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Literature on Biodiesel cold flow

This page lists articles published worldwide in journal, book, magazine or otherwise about Biodiesel cold flow behavior. Please provide us a feedback feedback if you see any error in this listing or you would like to report and articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. Bio-based diluents improve cold flow properties of dairy washed milk-scum biodiesel
    Abstract

    Srikanth, H. V.; Venkatesh, J.; Godiganur, S.; Venkateswaran, S.; Manne, B. 2017. Bio-based diluents improve cold flow properties of dairy washed milk-scum biodiesel. Renewable Energy. 111168-174

    There is a growing trend in utilizing biological industrial wastes to produce biofuels. The dairy washed milk scum (DWMS) is one of such potential industrial waste and can be used as feedstock for the production of biodiesel. One of the inherent problems of DWMS biodiesel is its poor low temperature property. In this investigation, the influence of two bio-based cold flow improvers (CFIs) namely, ethyl acetoacetate (EAA) and ethyl levulinate (EL) was tested on low temperature properties of DWMS biodiesel. It was observed that the addition of 20% (v/v) of EAA and EL to DWMS biodiesel significantly decreased the cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and pour point (PP). The crystallization characteristics of neat biodiesel and biodiesel blended with CFIs (EAA and EL) were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The viscosity, acid value and induction period, flash point of all samples were within the permissible limits of biodiesel standard (ASTM D6751-15c) with all the blends of EAA and EL. The present work demonstrates that EAA and EL are suitable cold flow improvers for DWMS biodiesel. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  2. Effect of methyl acetoacetate as a potential cold flow improver for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Lian, X.; Xue, Y.; Xu, G. W.; Zhao, Z. C.; Sheng, H.; Lin, H. L. 2017. Effect of methyl acetoacetate as a potential cold flow improver for biodiesel. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(1) 97-102

    This investigation was conducted to determine the cold flow properties of waste cooking oil biodiesel with methyl acetoacetate (MAA) as a potential flow improver. Now, 0.0 vol%, 2.5 vol%, 5.0 vol%, 7.5 vol%, 10 vol%, 15 vol%, and 20 vol% MAA were added to study the effects on the cold flow properties of waste cooking oil biodiesel. The results indicated that the filter plugging point, pour point (PP), and cold point (CP) were decreased by 5 degrees C, 5 degrees C, and 7 degrees C, respectively, after being treated with 20 vol% MAA. Other fuel properties were also determined and compared with ASTM D6571. Additionally, the performance mechanism was explored by differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing microscopy.
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  3. Experimental Investigation of Metals and Antioxidants on Oxidation Stability and Cold Flow Properties of Pongamia Biodiesel and its Blends
    Abstract

    Dwivedi, G.; Verma, P.; Sharma, M. P. 2017. Experimental Investigation of Metals and Antioxidants on Oxidation Stability and Cold Flow Properties of Pongamia Biodiesel and its Blends. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 7(1) 26-33

    Due to fluctuation in fuel prices in recent times the Indian economy is facing a heavy burden on the economic front to meet the energy supply demand. Due to large gap between the supply and demand of petroleum products. The government of India and various other organizations are working on the development of alternative fuel to petro diesel. Pongamia oil (PO) is being identified as second most important source of biodiesel production in India after Jatropha. But the poor stability and cold flow property associated with the Pongamia biodiesel make it difficult for using it as alternative fuel to diesel. The storage of biodiesel is the major issue for its long term utilization. The aim of current work is to investigate the storage impact of various metals on oxidation stability and cold flow property of Pongamia biofuel. The experimental results shows that oxidation stability of various metal varies in order of Iron> Aluminum> Zinc while all these material deteriorate the cloud and pour point of Pongamia biodiesel and make it unsuitable for its long term use. But the use of antioxidant Pyrogallol improves the oxidation stability of Pongamia biodiesel but it has no significant effect on its cold flow properties. The finding also reveals that Pongamia biodiesel can be stored in metal container only when there is addition of antioxidant to meet the standard of biodiesel.
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  4. Influence of poly(methyl acrylate) additive on cold flow properties of coconut biodiesel blends and exhaust gas emissions
    Abstract

    Monirul, I. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Zulkifli, N. W. M.; Shahir, S. A.; Mosarof, M. H.; Ruhul, A. M. 2017. Influence of poly(methyl acrylate) additive on cold flow properties of coconut biodiesel blends and exhaust gas emissions. Renewable Energy. 101702-712

    Biodiesel comprises fatty acid esters and is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. However, biodiesel has poor cold flow properties (i.e., CP, CFPP and PP) than mineral diesel fuel. This study aims to reduce the PP, CFPP and CP of coconut biodiesel (CB) blends using poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) additives and investigate their effects on single-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine performance and exhaust gas emission. DSC and TGA were used to observe crystal behavior and thermal stability of the biodiesel fuel blends. Engine performance and emission were analyzed by Dynomax-2000 software and gas analyzer, respectively. Results showed that 20% of CB blended with diesel and 0.03 wt% of PMA showed significant improvement in. the PP, CFPP and CP. Other properties of B20 with additives met the requirements of ASTM D6751. The BSFC of B20 with PMA was reduced by 3.247%, whereas the BTE was increased by 2.16%, compared with those of B20. Burning B20 with PMA increased the NO emission by 2.15%, whereas HC, CO and smoke emissions were 19.81%, 13.35% and 3.93% lower than those of B20, respectively. Therefore, CB20 blend with 0.03 wt% PMA can be used as an alternative fuel in cold regions without compromising fuel quality. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  5. Methods for improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel with high saturated fatty acids content: A review
    Abstract

    Sierra-Cantor, J. F.; Guerrero-Fajardo, C. A. 2017. Methods for improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel with high saturated fatty acids content: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 72774-790

    The scarcity of fossil fuels in medium and long term has led to several researchers to propose different alternatives to replace them, where the biodiesel had been proposed as the main replacement of conventional diesel oil. The main technical problem of this fuel is that doesn't have an adequate behavior in cold environments whereby several alternatives has been proposed for improve biodiesel cold flow properties. Biodiesel made from oilseeds with high contents of saturated fatty acids like palm oil shown higher oxidation stability and high heating value but they have cold flow properties worse than other biodiesels due to solidification of the fatty acids at high temperatures. Due to this behavior, among alternatives for improve cold flow properties in the biodiesel can be finding mixture's oils with a high content of unsaturated fatty acids, oil fractionation, Alkyl esters structure modification and additive use. The option selected must be studied in detail, due to variability of the biodiesel composition and all options can involve complications. It was observed throughout the review that some of them can improve cold flow properties up to 20 degrees C, but their effect on this kind of biodiesel has to be evaluated in detail.
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  6. A review of the effect of the composition of biodiesel on NOx emission, oxidative stability and cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Lanjekar, R. D.; Deshmukh, D. 2016. A review of the effect of the composition of biodiesel on NOx emission, oxidative stability and cold flow properties. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 541401-1411

    This paper will review and attempt to discover the ideal fatty acid composition of biodiesel which exhibits lower NOx emissions, better oxidative stability and cold flow properties. The physicochemical properties of biodiesel strongly depend on their fatty acid composition. A high percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in biodiesel is correlated with higher NOx emissions, poor oxidative stability and better cold flow properties. The presence of saturated fatty acids (SFA), in particular the long chain type, exhibits good oxidative stability and produces lower NOx emissions. SFA do however demonstrate poor cold flow properties. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) exhibit better cold flow properties but produces higher NOx emissions and poorer oxidative stability.
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  7. Challenges and opportunities of enhancing cold flow properties of biodiesel via heterogeneous catalysis
    Abstract

    Anwar, A.; Garforth, A. 2016. Challenges and opportunities of enhancing cold flow properties of biodiesel via heterogeneous catalysis. Fuel. 173189-208

    Concerns over climate change are necessitating the need for alternative greener fuel. Biodiesel is widely considered to be a key contributor to alleviating this concern. At present the biodiesel sector faces a number of challenges including technical challenges such as improving the quality of biodiesel to match that of crude oil derived diesel. One of the key challenges in the quality arena is improving the cold flow properties to enable wider geographic and seasonal operability. This review discusses in depth the various options which can be deployed to address this issue in an efficient and effective manner, with heterogeneous catalysis offering fascinating prospects. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  8. Cold Flow Properties of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Blends with and without Triacetin
    Abstract

    Elias, R. C.; Senra, M.; Soh, L. 2016. Cold Flow Properties of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Blends with and without Triacetin. Energy & Fuels. 30(9) 7400-7409

    Optimizing the cold flow properties of biodiesel is pertinent to its applicability as an alternative to conventional petrodiesel products. This work provides a systematic study of specific cold flow properties of binary blends of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and a cold flow improver, triacetin. The cloud point, melting point, and heat of crystallization of various blends of FAME and triacetin were analyzed to further understand the molecular interactions affecting crystallization. Cloud point analysis revealed trends based on FAME and additive composition. Generally, the cloud point of pure FAME decreased with decreasing carbon number and increasing degree of unsaturation. The use of triacetin, which is a potential fuel component, as a cloud point depressant was also investigated for pure component and binary FAME fuel blends. The addition of triacetin depressed the cloud point up to 2.7 K in proportions of up to 20 wt %. Thermodynamic analysis and predictive modeling revealed the effect of component co-crystallization on the cloud point of a mixture. The role of triacetin in reducing a mixture's cloud point appears to be caused by its function as a diluent rather than as a crystal modifier. As such, the presence of triacetin can moderately improve the cold flow behavior of biodiesel blends, indicating that triacetin may be a promising biodiesel component.
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  9. Effect of poly-alpha-olefin pour point depressant on cold flow properties of waste cooking oil biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Xue, Y.; Zhao, Z. C.; Xu, G. W.; Lian, X.; Yang, C.; Zhao, W. N.; Ma, P.; Lin, H. L.; Han, S. 2016. Effect of poly-alpha-olefin pour point depressant on cold flow properties of waste cooking oil biodiesel blends. Fuel. 184110-117

    Improving the flow ability at a low temperature is vital for the utilization and popularization of biodiesel. The cold flow properties of waste cooking oil biodiesel-0# diesel blends with poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) pour point depressants were studied. Here results showed that B20 (20 vol.% biodiesel-80 vol.% diesel) treated with 400 ppm PAO exhibited the best depression in cloud point, cold filter plugging point and pour point by 8 degrees C, 9 degrees C and 7 degrees C, respectively. The other fuel properties of B20 were also determined and compared with the limits indicated in the ASTM D7467 standard. Viscosity-temperature curves, polarized optical microscopy, low-temperature X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry were used to explore the performance mechanism of PAO in biodiesel blends; and results presented that PAO could effectively lower the low-temperature viscosity, delay the aggregation of wax crystals and modify their crystallization behavior by transforming the shape of crystals and depressing the formation of large wax crystals. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  10. Emission analysis of a modern Tier 4 DI diesel engine fueled by biodiesel-diesel blends with a cold flow improver (Wintron Synergy) at multiple idling conditions
    Abstract

