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Biodiesel production from Waste Vegetable Oil

This page lists all articles published worldwide in journal, book, magazine or otherwise about biodiesel produciton from waste oil, used oil, or high free fatty acid feedstock. Please provide us a feedback feedback if you see any error in this listing or you would like to report and articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. A heterogeneous catalyst from a mixture of coconut waste and eggshells for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Sulaiman, S.; Ruslan, N. I. F. 2017. A heterogeneous catalyst from a mixture of coconut waste and eggshells for biodiesel production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(2) 154-159

    In this study, heterogeneous catalysts were synthesized from mixture of calcined solid coconut waste and eggshells as a catalyst for the transesterification of palm oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the amount of catalysts (coconut waste:calcined eggshells ratio) for production of biodiesel. The optimum ratio of catalysts for biodiesel production was found as follows: coconut waste to eggshell, 5:1 wt% and the highest FAME yield was 81% with fixed parameters of reaction time (3 h), reaction temperature (65 degrees C), and methanol:oil ratio (24:1).
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  2. A novel ultrasonic reactor for continuous production of biodiesel from waste acid oil
    Abstract

    Zou, H. S.; Chai, J. 2017. A novel ultrasonic reactor for continuous production of biodiesel from waste acid oil. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 34(2) 353-359

    FAME was produced by a two-step in-situ transesterification of acid oil (AO) with methanol in a novel continuous flow ultrasonic reactor system composed of four ultrasonic reactors with different frequency. The hydrodynamic behavior of the reactor was investigated by a step response technique, and the effect of ultrasonic frequency on mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids (FAMEs) formation was also investigated. The production process includes an in-situ sulfuric acid-catalyzed esterification of AO with methanol in the first two ultrasonic reactors successively followed by an in-situ base-catalyzed transesterification in the other two ultrasonic reactors. The AO initial free fatty acids (FFA) content about 17.5 w% was cut down to less than 1 w% by sulfuric acid-catalyzed esterification. FAME yields in excess of 97.0% identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were obtained by the two-step in-situ reaction. The maximum and minimum volumetric productivity could reach 13.76 L center dot h(-1) and 10.24 L center dot h(-1) respectively.
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  3. A review on the prospects of sustainable biodiesel production: A global scenario with an emphasis on waste-oil biodiesel utilization
    Abstract

    Hajjari, M.; Tabatabaei, M.; Aghbashlo, M.; Ghanavati, H. 2017. A review on the prospects of sustainable biodiesel production: A global scenario with an emphasis on waste-oil biodiesel utilization. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 72445-464

    Due to the large amount of diesel fuel demands worldwide and the negative environmental and health impacts of its direct combustion, biodiesel production and consumption have been globally increasing as the best short-term substitute for mineral diesel. However, using edible and non-edible oil feedstocks for biodiesel production has led to several controversial issues including feedstock availability and cost, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, land use changes (LUC), and fuel vs. food/feed competition. Fortunately, these problems can be effectively overcome using non-crop feedstocks. In this context, waste-oriented oils/fats have been proposed as the excellent options to produce biodiesel by overlooking the trivial collection/recycling costs. In this review article, a comprehensive collection plan followed by an elaborated integrated utilization strategy called "waste oil biodiesel utilization scenario" (WO-BUS) is proposed for Iran in order to achieve cost-effective and eco-friendly production/consumption of biodiesel. WO-BUS is adoptable by the countries with similar situations and infrastructures.
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  4. A study on biodiesel production from the compounds of brewed tea waste
    Abstract

    Yavuz, D. C.; Olcer, H. 2017. A study on biodiesel production from the compounds of brewed tea waste. International Journal of Global Warming. 11(3) 328-336

    In this study, pyrolysis of tea waste and the products yielded at the end of the pyrolysis, which is one of biomass sources which has an important place in the renewable energy sources, have been researched. By thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) of brewed tea waste, thermal decomposition phases were viewed in the nitrogen atmosphere from room temperature to 1,000 degrees C. And then and GC/MS analyses were carried out to make qualitative descriptions of the liquid acquired in the wake of pyrolysis analysis. According to the experiment results, it has been found out that the products can be used as liquid fuel. According to the results of the experiments solid product yielding dropped from 90.85% to 2.95% in line with temperature rise. Moreover, FTIR and GC/MS analyses have proved that the products acquired not only consist of acetone, hydrocarbons, phenol-its derivatives and caffeine but they could be used as liquid fuel as well.
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  5. An Improvement in Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil by Applying Thought Multi-Response Surface Methodology Using Desirability Functions
    Abstract

