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Literature on Biodiesel Cetane Number

This page lists articles published worldwide in journal, book, magazine or otherwise about Biodiesel Cetane number. Please provide us a feedback feedback if you see any error in this listing or you would like to report and articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. Evaluation of oxygenated n-butanol-biodiesel blends along with ethyl hexyl nitrate as cetane improver on diesel engine attributes
    Abstract

    Imdadul, H. K.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Zulkifli, N. W. M.; Kamruzzaman, M.; Shahin, M. M.; Rashed, M. M. 2017. Evaluation of oxygenated n-butanol-biodiesel blends along with ethyl hexyl nitrate as cetane improver on diesel engine attributes. Journal of Cleaner Production. 141928-939

    In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to study the fuel properties, engine performance and emission of a diesel engine by mixing ethyl hexyl nitrate (EHN) with n-butanol-diesel-biodiesel blends. The engine test was carried out at MI throttle opening in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was done to evaluate the thermal properties of the test fuels. Experimental results revealed that the density, viscosity, and other properties are developed well. Notably, the cetane number of the blends increased 4.74% to 11.82% are promising. Alcohol along with cetane improver make the diesel-biodiesel blends thermally more strong. Moreover, introducing the EHN in the blends increased the carbon monoxide (CO) up to 16.64%, hydrocarbon (HC) emissions up to 27.46%, brake power (BP) up to 5.62% and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) up to 2.5% compared to the n-butanol added biodiesel blends. On the other hand, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), nitric oxide (NO) and smoke reduced from 1.44% to 2.8%, 2.53% to 5.27% and 7.08% to 14.11% respectively with the addition of EHN into the n-butanol mixed biodiesel blends. Hence it can be concluded that the addition of cetane improver to oxygenated alcohol treated biodiesel blends is well efficient for a diesel engine. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  2. Predicting Cetane Index, Flash Point, and Content Sulfur of Diesel Biodiesel Blend Using an Artificial Neural Network Model
    Abstract

    de Oliveira, F. M.; de Carvalho, L. S.; Teixeira, L. S. G.; Fontes, C. H.; Lima, K. M. G.; Camara, A. B. F.; Araujo, H. O. M.; Sales, R. V. 2017. Predicting Cetane Index, Flash Point, and Content Sulfur of Diesel Biodiesel Blend Using an Artificial Neural Network Model. Energy & Fuels. 31(4) 3913-3920

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict, not simultaneously, flash point; cetane index, and sulfur content (S1800) of diesel blends (7% (v/v) biodiesel) using distillation curves (ASTM D86), specific gravity at 20 degrees C (ASTM D405), cetane index (ASTM D4737), flash point (ASTM D93), and sulfur content (ASTM D4294). The low error values obtained compared with other chemometric based models described in literature, and high correlation coefficients between reference and predicted values showed that ANNs were efficient in determining flash point, cetane index/cetane number, and sulfur content (S1800). The constructed model contains diesel samples of different compositions (50, 500, and 1800 mg kg(-1)), thus revealing the variety of fuel in the Brazilian market. Furthermore, the proposed method has advantages such as low cost and easy implementation, as it applies the results of the routine test to evaluate the quality control of diesel.
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  3. Exact estimation of biodiesel cetane number (CN) from its fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profile using partial least square (PLS) adapted by artificial neural network (ANN)
    Abstract

    Hosseinpour, S.; Aghbashlo, M.; Tabatabaei, M.; Khalife, E. 2016. Exact estimation of biodiesel cetane number (CN) from its fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profile using partial least square (PLS) adapted by artificial neural network (ANN). Energy Conversion and Management. 124389-398

    Cetane number (CN) is among the most important properties of biodiesel because it quantifies combustion speed or in better words, ignition quality. Experimental measurement of biodiesel CN is rather laborious and expensive. However, the high proportionality of biodiesel fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profile with its CN is very appealing to develop straightforward and inexpensive computerized tools for biodiesel CN estimation. Unfortunately, correlating the chemical structure of biodiesel to its CN using conventional statistical and mathematical approaches is very difficult. To solve this issue, partial least square (PLS) adapted by artificial neural network (ANN) was introduced and examined herein as an innovative approach for the exact estimation of biodiesel CN from its FAMEs profile. In the proposed approach, ANN paradigm was used for modeling the inner relation between the input and the output PLS score vectors. In addition, the capability of the developed method in predicting the biodiesel CN was compared with the basal PLS method. The accuracy of the developed approaches for computing the biodiesel CN was assessed using three statistical criteria, i.e., coefficient of determination (R-2), mean-squared error (MSE), and percentage error (PE). The ANN-adapted PLS method predicted the biodiesel CN with an R2 value higher than 0.99 demonstrating the fidelity of the developed model over the classical PLS method with a markedly lower R2 value of about 0.85. In order to facilitate the use of the proposed model, an easy-to-use computer program was also developed on the basis of ANN-adapted PLS method for determining the biodiesel CN from its FAMEs profile. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  4. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) composition used for estimation of biodiesel cetane number employing random forest and artificial neural networks: A new approach
    Abstract

    Miraboutalebi, S. M.; Kazemi, P.; Bahrami, P. 2016. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) composition used for estimation of biodiesel cetane number employing random forest and artificial neural networks: A new approach. Fuel. 166143-151