    Roy, M. M.; Calder, J.; Wang, W.; Mangad, A.; Diniz, F. C. M. 2016. Emission analysis of a modern Tier 4 DI diesel engine fueled by biodiesel-diesel blends with a cold flow improver (Wintron Synergy) at multiple idling conditions. Applied Energy. 17945-54

    A direct injection (DI) diesel engine is tested in this work with biodiesel-diesel and biodiesel-diesel cold flow additive blends for emissions at idling conditions. Biodiesel is produced from pure canola oil by transesterification process and the effect of a cold flow additive, Wintron Synergy in different proportions is examined for cold flow property (cloud point) and engine emissions. Systematic tests are undertaken over different engine speeds (800, 1000 and 1200 rpm), with 0, 20, 50 and 100 vol% of biodiesel in biodiesel-diesel and 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 vol% of Wintron Synergy in biodiesel-diesel-additive blends. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbon (HC), acetaldehyde and formaldehyde from different blends are measured and compared to neat diesel emissions. Test results show that B20S2 has the lowest cloud point of the fuel blends at -34.8 degrees C. Biodiesel and Synergy are found to be effective in reducing both CO and HC emissions. Biodiesel and Synergy content can increase NOx emissions. After warmup, acetaldehyde emissions remain the same for all tests at 5 ppm and formaldehyde emissions increases for all fuel blends and neat diesel. It is also found that Synergy can change the crystal size and structure of biodiesel-diesel blend B20. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  11. Evaluation and enhancement of cold flow properties of palm oil and its biodiesel
    Abstract

    Verma, P.; Sharma, M. P.; Dwivedi, G. 2016. Evaluation and enhancement of cold flow properties of palm oil and its biodiesel. Energy Reports. 28-13

    Cold flow properties are the main issue to regular usage of Palm biodiesel as alternative fuel to diesel. The inferior cold flow property of biodiesel causes gum formation and crystallization of fuel particles which can be enhanced by winterization, blending and addition of cold flow improvers. The objective of this study is to improve cold flow properties of biodiesel obtained from palm oil. Blending and using of cold flow improver were adopted among various methods to enhance the cold flow properties. Results of the study show that with B20 blend of biodiesel using petroleum diesel and kerosene has significant improvement of the cold flow properties. Diesel improves CP and PP by 57.61% and 78.57% whereas kerosene improves CP and PP by 62.94% and 85.78% respectively for B20 blend. Ethanol had remarkable impact as 20% addition improves CP and PP by 60.48% and 63.96% respectively. The investigation concludes that PE80 is recommended as a fuel for engine operation under low temperature regions. For improving the cold flow properties, addition of cold flow improver is best method to attain the desired values of cold flow properties for biodiesel. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  12. Improvement of cold flow properties of Cocos nucifera and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends using polymethyl acrylate additive
    Abstract

    Islam, M. M.; Hassan, M. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Zulkifli, N. W. B. M.; Habibullah, M.; Hossain, M. M. 2016. Improvement of cold flow properties of Cocos nucifera and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel blends using polymethyl acrylate additive. Journal of Cleaner Production. 137322-329

    Biodiesel, which comprises of fatty acid esters, is an alternative fuel for diesel engines. However, biodiesel has poorer cold flow properties (CFPs; i.e., cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and pour point (PP)) than diesel fuel. This study aims to reduce the PP, CFPP, and CP of two different biodiesels, namely, Cocos nucifera (coconut) and Calophyllum inophyllum (C. inophyllum), using polymethyl acrylate (PMA) additives. This study also investigates the effect of PMA on other biodiesel properties. Various physicochemical properties were measured and compared with the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 standards. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to observe the crystal behavior of the biodiesel blends. Results showed that 20% of biodiesel blended with diesel (B20) and 0.03 wt% of PMA showed the highest improvement in the CP, PP, and CFPP. This study also investigates the influence of PMA on oxidation stability, flash point, heating value, and kinematic viscosity. These properties of B20 satisfy the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 standards. The process of crystal aggrandizement and the rate of wax crystal precipitation of B20 can be modified by PMA, resulting in enhanced CFPs of the biodiesel blend. Therefore, PMA is an effective cold-flow-improving additive for coconut-based and C. inophyllum-based biodiesel blends. Moreover, the results indicated that 20% coconut and C inophyllum biodiesel blends with 0.03 wt% of PMA can be used in cold climate areas without any problem in terms of fuel physicochemical quality. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  13. Improving the cold flow properties of high-proportional waste cooking oil biodiesel blends with mixed cold flow improvers
    Abstract

    Zhao, W. N.; Xue, Y.; Ma, P.; Ma, W. F.; Wang, J. N.; Lu, D. L.; Han, S. 2016. Improving the cold flow properties of high-proportional waste cooking oil biodiesel blends with mixed cold flow improvers. Rsc Advances. 6(16) 13365-13370

    This study was conducted to improve the cold flow properties of biodiesel obtained from waste cooking oil. The fuel properties of biodiesel blends with 0# diesel in 10 vol% (B10), 20 vol% (B20), 30 vol% (B30), 40 vol% (B40), and 50 vol% (B50) were determined. Mixed cold flow improver (CFI) was composed of ethyl acetoacetate (EAA), iso-decyl methacrylate (EHMA) and iso-octyl methacrylate (IOMA) in various proportions. The fuel properties of B50 with mixed CFIs were also determined. Binary mixed CFIs performed the best improvement on cold flow properties of B50. With the blending of 2.5 vol% EAA and 10 vol% IOMA, the CFPP and PP of B50 with CFI were decreased by 11 degrees C and 12 degrees C, respectively, with respect to neat biodiesel. In addition, density, water content, kinematic viscosity, flash point, acid value, oxidation stability, and calorific value of formulated B50 were also determined. All the fuel properties of formulated B50 satisfied the GB19147-2009 (III) and GB19147-2013 (IV) for -10# automobile diesel fuels.
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  14. Microwave assisted synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil: Effect of poly (lactic acid)-oligomer on cold flow properties, IC engine performance and emission characteristics
    Abstract

    Tesfaye, M.; Katiyar, V. 2016. Microwave assisted synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil: Effect of poly (lactic acid)-oligomer on cold flow properties, IC engine performance and emission characteristics. Fuel. 170107-114

    In this study, the effect of poly (lactic acid)-oligomer (OLLA) on cold flow properties, IC engine performance and subsequently, exhaust gas emission characteristics is evaluated using microwave synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil. Biodiesel was synthesized by achieving maximum 99% conversion using KOH as catalyst at 60 degrees C under optimum reaction time of five minutes. Cloud point, pour point, flash point and fire point of synthesized biodiesel were analyzed as reference properties. OLLA is synthesized in absence of catalyst at 150 degrees C with the targeted molecular weight M-n similar to 1000 Da and density similar to 1.21 gm/cm(3). Subsequently, by blending ethyl lactate stabilized OLLA with biodiesel,"the cloud point, pour point, flash point and fire point were reduced significantly. Polarizing optical microscopic images during temperature scan relate the effect of OLLA on cloud point crystal morphology which delayed the crystal formation with reduction in crystal nucleation density and size of the crystals. Rheological analyses are conducted to understand the Newtonian flow regime at lower temperature and change in the viscosity and flow activation energy of biodiesel in the presence of neat as well as with ethyl lactate stabilized OLLA. The engine performance test reveals the comparative utilization of brake specific fuel consumption and break thermal efficiency with significant reduction in carbon monoxide and incombustible hydrocarbon in the exhaust gases. Hence, present research demonstrates the use of OLLA for improvement in the cold flow properties of biodiesel and the exhaust gas emission characteristics. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  15. Prediction of cold flow properties of biodiesel fuel using artificial neural network
    Abstract

    Al-Shanableh, F.; Evcil, A.; Savas, M. A. 2016. Prediction of cold flow properties of biodiesel fuel using artificial neural network. 12th International Conference on Application of Fuzzy Systems and Soft Computing, Icafs 2016. 102273-280

    Artificial neural network (ANN) can be utilized as a tool for modeling the properties of biodiesel fuel those are related to the fatty acid (FA) composition of a feedstock. The cold flow properties (CFP) define the operability for diesel fuel which are strongly influenced by the FA composition of feedstock. Cloud point (CP), pour point (PP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) are used commonly to characterize CFP. Prediction of CFP based on the FA composition of feedstock can reduce the experimental effort to produce a biodiesel suitable for a regional climate. In an attempt for this, 9-6-3 back-propagation ANN architecture was implemented to estimate CP, PP and CFPP of biodiesel samples using nine FA components as input data of 103 biodiesel study collected from literature. To check the accuracy of the model developed, refined canola oil (RCO) and waste frying oil (WFO) were converted to biodiesel then, their CP, PP and CFPP temperatures were determined following the EN and ASTM standards. The CFP estimated by the ANN model were in close agreement with the experimental values. When compared with the experimental data, ANN model predicted the CP, PP and CFPP temperatures within 98%, 94% and 96% accuracy, respectively. The model developed has revealed that CFP of biodiesel were influenced primarily by saturation or unsaturation of FA components with a few exceptions. Since the ANN model can be trained from iterations, it predicted CFP with high accuracy inspite of the presence of nonlinearities, i.e. the average of the mean R-2 value for the three CFP was found as 0.96. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  16. Ternary blends of biodiesel with petro-diesel and diesel from direct coal liquefaction for improving the cold flow properties of waste cooking oil biodiesel
    Abstract

    Xue, Y.; Zhao, W. N.; Ma, P.; Zhao, Z. C.; Xu, G. W.; Yang, C.; Chen, H. Y.; Lin, H. L.; Han, S. 2016. Ternary blends of biodiesel with petro-diesel and diesel from direct coal liquefaction for improving the cold flow properties of waste cooking oil biodiesel. Fuel. 17746-52

    This study aims to reduce the cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and pour point (PP) of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (BWCO) by ternary complementary blending 0# petro-diesel (PD) and diesel from direct coal liquefaction (DDCL) with BWCO. The cold flow properties of BWCO-PD-DDCL ternary blends, and BWCO-PD, BWCO-DDCL binary blends were comparative evaluated. Ternary phase diagrams were used to present the blending effect on the CP, CFPP, and PP of biodiesel. Results indicated that PD and DDCL exhibited positive synergistic effects on improving the cold flow properties of ternary blends. Ternary blends containing 20% BWCO and 10-40% PD have lower CFPP with respect to BWCO-PD and BWCO-DDCL blends in volume ratio of 20:80. When blends contain up to 60% DDCL and less than 15% BWCO, such fuels could be used in extremely low temperature areas. Other fuel properties were also determined and compared with the ASTM D7467. In addition, to explore the performance mechanism, differential scanning calorimetry and polarizing optical microscopy were used to observe the crystallization behavior and crystal morphology of blends fuel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  17. The effects of long-term storage on the cold flow properties and viscosity of canola-based biodiesel
    Abstract