    Bobadilla, M. C.; Lorza, R. L.; Garcia, R. E.; Gomez, F. S.; Gonzalez, E. P. V. 2017. An Improvement in Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil by Applying Thought Multi-Response Surface Methodology Using Desirability Functions. Energies. 10(1)

    The exhaustion of natural resources has increased petroleum prices and the environmental impact of oil has stimulated the search for an alternative source of energy such as biodiesel. Waste cooking oil is a potential replacement for vegetable oils in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel is synthesized by direct transesterification of vegetable oils, which is controlled by several inputs or process variables, including the dosage of catalyst, process temperature, mixing speed, mixing time, humidity and impurities of waste cooking oil that was studied in this case. Yield, turbidity, density, viscosity and higher heating value are considered as outputs. This paper used multi-response surface methodology (MRS) with desirability functions to find the best combination of input variables used in the transesterification reactions to improve the production of biodiesel. In this case, several biodiesel optimization scenarios have been proposed. They are based on a desire to improve the biodiesel yield and the higher heating value, while decreasing the viscosity, density and turbidity. The results demonstrated that, although waste cooking oil was collected from various sources, the dosage of catalyst is one of the most important variables in the yield of biodiesel production, whereas the viscosity obtained was similar in all samples of the biodiesel that was studied.
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  6. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of post-manufacturing waste derived from production of methyl esters from rapeseed oil
    Abstract

    Kachel-Jakubowska, M.; Matwijczuk, A.; Gagos, M. 2017. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of post-manufacturing waste derived from production of methyl esters from rapeseed oil. International Agrophysics. 31(2) 175-182

    The technology of transesterification of biodiesel obtained from many agricultural products, which are often referred to as renewable resources, yields substantial amounts of by-pro-ducts. They exhibit various properties that prompt scientific research into potential application thereof. Various spectroscopic methods, e.g. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are being increasingly used in the research. In this paper, we present the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectroscopy analyses of technical glycerine, distilled glycerine, and matter organic non glycerol, i.e. by-products of biodiesel production. To facilitate the spectroscopic analysis, a number of parameters were determined for all the materials, e.g. the calorific value, water content, sulphated ash content, methanol content, acidity, as well as the contents of esters, heavy metals, aldehydes, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The results indicate that the analysed products are characterised by a comparable calorific value in the range from 11.35 to 16.05 MJ kg(-1) in the case of matter organic non glycerol and technical glycerine. Observation of changes in the position of selected peaks in the range of 3700-650 cm(-1) in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method facilitates determination of the level of degradation of the analysed material. Changes in the wavelength ranges can be used for monitoring the formation of secondary oxidation products containing carbonyl groups.
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  7. Application of Glutaraldehyde-Crosslinked Chitosan Membranes from Shrimp Shellwaste on Production of Biodiesel from Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil
    Abstract

    Wafiroh, S.; Wathoniyyah, M.; Abdulloh, A.; Rahardjo, Y.; Fahmi, M. Z. 2017. Application of Glutaraldehyde-Crosslinked Chitosan Membranes from Shrimp Shellwaste on Production of Biodiesel from Calophyllum Inophyllum Oil. Chemistry & Chemical Technology. 11(1) 65-70

    The purification of biodiesel was performed using glutaraldehyde- crosslinked chitosan membrane to improve the quality and to reduce the cost of biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained by acid- based catalyzed transesterification of Calophyllum inophyllum oil. The results of this experiment showed that the amount of glycerol in biodiesel before the process is 0.3014 +/- 0.05 %. After the purification process performed for 1 h, the glycerol content in biodiesel has been reduced to 0.1429 +/- 0.09 %.
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  8. Aspen HYSYS Simulation for Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil using Membrane Reactor
    Abstract

    Abdurakhman, Y. B.; Putra, Z. A.; Bilad, M. R. 2017. Aspen HYSYS Simulation for Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil using Membrane Reactor. 1st Annual Applied Science and Engineering Conference (Aasec), in Conjuction with the International Conference on Sport Science, Health, and Physical Education (Icsshpe). 180