    Cetane Number (CN) is the property used to evaluate the quality of biodiesels. The CN is mainly affected by the Fatty Acids Methyl Ester (FAME) composition of the biodiesel. The common experimental methods of determination of CN is expensive and time consuming and are not always accurate, so it is vital to use other methods to predict CN. In this work, Random Forest (RF) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) assisted by 10-fold cross validation were employed to present appropriate, reliable and more generalized models for the prediction of CN based on experimental data of 131 different FAMEs collected from literature. Two different regression models obtained based on these methods. The Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and the coefficient of determination (R-2) of 0.95, 2.53 for ANN model, and 0.92, 3.09 for RF model showed the high accuracy of these models. In term of accuracy, ANN model showed better results compared to RF model. On the other hand, in term of transparency and ease of interpretation, the RF model could be widely applied in CN determination. The positive effect of FAMEs on CN was obtained if Stearic acid or Myristic acid was higher than 51.95% or 44.95% regardless of other FAME acid percentages. In addition, values greater than 68.4% in Linolenic acid could lead to a negative effect of that acid on CN. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  5. Predicting the Cetane Number of Biodiesel Fuels from Their Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Composition
    Abstract

    Mishra, S.; Anand, K.; Mehta, P. S. 2016. Predicting the Cetane Number of Biodiesel Fuels from Their Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Composition. Energy & Fuels. 30(12) 10425-10434

    One of the important properties of fuel related to compression ignition (CI) engine applications is the cetane number. The present work aims to develop a universal model to predict the cetane number of any candidate biodiesel fuel based on its fatty acid methyl ester composition using a multi-linear regression approach. The biodiesel composition effects on the cetane number are captured through two new parameters, viz., straight-chain saturated factor (SCSF) and modified degree of unsaturation (DUm), which can be estimated directly from the measured biodiesel composition data. The proposed composition based approach for predicting the cetane number of biodiesel is not limited to a specific data set. The predictions from the proposed correlation are compared to the measured cetane number of nine different biodiesel fuels of varied compositions, having wide variations of the cetane number in the range of 49-62. The comparison is found to be quite satisfactory, with a regression coefficient of 0.95 and an average absolute deviation of 1.63%. Further, the predictions from the present model are found to be much better than the existing cetane number prediction models for biodiesel fuels.
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  6. Artificial neural network models to predict density, dynamic viscosity, and cetane number of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Rocabruno-Valdes, C. I.; Ramirez-Verduzco, L. F.; Hernandez, J. A. 2015. Artificial neural network models to predict density, dynamic viscosity, and cetane number of biodiesel. Fuel. 1479-17

    Biodiesel is considered as an alternative source of energy obtained from renewable materials. This paper presents models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the density, dynamic viscosity, and cetane number of methyl esters and biodiesel. An experimental database was used for the developing of models, where the input variables in the network were the temperature, number of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms, as well as the composition of methyl esters. The learning task was done through hyperbolic and linear functions, while the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for the optimization process. Correlation coefficients of 0.91946-0.99401 were obtained by comparing the experimental and calculated values, while a mean squared error (MSE) of 1.842 x 10 (3) was obtained in the validation stage. All models met the slope-intercept test with a confidence level of 99%. The ANN models developed here can be attractive for their incorporation in simulators. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  7. Impact of Biodiesel Addition on Distillation Characteristics and Cetane Index of Diesel Fuels
    Abstract

    Aburudyna, A.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Lois, E. 2015. Impact of Biodiesel Addition on Distillation Characteristics and Cetane Index of Diesel Fuels. Journal of Energy Engineering. 141(2)

    This paper examines the impact of biodiesel addition on density, viscosity, distillation profile, and cetane index of diesel fuels. Biodiesel has become an important component in the European diesel fuel market. Its addition to diesel alters the distillation profile, which in turn may impact on the cetane index; the latter remains an important parameter for the evaluation of ignition quality of diesel fuels, in combination with the cetane number. In this series of experiments, fifty diesel fuel samples were used (35 automotive diesel samples and 15 heating gasoil samples) as base fuels, to which sunflower oil biodiesel was added at a concentration of 5% volume in the fuel blend. The distillation profile, density, and kinematic viscosity were measured in all base fuels and blends, whereas the cetane indices were calculated from density and distillation measurements. As expected, the results showed increased density and kinematic viscosity due to the biodiesel addition, whereas the front end volatility (10% recovery) and midboiling point (50% recovery) were increased in the blends. On the other hand back end volatility (90% and 95% recovery and final boiling point) was in most cases reduced due to the biodiesel addition. Observed changes in cetane index were insignificant in most cases.
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  8. A comprehensive evaluation of the cetane numbers of fatty acid methyl esters
    Abstract

    Knothe, G. 2014. A comprehensive evaluation of the cetane numbers of fatty acid methyl esters. Fuel. 1196-13

    The cetane number (CN), being related to ignition and combustion behavior, is a prime indicator of the quality of diesel fuels, including those derived from renewable resources such as biodiesel. While many effects of compound structure are known or have been postulated, experimental data have not always been available for the various ester components of biodiesel and a comprehensive evaluation including some structural features not yet experimentally investigated such as double bond configuration and position is lacking. In this work, existing CN data of fatty esters are complemented by studying C18 esters with differing double bond positions and double bond configurations. For the first time, CNs, determined as derived cetane number (DCNs), of neat trans fatty acid methyl esters, methyl elaidate (methyl 9(E)octadecenoate) and methyl linolelaidate (methyl 9(E), 12(E)-octadecenoate), were determined as were the CNs of the C18: 1 positional isomers methyl petroselinate (methyl 6(Z)-octadecenoate) and methyl asclepate (methyl 11(Z)-octadecenoate). The CNs of the positional and geometric isomers of methyl oleate are close to the CN of methyl oleate. These data are compared to other previously determined CN data. Furthermore, the applicability of CN data is evaluated using an extensive collection of CN determinations for methyl oleate as "standard'' fatty acid (methyl) ester. The average CN value for methyl oleate is in the range of 56-58 with a CN of 57 suggested for calculating purposes. Similarly, uncertainty ranges could be established for CNs of other fatty materials. The data are also useful for predicting CNs of compounds for which CNs are not readily available or easily determinable. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  9. Effects of cetane number improvers on the performance of diesel engine fuelled with methanol/biodiesel blend
    Abstract