    Kanca, A.; Temur, H. 2016. The effects of long-term storage on the cold flow properties and viscosity of canola-based biodiesel. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(15) 2205-2210

    In this study, the effects of long-term storage on the viscosity and cold flow properties of biodiesel were investigated. Canola oil with a high content of unsaturated fatty acid was used to produce biodiesel in the experiments. Biodiesel sample was kept in ordinary atmospheric storage conditions for 6 months. The samples were taken from the biodiesel feedstock in every 30 days and cold flow properties and kinematic viscosity of the samples were measured. During 6-month storage, no significant deterioration was observed in cold flow properties and kinematic viscosity of biodiesel. Additionally, the same pour point (PP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) values (-11 degrees C) were obtained during this period.
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  18. Thermal decomposition of ethanol-based biodiesel: Mechanism, kinetics, and effect on viscosity and cold flow property
    Abstract

    Liu, J. X.; Shen, Y. J.; Nan, Y.; Tavlarides, L. L. 2016. Thermal decomposition of ethanol-based biodiesel: Mechanism, kinetics, and effect on viscosity and cold flow property. Fuel. 17823-36

    Thermal decomposition of the ethanol-based biodiesel (FAEEs) was evaluated in batch reactors by thermal exposure at 250-425 degrees C for durations from 3 to 63 min, with and without the presence of ethanol. The results of GC analysis show that FAEEs were relatively stable at 250 and 275 degrees C, and stability reduced as temperature and heating time increased. Major decomposition reactions consisted of isomerization, polymerization, and pyrolysis reactions to form isomers, dimers/polymers, smaller chain FAEEs, hydrocarbons, and carboxylic acids the latter of which are not generated in the decomposition of methanolbased biodiesel (FAMEs). This suggests that when applying the sub/supercritical ethanol technology to produce FAEEs, the reaction temperatures must be modest to avoid generating acids which increases the acid value of the final product. A three-lump model was used to predict concentrations of compounds in the FAEEs stressed at 250-325 degrees C. The decomposition degree of the FAEEs biodiesel was simulated by using first order one-step reaction models (reversible and irreversible), and results show that the reversible model performed better than the irreversible model except for data of 425 degrees C. The data show that FAEEs are less stable and decompose more completely than FAMEs. The presence of ethanol was shown to reduce the decomposition. Dynamic viscosity was measured, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the crystallization onset temperatures to represent cold flow properties. The values are significantly influenced by the polymerization and pyrolysis reactions. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  19. A comprehensive review on biodiesel cold flow properties and oxidation stability along with their improvement processes
    Abstract

    Monirul, I. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Zulkifli, N. W. M.; Rashedul, H. K.; Rashed, M. M.; Imdadul, H. K.; Mosarof, M. H. 2015. A comprehensive review on biodiesel cold flow properties and oxidation stability along with their improvement processes. Rsc Advances. 5(105) 86631-86655

    Biodiesel, which comprises fatty acid esters, is derived from different sources, such as vegetable oils from palm, sunflower, soybean, canola, Jatropha, and cottonseed sources, animal fats, and waste cooking oil. Biodiesel is considered as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. However, biodiesel has poor cold flow behavior (i.e., high cloud point & pour point) and oxidation stability compared with petroleum diesel because of the presence of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid esters. Consequently, the performance of biodiesel during cold weather is affected. When biodiesel is oxidized, the subsequent dregs can adversely affect the performance of the fuel system as well as clog the fuel filter, fuel lines, and injector. This phenomenon results in start-up and operability problems. Cold flow behavior is usually assessed through the pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), and cold filter plugging point (CFPP). Earlier studies on cold flow focused on reducing the devastating effect of poor cold flow problems, such as lowering the PP, CP, and CFPP of biodiesel. This present paper provides an overview of the cold flow behavior and oxidation stability of biodiesel, as well as their effect on the engine operation system. The improvements on the behavior of cold flow of biodiesel are also discussed.
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  20. Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Methyl Esters as Cold Flow Improvers for Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Dunn, R. O.; Ngo, H. L.; Haas, M. J. 2015. Branched-Chain Fatty Acid Methyl Esters as Cold Flow Improvers for Biodiesel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 92(6) 853-869

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived mainly from the transesterification of plant oils with methanol or ethanol. This fuel is generally made from commodity oils such as canola, palm or soybean and has a number of properties that make it compatible in compression-ignition engines. Despite its many advantages, biodiesel has poor cold flow properties that may impact its deployment during cooler months in moderate temperature climates. This work is a study on the use of skeletally branched-chain-fatty acid methyl esters (BC-FAME) as additives and diluents to decrease the cloud point (CP) and pour point (PP) of biodiesel. Two BC-FAME, methyl iso-oleate and methyl iso-stearate isomers (Me iso-C-18:1 and Me iso-C-18:0), were tested in mixtures with fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of canola, palm and soybean oil (CaME, PME and SME). Results showed that mixing linear FAME with up to 2 mass% BC-FAME did not greatly affect CP, PP or kinematic viscosity (nu) relative to the unmixed biodiesel fuels. In contrast, higher concentrations of BC-FAME, namely between 17 and 39 mass%, significantly improved CP and PP without raising nu in excess of limits in the biodiesel fuel standard specification ASTM D 6751. Furthermore, it is shown that biodiesel/Me iso-C-18:0 mixtures matched or exceeded the performance of biodiesel/Me iso-C-18:1 mixtures in terms of decreasing CP and PP under certain conditions. This was taken as evidence that additives or diluents with chemical structures based on long-chain saturated chains may be more effective at reducing the cold flow properties of mixtures with biodiesel than structures based on long-chain unsaturated chains.
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  21. Cold flow and fuel properties of methyl oleate and palm-oil methyl ester blends
    Abstract

    Altaie, M. A. H.; Janius, R. B.; Rashid, U.; Yap, Y. H. T.; Yunus, R.; Zakaria, R. 2015. Cold flow and fuel properties of methyl oleate and palm-oil methyl ester blends. Fuel. 160238-244

    Biodiesel is a renewable, alternative diesel fuel derived from various oils or fats through transesterification. Biodiesel usually consists of alkyl esters of the parent oil. Palm-oil methyl ester (PME) is a prominent biodiesel in Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia, which have a surplus production of palm oil. However, given the substantial amount of saturated fatty acids in palm oil, its methyl ester has poor cold-flow characteristics. In the present study, the physicochemical properties of specified blends of technical-grade methyl oleate (MO) and PME, namely, PME80/MO20, PME70/MO30, PME60/MO40, and PME50/MO50 (vol/vol%) were studied. The aim was to determine the optimum blend and achieve better cold-flow properties than neat PME. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that increasing the MO proportion until 50% (vol%, vol%) led to maximum improvements in cloud point and cold filter plugging point, which were reduced to 70.38% and 91.69%, respectively. Important fuel properties (i.e., cetane number (CN), kinematic viscosity, density, gross heating value, net heating value, flash point, oxidation stability, and acid value) were also examined. All fuel properties of PME-MO blends were observed within the specified permissible limits of biodiesel standard (ASTM D 6751). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  22. Cold flow properties improvement of Jatropha curcas biodiesel and waste cooking oil biodiesel using winterization and blending
    Abstract

    Nainwal, S.; Sharma, N.; Sen Sharma, A.; Jain, S.; Jain, S. 2015. Cold flow properties improvement of Jatropha curcas biodiesel and waste cooking oil biodiesel using winterization and blending. Energy. 89702-707

    The objective of this study was to study the cold flow properties of JCB (Jatropha curcas biodiesel) and WCB (Waste cooking oil biodiesel). For the purpose two methods were examined experimentally viz. winterization and blending of biodiesel samples with petro diesel and kerosene. Winterization was found to be effective as it improved the cold flow properties of biodiesel samples but at the same time decreased the yield and stability due to partially removal of saturated fatty acids. Blending was found to be more favorable for improvement in cold flow properties of biodiesel without any effect on yield, however, the biodiesel become more stable after blending. The CF and PP (pour point) for JCB for B20 blends with petro diesel were reported as 14.9 degrees C and 14 degrees C respectively, however, for WCB it was 12 degrees C and 11.5 degrees C respectively. Kerosene K20 samples was showing best result as the reported CP and PP were -1 degrees C and -2.2 degrees C respectively for JCB. However in case of WCB blends with kerosene, the reported CP and PP for K20 blends are -10.5 degrees C and -12 degrees C respectively. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  23. Cold flow properties of biodiesel: a guide to getting an accurate analysis
    Abstract

    Dunn, R. O. 2015. Cold flow properties of biodiesel: a guide to getting an accurate analysis. Biofuels-Uk. 6(1-2) 115-128

    Biodiesel has several advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Nevertheless, biodiesel has poor cold flow properties that may restrict its use in moderate climates. It is essential that the cold flow properties of biodiesel and its blends with petrodiesel be measured as accurately as possible. This work provides an overview of the important cold flow properties and how they are analyzed. The utility of cloud point (CP), pour point (PP), and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) in evaluating biodiesel at low temperatures is discussed. Advantages and limitations of the experimental methods are evaluated. Finally, the use of sub-ambient differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the study of low temperature phase behavior of biodiesel is examined.
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  24. Effect of Metal on Stability and Cold Flow Property of Pongamia Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Dwivedi, G.; Sharma, M. P. 2015. Effect of Metal on Stability and Cold Flow Property of Pongamia Biodiesel. Materials Today-Proceedings. 2(4-5) 1421-1426

    Due to rise in prices of petroleum product the Indian economy is facing burden on the economic front to meet the fuel supply demand. There is large imbalance between the demand and supply of petroleum products. So the government and various research organizations are working on the development of alternative fuel to diesel. Among the various prospective source of alternative fuel Pongamia oil is being identified as one of the important source of biodiesel production in India. But the poor stability and cold flow property associated with the Pongamia biodiesel make it difficult for using it as alternative fuel to diesel. The storage of biodiesel is the major research area for its long term use. The present paper aims to study the effect of metal on the stability and cold flow property of Pongamia biodiesel. The result of investigation show that stability of various metal varies in order of Iron > Aluminium > Zinc while all these material deteriorate the cold flow property of Pongamia biodiesel and make it unsuitable for its long term use. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  25. Investigation and Improvement in Cold Flow Properties of Pongamia Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Dwivedi, G.; Sharma, M. P. 2015. Investigation and Improvement in Cold Flow Properties of Pongamia Biodiesel. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 6(1) 73-79

