed oil and soybean oil, neat rapeseed oil, neat soybean oil and Phillips 2-D law sulfur; reference petroleum diesel. Blends of biodiesel/petroleum diesel at different volumetric ratios including 80/20, 50/50, and 20/80, were also examined. The results demonstrate that all the biodiesel fuels are "readily biodegradable". Moreover; in the presence of REE, the degradation rate of petroleum diesel increased to twice that of petroleum diesel alone. The pattern of biodegradation in the blends and reasons why biodiesel is more readily degradable than petroleum diesel are discussed The biodegradation monitoring results from both CO2 evolution and GC methods are compared
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  53. Carbon cycle for rapeseed oil biodiesel fuels
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Hustrulid, T. 1998. Carbon cycle for rapeseed oil biodiesel fuels. Biomass & Bioenergy. 14(2) 91-101

    The greenhouse effect, thought to be responsible for global warming, is caused by gases accumulating in the earth's atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, which makes up half of the gas accumulation problem, is produced during respiration and combustion processes. This paper provides an outline of the carbon cycle for rapeseed oil-derived fuels. Plant processes, fuel chemistry and combustion are examined with respect to carbon. A diagram is presented to interpret the information presented graphically. A comparison of carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of rapeseed oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel is made. Complete combustion converts hydrocarbon fuels so carbon dioxide and water. The carbon cycle consists of the fixation of carbon and the release of oxygen by plants through the process of photosynthesis, then the recombining of oxygen and carbon to form CO2 through the processes of combustion and respiration. The carbon dioxide released by petroleum diesel was fixed from the atmosphere during the formative years of the earth. Carbon dioxide released by biodiesel is fixed by the plant in a recent year and is recycled. Many scientists believe that global warming is occurring because of the rapid release of CO2 in processes such as the combustion of petroleum diesel. Using biodiesel could reduce the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved
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  54. The influence of trace components on the melting point of methyl soyate
    Abstract

    Yu, Liangping; Lee, Inmok; Hammond, Earl G.; Johnson, Lawrence A.; Van Gerpen, Jon H. 1998. The influence of trace components on the melting point of methyl soyate. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 75(12) 1821-1824

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various amounts of unsaponifiables and bound glycerol on the crystallization temperatures of methyl soyate used as biodiesel. The preparation of methyl esters did not affect the amount of unsaponifiable matter in biodiesel. A synthetic unsaponifiable mixture added to distilled methyl soyate and blends of methyl soyate and No. 1 diesel fuel (20:80, vol/vol) did not affect the crystallization onset temperature, cloud point, or pour point at concentrations up to 3% by weight. The amounts of monoglycerides and diglycerides in methyl soyate decreased from 2.60 and 9.87%, respectively, to 0% as the methanol/soybean oil ratio increased from 90 to 200% of the theoretical requirement. Transesterification reactions conducted with less than 130% of the theoretical amount of methanol resulted in methyl soyate with a higher cloud point because of the presence of saturated mono- and diglycerides. Pure mono- and diglycerides added to distilled methyl soyate at 0 to 1.0% did not change the pour point of the esters, but the cloud point of esters increased with increasing amount of saturated mono- or diglyceride. Pure saturated mono- or diglyceride presented in concentrations as low as 0.1% increased the cloud point of methyl soyate. Similar results were obtained with mono- and diglyceride mixtures present in incompletely converted methyl soyate.
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  55. Two-year storage study with methyl and ethyl esters of rapeseed
    Abstract

    Thompson, J. C.; Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Beck, S. M. 1998. Two-year storage study with methyl and ethyl esters of rapeseed. Transactions of the ASAE. 41(4) 931-939

    Methyl and ethyl esters, prepared from various vegetable ails by the process of transesterification, have shown much promise as fuels for all types of diesel engines. Very limited information is available on possible deterioration of biodiesel in storage. This project was designed to determine the extent of deterioration of Rape Methyl Ester (RME) and Rape Ethyl Ester (REE) in storage. The study involved triplicate samples of RME and REE stored in glass and steel containers at room temperature (inside) and at the local ambient outdoor temperatures (outside). The study was conducted for 24 months. At the beginning of the study and at three-month intervals, samples were taken for measurement of peroxide value, acid value, density, viscosity, and heat of combustion. At the conclusion of the study, engine performance tests were conducted with the two year stored REE and RME, new REE and RME, and low sulfur diesel reference fuel. On the average, the esters increased over time in all of the previously mentioned properties with the exception of heat of combustion, which decreased. Regression models are presented to predict the deterioration with time. Engine power varied less than 2% for both Biodiesel fuels compared to the stored counterparts while smoke density decreased 3.2% for the stored RME and increased 17.5% for stored REE
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  56. Two-year storage test with RME and REE
    Abstract

    Thompson, J.C. ; Peterson, C.L. ; Reece, D.L. ; Beck, S.M. 1998. Two-year storage test with RME and REE. .

