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Literature on Biodiesel lubricity

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  1. Biodiesel Improves Lubricity of Low-Sulfur Petro-Diesels
    Abstract

    Peng, D. X. 2017. Biodiesel Improves Lubricity of Low-Sulfur Petro-Diesels. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 52(6) 699-703

    Biodiesel fuel is attracting interest as an alternative fuel as environmental pollution increases and fossil fuel supplies diminish. Biodiesel is not only cleaner than petro-diesel, but also has high degradability and excellent lubricity. Since biodiesel has very low sulfur content (0.002 wt. %), it is environmentally friendly. The effect of a biodiesel additive in a diesel engine fuel system for reducing pollutant emission and wear characteristics was studied experimentally. Analysis was performed in two steps. First, the injection of biodiesel into the diesel engine channel was simulated. Second, tribological experiments were performed using the ball-on-ring contact method. The wear scar diameters and wear surfaces of the tribopairs were then analyzed. Wear experiments showed that a small addition of biodiesel to pure petrodiesel reduced friction and wear under boundary lubrication considerably.
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  2. Effect of anti-oxidants on the lubricity of B30 biodiesel-diesel blend
    Abstract

    Sundus, F.; Fazal, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H. 2017. Effect of anti-oxidants on the lubricity of B30 biodiesel-diesel blend. Lubrication Science. 29(1) 3-15

    Biodiesel is used in many countries as blends with diesel fuel. However, the main obstacle in biodiesel/diesel blends acceptance, commercialization worldwide and using higher blends seems to be its ability to oxidise and increase wear and friction of automotive parts. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyse the effect of three different anti-oxidants on the lubricity of palm biodiesel-diesel blend (B30) and to optimise anti-oxidant concentration based on the performance. The three phenolic anti-oxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene, propylgallate and pyrogallol, were tested using four-ball tribotester for 1 h with 1500 rpm and 40 kg load, at ambient temperature. These three anti-oxidants were used in varying concentrations of 200, 400 and 600 ppm. Propylgallate anti-oxidant showed most effective results by enhancing the lubricity of the blend in terms of reduced wear and friction. Copyright (c) 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  3. Evaluation of the biodiesel fuels lubricity using vibration signals and multiresolution analysis
    Abstract

    de Oliveira, J. J.; de Farias, A. C. M.; Alves, S. M. 2017. Evaluation of the biodiesel fuels lubricity using vibration signals and multiresolution analysis. Tribology International. 109104-113

    The vibration is an important feature associated with metallic contact during operation of the injection system of diesel engines, also its analysis constitutes a tool to evaluate the lubricity indirectly. In this sense, this work uses multiresolution analysis to characterize vibration signals, improving lubricity evaluation. The experimental setup consisted of the lubricity analysis of different fuels using HFRR equipment where friction coefficient was monitored during the test as well as vibration signals. After that, Discrete Wavelet Transform generated time scale representation of the vibration signals. This analysis provides complementary information about lubrication, in real time, and it can be associated with wear scar diameter (WSD). The results demonstrated the feasibility of this approach to evaluate fuels lubricity in a dynamic way.
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  4. An atomic-scale approach for biodiesel boundary lubricity characterisation
    Abstract

    Chong, W. W. F.; Ng, J. H. 2016. An atomic-scale approach for biodiesel boundary lubricity characterisation. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 11334-43

    Biodiesel lubricity is generally characterised through the wear scar diameter produced using high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). More recently, the adequacy of Stribeck curve in characterising biodiesel lubricity is also being investigated. However, for a rough surface contact, asperity interactions at nano scale are predominantly the root cause for excessive friction along boundary and mixed lubrication regimes that could eventually lead to material wear. Mitigation of this frictional loss depends heavily on the formation of boundary-adsorbed tribo-film, which is a consequence of molecular chemical reaction with the surface. It is therefore critical to characterise the lubricity of biodiesel with respect to its frictional behaviour at asperity level. Using Lateral Force Microscopy (LFM), the study examines the boundary frictional characteristics for various biodiesels derived from coconut, palm, olive, canola and soybean at different applied loads and sliding velocities on an ultra-smooth surface. Interpreting the measured boundary friction using the modified Eyring thermal activation energy approach, the study found that for a more effective boundary lubrication using vegetable oil derived biodiesel, a sufficient load carrying capacity and low shear characteristics could be achieved by having a good balance between the saturated-unsaturated and monounsaturated-polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl ester content, such as palm methyl ester. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  5. Effect of fatty acid composition of methyl and ethyl esters on the lubricity at different humidities
    Abstract