    Cold flow properties are the main issue regarding the development of Pongamia biodiesel as alternative fuel to diesel. The poor cold flow property of biodiesel results in gum formation and crystallization of fuel particles which can be improved by winterization, blending and addition of cold flow improvers. The experimental investigation shows that Cloud Point and Pour Point of Pongamia biodiesel (PB100) is 20 degrees C and 19 degrees C respectively. The winterization process results in improvement of 5 degrees C in CP and PP respectively for PB100. The blending of Pongamia biodiesel with diesel and kerosene results in improvement of Cloud Point by 9 and 11.5 degrees C and Pour Point by 11 and 12.5 degrees C respectively. It is found that ethanol as cold flow improver plays major role in enhancement of Cloud Point and Pour Point as it improve both by 10 degrees C. The result of investigation recommends the use of PE20 fuel for engine operation under cold climatic condition without any fuel quality problem. Out of various methods for improving cold flow properties addition of cold flow improver is best method to achieve the desired values of cold flow properties for biodiesel.
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  26. Possibilities for improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel fuel by blending with butanol
    Abstract

    Makareviciene, V.; Kazancev, K.; Kazanceva, I. 2015. Possibilities for improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel fuel by blending with butanol. Renewable Energy. 75805-807

    This report includes an assessment of comparative studies of the cold flow properties of fuel mixtures containing mineral diesel fuel (D), rapeseed oil methyl (RME) or butyl (RBE) esters and butanol (B). The dependence of CP and CFPP on the mixture composition was presented in phase equilibrium diagrams. These experiments established that mixtures in which RME is replaced with RBE have better cold flow properties. Mixtures of any composition meet the requirements for diesel fuel used in the summer period. The concentration of rapeseed oil butyl esters in fuel used in the transitional period may be up to 78%, while for blends containing rapeseed oil methyl esters, the rapeseed oil methyl ester content may only be up to 45%. In the Arctic zone, it is possible to use fuel blends containing up to 10-14% rapeseed methyl esters and up to 18% rapeseed butyl esters. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  27. A Convenient Route for the Alkoxylation of Biodiesel and Its Influence on Cold Flow Properties
    Abstract

    Mushtaq, M.; Tan, I. M.; Nadeem, M.; Devi, C.; Lee, S. Y. C.; Sagir, M. 2014. A Convenient Route for the Alkoxylation of Biodiesel and Its Influence on Cold Flow Properties. International Journal of Green Energy. 11(3) 267-279

    The attachment of alkoxy side chains to biodiesel and the associated effects on its cold flow properties are reported. High oleic methyl ester biodiesel was epoxidized using peroxy formic acid and subsequently alkoxylated using nine different alcohols employing BF3-ethereate complex as catalyst. A low molar excess for alcohols was used at moderately low reaction temperatures (40-50 degrees C). A high conversion for attachment of alkoxy group ranging 84%-93% was achieved with excellent selectivity. Cloud points, pour points, and kinematic viscosities were measured to evaluate the cold flow properties of modified biodiesel. The lowest cloud point -11 degrees C and pour point -14 degrees C were obtained with n-decoxy biodiesel. Elevated kinematic viscosities were observed for all alkoxylated products. The lowest kinematic viscosity (6.26 mm(2)s(-1)) was observed for methoxy biodiesel. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1 NMR), C-13 NMR, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) were used for structural elucidation. The reported alkoxylation route has high conversion rate and is convenient to implement.
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  28. Biodiesel production from biobutanol. Improvement of cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Bouaid, A.; El Boulifi, N.; Hahati, K.; Martinez, M.; Aracil, J. 2014. Biodiesel production from biobutanol. Improvement of cold flow properties. Chemical Engineering Journal. 238234-241

    Experimental design methods have been successfully applied to develop and optimize the process of synthesis of butyl esters from rapeseed oil (RSO), the most common oil feedstock for biodiesel production in Europe and used frying oil (UFO), as a cheaper raw material, using biobutanol, and potassium methoxide (KOCH3) as catalyst. The optimum conditions were found to be a catalyst concentration of 1.1% and 0.9%, an operation temperature of 78 degrees C and 80 degrees C for rapeseed oil butyl esters (RSOBE) and used frying oil butyl esters (UFOBE), respectively, obtaining ester yields of 96.86% and 96.54% with 6:1 biobutanol/oil molar ratio. Results show that biodiesel produced using biobutanol as alcohol in the transesterification process improved cold flow properties in terms of cloud point (CP), pour point (PP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) without significantly affecting the other fuel properties.
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  29. Cold flow properties of biodiesel obtained from corn oil
    Abstract

    Rasimoglu, N.; Temur, H. 2014. Cold flow properties of biodiesel obtained from corn oil. Energy. 6857-60

    In this study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of parameters of transesterification on the cold flow properties of corn oil based biodiesel such as cloud point, pour point and cold filter plugging point. Reaction parameters examined were the transesterification temperature (in the range of 20-60 degrees C), reaction time (10-60 min), alcohol-to-oil ratio (3.15:1-12.85:1 in moles), amount of catalyst (0.25 2 g(catalyst)/100 mL corn oil) and stirring speed (300-800 rpm). As a result, it has been observed that when the transesterification reaction period is kept longer than 10 min, there were no changes in cold flow properties of the biodiesel obtained. In addition, better cold flow properties were monitored when alcohol-to-oil ratio was kept between 3.15:1 and 4.15:1. While no effect of reaction temperature on cold flow properties was observed above 20 degrees C, amount of basic catalyst used in the experiments gave the lowest cold flow properties at the percent of 0.75. Stirring speed has been ineffective in terms of cold flow properties in the transesterification process. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  30. Effect of polymeric cold flow improvers on flow properties of biodiesel from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Wang, J. N.; Cao, L. C.; Han, S. 2014. Effect of polymeric cold flow improvers on flow properties of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Fuel. 117876-881

    The impact of four polymeric cold flow improvers, namely, polymethyl acrylate (PMA), ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVAC), poly-alpha-olefin (PAO), and polymaleic anhydride (HPMA) on the cold flow properties and viscosity of biodiesel from waste cooking oil was evaluated. The viscosity indexes of neat biodiesel and biodiesel treated with cold flow improvers were calculated. In addition, the influence of these cold flow improvers on total glycerol, flash point, acid value, and oxidation stability was also determined. Finally, polarizing microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate the low-temperature crystal morphology and crystallization behavior of the biodiesel samples. The results indicated that PMA was the best candidate for enhancing the low-temperature flow properties and viscosity index of biodiesel from waste cooking oil without deteriorating other important fuel properties of biodiesel. Upon addition of 0.04% of PMA, the pour point and cold filter plugging point of biodiesel were reduced by 8 and 6 degrees C, respectively. PMA essentially retarded crystal aggregation at low temperature. It modified the crystallization behavior of the crystals by transforming the shape of crystals and inhibiting the formation of larger crystals, which resulted in the improvement of the biodiesel cold flow properties. The results also indicated that PMA could be used as an effective viscosity index improver for biodiesel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  31. Effect of thermal decomposition on biodiesel viscosity and cold flow property
    Abstract

    Lin, R. H.; Zhu, Y. Y.; Tavlarides, L. L. 2014. Effect of thermal decomposition on biodiesel viscosity and cold flow property. Fuel. 117981-988

    Thermal stressing experiments were performed in batch reactors at 250-425 degrees C for 3-63 min to evaluate the influence of thermal decomposition on biodiesel viscosity and cold flow properties. Dynamic viscosity was measured by a micro viscometer, and cold flow properties were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The crystallization onset temperature determined by DSC correlates with cold flow properties. Results showed that the cis-trans isomerization reactions had a minimal effect on both viscosity and cold flow properties of biodiesel, but polymerization and pyrolysis reactions had significant influence on both properties. Polymerization reactions resulted in increases in both viscosity and the crystallization onset temperature, while pyrolysis reactions showed the opposite effect. The current study suggests that polymerization reactions should be avoided or minimized during high-temperature non-catalytic homogeneous transesterification reactions for biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  32. Ethyl acetoacetate: A potential bio-based diluent for improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Cao, L. C.; Wang, J. N.; Liu, K. J.; Han, S. 2014. Ethyl acetoacetate: A potential bio-based diluent for improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Applied Energy. 11418-21

    Ethyl acetoacetate was investigated as a potential bio-based diluent for improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Waste cooking oil generally has relatively high saturated fatty acid content, meaning that the cold flow properties of the converted biodiesel are more challenging than the properties of biodiesel from conventional vegetable oils. The cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and pour point (PP) of biodiesel decreased after adding ethyl acetoacetate at 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20% (vol). Both PP and CFPP decreased by 4 degrees C at 20 vol% ethyl acetoacetate. The effect of ethyl acetoacetate on kinematic viscosity, acid value and flash point was determined. Every sample satisfied ASTM 06751 except for the flash point (>= 10 vol% ethyl acetoacetate), but the 5 vol% blends were all acceptable. Oxidative stability was improved with the addition of ethyl acetoacetate. Overall, ethyl acetoacetate appears acceptable as a bio-based diluent for improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  33. Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer: A bio-based cold flow improver for waste cooking oil derived biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Cao, L. C.; Wang, J. N.; Liu, C.; Chen, Y. W.; Liu, K. J.; Han, S. 2014. Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer: A bio-based cold flow improver for waste cooking oil derived biodiesel blends. Applied Energy. 132163-167

    This study was conducted to determine the cold flow properties of biodiesel-diesel blends (waste cooking oil derived biodiesel blended with 0# diesel) with ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVAC) as the cold flow improver. The cloud point, cold filter plugging point and pour point of B20 (20 vol.% biodiesel + 80 vol.% 0# diesel) decreased by 8 degrees C, 11 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively, after 0.04 wt.% EVAC treatment. The impacts of EVAC on the kinematic viscosity, total glycerol, oxidation stability, acid value and flash point of B20 were also determined. The B20 samples treated with EVAC satisfied ASTM D6751. The crystallization behavior of the blend was investigated via differential scanning calorimetry. The crystallization rate and crystal content of B20 decreased. EVAC is therefore an effective bio-based cold flow improver for biodiesel blends. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  34. Impact of cold flow properties of biodiesel on engine performance
    Abstract

    Dwivedi, G.; Sharma, M. P. 2014. Impact of cold flow properties of biodiesel on engine performance. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 31650-656