    Li, R. N.; Wang, Z.; Ni, P. Y.; Zhao, Y.; Li, M. D.; Li, L. L. 2014. Effects of cetane number improvers on the performance of diesel engine fuelled with methanol/biodiesel blend. Fuel. 128180-187

    Methanol and biodiesel, which have high oxygen content, are high-quality alternative fuels of diesel engine. If blended, the combustion process of diesel engine would be improved and the particulate matter would be reduced effectively. However, with the increasing of methanol blending ratio, the cetane number of methanol/biodiesel blend would decrease a lot, causing the problem of poorer self-ignitability. In this study, three kinds of cetane number improvers with different chemical components are chosen. The cetane number improvers are 2-ethylhexyl nitrate, cyclohexyl nitrate and 2-methoxyethyl ether, which are added to the methanol/biodiesel blend with the ratio of 0.3%, 0.3% and 3% respectively. The cetane number of the blend increases from 45.5 to 63.5. In this paper, the physical - chemical properties of the blend are reported, and the effect of the improvers on engine performance in a direct-injection diesel engine is studied. The result shows that the improvers, especially cyclohexyl nitrate, have positive function on shortening the ignition delay period and extending the combustion duration. Besides, the maximum in-cylinder pressure of the blend with improvers increases from 6.58% to 9.94% and the maximum heat release rate of the blend with improvers increases from 1.38% to 6.78%. At rated condition, the three improvers reduce NOx concentration from 3.87% to 12.90% and smoke from 11.76% to 38.24%, but at the same time, they cause another problem-the increasing of HC and CO concentration. Among these improvers, 2-methoxyethyl ether has the best effects on the reduction of NOx concentration and smoke of methanol/biodiesel. In addition, viscosity and density of the blend are rarely impacted by the improvers. The brake thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature maintain the same level of methanol/biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  10. Prediction of cetane number and ignition delay of biodiesel using Artificial Neural Networks
    Abstract

    Saanchez-Borroto, Y.; Piloto-Rodriguez, R.; Errasti, M.; Sierens, R.; Verhelst, S. 2014. Prediction of cetane number and ignition delay of biodiesel using Artificial Neural Networks. 2013 Ises Solar World Congress. 57877-+

    This work deals with obtaining models for predicting the cetane number and ignition delay using artificial neural networks. Models for the estimation of the cetane number of biodiesel from their methyl ester composition and ignition delay of palm oil and rapeseed biodiesel using artificial neural networks were obtained. For the prediction of the cetane number model, 38 biodiesel fuels and 10 pure fatty acid methyl esters from the available literature were given as inputs. The best neural network for predicting the cetane number was a conjugate gradient descend (11:4:1) showing 96.3 % of correlation for the validation data and a mean absolute error of 1.6. The proposed network is useful for prediction of the cetane number of biodiesel in a wide range of composition but keeping the percent of total unsaturations lower than 80 %. The model for prediction of the ignition delay was developed from 5 inputs:cetane number, engine speed, equivalence ratio, mean pressure and temperature. The results showed that the neural network corresponding to a topology (5:2:1) with a back propagation algorithm gave the best prediction of the ignition delay. The correlation coefficient and the mean absolute error were 97.2% and 0.03 respectively. The models developed to predict cetane number and ignition delay using artificial neural networks showed higher accuracy than 95 %. Hence, the ANN models developed can be used for the prediction of cetane number and ignition delay of biodiesel. (c) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  11. The Efficient Production of High-Cetane Number Biodiesel from Animal Fats
    Abstract

    Choi, S. H.; Oh, Y. T.; Janchiv, A. 2014. The Efficient Production of High-Cetane Number Biodiesel from Animal Fats. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 8(2) 208-213

    A new methodology of biodiesel (BD) synthesis from lard and beef tallow (beef-T) by using suitable conditions has been experimentally developed. The problem with poor solubility between highly concentrated free fatty acid animal fat and alcohol has addressed by using high blending ratios of solvent. A polynomial equation was obtained for BD yields as a function of synthesis parameters from factorial design experiments. The most suitable combinations for high-quality BD production from animal fats were 2.0 wt.% catalyst with a 10:1 methanol/fat molar ratio, and about 65.0 wt.% solvent additive under normal atmospheric pressure. Verification experiments confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The reaction temperature should be below the boiling point of alcohol and solvent in order to prevent the evaporation. The optimized reaction time and temperature in the verification experiments were determined as to 90 min and 60 degrees C, respectively. The animal fat BD samples were evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. It is confirmed that the animal fat BD properties were in reasonable agreement with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards.
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  12. Effects of Antioxidants on the Cetane number, Viscosity, Oxidation Stability, and Thermal Properties of Biodiesel Produced from Nonedible Oils
    Abstract