    Lapuerta, M.; Sanchez-Valdepenas, J.; Bolonio, D.; Sukjit, E. 2016. Effect of fatty acid composition of methyl and ethyl esters on the lubricity at different humidities. Fuel. 184202-210

    Lubricity of individual fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters and biodiesel fuels has been measured using a high frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). Tests have been carried out varying the ambient humidity to assess the effect of this parameter on the lubricity of the fuels. The European standard proposes a single humidity correction factor for all the fuels, regardless their composition. It has been proved in this study that this factor is not constant and it depends on the fuel composition. For this reason two different correlations have been proposed for the estimation of the humidity correction factor and normalized wear scar as a function of different fuel compositional characteristics. The influence of the water content on the lubricity and the relationship between humidity and water content of the fuel has been studied revealing that the effect of the air humidity is an indirect effect of the hygroscopy of the fuel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  6. Lubricity of bio-based lubricant derived from different chemically modified fatty acid methyl ester
    Abstract

    Zulkifli, N. W. M.; Azman, S. S. N.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Yunus, R.; Gulzar, M. 2016. Lubricity of bio-based lubricant derived from different chemically modified fatty acid methyl ester. Tribology International. 93555-562

    In this research, polyol ester was used as the source of a biolubricant. The trimethylolpropane (TMP) and pentaerythritol ester (PE) were produced from palm oil methyl ester; they are biodegradable and have high lubricity properties. Two different conditions of lubrication were investigated. Under these test conditions, the wear and friction characteristics of different ester samples were measured and compared. The esters derived from PE and TMP had comparable characteristics to the fully formulated lubricant (FFL) in terms of the coefficient of friction (CoF). In terms of the mixed lubrication condition, the PE ester has the lowest CoF. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  7. Biodiesel From Moroccan Waste Frying Oil: The Optimization of Transesterification Parameters Impact of Biodiesel on the Petrodiesel Lubricity and Combustion
    Abstract

    Nachid, M.; Ouanji, F.; Kacimi, M.; Liotta, L. F.; Ziyad, M. 2015. Biodiesel From Moroccan Waste Frying Oil: The Optimization of Transesterification Parameters Impact of Biodiesel on the Petrodiesel Lubricity and Combustion. International Journal of Green Energy. 12(8) 865-872

    The transesterification reaction of Moroccan waste frying oil (WFO) by methanol, using sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide as homogeneous catalysts, was studied. The waste oil was recovered from Moroccan popular restaurants after repeated deep-frying of spiced fishes. The effects of methanol/oil molar ratio (5: 1-12: 1), catalyst concentration (0.5-2 wt%), reaction temperature (30-65 degrees C), and type of catalyst were investigated. The extent of the transesterification reaction was followed by gas chromatography (GC) and H-1-NMR spectroscopy, determining the concentration of methyl esters at different reaction times and triglyceride conversion respectively. The optimal reaction conditions for the transesterification of WFO were found at the reaction temperature of 65 degrees C, reaction time of 60 min, molar ratio of methanol to oil equal to 7: 1, and in presence of NaOH as catalyst. The corresponding maximum ester yields were 93.5 wt% for the studied WFO. The lubricity test showed that 1 vol% of biodiesel in petrodiesel leads to the value fixed by the European regulation, namely 460 mu m. The optimized conditions were used to produce biodiesel at small scale. The resulting product was tested in a diesel electricity generator engine, which operated in real conditions. The results showed that biodiesel combustion leads to a higher concentration of CO and a decrease in NOx emission as compared with a petrodiesel-fuelled engine. An optimization of the operating parameters of the engine would guarantee lower CO emissions in conformity with literature and regulations.
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  8. Lubricity Improvement of the Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel Fuel with the Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Hazrat, M. A.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K. 2015. Lubricity Improvement of the Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel Fuel with the Biodiesel. Clean, Efficient and Affordable Energy for a Sustainable Future. 75111-117

    Ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel is essential requirement as per the emission regulation. With the adoption of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process, the diesel fuel loses its inherent lubricity, however certain amount of lubricity of diesel fuel is needed to save several engine components from wear and failure. Though the loss of lubricity of the diesel fuel is observed with the removal of sulfur, it is mainly due to the loss of nitrogen and oxygen based polar trace compounds which are also removed in the HDS process. Unrefined biodiesels having little amount of monoglycerides (<0.8%) and free fatty acids also show better lubricity and fuel properties to be used as fuel lubricant. Biodiesel are also considered as the suitable blending compound with the diesel. This study found that the biodiesel blends up to 20% with the diesel fuel can effectively reduce both the wear of the tribo-contact surfaces as well as the friction coefficient. The use of biodegradable fuel lubricant has set away the threat of environment pollution by the diesel additives which are derived chemically. The oxidation stability and the low temperature properties of both the biodiesel and the vegetable oils can be improved with some chemical modification. It can be concluded that the use of biodiesel with the diesel fuel can be an appropriate option for effective engine lubrication system where only the fuel has to provide the required lubricity. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  9. Micro and Nanometric Wear Evaluation of Metal Discs Used on Determination of Biodiesel Fuel Lubricity
    Abstract

    de Farias, A. C. M.; de Medeiros, J. T. N.; Alves, S. M. 2014. Micro and Nanometric Wear Evaluation of Metal Discs Used on Determination of Biodiesel Fuel Lubricity. Materials Research-Ibero-American Journal of Materials. 1789-99

    The contact of diesel fuel with engine subsystems demands a good wear resistance. Lubricity is an important feature for integrity of injection system and the sulphur composites are primarily responsible for lubrication of the injector nozzle. Biodiesel is responsible for partially restoring the lubricity of diesel fuel that presents low levels of sulphur composites and, furthermore, it causes less pollution than diesel fuel. The lubricity is measured through the wear scar diameter following the ASTM D 975 standards. However, the friction and wear with light loads of micro/nanocomponents are highly dependent on surface interactions that can be evaluated by microscopy techniques. This study aimed to measure and to analyze the biodiesel lubricity and their blends (B5, B20) with diesel by observing the wear scars of discs using the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and micro roughness techniques. The fuels performance was evaluated using HFRR tribometer. The tests conditions were based on standard ADTM D-6079-04. The coefficient of friction was measure during the test. After the test, the worn ball and disc were analyzed by SEM, AFM and profilometer. The results showed that the addition of biodiesel in diesel improve the tribological performance of fuel. Also, the just WSD value is not sufficient to evaluate the lubrication ability of a fuel. Analysis of the worn disc surfaces proved to be compatible with WSD number and also more sensitive to these kinds of fuels, showing mainly the form and intensity of the wear.
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  10. The relation between lubricity and electrical properties of low sulfur diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Nicolau, A.; Lutckmeier, C. V.; Samios, D.; Gutterres, M.; Piatnick, C. M. S. 2014. The relation between lubricity and electrical properties of low sulfur diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends. Fuel. 11726-32