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  57. Demonstration of the on-the road use of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L. 1997. Demonstration of the on-the road use of biodiesel. .

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  58. Impacts of contaminations on biodiesel quality
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J.; Monyem, A.; Canakci, M. 1997. Impacts of contaminations on biodiesel quality. Commercialization of Biodiesel: Producing a quality fuel. 1-13

    The methyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, known as biodicsel, arc receiving increasing attention as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Although the production of biodiesel involves a relatively simple chemical process, there is potential for various contaminants to be present in the fuel. These contaminants include water, free glycerin, bound glycerin, alcohol, free fatty acids, soaps, catalyst, unsaponifiable matter and the products of oxidation. The objective of this paper is to present data showing the effect of contanrinants on biodiesel quality. Small amounts of these various contaminants were added to biodiesel and their impact on the properties and performance of the biodiescl was measured. Samples of biodicsel were also oxidized to varying degrees to study its effect on biodicsel. The study identifies water contamination, bound glycerin, and oxidation as three areas of concern. Biodiesel can absorb up to 40 times more water than conventional diesel fuel. High levels of bound glycerin can cause crystallization and increased viscosity. Oxidation can produce chemical compounds that improve cetanc number but also increase the acidity and viscosity of the fuel.
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  59. Processing, characterization, and performance of eight fuels from lipids
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Hammond, B. L.; Thompson, J. C.; Beck, Sidney M. 1997. Processing, characterization, and performance of eight fuels from lipids. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 13(1) 71-79

    Test quantities of ethyl and methyl esters of four renewable fuels were processed, characterized and performance tested. Canola, rapeseed, soybean oils, and beef tallow were the feedstocks for the methyl and ethyl esters. A complete set of fuel properties and a comparison of each fuel in engine performance tests are reported. The study examines short term engine tests with both methyl and ethyl ester fuels compared to number 2 diesel fuel (D2). Three engine performance tests were conducted including an engine mapping procedure, an injector coking screening test, and an engine power study. The gross heat contents of the biodiesel fuels, on a mass basis, were 9 to 13% lower than D2. The viscosities of biodiesel were twice that of diesel. The cloud and pour points of D2 were significantly lower than the biodiesel fuels. The biodiesel fuels produced slightly lower power and torque and higher fuel consumption than D2. In general, the physical and chemical properties and the performance of ethyl esters were comparable to those of the methyl esters. Ethyl and methyl esters have almost the same energy. The viscosity of the ethyl esters is slightly higher and the cloud and pour points are slightly lower than those of methyl esters. Engine tests demonstrated that methyl esters produced slightly higher power and torque than ethyl esters. Fuel consumption when using the methyl and ethyl esters is nearly identical. Some desirable attributes of the ethyl esters over methyl esters were: significantly lower smoke opacity, lower exhaust temperatures, and lower pour point. The ethyl esters tended to have more injector coking than the methyl esters, and the ethyl esters had a higher glycerol content than the methyl esters
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  60. Screening Test for Rapeseed Ethyl Ester Two Cycle Oils
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. 1997. Screening Test for Rapeseed Ethyl Ester Two Cycle Oils. ASAE Annual International Meeting.

    In this project, 50:1 rapeseed ethyl ester (REE), 50:1 Winterized REE (WREE), 25:1 WREE and 75:1 WREE were compared with two commercial biodegradable two cycle oils and the engine manufacturer's recommended two cycle oil in a side-by-side test. Engines used were Stihl two cycle power blowers (model BG-72) operated at full throttle for 10-12 hours per day. All of the engines using commercial two cycle oils were still operating when the REE lubricated engines had failed. Failure was characterized by polymerization in the piston ring area. The 75:1 WREE engine also experienced cylinder wall scuffing. The test should not be used to infer differences in the commercial oils used; the test was designed to screen REE as a potential lubricant for two cycle engines, no conclusions beyond that intent should be formed.
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  61. Emissions characteristics of ethyl and methyl ester of rapeseed oil compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel in a chassis dynamometer test of a pickup truck
    Abstract

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D. 1996. Emissions characteristics of ethyl and methyl ester of rapeseed oil compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel in a chassis dynamometer test of a pickup truck. Transactions of the ASAE. 39(3) 805-816