    Kivevele, T. T.; Huan, Z. J. 2013. Effects of Antioxidants on the Cetane number, Viscosity, Oxidation Stability, and Thermal Properties of Biodiesel Produced from Nonedible Oils. Energy Technology. 1(9) 537-543

    Poor oxidation stability of biodiesel is the central problem associated with its commercial acceptance. To enhance the practical feasibility of biodiesel, antioxidants are added to increase its storage stability. It is quite possible that these additives may affect other basic fuel properties of biodiesel. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of antioxidants on the basic fuel properties of biodiesel produced from nonedible oils of African origin (Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcus, and Croton megalocarpus). Four antioxidants: 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol, PY), 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (propyl gallate, PG), 2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (butylated hydroxyanisole, BHA) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (Butylated Hydroxy Toluene, BHT) were investigated for their effectiveness in oxidation stability. The results showed that PY and PG were more effective than BHA and BHT. The most effective antioxidant (PY in this study) was was studied further for its effects on other basic fuel properties of biodiesels such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, and thermal properties. It was observed that the kinematic viscosity was reduced at lower concentrations of antioxidant additives (500 ppm) and slightly increased at high concentrations (1000 ppm) but lower than that of pure biodiesel. The cetane number was slightly increased at both 500 and 1000 ppm of PY antioxidant content. The effects of the antioxidant on the thermal properties were not clearly observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that adding antioxidants to biodiesel lengthens increases the storage stability and also improves the kinematic viscosity, thermal properties, and cetane number as an added advantage.
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  13. Inference of the biodiesel cetane number by multivariate techniques
    Abstract

    Nadai, D. V.; Simoes, J. B.; Gatts, C. E. N.; Miranda, P. C. M. L. 2013. Inference of the biodiesel cetane number by multivariate techniques. Fuel. 105325-330

    In this work, we have implemented a method which uses structural information from H-1 NMR spectra of fatty esters and biodiesels to infer the corresponding Cetane Number (CN). The method consists of the successive application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Fuzzy Clustering and a feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to the data set. PCA recognized redundant information, and determined the number of clusters for subsequent Fuzzy Clustering classification. At the final stage ANN used membership values from the Fuzzy Clustering process as inputs to predict the cetane number of different types of biodiesel (complex mixtures) from data of pure substances (esters). Root-mean-square deviations were in the range of 0.2-2.4. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  14. Prediction of the cetane number of biodiesel using artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression
    Abstract

    Piloto-Rodriguez, R.; Sanchez-Borroto, Y.; Lapuerta, M.; Goyos-Perez, L.; Verhelst, S. 2013. Prediction of the cetane number of biodiesel using artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression. Energy Conversion and Management. 65255-261

    Models for estimation of cetane number of biodiesel from their fatty acid methyl ester composition using multiple linear regression and artificial neural networks were obtained in this work. For the obtaining of models to predict the cetane number, an experimental data from literature reports that covers 48 and 15 biodiesels in the modeling-training step and validation step respectively were taken. Twenty-four neural networks using two topologies and different algorithms for the second training step were evaluated. The model obtained using multiple regression was compared with two other models from literature and it was able to predict cetane number with 89% of accuracy, observing one outlier. A model to predict cetane number using artificial neural network was obtained with better accuracy than 92% except one outlier. The best neural network to predict the cetane number was a backpropagation network (11:5:1) using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for the second step of the networks training and showing R = 0.9544 for the validation data. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  15. Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing: Quality Evaluation with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method and Cetane Numbers
    Abstract

    Anitescu, G.; Bruno, T. J. 2012. Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing: Quality Evaluation with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method and Cetane Numbers. Energy & Fuels. 26(8) 5256-5264

    The volatility of biodiesel fuel samples produced by supercritical (SC) transesterification (TE) of triglyceride feedstocks of chicken fat and soybean oil was determined by the advanced distillation curve (ADC) method. Particularly high temperatures (e.g., 400 degrees C) of the SCTE process partially decomposed the polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to lower molecular FAMEs (similar to C-6-C-15) and similar to C-10-C-17 hydrocarbons. These lighter fuel components shifted the first portion of the distillation curves toward that of #2 diesel fuel. This means that biodiesel fuels produced by SCTE at similar to 400 degrees C exhibit higher overall volatility when compared to commercial biodiesel samples produced by conventional catalytic TE. Other important fuel properties such as ignition delay via cetane numbers could also be improved. This information will permit efficient fuel system and combustion chamber designs to optimize fuel utilization in diesel engines, decrease of fuel consumption, and emission mitigation.
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  16. Predicting cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value of biodiesel from its fatty acid methyl ester composition
    Abstract

    Ramirez-Verduzco, L. F.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, J. E.; Jaramillo-Jacob, A. D. 2012. Predicting cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value of biodiesel from its fatty acid methyl ester composition. Fuel. 91(1) 102-111

    Biodiesel is a renewable bio-fuel derived from natural fats or vegetable oils, and it is considered as a promising alternative to substitute diesel fuels. Cetane number, viscosity, density, and higher heating value are important properties to affect the utilization of biodiesel fuels, because they are involved in the definition of fuel quality and are required as input data for predictive engine combustion models. This work presents the characterization of two biodiesel samples made from beef tallow and soybean oil through their fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profile. Empirical equations were developed to estimate four physical properties of methyl esters; and an average absolute deviation (AAD) of 5.95%, 2.57%, 0.11% and 0.21% for the cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density, and higher heating value were founded. Cetane number, viscosity, and higher heating value increases because of the increase of molecular weight and these physical properties decrease as the number of double bonds increases. Unlike that of above properties, density decreases as molecular weight increases and density increases as the degree of unsaturation increases. Two general mixing rules and five biodiesel samples were used to study the influence of FAMEs over the physical properties of biodiesel. The prediction of the cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value of biodiesel is very close to the experimental values. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  17. Predicting cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value of biodiesel from its fatty acid methyl ester composition
    Abstract