    This work evaluates the relation between lubricity and electrical impedance properties of a series of diesel fuel samples with different sulfur content and low sulfur diesel/biodiesel blends. Diesel samples as well as the diesel/biodiesel blends were characterized by standard experimental techniques. In the case of diesel samples, density, nitrogen content and viscosity demonstrate a linear tendency with the composition. Lubricity, measured as WSD (wear scar diameter) does not follow linear behavior with the composition. However, a linear correlation between electrical resistivity and WSD (1) was observed which allow the determination of lubricity in diesel mixtures. The addition of 1-10% biodiesel does not change significantly the density and viscosity of the blends. No linear relation of resistivity to lubricity was established. The important effect of lubricity enhancement with addition of approximately only 1% biodiesel was obtained. The relation between lubricity or electrical resistivity and biodiesel addition is quantitatively described by exponential function. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  11. The Stribeck curve as a suitable characterization method of the lubricity of biodiesel and diesel blends
    Abstract

    Maru, M. M.; Trommer, R. M.; Cavalcanti, K. F.; Figueiredo, E. S.; Silva, R. F.; Achete, C. A. 2014. The Stribeck curve as a suitable characterization method of the lubricity of biodiesel and diesel blends. Energy. 69673-681

    The adequacy of Stribeck curves for the characterization of the lubricity of biodiesels, B20 blends and diesel fuel is demonstrated. Ball-on-disk tests in the speed range 2-1570 mm/s were performed to obtain the Stribeck plots and the results are compared to those from the conventional HFRR (high frequency reciprocating rig) ball-on-disk method (ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) D6079). Contrarily to the HFRR method, in the Stribeck tests very clear ball wear marks are seen without significant wear of the flat counterbody. These characteristics provide more confidence in the lubricity assessment of fuels. Moreover, in the Stribeck method higher lubricity at 60 degrees C is revealed for all biodiesels and the respective blends, related to the formation of protective oxide tribolayers. When evaluated by the HFRR test method, such temperature effect on the lubricity performance is not identified. From the point of view of the energy loss of the system, or friction response, lubricity is also better depicted by the Stribeck test method. The friction coefficient plots reveal that the major difference among the fuels occurs in the low velocity range, or in the start stop stage of moving components, where the poorest lubricity is attained with the neat diesel fuel and the best lubricity with the animal fat biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  12. Biodiesel production using alkaline ionic liquid and adopted as lubricity additive for low-sulfur diesel fuel
    Abstract

    Luo, H.; Fan, W. Y.; Li, Y.; Nan, G. Z. 2013. Biodiesel production using alkaline ionic liquid and adopted as lubricity additive for low-sulfur diesel fuel. Bioresource Technology. 140337-341

    Preparation of biodiesel from vegetable oils, such as rapeseed oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil, catalyzed by an alkaline ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium imidazolide ([Bmim]Im) was investigated in this work. The results demonstrated that [Bmim]Im exhibited high activity and the yield of biodiesel was up to 95% or more when molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil was 6:1, ionic liquid dosage was 6 wt.%, reaction temperature was 60 degrees C, and reaction time was 60 min. After [Bmim]Im was used for the sixth time, the yield of biodiesel still remained at about 95%. The effects of the biodiesels on the lubricity of low-sulfur diesel fuel were also investigated using the High Frequency Reciprocating Rig method, and the results showed that sunflower biodiesel and soybean biodiesel had higher lubrication performance than that of rapeseed biodiesel. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  13. Effect of Castor Oil, Methyl and Ethyl Esters as Lubricity Enhancer for Low Lubricity Diesel Fuel (LLDF)
    Abstract

    Prasad, L.; Das, L. M.; Naik, S. N. 2012. Effect of Castor Oil, Methyl and Ethyl Esters as Lubricity Enhancer for Low Lubricity Diesel Fuel (LLDF). Energy & Fuels. 26(8) 5307-5315