    In the view of rapid depletion of fossil fuels and rise in price of crude oil, there is emergent focus and need to search for alternative fuels. As we know that there is huge demand of diesel for transportation sector, captive power generation, agricultural sector and industrial sector, to accommodate those demands biodiesel is being viewed as a substitute for diesel. Biodiesel is an engine fuel that is prepared by chemical reaction of fatty acids and alcohol, which usually means combining vegetable oil with methanol in the presence of a catalyst (usually sodium hydroxide). But before using biodiesel as a substitute for engine fuel, there are two major problems associated, first one is "cold flow property of biodiesel" and second one is termed as "stability of biodiesel". In this paper our main focus will be on cold flow property of biodiesel and its impact on engine performance. Some of the cold flow properties such as cloud point, pour point and cold filter plugging point are responsible for solidification of fuel causing blockage in fuel lines filters which further leads to fuel starvation in engine operation during starting operation. This paper also provides several remedial measures for improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  35. Influence of blending vegetable oil methyl esters on biodiesel fuel properties: Oxidative stability and cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Serrano, M.; Oliveros, R.; Sanchez, M.; Moraschini, A.; Martinez, M.; Aracil, J. 2014. Influence of blending vegetable oil methyl esters on biodiesel fuel properties: Oxidative stability and cold flow properties. Energy. 65109-115

    Properties of biodiesel can be related to the chemical composition of the biomass source used in transesterification. Saturated fatty acids confer high oxidative stability, while unsaturated fatty acids improve the cold flow properties, which are also influenced by the chain length. In the present study, blends of biodiesel produced from different vegetable oils were evaluated in order to obtain the proper blend to fulfill the European Standard EN14214 in terms of oxidative stability and cold flow properties. Citric acid was used to purify the methyl ester phase. Oxidative stability resulted highly dependent on polyunsaturated fatty esters while fatty ester chain length is a determining factor in cold flow performance of the blends. A preliminary study of the effectiveness of a commercial additive (a Poly alkyl methacrylate) in improving methyl ester flow at low temperatures was done, but no significant changes were found. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  36. Influence of Chemical Blends on Palm Oil Methyl Esters' Cold Flow Properties and Fuel Characteristics
    Abstract

    Ali, O. M.; Yusaf, T.; Mamat, R.; Abdullah, N. R.; Abdullah, A. A. 2014. Influence of Chemical Blends on Palm Oil Methyl Esters' Cold Flow Properties and Fuel Characteristics. Energies. 7(7) 4364-4380

    Alternative fuels, like biodiesel, are being utilized as a renewable energy source and an effective substitute for the continuously depleting supply of mineral diesel as they have similar combustion characteristics. However, the use of pure biodiesel as a fuel for diesel engines is currently limited due to problems relating to fuel properties and its relatively poor cold flow characteristics. Therefore, the most acceptable option for improving the properties of biodiesel is the use of a fuel additive. In the present study, the properties of palm oil methyl esters with increasing additive content were investigated after addition of ethanol, butanol and diethyl ether. The results revealed varying improvement in acid value, density, viscosity, pour point and cloud point, accompanied by a slight decrease in energy content with an increasing additive ratio. The viscosity reductions at 5% additive were 12%, 7%, 16.5% for ethanol, butanol and diethyl ether, respectively, and the maximum reduction in pour point was 5 C at 5% diethyl ether blend. Engine test results revealed a noticeable improvement in engine brake power and specific fuel consumption compared to palm oil biodiesel and the best performance was obtained with diethyl ether. All the biodiesel-additive blend samples meet the requirements of ASTM D6751 biodiesel fuel standards for the measured properties.
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  37. Study on cold flow properties of waste cooking methyl ester
    Abstract

    Wu, G.; Shong, J. H.; Xu, S. T.; Lai, Y. B.; Chen, X.; Shu, J. F. 2014. Study on cold flow properties of waste cooking methyl ester. Chemical, Material and Metallurgical Engineering Iii, Pts 1-3. 881-883635-+

    The chemical compositions of waste cooking methyl ester (WCME) were analyzed by GC-MS, and the cold flow properties of WCME were studied by cold filer plugging point tester and viscosity tester. Through blending with petrodiesel and adding cold flow improver (CFI), the cold flow properties of WCME were improved efficiently. The study shows that WCME was mainly composed of saturated fatty acid methyl ester (SFAME) and unsaturated fatty acid methyl ester (UFAME), and contents of SFAME and UFAME were 27.63 and 71.81 w%, respectively. The cold filer plugging point (CFPP) of WCME was 0 degrees C, and the viscosity of it was 4.41 mm2.s-1 at 40 degrees C. Blending with 0 petrodiesel (0PD) and -10 petrodiesel (-10PD) decreased the CFPP of WCME to -4 degrees C and -13 degrees C, respectively. Meanwhile with WCME blending ratio increasing the viscosities of blending oils increased at the same temperature, and the viscosities increased gradually when the temperature decreased. Treating with CFI could significantly reduce the CFPP of blending oils which were composed of WCME and petrodiesel. The viscosities of blending oils with adding CFI were slightly higher than those with out CFI.
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  38. Effect of fractional winterization of beef tallow biodiesel on the cold flow properties and viscosity
    Abstract

    Dogan, T. H.; Temur, H. 2013. Effect of fractional winterization of beef tallow biodiesel on the cold flow properties and viscosity. Fuel. 108793-796

    Biodiesel can cause performance problems at cold temperatures because of its fatty acid composition. Flow characteristics of biodiesel such as viscosity, density, cloud point and pour point increase as saturated fatty acid content of the lipid material used as a feedstock increases. Beef tallow, due to its high saturated fatty acid content, is not preferred as a feedstock in biodiesel production. In this study, it is aimed to reduce saturated fatty acid content of biodiesel obtained from beef tallow by fractional crystallization process also known as winterization. The fatty acid methyl ester contents of the filtrates obtained from crystallization were determined. In addition, cloud point, pour point, viscosity and density of biodiesel winterized were monitored. It has been detected that saturated fatty acid methyl ester content of winterized biodiesel from beef tallow reduced from 86.91% to 73.38% while unsaturated ones increased from 12.00% to 19.95% until the lowest crystallization temperature which is 16.3 degrees C in six steps. It was observed that density, viscosity and cold flow properties of the beef tallow biodiesel significantly improved by the removal of saturated methyl esters from the biodiesel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  39. Enhancing Cold Flow Property of Biodiesel Derived from Cottonseed Oil
    Abstract

    Chen, X. L.; Chen, X.; Cai, L. L.; Lai, Y. B.; Sun, Y. L.; Chen, L.; Jin, X.; Hu, J. M. 2013. Enhancing Cold Flow Property of Biodiesel Derived from Cottonseed Oil. Advances in Chemical Engineering Iii, Pts 1-4. 781-7842373-+

    The chemical compositions of cottonseed oil biodiesel (CSME) are analyzed by using the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The cold flow properties of CSME is studied by cold filer plugging point (CFPP) tester and crystallization mechanism of biodiesel, three approaches for enhancing cold flow properties of CSME are put forward: crystallization fractionation; blending with winter petrodiesel; and treating with cold flow improver (CFI) additives. A significant correlation model is proposed for predicting CFPP by CSME blending ratio. The study shows that the CSME is mainly composed of saturated fatty acid methyl esters (SFSMEs): C-14:0 similar to C-24:0 and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (UFAMEs): C-16:1 similar to C-22:1, C-18:2 and C-18:3. The mass fraction of SFAME and UFAME is 32.12 and 66.19%, respectively. The CFPP of CSME is 6 degrees C. Crystallization fractionation and blending with -10PD decrease the CFPP of CSME to -1 degrees C and -12 degrees C, respectively. Adding Flow Fit, Flow Fit K and T818 additives <= 1.5 v% decreases the CFPP of CME and CME/-10PD to 0 and -26 degrees C, respectively. This study has effectively enhanced cold flow properties of CSME and provides technical support for using CSME.
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  40. Improving the low temperature flow properties of palm oil biodiesel: Addition of cold flow improver
    Abstract

    Lv, P. M.; Cheng, Y. F.; Yang, L. M.; Yuan, Z. H.; Li, H. W.; Luo, W. 2013. Improving the low temperature flow properties of palm oil biodiesel: Addition of cold flow improver. Fuel Processing Technology. 11061-64

    Palm methyl ester (PME) was prepared using an alkali-catalyzed transesterification reaction, and its cold flow properties (CFP) were studied. Commercial DEP (trade name) and polyglycerol ester (PGE), and self-made PA (given name by our laboratory researchers), were used as cold flow improvers (CFIs) to improve the CFP of the biodiesel, and the effects of these CFIs on the CFP of PME were investigated. The results showed that the peak crystallization temperature of PME was very close to the cold filter plug point (CFPP). There was no unique linear relationship between the CFPP and the content of saturated fatty acid methyl esters. When used individually as CFIs, DEP, PGE and PA exerted only moderate pour point depression effects on the biodiesel, and effects to decrease the CFPP of PME were only observed when the CFI concentration was 1% or higher. Compared with single-compound CFIs and CFIs formulated from two components, at a specified complex formulation ratio, CFIs formulated from three components exhibited the best performance. When the ratio of DEP:PGE:PA was 3:1:1 or 2:2:1, the CFPP of PME was decreased by 7 degrees C. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  41. Optimization of raw material mixtures in the production of biodiesel from vegetable and used frying oils regarding quality requirements in terms of cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Jurac, Z.; Zlatar, V. 2013. Optimization of raw material mixtures in the production of biodiesel from vegetable and used frying oils regarding quality requirements in terms of cold flow properties. Fuel Processing Technology. 106108-113

    In the production of biodiesel the need for using more inexpensive and alternative raw materials arises. This is due to the limited amount of traditional raw materials in the market and their high prices. Very convenient alternative raw material which is also cost effective is used frying oil (UFO). The quality of the final product greatly depends on the quality of raw materials. By using only used frying oil (UFO) as raw material it is not always possible to obtain a good quality product. Therefore, it is necessary to make a mixture of raw materials to obtain a high quality product and at the same time to minimize the costs. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of various raw material mixtures of rapeseed and used frying oil on the most important physico-chemical characteristics of biodiesel, viscosity and cold flow properties. It is shown that portion of UFO in raw material mixtures does not have significant impact on viscosity of final product, but only cold flow properties. We discovered linear correlations between cold flow properties of product formed from mixtures of raw materials, and cold flow properties of the product formed from pure raw materials. Cold flow properties of raw materials and cold flow properties of products are also in linear correlation. CFPP of the final product from the raw material mixture is equal to the sum of the product of portion of particular raw materials in the mixture and CFPP products from the same raw material. These findings can be implemented in determining optimal raw material mixture. We made a short overview of one such model, which is also included in this work. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  42. Prediction of the Cold Flow Properties in Biodiesel Blends
    Abstract