    Ramírez-Verduzco, Luis Felipe; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier Esteban; Jaramillo-Jacob, Alicia del Rayo 2012. Predicting cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value of biodiesel from its fatty acid methyl ester composition. Fuel. 91(1) 102-111

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  18. Cetane number effect on the energetic and exergetic efficiency of a diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E. 2011. Cetane number effect on the energetic and exergetic efficiency of a diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel. Fuel Processing Technology. 92(7) 1311-1321

    This study presents the energy, exergy and heat release analysis of a John Deere 4045 T4.5 L, four-stroke, four-cylinder, turbocharged diesel engine. The engine was run with four different types of fuel: yellow grease methyl ester (YGME); soybean oil methyl ester (SME); and soybean oil methyl ester containing either 0.75 or 1.5 w/w % of the cetane improver 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (SME-0.75%EHN and SME-1.5%EHN, respectively). The engine was tested at 1400 1/min under a full load of 352 Nm. For reliability, the fuels were tested three times, and the mean values were compared using different statistical techniques. The objective in this study was to determine the effect of cetane number and ignition delay on the energy and exergy efficiencies of an internal combustion engine and to compare the results for the types of fuel stated earlier. The average thermal efficiency was approximately 40.5%, and the exergetic efficiency was approximately 37.3%. The mean exergetic efficiencies of the fuels were in the order psi(SME) > psi(SME-0.75%EHN) > psi(SME-1.5%EHN) > psi(YGME). There were significant differences among the mean values according to Student's t-tests. It is concluded that a lower cetane number, a longer ignition delay period and a higher level of premixed combustion may increase the exergetic efficiency of a diesel engine. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  19. Cetane Number Prediction of Biodiesel from the Composition of the Fatty Acid Methyl Esters
    Abstract

    Tong, D. M.; Hu, C. W.; Jiang, K. H.; Li, Y. S. 2011. Cetane Number Prediction of Biodiesel from the Composition of the Fatty Acid Methyl Esters. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 88(3) 415-423

    In the present work, the measured cetane numbers (CN) of pure fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), as well as the FAME compositions and the reported CN of 59 kinds of biodiesels collected from literature were used to develop a simple model involving as more FAME component as possible for predicting CN of biodiesel from its FAME composition. Two different regression equations correlating the CN of pure FAME with the carbon number of fatty acid chain were obtained by regression analysis, which shows that the dependence of the CN on the carbon number varies with the unsaturated degree of fatty acid chain. The 59 biodiesels were divided into two categories and used, respectively to develop and test a multiple linear regression model (MLRM) correlating the CN of biodiesel with its FAME composition. A simple and convenient regression equation with a high accuracy and a good reproducibility (average absolute error of 0.49 CN for testing set and 1.52 CN for all data) were developed, showing excellent correlation (R (2): 0.9904 for testing set). The model developed in the present work can be used conveniently to give a satisfactory predicted CN of biodiesel from the FAME composition.
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  20. Cetane Number and Thermal Properties of Croton Oil, Biodiesel, 1-Butanol, and Diesel Blends
    Abstract

    Lujaji, F.; Bereczky, A.; Novak, C.; Mbarawa, M. 2010. Cetane Number and Thermal Properties of Croton Oil, Biodiesel, 1-Butanol, and Diesel Blends. World Congress on Engineering, Wce 2010, Vol Iii. 2424-2428

    Vegetable oil derived fuels for diesel engines are becoming important as alternative to petroleum diesel fuels due to their environmental friendliness and availability. Ignition quality in compression ignition (CI) engines is influenced by thermal characteristics and fuel properties. In this study, the effects of vegetable oil transesterification and vegetable oil-1-butanol-diesel blend on fuel properties, cetane number (CN), and thermal characteristics were experimentally investigated. Methyl ester (biodiesel) and 10% vegetable oil 10% 1-butanol-80% diesel blend was prepared from croton oil (CRO). CN was measured in a CFR F-5 engine, and a thermogravimetric analysis (TG), as well as the determination of fuel properties of croton oils, biodiesel, and blend were carried out. It can be observed for vegetable oils that they possess low volatility characteristics, low CN and high viscosity different from those of biodiesels, blends, and diesel fuel. It was observed that biodiesels and blends exhibit similarities with diesel in the fuel characteristics, CN, and TG curves.
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  21. Cetane number and thermal properties of vegetable oil, biodiesel, 1-butanol and diesel blends
    Abstract

    Lujaji, F.; Bereczky, A.; Janosi, L.; Novak, C.; Mbarawa, M. 2010. Cetane number and thermal properties of vegetable oil, biodiesel, 1-butanol and diesel blends. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 102(3) 1175-1181