    The major objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of Indian wild castor oil and methyl/ethyl ester as an additive to enhance the lubricity of low lubricity diesel fuel. The methyl and ethyl ester of castor oil were formulated by transesterification reaction using homogeneous acid-base catalyst. The conformity of the ester was carried out by gas chromatograph (GC) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1 NMR) spectroscopy. The lubricity, wear scar diameter (wsd), and film thickness (%) of the oil and its esters were tested alone and as an additive in low lubricity diesel fuel and compared. The lubricity of the test samples were analyzed by high-frequency reciprocating rig (HERR). The test results shows that even less than 1% of castor oil, methyl and ethyl ester are enough to regain the lubricity of the low lubricity diesel fuel. In the study, it was observed that the ethyl ester has comparatively better lubrication than their methyl counterpart and fresh oil. An additive dose of even 0.2% is enough to bring the wsd down to below the maximum allowable limit of 450 pm. The wsd of low lubricity diesel fuel (LLDF) was 654 pm. The wsd of LLDF was appreciably reduced with the addition of 1% of castor oil (CO), castor oil methyl ester (CM), and castor oil ethyl ester (CE). The percentage reduction in the wsd was observed to be 70.03%, 70.48%, and 75.69%, respectively, with the addition of 1% of additive.
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  14. A COSMO-RS based QSPR model for the lubricity of biodiesel and petrodiesel components
    Abstract

    Masuch, K.; Fatemi, A.; Murrenhoff, H.; Leonhard, K. 2011. A COSMO-RS based QSPR model for the lubricity of biodiesel and petrodiesel components. Lubrication Science. 23(6) 249-262

    The development of a new, optimised fuel is a process in which various necessary fuel properties have to be taken into account. For an inclusion of candidates not synthesised yet into the design process, a fully predictive model relying on nothing but the molecular structure is mandatory for each relevant property. One of the most important aspects for the design of a fuel is its lubricity. In this study, the predictive method conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) for the calculation of thermodynamic mixture properties is adopted for deriving a quantitative structure property relationship for the lubricity of fuel components. COSMO-RS calculates molecular descriptors (sigma moments) based on quantum chemical calculations. These descriptors are adapted to describe the underlying phenomena causing the film formation ability and lubricity of the fuel. The lubricity is assessed via high-frequency reciprocating rig measurements taken from literature. The molecular descriptors and experimental data are evaluated via statistical methods in order to find the most influential molecular descriptors. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  15. Biodiesel improves lubricity of new low sulphur diesel fuels
    Abstract

    Munoz, M.; Moreno, F.; Monne, C.; Morea, J.; Terradillos, J. 2011. Biodiesel improves lubricity of new low sulphur diesel fuels. Renewable Energy. 36(11) 2918-2924

    In this work, biodiesel from waste vegetable oil was used as an additive in low sulphur diesel fuel in automobile engines. The result was a fuel mixture with high lubricating power. According to the lubrication trials, the experimental mixtures complied with lubricity conditions established by European regulations, even when only a small quantity of biodiesel was used. It was also found that the mixtures were compatible with different engine gaskets and engine lubricant. Lastly, bench tests were performed using an automobile engine with mixtures of diesel fuel without conventional lubricant additive and biodiesel. The results showed that engine performance curves were very similar to those obtained with diesel fuel and that contaminating emissions from the engine decreased substantially by including biodiesel in the fuel, except for nitrogen oxides. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  16. Lubricity of Ethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel Fuel Blends
    Abstract

    Lapuerta, M.; Garcia-Contreras, R.; Agudelo, J. R. 2010. Lubricity of Ethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel Fuel Blends. Energy & Fuels. 241374-1379

    Blending bioethanol with diesel Fuels is an alternative to incorporate a renewable fraction ill vehicle fuels which is receiving growing attention for its economic and environmental advantages. The generalized practice ill Europe of including sonic biodiesel content in the commercial diesel fuel has even enhanced the interest of the ethanol blends as a consequence of the wider range of stability when biodiesel is added, However, one of the main concerns, is related to the loss of lubricity caused by the presence of ethanol. First, this work reviews the previous experiences Studying the effect of renewable components oil the diesel fuel lubricity. Second, all experimental work, carried out in a high frequency reciprocating rig at different temperatures, is presented trying to distinguish the nonlinear contributions of ethanol, biodiesel, and petroleum diesel Fuel to the lubricity of three series of blends (one composed of binary ethanol-diesel blends and two more composed by different ternary blends). The incorporation of ethanol did not result in significant losses of lubricity until the ethanol concentration was close to I MY,, Additionally, in this range, increasing temperatures led to improved lubricities as a consequence of the ethanol evaporation from the lubricating layer.
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  17. Investigation of Lubricity Characteristics of Biodiesel in Petroleum and Synthetic Fuel
    Abstract