    Biodiesel is a promising energy alternative solution to cater the demand of clean sustainable energy sources. Conventional biodiesel production is done by transesterification method using stirred tank reactor and homogeneous base catalyst, then followed by purification process. However, there are some drawbacks associated with this method. They include soap formation, sensitivity to free fatty acid (FFA) content and purification difficulties. Due to these downsides, biodiesel production using heterogeneous acid catalyst in membrane reactor is proposed. This project is aimed to study the effect of FFA content and membrane separation effectiveness on FAME yield. Waste cooking oil, inorganic pressure-driven membrane and WAl is used as raw material, membrane and heterogeneous acid catalyst, respectively. Biodiesel yield formulation is derived from literature data and then used in an Aspen HYSYS process simulation. Early phase cost estimation shows that FFA content does not affect the estimated capital investment, while the membrane separation effectiveness does significantly. Future work will include its comparison with the conventional biodiesel production process.
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  9. Biodiesel production from used cooking oil using a novel surface functionalised TiO2 nano-catalyst
    Abstract

    Gardy, J.; Hassanpour, A.; Lai, X. J.; Ahmed, M. H.; Rehan, M. 2017. Biodiesel production from used cooking oil using a novel surface functionalised TiO2 nano-catalyst. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 207297-310

    A novel, efficient and recyclable mesoporous TiO2/PrSO3H solid acid nano-catalyst was synthesised by the post-synthetic grafting of propyl sulfonic acid groups onto a mixed phase of a TiO2 support. The synthesised nano-catalyst was characterised using FTIR, SEM, TEM, XPS, N-2 adsorption desorption isotherms, XRD, DSC, TGA, and CHNS analysis.The loading percentage of propyl sulfonic acid on the TiO2 support was calculated using CHNS analysis and TGA. The catalytic performance of TiO2/PrSO3H on the production of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) via simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions from used cooking oil (UCO) has been studied. The effects of different process parameters showed that 98.3% of FAME can be obtained after 911 of reaction time with 1:15 molar ratio of oil to methanol, 60 degrees C reaction temperature and 4.5 wt% catalyst loading. It was also found that the one-pot post-surface functionalisation strategy with hydrophilic functional groups (-SO3H) enhanced the acid strengths of the nano-catalyst providing more acid sites for the reactants, and improving the accessibility of methanol to the triglycerides (TG)/free fatty acids (FFAs) by increasing the pore volumes/sizes of the nano-catalyst. The solid acid nano-catalyst was re-used in four consecutive runs without significant loss of catalytic efficiency. Finally, the synthesised biodiesel fuel satisfied ASTM and EN standards. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  10. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in a. magnetically fluidized bed reactor using whole-cell biocatalysts
    Abstract

    Chen, G. Y.; Liu, J.; Yao, J. G.; Qi, Y.; Yan, B. B. 2017. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in a. magnetically fluidized bed reactor using whole-cell biocatalysts. Energy Conversion and Management. 138556-564

    Biodiesel production from catalytic transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) was investigated in a magnetically fluidized bed reactor (MFBR) over Pseudomonas mendocina cells immobilized in magnetic microspheres. The effects of methanol to oil molar ratio (MOMR), magnetic field intensity, biocatalysts concentration and reactant flow rate on biodiesel production were investigated. Optimization of the selected parameters was carried out for maximum biodiesel production using response surface methodology with support of Design-Expert software. The parameters optimized with response surface methodology were MOMR of 3.74:1, magnetic field intensity of 136.63 Oe, biocatalysts concentration of 10.21 wt. % and reactant flow rate of 16.97 mL/min. An experimental biodiesel yield of 91.8% was obtained at 35 degrees C after 48 h with these optimized parameters. Moreover, the magnetic whole-cell biocatalysts (MWCBs) exhibited good reusability in MFBR that 87.5% biodiesel yield could still be achieved after 10 cycles. The results suggested that MWCBs catalyzed transesterification in the MFBR system would have broad application prospects in biodiesel production. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  11. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in Yemen: a techno-economic investigation
    Abstract

    Al-attab, K.; Wahas, A.; Almoqry, N.; Alqubati, S. 2017. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in Yemen: a techno-economic investigation. Biofuels-Uk. 8(1) 17-27

    The conflict in Yemen in 2015 has resulted in a total lack of diesel fuel supply to many major cities that resulted in disruption to many public services and utilities. This trans-disciplinary two-phase project was initiated by the Small and Micro Enterprise Promotion Service to study the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) from a techno-economic point of view. The first phase of the project included a lab scale biodiesel investigation to determine the optimum production conditions. The biodiesel fuel product was analyzed, in addition to a performance comparison between diesel and biodiesel on a small compression ignition genset. The second phase included a feasibility study for small and medium scale biodiesel production facilities from WCO based on the current economic situation in Yemen.
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  12. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using onsite produced purified lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa FW_SH-1: Central composite design approach
    Abstract