    Vegetable oil derived fuels for diesel engines are becoming important as alternative to petroleum diesel fuels due to their environmental friendliness and availability. Ignition quality in compression ignition (CI) engines is influenced by thermal characteristics and fuel properties. In this study, the effects of vegetable oil transesterification and vegetable oil-1-butanol-diesel blends on fuel properties, cetane number (CN) and thermal characteristics were experimentally investigated. Methyl esters (biodiesel) and 10% vegetable oil-10% 1-butanol-80% diesel blends were prepared from croton oil (CRO), coconut oil (COO) and jatropha oil (JAO). CN was measured in a CFR F-5 engine, and a thermogravimetric analysis (TG), as well as the determination of fuel properties of vegetable oils, biodiesels and blends was carried out. It can be observed for vegetable oils that they possess low volatility characteristics, low CN and high viscosity different from those of biodiesels, blends and diesel fuel. It was observed that biodiesels and blends exhibit similarities with diesel in the fuel characteristics, CN and TG curves.
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  22. Correlation for the estimation of the density of fatty acid esters fuels and its implications. A proposed Biodiesel Cetane Index
    Abstract

    Lapuerta, M.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, J.; Armas, O. 2010. Correlation for the estimation of the density of fatty acid esters fuels and its implications. A proposed Biodiesel Cetane Index. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids. 163(7) 720-727

    Biodiesel fuels (methyl or ethyl esters derived from vegetables oils and animal fats) are currently being used as a means to diminish the crude oil dependency and to limit the greenhouse gas emissions of the transportation sector. However, their physical properties are different from traditional fossil fuels, this making uncertain their effect on new, electronically controlled vehicles. Density is one of those properties, and its implications go even further. First, because governments are expected to boost the use of high-biodiesel content blends, but biodiesel fuels are denser than fossil ones. In consequence, their blending proportion is indirectly restricted in order not to exceed the maximum density limit established in fuel quality standards. Second, because an accurate knowledge of biodiesel density permits the estimation of other properties such as the Cetane Number, whose direct measurement is complex and presents low repeatability and low reproducibility. In this study we compile densities of methyl and ethyl esters published in literature, and proposed equations to convert them to 15 C and to predict the biodiesel density based on its chain length and unsaturation degree. Both expressions were validated for a wide range of commercial biodiesel fuels. Using the latter, we define a term called Biodiesel Cetane Index, which predicts with high accuracy the Biodiesel Cetane Number. Finally, simple calculations prove that the introduction of high-biodiesel content blends in the fuel market would force the refineries to reduce the density of their fossil fuels. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  23. Development of a Process for Refining Rape Seed Oil into Biodiesel and High-Cetane Components of Diesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Zavarukhin, S. G.; Yakovlev, V. A.; Parmon, V. N.; Sister, V. G.; Ivannikova, E. M.; Eliseeva, O. A. 2010. Development of a Process for Refining Rape Seed Oil into Biodiesel and High-Cetane Components of Diesel Fuel. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 46(1) 1-8

    New technology for refining vegetable oil (in particular, rapeseed oil) is proposed; a distinctive feature is the use of one transesterification reactor with a stationary bed of heterogeneous catalyst and an additional stage of hydrotreating of part of the biodiesel to obtain green diesel (high-cetane hydrocarbons) that can be used as an ameliorant for traditional diesel fuels is proposed. The material and heat balances were calculated for the proposed technology.
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  24. Correlation for the estimation of the cetane number of biodiesel fuels and implications on the iodine number
    Abstract

    Lapuerta, M.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, J.; de Mora, E. F. 2009. Correlation for the estimation of the cetane number of biodiesel fuels and implications on the iodine number. Energy Policy. 37(11) 4337-4344

    Some European experts on normalization of transport fuels have recently suggested the suppression of the cetane-number limitation from the European biodiesel norm when its final destination is blending with diesel fuel. Although this measure should not affect the range of oils used for biodiesel production (only few of them lead to biodiesel fuels with cetane numbers below this limit), the trend of cetane number to decrease with increasing unsaturation could reinforce the arguments to maintain the iodine-number limitation as an indirect limit for the cetane number.
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  25. Empirical Approach for Predicting the Cetane Number of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Bose, P. K. 2009. Empirical Approach for Predicting the Cetane Number of Biodiesel. International Journal of Automotive Technology. 10(4) 421-429

    The cetane number is an indicator of ignition quality and thus of fuel quality in the realm of diesel engines. It is conceptually similar to the octane number used for gasoline. Generally, a compound that has a high octane number tends to have a low cetane number and vice versa. The cetane number of a diesel fuel is related to the ignition delay time. In our work the first approach is a statistical one the accuracy of which depends upon the data obtained from various papers and literature sources, as all equations used were based on this data. During prediction using more than one equation is a good approach, as it provides the accuracy as well as the relative error. The second approach is also a statistical one, but its value depends upon the saponification number and iodine value. Therefore the accuracy of this equation may be higher, since we can collect the data for saponification numbers and iodine values from literature, without needing to calculate them. Using the saponification number and iodine value we can select an optimal biodiesel as generally a good biodiesel is selected using these three values. Thus the second approach allows us the freedom to select a biodiesel.
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  26. Relating the cetane number of biodiesel fuels to their fatty acid composition: a critical study
    Abstract

    Gopinath, A.; Puhan, S.; Nagarajan, G. 2009. Relating the cetane number of biodiesel fuels to their fatty acid composition: a critical study. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D-Journal of Automobile Engineering. 223(D4) 565-583