    Wadumesthrige, K.; Ara, M.; Salley, S. O.; Ng, K. Y. S. 2009. Investigation of Lubricity Characteristics of Biodiesel in Petroleum and Synthetic Fuel. Energy & Fuels. 232229-2234

    The lubricity of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and synthetic fuel (S8) blended with different levels of cotton seed oil, soybean oil, or poultry fat based biodiesel was evaluated using a high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). The lubricity of ULSD and S8 blends increases sharply as the biodiesel blending level increases and then levels off at similar to 2 vol %. The effects of individual minor components of biodiesel, free fatty acids (FFAs), glycerol, antioxidants, phospholipids, and water, on lubricity enhancement of ULSD were investigated. Among the minor components, polar compounds achieved better lubricity improvement. The order of the effect was FFA > soy biodiesel > phospholipids > antioxidant > glycerol > distilled soy biodiesel > individual FAME. Lubricity of the residues of distilled cotton seed oil and yellow grease biodiesel was also compared to the distillates. The effect of the temperature with 2 vol % soybean oil (SBO) blend with ULSD was examined. This biodiesel mixture shows better lubricity, attributed to boundary film formation, at temperatures greater than 70 degrees C.
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  18. Experimental investigations on lubricity and cold flow properties of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Bhale, P. V.; Deshpande, N. V.; Thombre, S. B. 2008. Experimental investigations on lubricity and cold flow properties of biodiesel. Proceedings of the Spring Technical Conference of the Asme Internal Combustion Engine Division. 107-114

    The desirability of developing biodiesel from different tree born oil seeds and decreasing the dependency on petroleum based fuels has been discussed by many over the last few decades. However some of the important issues of biodiesel like lubricity, low temperature flow characteristic, material compatibility have not been sufficiently investigated.
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  19. Lubricity Effects of Biodiesel When Used with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Schumacher, L. G.; Adams, B. T. 2008. Lubricity Effects of Biodiesel When Used with Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 24(5) 539-544

    Diesel fuel was sold in the United States with a sulfur level of 5000 ppm until October 1993. At that time, the EPA mandated that all diesel fuel sold in the United States contain 500 ppm or less sulfur. The EPA reduced the sulfur standard to 15 ppm for diesel fuel again on 1 June 2006. Each time the level of sulfur has been lowered, the lubricity of the diesel fuel has dropped. Fifty-five gallons of No. 2, 15-ppm sulfur diesel fuel were obtained and blended with biodiesel on a volume basis at the 0.5%, 1%, and 2% levels of biodiesel. Similarly, No. 1 diesel fuel (15 ppm or lower) was blended with biodiesel on a volume basis at the 1% and 2% levels. An independent laboratory conducted SLBOCLE tests to determine the lubricity of each blend. The number two fuel, when blended at the rate of 1% and 2% exceeded lubricity standards currently proposed for diesel fuel used in Europe. The number one fuel blended at the rate of 1% and 2% biodiesel failed to meet lubricity standards currently proposed for diesel fuel used in Europe.
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  20. Biodiesel productions from vegetable oils using heterogeneous catalysts and their applications as lubricity additives
    Abstract

    Dalai, A. K.; Kulkarni, M. G.; Meher, L. C. 2006. Biodiesel productions from vegetable oils using heterogeneous catalysts and their applications as lubricity additives. 2006 Ieee Eic Climate Change Conference, Vols 1 and 2. 517-+