    Cui, Y.; Yuan, Y. N.; Lai, Y. B.; Chen, X. 2013. Prediction of the Cold Flow Properties in Biodiesel Blends. Advances in Energy Science and Technology, Pts 1-4. 291-294328-+

    The chemical compositions of biodiesel are analyzed by GC-MS, and their molecular structures are investigated on the basis of the hybrid orbital theory. The CFPP of biodiesel is studied by CFPP tester, the solution crystallization theory and the similarity-intermiscibility principle. Good correlation models are proposed for predict CFPP of biodiesel by chemical compositions and the CFPP of biodiesel-petrodiesel blends by biodiesel ratio. The study shows that biodiesel is mainly composed of SFAME (C14:0 similar to C24:0) and UFAME (C16:1 similar to C22:1, C18:2 and C18:3). Carbon atoms of the alkyl for SFAME arrange in a zigzag pattern by angle CCC=109.5 degrees. C-C carbon atoms of the alkenyl arrange in a zigzag pattern by angle CCC=109.5 degrees, too, carbon chain is curved by C=C in angle CCC=122.0 degrees, and curved degree increases with increasing unsaturated degree. CFPP of biodiesel is mainly determined by chemical compositions. CFPP increases with the amount and carbon chain length of SFAME. CFPP of biodiesel-petrodiesel blends is mainly determined by chemical compositions and ratio of biodiesel. To lower SFAME >= C20:0 biodiesel, such as PME, CSME, WME, SBME and RME, it blending with -10PD can formed a eutectic mixture. CFPP of the eutectic mixture is -12 degrees C. The biodiesel ratio for the lowest CFPP rang increases with decreasing SFAME. Such as SFAME contents in PME, CSME, WME, SBME and RME are 35.86, 32.12, 31.04, 18.29 and 14.69 w% respectively, and the range of biodiesel ratio is 5 similar to 20, 10 similar to 20, 20 similar to 30, 30 similar to 50 and 40 similar to 60 v% respectively. To higher SFAME>C20:0 biodiesel, such as PNME, CFPP increases with PNME ratio.
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  43. Study on cold flow properties of typical materials biodiesel and its blends
    Abstract

    Chen, X.; Hu, J. M.; Chen, L.; Li, S.; Li, L.; Cai, L. L.; Jin, X.; Lai, Y. B. 2013. Study on cold flow properties of typical materials biodiesel and its blends. Advances in Chemical Engineering Iii, Pts 1-4. 781-7842383-+

    The chemical compositions of biodiesel are analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and theirs molecular structure are investigated on the basis of the hybrid orbital theory. Cold filter plugging point (CFPP) of biodiesel is studied by CFPP tester, the solution crystallization theory and the similarity-intermiscibility principle. Good correlation models are proposed for prediction biodiesel CFPP by chemical compositions and CFPP of biodiesel-petrodiesel blends by biodiesel ratio. The study shows that biodiesel is mainly composed of SFAME (C-14:0-C-24:0) and UFAME (C-16.1-C-22.1, C-18.2 and C-18:3). Carbon atoms of the alkyl for SFAME arrange in a zigzag pattern by angle CCC=109.5 degrees. C-C carbon atoms of the alkyl arrange in a zigzag pattern by angle CCC=109.5 degrees, too, carbon chain is curved by C=C in angle CCC=122.0 degrees, and curved degree increases with increasing unsaturated degree. CFPP of biodiesel is mainly determined by chemical compositions. CFPP increases with the amount and carbon chain length of SFAME. CFPP of biodiesel-petrodiesel blends is mainly determined by chemical compositions and ratio of biodiesel. To lower SFAME(C >= 20) biodiesel, such as PME, CSME, WME, SBME and RME, it blending with -10PD can formed a eutectic mixture. CFPP of the eutectic mixture is -12 degrees C. The biodiesel ratio for the lowest CFPP rang increases with decreasing SFAME. Such as, SFAME contents in PME, CSME, WME, SBME and RME are 35.86, 32.12, 31.04, 18.29 and 14.69 w% respectively,. and the range of biodiesel ratio is 5-20, 10-20, 20-30, 30-50 and 40-60 v% respectively. To higher SFAME(C >= 20) biodiesel, such as PNME, CFPP increases with PNME ratio.
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  44. Use of Isomerization and Hydroisomerization Reactions to Improve the Cold Flow Properties of Vegetable Oil Based Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Reaume, S. J.; Ellis, N. 2013. Use of Isomerization and Hydroisomerization Reactions to Improve the Cold Flow Properties of Vegetable Oil Based Biodiesel. Energies. 6(2) 619-633

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative to petroleum diesel with the potential to reduce overall net CO2 emissions. However, the high cloud point of biodiesel must be reduced when used in cold climates. We report on the use of isomerization and hydroisomerization reactions to reduce the cloud point of eight different fats and oils. Isomerization was carried out at 260 degrees C and 1.5 MPa H-2 pressure utilizing beta zeolite catalyst, while hydroisomerization was carried out at 300 degrees C and 4.0 MPa H-2 pressure utilizing 0.5 wt % Pt-doped beta zeolite catalyst. Reaction products were tested for cloud point and flow properties, in addition to catalyst reusability and energy requirements. Results showed that high unsaturated fatty acid biodiesels increased in cloud point, due to the hydrogenation side reaction. In contrast, low unsaturated fatty acid biodiesels yielded cloud point reductions and overall improvement in the flow properties. A maximum cloud point reduction of 12.9. degrees C was observed with coconut oil as the starting material. Results of the study have shown that branching can reduce the cloud point of low unsaturated fatty acid content biodiesel.
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  45. Effects of Monoacylglycerols on the Cold Flow Properties of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Dunn, R. O. 2012. Effects of Monoacylglycerols on the Cold Flow Properties of Biodiesel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 89(8) 1509-1520

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternative fuel made from plant oils and animal fats that may be burned in a compression-ignition (diesel) engine. It is composed of mono-alkyl fatty acid esters made from plant oils or animal fats mainly by transesterification with methanol or ethanol. This process leaves behind small concentrations of minor constituents including monoacylglycerols (MAG). Saturated MAG have low solubility in biodiesel and may form solid residues during storage in cold weather. Soybean oil-fatty acid methyl esters (SME) were mixed with up to 1.0 mass% MAG to evaluate the effects on cloud point (CP), freezing point (FP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP), and wax appearance point (WAP). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results showed that MAG with only 27.6 mass% total long chain (C16-C18) saturated fatty acid content had melting transitions between 54 and 59.0 A degrees C. Furthermore, DSC analysis indicated that pure monoolein may be problematic with respect to melting transitions between 25.4 and 33.4 A degrees C. Solubility data for SME-MAG mixtures indicated a broad transition temperature range from solid at low temperature to liquid at temperatures exceeding 60 A degrees C. Increasing the added MAG content from 0.10 to 1.0 mass% increased both CP and FP. Cold filter plugging point demonstrated higher sensitivity than CP or FP at added MAG content below 0.10 mass%, though it was not affected by increasing MAG concentration above 0.50 mass%. Wax appearance point showed no effects until added MAG content exceeded 0.25 mass%. Kinematic viscosity measured at 5 A degrees C similarly showed no effects until added MAG concentration exceeded 0.20 mass%. Specific gravity at 15.6 A degrees C and refractive index at 25 A degrees C were not greatly affected by added MAG except at concentrations greater than 0.10 mass%.
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  46. Oxidative stability and cold flow behavior of palm, sacha-inchi, jatropha and castor oil biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Zuleta, E. C.; Rios, L. A.; Benjumea, P. N. 2012. Oxidative stability and cold flow behavior of palm, sacha-inchi, jatropha and castor oil biodiesel blends. Fuel Processing Technology. 10296-101

    Oxidative stability and cold-filter plugging points (CFPP) of blends of biodiesel from palm, sacha-inchi, jatropha and castor oils were evaluated. Blends were made as a strategy to obtain a biodiesel with a better performance. These properties of biodiesel depend on the type of methyl-ester constituents and they are generally opposed, i.e., a biodiesel with good oxidative stability exhibits bad CFPP. Biodiesel was produced through KOH-catalyzed methanolysis of the oils. Binary blends of biodiesel from castor-jatropha, palm-castor and palm-sacha inchi were made, in proportions of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25. The oxidative stability was evaluated following the standard EN 14112. CFPP of pure biodiesels and binary blends were evaluated according to ASTM D6371. An induction time greater than 6 hours and a CFPP below 0 degrees C were set as quality criteria. Among the pure biodiesels, only castor oil biodiesel achieved this quality because its induction time and CFPP were 31 h and -7 degrees C, respectively. The best biodiesel blend was made of 75% jatropha and 25% castor. This blend achieved an induction time of 7.56 h and a CFPP of -12 degrees C. However, this blend has a viscosity higher than the required by international standards. The oxidative stability (induction time) and the CFPP were correlated with the structural indices APE (allylic position equivalent), BAPE (bis-allylic position equivalent), SME (saturated methyl esters content), MUME (mono-unsaturated methyl esters content) and PUME (poly-unsaturated methyl esters content); it was found that BAPE and PUME correlate with IT, while CFPP does not correlate with any of these indices. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  47. Ethyl levulinate: A potential bio-based diluent for biodiesel which improves cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Joshi, H.; Moser, B. R.; Toler, J.; Smith, W. F.; Walker, T. 2011. Ethyl levulinate: A potential bio-based diluent for biodiesel which improves cold flow properties. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(7) 3262-3266

    Biodiesel, defined as mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, is an attractive renewable fuel alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel produced from oils such as cottonseed oil and poultry fats suffer from extremely poor cold flow properties because of their high saturated fatty acid content. In the current study, Ethyl Levulinate (ethyl 4-oxopentanoate) was investigated as a novel, bio-based cold flow improver for use in biodiesel fuels. The cloud (CP), pour (PP), and cold filter plugging points (CFPP) of biodiesel fuels prepared from cottonseed oil and poultry fat were improved upon addition of ethyl levulinate at 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0% (vol). Reductions of 4-5 degrees C in CP, 3-4 degrees C in PP and 3 degrees C in CFPP were observed at 20 vol % ethyl levulinate. The influence of ethyl levulinate on acid value, induction period, kinematic viscosity and flash point was determined. The kinematic viscosities and flash points decreased with increasing content of ethyl levulinate. All samples (<= 15 vol % ethyl levulinate) satisfied the ASTM D6751 limit with respect to flash point, but none of the 20 vol % blends were acceptable when compared to the higher EN 14214 specification. Acid value and oxidative stability were essentially unchanged upon addition of ethyl levulinate. In summary, ethyl levulinate appears acceptable as a diluent for biodiesel fuels with high saturated fatty acid content. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  48. Improving cold flow properties of canola-based biodiesel
    Abstract