    The cetane number is one of the most significant properties to specify the ignition quality of a fuel for use in a diesel engine. The cetane number of biodiesel fuels is considerably influenced by their fatty acid methyl ester composition. The determination of cetane number of biodiesel is an expensive and time-consuming process. The objective of the present work is to predict the cetane numbers of different biodiesels using their fatty acid ester composition. Fifteen different biodiesel (including three blends) fuels were prepared and their cetane numbers were experimentally measured. An extensive literature review was made and the measured cetane numbers were compared with the reported values. To predict the cetane numbers of biodiesel fuels from their fatty acid methyl ester composition, a Multiple linear regression model wits developed. The cetane numbers and fatty acid compositions of 57 biodiesel fuels and 7 pure fatty acid methyl esters from the available literature were given as inputs. The experimentally measured cetane numbers and fatty acid compositions Of four biodiesel fuels were also given as inputs to develop the regression model. The regression model has yielded an R(2) value of 0.953 and a standard deviation of 2.271. The predicted cetane numbers are comparable with the experimentally measured cetane numbers. The maximum prediction error from the present model was found to be 8 per cent. Similarly, the present model was compared with the available litrature models. The maximum prediction error from the literature models was found to be 15 per cent. The present model also shows a good agreement with the measured cetane numbers.
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  27. Investigation of the Parameters Affecting the Cetane Number of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Wadumesthrige, K.; Smith, J. C.; Wilson, J. R.; Salley, S. O.; Ng, K. Y. S. 2008. Investigation of the Parameters Affecting the Cetane Number of Biodiesel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 85(11) 1073-1081

    The cetane number is the most significant property for measuring the ignition quality of fuels for compression ignition diesel engines. In this study, the derived cetane number (DCN) of several types of biodiesel, biodiesel components and ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) was determined using an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT (TM)). The chemical structure of FAME leads to a higher cetane number of biodiesel compared to ULSD. The contribution to DCN from minor components present in biodiesel is not significant. Oxidation of biodiesel samples results in higher DCN values while depending on the conditions of oxidation. A greater than 25% increase was observed when oxidation was carried out in a way to retain volatile oxidative products such as carboxylic acids and aldehydes. Accelerated oxidation of cotton seed oil (CSO) biodiesel at 110 degrees C and 10 L/min air flow rate after 210 min resulted in a loss of 14% of the FAME content, of which 10% can be attributed to the oxidation of methyl linoleate (C18:2), whereas oxidation of soy bean oil (SBO) biodiesel resulted in a loss of 21% total FAME after 210 min. A significant amount of methyl linolenate (C18:3) remained un-reacted after 210 min of oxidation. Ambient oxidation of distilled biodiesel samples resulted in a very high cetane number. Oxidative products such as aldehydes, hydroperoxides and oligomers of FAME are probably responsible for this higher DCN. This study enhances the understanding of the effect of composition on the cetane number of biodiesel as well as the effect of oxidative aging on both biodiesel composition and the resultant DCN.
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  28. New engine method for biodiesel cetane number testing
    Abstract

    Pesic, R. B.; Davinic, A. L.; Veinovic, S. P. 2008. New engine method for biodiesel cetane number testing. Thermal Science. 12(1) 125-138

    Substitution of fossil fuels with fuels that come from part renewable sources has been a subject of many studies and researches in the past decade. Considering the higher cost and limits of production resources, a special attention is focused on raising the energy efficiency of biofuel usage, mainly through optimization of the combustion process. Consequently, in biofuel applications, there is a need for determination of auto-ignition quality expressed by cetane number as a dominant characteristic that influences combustion parameters. The fact that the method for cetane number determination is comparative in nature has led us to try to develop substitute engine method for cetane number determination, by the use of the available laboratory equipment and serial, mono-cylinder engine with direct injection, DMB LDA 450. Description of the method, results of optimization of engine's working parameters for conduction of the test and method's Accuracy estimation are given in the paper. The paper also presents the results of domestic biodiesel fuels cetane number testing with the application of described engine method, developed at the Laboratory for internal combustion engines and fuels and lubricants of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering from Kragujevac, Serbia.
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  29. Prediction of cetane number of biodiesel fuel from the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition
    Abstract

    Bamgboye, A. I.; Hansen, A. C. 2008. Prediction of cetane number of biodiesel fuel from the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition. International Agrophysics. 22(1) 21-29

    Cetane number is an important parameter in evaluating the quality of biodiesel fuel. Its determination is usually arduous and expensive, and the results obtained are not always accurate due to experimental error. This work is aimed at developing a relationship between the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition and the cetane number (CN).
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  30. A possible advantage of nitrated biodiesel over conventional cetane enhancers
    Abstract

    Jones, J. C. 2007. A possible advantage of nitrated biodiesel over conventional cetane enhancers. Fuel. 86(16) 2637-2637

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  31. Nitration of biodiesel of waste oil: Nitrated biodiesel as a cetane number enhancer
    Abstract

    Canoira, L.; Alcantara, R.; Torcal, S.; Tsiouvaras, N.; Lois, E.; Korres, D. M. 2007. Nitration of biodiesel of waste oil: Nitrated biodiesel as a cetane number enhancer. Fuel. 86(7-8) 965-971

    Biodiesel has been produced by transesterification of waste frying oil with methanol catalysed by sodium methoxide. The unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters of the biodiesel produced have been nitrated by two alternative nitration methods, showing an incorporation of nitrogen between 3.43 and 5.10 wt.%, in the chemical form of nitro, nitrate and acetoxy functional groups. A detailed gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been carried out on the nitrated biodiesel samples in order to identify the nitration products of this complex mixture. The nitrated biodiesel has been added to a base diesel fuel in a 1000 mg L-1 concentration resulting in an increase of the cetane number of the fuel by more than five points, from 54.7 to 60.5. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  32. Artificial neural networks used for the prediction of the cetane number of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Ramadhas, A. S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C.; Padmakumari, K. 2006. Artificial neural networks used for the prediction of the cetane number of biodiesel. Renewable Energy. 31(15) 2524-2533