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are produced by transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol usually in presence of an alkaline catalyst. The purpose of this work is to compare the performance of heterogeneous (CaO, MgO, Ba(OH)(2), Li/CaO, Zeolite) and homogeneous (KOH) catalyst for the transesterification of vegetable oil. The effect of stirring speed and addition of ethanol with methanol on ester yield was studied. This research showed that stirring speed has substantial effect on the ester yield both in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyzed reaction. Addition of ethanol with methanol has improved the rate of formation of ester, thus helped in reducing the mass transfer limitations. Amongst all the heterogeneous catalysts examined, the performance of Ba(OH)(2) catalyst was better which produced 99 wt% ester yield in 480 min and its performance was comparable to that of potassium hydroxide. Ester obtained from canola oil and methanol and ethanol mixture (3:3) {MEE (3:3)} acted as a good lubricity additive by reducing wear scar area by 16% and improving the lubricity number of base fuel by 20%.
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  21. Effects of specific fatty acid methyl esters on diesel fuel lubricity
    Abstract

    Geller, D. P.; Goodrum, J. W. 2004. Effects of specific fatty acid methyl esters on diesel fuel lubricity. Fuel. 83(17-18) 2351-2356

    Previous studies on the effects of vegetable oil methyl esters on diesel fuel lubricity have shown an increase in lubricity associated with the addition of these esters. This study sought to examine the effects of individual component fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) on diesel lubricity. Additive levels of 0-1.0% of specific fatty acid methyl esters were added to diesel fuel and the resulting lubricity was measured using the High Frequency Reciprocating Rig method. The lubricity enhancing effects of the single FAMEs were compared to those of other pure FAMEs and to those of previously studied FAME mixtures derived from vegetable oils. An attempt was made to correlate FAME chain length, saturation and hydroxylation to lubricity enhancement. The individual fatty acid esters did not have as dramatic an effect on lubricity as did methyl esters derived from vegetable oils composed of a mixture of several fatty acids. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
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  22. M-ROCLE diesel and biodiesel fuel lubricity bench test
    Abstract

    Munson, J. W.; Hertz, P. B. 2001. M-ROCLE diesel and biodiesel fuel lubricity bench test. Bench Testing of Industrial Fluid Lubrication and Wear Properties Used in Machinery Applications. 140481-93

    Environmental concerns have prompted sulfur reductions in diesel fuels. These changes can decrease unadditized fuel lubricity, resulting in higher wear of diesel injection pumps and engines. Actual diesel pump and engine tests are costly, and existing diesel fuel lubricity bench tests appear to be failing to evaluate the fuel lubricity adequately. This has prompted the described development steps for the M-ROCLE bench test. It employs a crossed roller on cylinder geometry and computer data acquisition systems. The measured wear scar area stress is divided by the theoretical elastic Hertzian contact stress, and friction coefficient, to yield a dimensionless Lubricity Number (LN) indicating the lubricating property of the test fuel. Based on previous work and from correlation with HFRR test data, an LN > 2.0 was established as the pass value for a diesel fuel of sufficient lubricity. The overall coefficient of variation in published Lubricity Numbers, based on six individual test runs for some hundred fuels surveyed to date, was 5.3%. This is indicative of high precision in the M-ROCLE method.
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  23. Screening vegetable oil alcohol esters as fuel lubricity enhancers
    Abstract

    Drown, D. C.; Harper, K.; Frame, E. 2001. Screening vegetable oil alcohol esters as fuel lubricity enhancers. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 78(6) 579-584

    Methyl and ethyl monoalkyl esters of various vegetable oils were produced for determining the effects of type of alcohol and fatty acid profile of the vegetable oil on the lubricity of the ester. Four methyl esters and six ethyl esters were analyzed for wear properties using the American Society for Testing and Materials method D 6079, Evaluating Lubricity of Diesel Fuels by the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig. Ethyl esters showed noticeable improvement compared to methyl esters in the wear properties of each ester tested. No correlation was found between lubricity improvement and fatty acid profile of the ester, except that esters of castor oil had improved lubricity over other oils with Similar carbon chain-length (C-18) fatty acids
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