    Ali, C. H.; Qureshi, A. S.; Mbadinga, S. M.; Liu, J. F.; Yang, S. Z.; Mu, B. Z. 2017. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using onsite produced purified lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa FW_SH-1: Central composite design approach. Renewable Energy. 10993-100

    Increasing energy demands, decreasing fossil fuel resources, instability of crude oil prices and pollution problems have compelled to switch over bio-based fuel for transportation, for example, biodiesel. In present study, waste cooking oil (WCO) was evaluated as feedstock for biodiesel production using free lipase in liquid. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the interaction between four factors: the reaction temperature, methanol-oil molar ratio, dosage of lipase as biocatalyst and rotational speed. Using this method, the model predicted the optimal conditions reaching up to 86% FAME yield with temperature 44.2 degrees C, methanol-oil molar ratio (3.05:1), amount of lipase 0.782 g and rotation speed of 170 rpm with incubation period of 24 h. The reactions carried out under optimized conditions confirmed the validity of the model. The use of WCO in lipase catalyzed process can diminish the cost of biodiesel production and will allow lowering the direct use of edible oils to produce biodiesel instead. Thus, present study shows great practical potential to replace fossil fuel with renewable fuel (biodiesel). (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  13. Biodiesel production potential from fat fraction of municipal waste in Makkah
    Abstract

    Shahzad, K.; Nizami, A. S.; Sagir, M.; Rehan, M.; Maier, S.; Khan, M. Z.; Ouda, O. K.; Ismail, I. M.; BaFail, A. O. 2017. Biodiesel production potential from fat fraction of municipal waste in Makkah. PLoS One. 12(2) e0171297

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), millions of Muslims come to perform Pilgrimage every year. Around one million ton of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated in Makkah city annually. The collected MSW is disposed of in the landfills without any treatment or energy recovery. As a result, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contamination of the soil and water bodies along with leachate and odors are occurring in waste disposal vicinities. The composition of MSW shows that food waste is the largest waste stream (up to 51%) of the total generated MSW. About 13% of the food waste consists of fat content that is equivalent to about 64 thousand tons per year. This study aims to estimate the production potential of biodiesel first time in Makkah city from fat/oil fractions of MSW and highlight its economic and environmental benefits. It has been estimated that 62.53, 117.15 and 6.38 thousand tons of biodiesel, meat and bone meal (MBM) and glycerol respectively could be produced in 2014. A total electricity potential of 852 Gigawatt hour (GWh) from all three sources based on their energy contents, Higher Heating Value (HHV) of 40.17, 18.33 and 19 MJ/kg, was estimated for 2014 that will increase up to 1777 GWh in 2050. The cumulative net savings from landfill waste diversion (256 to 533 million Saudi Riyal (SAR)), carbon credits (46 to 96 million SAR), fuel savings (146 to 303 million SAR) and electricity generation (273 to 569 million SAR) have a potential to add a total net revenue of 611 to 1274 million SAR every year to the Saudi economy, from 2014 to 2050 respectively. However, further studies including real-time data about annual slaughtering activities and the amount of waste generation and its management are critical to decide optimum waste management practices based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) methodologies.
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  14. Biodiesel production potential of oleaginous Rhodococcus opacusgrown on biomass gasification wastewater
    Abstract

    Goswami, L.; Namboodiri, M. M. T.; Kumar, R. V.; Pakshirajan, K.; Pugazhenthi, G. 2017. Biodiesel production potential of oleaginous Rhodococcus opacusgrown on biomass gasification wastewater. Renewable Energy. 105400-406

    This study examined the valorization of biomass gasification wastewater (BGWW) for lipids accumulation by Rhodococcus opacus and potential biodiesel application. Using synthetic mineral media based BGWW, the bacterium accumulated a maximum 65.8% (w/w) of lipids. 10% (v/v) inoculum size showed a more positive effect than 5% (v/v) inoculum size on both the 'chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and lipid accumulation by R. opacus. Using the raw wastewater (untreated), the bacterium accumulated 54.3% (w/w) lipid with a wastewater COD removal efficiency of 64%. However, these values were further enhanced to 62.8% (w/w) and 74%, respectively, following supplementation of the wastewater with mineral salt media in the ratio 4:1. H-1 and C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses of the accumulated lipids revealed the presence of more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the accumulated lipids showed four thermal decomposition regions each with a good stability. Transesterification of the bacterial lipids to biodiesel and its properties revealed a very good potential of the strain for the production of biodiesel from PAH containing wastewater. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  15. Biodiesel production using waste cooking oil: a waste to energy conversion strategy
    Abstract