    Comprehensive tests were performed on an on-road vehicle in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority emissions test facility. All tests were with a transient chassis dynamometer. Tests included both a double arterial cycle of 768 s duration and an EPA heavy duty vehicle cycle of 1,060 s duration. The test vehicle was a 1994 pickup truck with a 5.9-L turbocharged and intercooled, direct injection diesel engine. Rapeseed methyl (RME) and ethyl esters (REE) and blends were compared with low sulfur diesel control fuel. Emissions data include all regulated emissions: hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), and particulate matter (PM). In these tests the average of 100% RME and 100% REE reduced HC (52.4%), CO (47.6%), NO{sub x} (10.0%), and increases in CO{sub 2} (0.9%) and PM (9.9%) compared to the diesel control fuel. Also, 100% REE reduced HC (8.7%), CO (4.3%), and NO{sub x} (3.4%) compared to 100% RME. 33 refs., 1 figs., 8 tabs.
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  62. Ethyl ester of rapeseed used as a biodiesel fuel - A case study
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Thompson, J. C.; Beck, S. M.; Chase, C. 1996. Ethyl ester of rapeseed used as a biodiesel fuel - A case study. Biomass & Bioenergy. 10(5-6) 331-336

    A 1994 Dodge 2500 turbocharged and intercooled diesel pickup fueled with 100% ethyl ester of rapeseed oil was driven by personnel representing the University of Idaho, Agricultural Engineering Department from Moscow, Idaho to Los Angeles, California and back to Moscow and then from Moscow to Ocean City, Maryland, east of Washington, D.C. and back to Moscow, Idaho. These trips covered a total of 14,069 km (8742 miles). The truck averaged 7.76 km/l (18.7 mile/gal) using 1772 1 (468 gal) of ethyl ester of rapeseed oil fuel. No problems or unusual events were encountered with the truck's operation. The truck was completely unmodified as to the engine and fuel system. The Fuel required for the trip was all processed in the Agricultural Engineering Laboratory at the University of Idaho and was carried on-board as no refueling facilities were available away from Moscow, Idaho. This is believed to be the first coast-to-coast and back run on 100% biodiesel. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd
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  63. Fumigation with Propane and Transesterification Effects on Injector Coking with Vegetable Oil Fuels
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; A. Korus, R.; G. Mora, P.; P. Madsen, J. 1987. Fumigation with Propane and Transesterification Effects on Injector Coking with Vegetable Oil Fuels. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health. 30(1) 28

    A series of short term test cycles with a direct injection CI engine were used to determine the relative merits of fumigation with propane and transesterification in reducing injector coking problems that occur with the use of vegetable oil fuels. The test procedure outlined is suggested as a rapid method for screening alternative fuels. The engine injectors are used as a measure of engine deposits resulting from use of fuels. A fixed nominal rate of 10% fumigation with propane was investigated in an attempt to reduce injector coking with oleic and linoleic safflower oils. Variable nominal rates of 5, 10 and 15% propane fumigation were used in an effort to reduce injector coking with winter rape oil. Linoleic safflower ester, oleic safflower ester and high erucic acid rapeseed ester were also compared with No. 2 diesel fuel in a separate test to determine the relative importance of esterification and level of unsaturation on injector coking. The 10% propane fumigation reduced injector coking caused by oleic safflower oil by 64%, to a level not significantly different from diesel fuel. Ten percent fumigation did not significantly reduce injector coking caused by linoleic safflower oil. The 10% nominal rate of fumigation reduced injector coking caused by winter rape oil by 21%, the 15% nominal rate had no significant effect, and the 5% nominal rate increased coking. Linoleic safflower ester and rapeseed ester used as fuels formed significantly lesser and equal amounts of injector deposits, respectively, than the diesel fuel standard. Oleic safflower ester resulted in the formation of significantly more deposits than diesel fuel. Except when using the ester, the engine fueled with vegetable oil exhibited power and torque characteristics similar to that when fueled with number 2 diesel. The reduction in power and torque experienced with ester fuels was expected based on the decreased heat of combustion values.
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  64. Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel: Status and Research Priorities
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L. 1986. Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel: Status and Research Priorities. Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health. 29(5) 1413

    A review of the current status of vegetable oils as a possible substitute for diesel fuel is presented. Topics considered include identification of high oil bearing crops, oil processing and storage, results of short and long term engine tests, use of transesterification of vegetable oils and microemulsions, emissions, economics, and priorities for additional research. Results indicate that highly saturated oils could be used in a blend with diesel in emergencies, however, engine life would be reduced and maintenance costs would be increased. Vegetable oil esters are possibly a direct substitute for diesel fuel; low temperature operation and corrosiveness are problems. Vegetable oil esters are more expensive than petroleum based fuels at the present time. Future research priorities are discussed.
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