    Chastek, T. Q. 2011. Improving cold flow properties of canola-based biodiesel. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(1) 600-607

    Methods for improving the cold flow properties of canola-based biodiesel are described. Freezing point depression via dilution is evaluated through controlled studies of methyl stearate freezing in seven different solvents, and methyl palmitate in three solvents. Without accounting for solute activity, the Hildebrand equation can predict the impact of methyl stearate freezing point in an alkane solvent (pentane) to within 4 degrees C. However, there is wide deviation for the other solutions, indicating wide ranging solute activities in these solvents. Dilution in toluene results in the greatest freezing point depression. In addition, several polymeric additives are screened for their effectiveness as biodiesel pour point depressants. After examining more than 13 polymers, including several alkyl methacrylate homo- and copolymers, it is shown that poly(lauryl methacrylate) homopolymer most effectively improves the biodiesel cold flow properties. At 1% loading, poly(lauryl methacrylate) lowers the pour point by as much as 30 degrees C and the low temperature filterability point (LTFP) by as much as 28 degrees C. When evaluating the impact of polymer concentration, it is shown that poly(lauryl methacrylate) concentrations of 0.14% perform poorly, whereas 0.5% has only a slightly lower impact than 1%. Concentrations above 1% exhibit no improvement. Finally, it is shown that a limited amount of mixing can notably reduce the LTFP in several samples. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  49. Improving the Cold Flow Properties of Biodiesel Derived from Palm
    Abstract

    Lai, Y. B.; Chen, X.; Yuan, Y. N. 2011. Improving the Cold Flow Properties of Biodiesel Derived from Palm. Application of Chemical Engineering, Pts 1-3. 236-238164-+

    The chemical compositions of biodiesel derived from palm (PME) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The cold flow properties of PME were studied by multifunctional low temperature tester, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and solution crystallization theory. Three approaches for improving cold flow properties of PME were put forward: crystallization fractionation, blending with winter petrodiesel and treating with cold flow improver (CFI) additives. A good correlation model was proposed for prediction cold filter plugging point (CFPP) by winter petrodiesel blending ratio. The study shows that the PME was mainly composed of saturated fatty acid methyl esters (SFAME): C14:0-C24:0 and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (UFAME): C16:1-C22:1, C18:2 and C18:3. The mass fraction of SFAME and UFAME was 35.86% and 62.83%, respectively. The CFPP of PME was 8 degrees C. Crystallization fractionation and blending with -10 petrodiesel (-10PD) decreased the CFPP to 0 and -12 degrees C, respectively. Treating with CFI additives (volume fraction <= 1.5%) decreased the CFPP of PME and PME/-10PD to 2 and -26 degrees C, respectively. This study has effectively improved cold flow properties of PME and provided theoretical support for using PME during cold weather.
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  50. Improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by surfactants and detergent fractionation
    Abstract

    Wang, Y.; Ma, S.; Zhao, M. M.; Kuang, L. N.; Nie, J. Y.; Riley, W. W. 2011. Improving the cold flow properties of biodiesel from waste cooking oil by surfactants and detergent fractionation. Fuel. 90(3) 1036-1040

    The use of surfactants and detergent fractionation to improve the cold flow properties of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (BWCO) was investigated. The effect of five types of surfactants, including sugar esters (S270 and S1570), silicone oil (TSA 750S), polyglycerol ester (LOP-120DP) and diesel conditioner (DDA) on the reduction of the cold filter plugging point (CFPP) of the BWCO, was evaluated, with the greatest reduction to the CFPP of the BWCO (from -10 degrees C to -16 degrees C) being was achieved by the addition of 0.02 wt% of polyglycerol ester (LOP-120P). Detergent fractionation of the BWCO was performed by first mixing partially crystallized biodiesel with a chilled detergent (sodium dodecylsulfate) solution accompanied by an electrolyte (magnesium sulfate), and then separating the mixture by centrifugation to obtain the BWCO liquid. An orthogonal experimental design was utilized to investigate the effects of the various parameters on detergent fractionation. The optimal parameters, as obtained by range analysis, were as follows: detergent loading 0.3 wt%, electrolyte loading 1.0 wt%, and water loading 150 wt%. The CFFP of the liquid biodiesel from waste cooking oil (LBWCO) was -17 degrees C with a yield of 73.1% when the detergent fractionation was performed under these conditions. A limited number of biodiesel physical and chemical properties were analyzed before and after the addition of surfactants and detergent fractionation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  51. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics
    Abstract

    Yusup, S.; Khan, M. 2010. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics. Biomass & Bioenergy. 34(10) 1523-1526

    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  52. Cold Flow Properties and Crystal Morphologies of Biodiesel Blends
    Abstract

    Chen, B. S.; Sun, Y. Q.; Fang, J. H.; Wang, J.; Wu, J. 2010. Cold Flow Properties and Crystal Morphologies of Biodiesel Blends. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 46(1) 52-57

    A soybean biodiesel was prepared and blended with a conventional China's No. 0 petrodiesel. The pour points (PP) and cold filter plugging points (CFPP) of the biodiesel blends were evaluated on a low-temperature flow tester. Dynamic viscosities of the blends at different temperatures and different shear rates were measured on a rotatory rheometer. The crystal morphologies of the biodiesel blends at low temperatures were analyzed using a polarizing microscope. The results indicate that the blended fuels provided a slight decrease in PPs and CFPPs as compared with those of neat soybean biodiesel and pure petrodiesel. Below the temperatures of PPs or CFPPs, the dynamic viscosity of the biodiesel blends increased dramatically with decreasing temperature, but decreased with increasing shear rate, the biodiesel blends exhibiting non-Newtonian behavior. At temperatures higher than PPs or CFPPs, linear relationships appeared between dynamic viscosity and shear rate and the biodiesel blends became Newtonians. At low temperatures, wax crystals of the biodiesel blends grew and agglomerated rapidly. The loss of fluidity at low temperatures for the biodiesel blends can therefore be attributed, on the one hand, to the sharp increase of viscosity and, on the other hand, to the rapid growth and agglomeration of wax crystals.
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  53. Effect of cold flow improvers on flow properties of soybean biodiesel
    Abstract

    Chen, B. S.; Sun, Y. Q.; Fang, J. H.; Wang, J.; Wu, J. A. 2010. Effect of cold flow improvers on flow properties of soybean biodiesel. Biomass & Bioenergy. 34(9) 1309-1313

    The influence of three cold flow improvers, namely, olefin-ester copolymers (OECP), ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EACP) and polymethyl acrylate (PMA), on the low-temperature properties and viscosity temperature characteristics of a soybean biodiesel was evaluated on a low-temperature flow tester and a rotatory rheometer. The crystal morphologies of the biodiesel at low temperatures were investigated through a polarizing microscope. The results indicated that the ability of the cold flow improvers differed in improving the cold flow properties of soybean biodiesel, of which OECP was the best candidate. OECP can significantly reduce pour point (PP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) of biodiesel and retard viscosity increase of biodiesel at low temperatures when incorporated into biodiesel at the additive contents of 0.03%. On the other hand, OECP functioned by inhibiting the wax crystals from growing to a larger size and provided a barrier to crystal agglomeration at low temperatures, thus improving the cold flow properties of soybean biodiesel. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  54. Effects of blending alcohols with poultry fat methyl esters on cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Joshi, H.; Moser, B. R.; Toler, J.; Smith, W. F.; Walker, T. 2010. Effects of blending alcohols with poultry fat methyl esters on cold flow properties. Renewable Energy. 35(10) 2207-2210

    The low temperature operability, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethanol, isopropanol, and butanol with increasing alcohol content. The flash point decreased and moisture content increased upon addition of alcohols to poultry fat methyl esters. The alcohol type did not result in a statistically significant difference in low temperature performance at similar blend ratios in poultry fat methyl esters. In addition, blends of ethanol in poultry fat methyl esters afforded the least viscous mixtures, whereas isopropanol and butanol blends were progressively more viscous, but still within specifications contained in ASTM 06751 and EN 14214. Blends of alcohols in poultry fat methyl esters resulted in failure of the flash point specifications found in ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Flash points of butanol blends were superior to those of isopropanol and ethanol blends, with the 5 vol.% butanol blend exhibiting a flash point (57 degrees C) superior to that of No. 2 diesel fuel (52 degrees C). Blends of alcohols in poultry fat methyl esters resulted in an improvement in acid value with increasing content of alcohol. An increase in moisture content of biodiesel was observed with increasing alcohol content, with the effect being more pronounced in ethanol blends versus isopropanol and butanol blends. Finally, none of the alcohol-methyl ester samples exhibited a phase separation at sub-ambient temperatures. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  55. Partial hydrothermal oxidation of unsaturated high molecular weight carboxylic acids for enhancing the cold flow properties of biodiesel fuel
    Abstract

    Jin, F. M.; Zeng, X.; Cao, J. L.; Kawasaki, K.; Kishita, A.; Tohji, K.; Enomoto, H. 2010. Partial hydrothermal oxidation of unsaturated high molecular weight carboxylic acids for enhancing the cold flow properties of biodiesel fuel. Fuel. 89(9) 2448-2454

    Biodiesel fuel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits and the fact that it is a product made from renewable resources. However the less favorable cold flow properties or the low temperature operability of biodiesel fuel compared to conventional diesel is a major drawback limiting its use. The poor flow properties of biodiesel at cold temperatures are mainly due to biodiesel fuel being composed of long-chain fatty acids with an alcohol molecule attached. If the double bond of unsaturated fatty acids in these long-chain fatty acids could be ruptured selectively, then the cold flow properties of biodiesel fuel would be enhanced by reducing its viscosity.
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  56. The thermal cracking of canola and soybean methyl esters: Improvement of cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Seames, W.; Luo, Y.; Ahmed, I.; Aulich, T.; Kubatova, A.; Stavova, J.; Kozliak, E. 2010. The thermal cracking of canola and soybean methyl esters: Improvement of cold flow properties. Biomass & Bioenergy. 34(7) 939-946

    A study was performed to evaluate the use of thermal cracking to overcome cold flow and stability limitations of current biodiesel. Experiments were conducted in a batch cracking reactor system using soy methyl ester and canola methyl ester feedstocks. The amount of high-MW C(16)-C(24) FAMEs was reduced from nearly 100% in the original feedstock by an order of magnitude. Yields of desirable cracking product ranged from 70 to 85% while cloud and pour points decreased around 20 degrees C and 15 degrees C, respectively. The stability of the fuel was improved by converting all of the unsaturated esters into lower-MW saturated esters. This method may lead to an attractive process to produce an improved biodiesel that is more conductive to cold temperature utilization and more stable during storage. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  57. Winterization of peanut biodiesel to improve the cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Perez, A.; Casas, A.; Fernandez, C. M.; Ramos, M. J.; Rodriguez, L. 2010. Winterization of peanut biodiesel to improve the cold flow properties. Bioresource Technology. 101(19) 7375-7381