    Cetane number (CN) is one of the most significant properties to specify the ignition quality of any fuel for internal combustion engines. The CN of biodiesel varies widely in the range of 48-67 depending upon various parameters including the oil processing technology and climatic conditions where the feedstock (vegetable oil) is collected. Determination of the CN of a fuel by an experimental procedure is a tedious job for the upcoming biodiesel production industry. The fatty acid composition of base oil predominantly affects the CN of the biodiesel produced from it. This paper discusses the currently available CN estimation techniques and the necessity of accurate prediction of CN of biodiesel. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models are developed to predict the CN of any biodiesel. The present paper deals with the application of multi-layer feed forward, radial base, generalized regression and recurrent network models for the prediction of CN. The fatty acid compositions of biodiesel and the experimental CNs are used to train the networks. The parameters that affect the development of the model are also discussed. ANN predicted CNs are found to be in agreement with the experimental CNs. Hence, the ANN models developed can be used reliably for the prediction of CN of biodiesel. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  33. Cetane number testing of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J. 2006. Cetane number testing of biodiesel. NBB.

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  34. Cetane numbers of branched and straight-chain fatty esters determined in an ignition quality tester
    Abstract

    Knothe, G.; Matheaus, A. C.; Ryan, T. W. 2003. Cetane numbers of branched and straight-chain fatty esters determined in an ignition quality tester. Fuel. 82(8) 971-975

    The cetane number, a widely used diesel fuel quality parameter related to the ignition delay time (and combustion quality) of a fuel, has been applied to alternative diesel fuels such as biodiesel and its components. In this work, the cetane numbers of 29 samples of straight-chain and branched C1-C4 esters as well as 2-ethylhexyl esters of various common fatty acids were determined. The cetane numbers of these esters are not significantly affected by branching in the alcohol moiety. Therefore, branched esters, which improve the cold-flow properties of biodiesel, can be employed without greatly influencing ignition properties compared to the more common methyl esters. Unsaturation in the fatty acid chain was again the most significant factor causing lower cetane numbers. Cetane numbers were determined in an ignition quality tester (IQT) which is a newly developed, automated rapid method using only small amounts of material. The IQT is as applicable to biodiesel and its components as previous cetane-testing methods. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd
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  35. Cetane numbers, cetane improvement and precombustion of fatty compounds in biodiesel
    Abstract

    Knothe, G. 1998. Cetane numbers, cetane improvement and precombustion of fatty compounds in biodiesel. Biomass for Energy and Industry. 528-532

    Biodiesel fuels (vegetable oils and animal fats and their derivatives, especially methyl esters) still pose some technical problems when used as alternative fuels in a diesel engine. One problem is the reduction of exhaust emissions such as NOx to meet increasingly stringent environmental regulations. NOx emissions are of particular concern because they are a precursor of ozone, a major component of smog. To solve the emissions problems, several aspects are being evaluated. Additives termed cetane improvers decrease NOx emissions in conventional diesel fuel. Cetane improvers having different effects on various fatty compounds were now identified, thus opening the possibility of tailoring the cetane improver to the predominant fatty compound in a biodiesel fuel. These effects depend on the nature of the cetane improver and structural features of fatty compounds such as number and position of double bonds as well as number of CH2 groups. In some cases, cetane number trends were altered. Compounds formed in the initial phase of fuel injection into the combustion chamber before ignition begins (precombustion phase) were evaluated by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. Low cetane numbers of intermediary species formed prior to fuel ignition may be an explanation for differing cetane numbers of fatty compounds.
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  36. Precombustion of fatty acids and esters of biodiesel. A possible explanation for differing cetane numbers
    Abstract

    Knothe, G.; Bagby, M. O.; Ryan, T. W. 1998. Precombustion of fatty acids and esters of biodiesel. A possible explanation for differing cetane numbers. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 75(8) 1007-1013

    Fatty acids of C-18 chainlength as well as their methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and n-butyl esters were injected into a constant-volume combustion apparatus suitable for collecting material from the fuel spray prior to the onset of ignition. The collected material from this precombustion phase of the injection event was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compounds identified as forming during the precombustion phase were straight-chain and branched alkanes, alkenes, and cyclic hydrocarbons, as well as aldehydes, ketones, esters, substituted benzenes, and other species, such as furans. Some of the compounds formed during precombustion have low cetane numbers (CN). Low-cetane aromatic compounds were found more prominently for more unsaturated fatty compounds. Thus, the low CN of the intermediary precombustion species may constitute a possible partial explanation why some compounds, for example the more unsaturated fatty compounds, have relatively low CN.
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  37. Predicting Cetane Numbers of Normal-Alcohols and Methyl-Esters from Their Physical-Properties
    Abstract

    Freedman, B.; Bagby, M. O. 1990. Predicting Cetane Numbers of Normal-Alcohols and Methyl-Esters from Their Physical-Properties. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 67(9) 565-571

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  38. A Simple Method for Estimation of Cetane Index of Vegetable Oil Methyl-Esters
    Abstract

    Krisnangkura, K. 1986. A Simple Method for Estimation of Cetane Index of Vegetable Oil Methyl-Esters. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 63(4) 552-553

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