    Biodiesel is susceptible to start-up and performance problems, consistent with its chemical composition, when vehicles and fuel systems are subjected to cold temperatures. In this work, a comprehensive evaluation of the crystallization behavior of different biodiesels was performed by measuring the cold filter plugging point (CFPP), cloud point (CP) and pour point (PP). Results were related to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. Peanut methyl esters in particular led to the most unfavorable properties due to the presence of long-chain saturated compounds (arachidic or C20:0, behenic or C22:0, and lignoceric or C24:0 acid methyl esters) approaching 6 wt.%. The cold flow properties may be improved with different winterization techniques to eliminate some of these compounds. In this work, various techniques are tested, and the best technique is found to be crystallization filtration using methanol, which reduces the CFPP from 17 degrees C to -8 degrees C with a biodiesel loss of 8.93 wt.%. Moreover, the cake from filtration, enriched with long-chain saturated methyl esters, can be used as phase change material (PCM) for thermo-regulated materials. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  58. Effects of minor constituents on cold flow properties and performance of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Dunn, R. O. 2009. Effects of minor constituents on cold flow properties and performance of biodiesel. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 35(6) 481-489

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel or extender made from renewable agricultural lipids that may be burned in a compression-ignition (diesel) engine. It is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from plant oils or animal fats. Biodiesel has many important technical advantages compared to petrodiesel including superior inherent lubricity, low toxicity, high (non-flammable) flash point and biodegradability, very low or negligible sulfur content and lower exhaust emissions of most regulated species. Biodiesel is generally produced by transesterification of the lipid with a short-chain monohydric alcohol. This process may leave behind very small (trace) concentrations of minor constituents such as saturated monoacylglycerols (MAGs) or free steryl glucosides (FStGs). These materials have high melting points and very low solubilities allowing them to form solid residues when stored during cold weather. Blending with petrodiesel exacerbates the problem. Settling solid residues were found to clog fuel filters in fuel dispensers and vehicles. In response to documented problems the biodiesel industry in the United States collaborated with the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) to develop a cold soak filter-ability performance test that will help identify fuels that may have a propensity to clog filters if exposed to long-term storage in cold weather. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  59. Thermo-oxidative stability and cold flow properties of babassu biodiesel by PDSC and TMDSC techniques
    Abstract

    Santos, N. A.; Santos, J. R. J.; Sinfronio, F. S. M.; Bicudo, T. C.; Santos, I. M. G.; Antoniosi, N. R.; Fernandes, V. J.; Souza, A. G. 2009. Thermo-oxidative stability and cold flow properties of babassu biodiesel by PDSC and TMDSC techniques. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 97(2) 611-614

    The babassu (Orbignya Phalerata Mart.) biodiesel has lauric esters as main constituents, resulting in high oxidative stability and low cloud and freezing points. In order to reduce these side effects, the saturated ethyl esters content was reduced by means of winterization process. The TMDSC and PDSC techniques were used to verify the thermal and oxidative stabilities of the ethyl babassu biodiesel. During the heating stage, the winterized solid phase of ethyl esters presented an endothermic transition associated to the solidification process. This behavior was not observed for the liquid winterized FAEE, confirming the efficiency of the winterization process.
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  60. Crystallization fractionation of palm oil biodiesel as an alternative for improving its cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Benavides, A. Y.; Benjumea, P. N.; Agudelo, J. R. 2008. Crystallization fractionation of palm oil biodiesel as an alternative for improving its cold flow properties. Revista Facultad De Ingenieria-Universidad De Antioquia. (43) 7-17

    Palm oil biodiesel (POB) has excellent properties as a fuel for engines. However, due to its highly saturated chemical composition, this biofuel presents a faulty performance at temperatures close to the environmental temperature of several Colombian cities. At 16 degrees C, POB begins to form small crystals which grow and form agglomerates as the temperature continues decreasing, in such a way they can completely plug the fuel flow at temperatures between 12 T and 9 T. In this work, the fractionation technique of POB by crystallization induced by cooling was evaluated for improving its cold flow properties. The cooling or winterization temperature (Tw) and the stabilization time (ts) were the variables taken into account in the fractionation process. According to the values of the cloud point (CP) and pour point (PP) of the POB, the range for TW tested was very limited (12 degrees C-16 degrees C). The process allowed the production of a liquid fraction, at TW, with better cold flow properties than those of the original POB. For the extreme tested conditions (ts=24 hours and TW=14 degrees C), a liquid fraction having a CP of 6 degrees C lower than the original POB was obtained. Such a change in the CP corresponded to an increase in the unsaturated methyl esters content of 4,7% and a reduction of the palmitic acid methyl esters content of 5,29%. The induced changes in the chemical composition of liquid fractions did not have significant effects on their fuel basic properties.
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  61. Effectiveness of Cold Flow Additives on Various Biodiesels, Diesel, and Their Blends
    Abstract

    Shrestha, D. S.; Gerpen, J. Van; Thompson, J. 2008. Effectiveness of Cold Flow Additives on Various Biodiesels, Diesel, and Their Blends. Transactions of the Asabe. 51(4) 1365-1370

    Effectiveness of Cold Flow Additives on Various Biodiesels, Diesel, and Their Blends Effectiveness of Cold Flow Additives on Various Biodiesels, Diesel, and Their Blends One of the major reasons hindering the use of biodiesel is its filter plugging temperature, which is higher than that of No. 2 diesel. Cloud point (CP) and pour point (PP) temperatures have been shown to be well correlated with filter plugging point, which primarily determines the operability of a diesel engine in cold weather. Many biodiesel cold flow additives are available in the market that claim to reduce pour point. In this study, neat and blended biodiesel fuels from different feedstocks were tested for change in CP and PP with various cold flow additives at 100%, 200%, and 300% of the specified loading (application) rate. The additives in general worked better for ethyl esters than for methyl esters. Average reductions in CP and PP for neat mustard methyl esters were 0.3°C and 7.2°C, respectively, compared to 3°C and 19.4°C for mustard ethyl ester at the recommended loading rate. In general, mustard biodiesel responded to additives better than soybean or used vegetable oil biodiesel for reducing PP. The effect of additives on CP of diesel fuel was not statistically significant, but PP was reduced to
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  62. Experimental investigations on lubricity and cold flow properties of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Bhale, P. V.; Deshpande, N. V.; Thombre, S. B. 2008. Experimental investigations on lubricity and cold flow properties of biodiesel. Proceedings of the Spring Technical Conference of the Asme Internal Combustion Engine Division. 107-114

    The desirability of developing biodiesel from different tree born oil seeds and decreasing the dependency on petroleum based fuels has been discussed by many over the last few decades. However some of the important issues of biodiesel like lubricity, low temperature flow characteristic, material compatibility have not been sufficiently investigated.
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  63. Cold Flow Properties of Fatty Esters
    Abstract

    Kleinová, A.; Paligová, J.; Vrbová, M.; Mikulec, J.; Cvengroš, J. 2007. Cold Flow Properties of Fatty Esters. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 85(5) 390-395

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  64. Cold flow properties of palm oil biodiesel
    Abstract

    Benjumea, P. N.; Agudelo, J. R.; Rios, L. A. 2007. Cold flow properties of palm oil biodiesel. Revista Facultad De Ingenieria-Universidad De Antioquia. (42) 94-104

    The faulty performance of palm oil biodiesel at low temperatures constitutes its main quality drawback and limitation to use this alternative fuel for diesel engines either as a neat fuel or blended with conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. In this work, several alternatives for improving the cold flow properties of palm oil biodiesel are evaluated. The production of biodiesel using branched-chain alcohols such as isopropyl alcohol, isobutyl alcohol, 2-butyl alcohol and isopentyl alcohol allows the production of palm oil alkyl esters having cloud and pour points lower than those of methyl esters. Substituting isopropyl for the methyl group allows reductions in the cloud and pour points of 8 and 21 degrees C, respectively. Palm oil isopropyl esters have a cloud point 10 degrees C lower than the corresponding methyl esters. The cloud point of the palm oil biodiesel-diesel fuel blends linearly increases with mixture biodiesel content. In the case of the tested blends there may be fuel filterability problems only at temperatures below -4 degrees C. This work also presents the effectiveness of two commercial additives used to reduce the cold filter plugging point of neat biodiesel and the tested blends. The results obtained showed that by using such additives it is only possible to obtain reductions in the B5 blend cold filter plugging point when the lowest additive concentration was used.
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  65. FUEL 262-Partial wet oxidation of unsaturated carboxylic acids for the improvement in the cold flow properties of biodiesel fuel
    Abstract

    Jin, F. M.; Kawasaki, K.; Kishita, A.; Tohji, K.; Enomoto, H. 2007. FUEL 262-Partial wet oxidation of unsaturated carboxylic acids for the improvement in the cold flow properties of biodiesel fuel. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 234

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  66. Cold flow properties of fuel mixtures containing biodiesel derived from animal fatty waste
    Abstract

    Kazancev, K.; Makareviciene, V.; Paulauskas, V.; Janulis, P. 2006. Cold flow properties of fuel mixtures containing biodiesel derived from animal fatty waste. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 108(9) 753-758

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the cold temperature behavior of methyl esters of vegetable and animal origin and of their mixtures with fossil diesel fuel, as well as to investigate the effectiveness of different depressants. Various blends of rapeseed oil methyl esters, linseed oil methyl esters, pork lard methyl esters and fossil diesel fuel were prepared, and both cloud point and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) were analyzed. It was found that mixtures with CFPP values of -5 degrees C and lower may contain up to 25% of pork lard methyl esters; whereas the ratio of summer fossil diesel fuel and rapeseed oil methyl esters may vary over a wide range, i.e. such mixtures can be used in a diesel engine in the summer. In the transitory periods it is possible to use up to 20% animal and vegetable ester blends (3 : 7) with winter fossil diesel, whereas only up to 5% of esters can be added to the fuel used in winter. In order to improve the cold properties of rapeseed oil, pork lard and linseed oil methyl ester mixtures, various additives were tested. Depressant Viscoplex 10-35 with an optimal dose of 5000 mg/kg was found to be the most effective.
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  67. PETR 127-Improving cold flow properties of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Krishna, C. R.; Butcher, T.; Mahajan, D. 2006. PETR 127-Improving cold flow properties of biodiesel. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 232

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  68. Cold flow properties of biodiesel and effect of commercial additives
    Abstract

    Shrestha, D.; Van Gerpen, J.; Zawadzki, A. 2005. Cold flow properties of biodiesel and effect of commercial additives. ASABE Annual Meeting Paper No. 056121. (ASABE Paper No. 981010)

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