    Sodhi, A. K.; Tripathi, S.; Kundu, K. 2017. Biodiesel production using waste cooking oil: a waste to energy conversion strategy. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 19(6) 1799-1807

    In this study, biodiesel was produced using waste cooking oil that was discarded as a waste in the environment. The properties of the feedstock were determined using standard ASTM methods. The transesterification process was implemented to extract the biodiesel, and this process was optimized and standardized by selecting three different parameters: molar ratio (methanol: oil), catalyst concentration (KOH) and reaction temperature. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesel so produced were tested and analyzed using gas chromatography. Biodiesel and diesel were mixed in different volumetric ratios, and the exhaust emission characteristics of the blends were determined by testing the blends on a variable compression ratio engine. The study concluded that waste cooking oil has a great potential for waste to energy process. The highest yield of 93.8% was obtained by optimizing the process. Emission characteristics of CO for B50 blend showed a downward trend while NOx emission was found to be greater for blending ratios above 10%. B10 showed the best results pertaining to lower NOx and CO emissions.
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  16. Biotreatment of raisin and winery wastewaters and simultaneous biodiesel production using a Leptolyngbya-based microbial consortium
    Abstract

    Tsolcha, O. N.; Tekerlekopoulou, A. G.; Akratos, C. S.; Aggelis, G.; Genitsaris, S.; Moustaka-Gouni, M.; Vayenas, D. V. 2017. Biotreatment of raisin and winery wastewaters and simultaneous biodiesel production using a Leptolyngbya-based microbial consortium. Journal of Cleaner Production. 148185-193

    Combining wastewater treatment with biodiesel production can greatly reduce the cost of environmentally friendly technologies. In this work wastewaters of high environmental importance originating from raisin and wine industries were employed as substrates for a mixed cyanobacterial/algal cultivation system dominated by the filamentous cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya sp. The mixotrophic microalga Ochromonas contributed to less than 5% of the total photosynthetic population and grazed on broken Leptolyngbya trichomes. Satisfactory lipid yields and removal of nutrients and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were observed when raisin or winery wastewaters were used separately as substrates. However, exceptional removal rates were recorded in blends of the above-mentioned wastewaters (i.e., 92.8%, 78.1% and 99% for COD, total nitrogen and phosphate, respectively), while the biomass produced contained around 13% lipids (w/w) on a dry weight basis. The ratio of saturated/mono-unsaturated fatty acids in this lipid reached 85%, making this system suitable for biodiesel production. The proposed system can effectively approach a technology that integrates wastewater treatment with simultaneous biodiesel production. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  17. Calcium Rich Food Wastes Based Catalysts for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Catarino, M.; Ramos, M.; Dias, A. P. S.; Santos, M. T.; Puna, J. F.; Gomes, J. F. 2017. Calcium Rich Food Wastes Based Catalysts for Biodiesel Production. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 8(5) 1699-1707

    Biodiesel produced from food wastes can help to solve several environmental issues: anthropogenic carbon emissions due to fossil fuels combustion and waste management. Biodiesel was produced using waste frying oils (WFO) and calcium rich food wastes such as mollusk, shrimp, eggs shells and cuttlebone to produce calcium based heterogeneous catalysts by calcination. The characterization of chalky white calcined powders by XRD showed diffraction lines typical of lime but some samples were slightly contaminated with calcite. The powders with low crystallinity showed high hydration rate presenting XRD features ascribable to nanocrystals of calcium hydroxide. The post reaction samples presented mainly lines due to calcium diglyceroxide and methoxide. Thermograms of used catalysts showed some weight loss of these calcium compounds, confirming the presence of such phases. All prepared catalysts were effective in catalyzing the methanolysis of soybean oil. A FAME yield around 96% was obtained after 2.5 h of reaction. When using WFO, the FAME yield was only 65% with simultaneous production of soap. The use of WFO and soybean oil mixtures attenuates the loss of catalytic performances. The obtained glycerin's presented a light color characteristic of heterogeneous catalyzed processes. FTIR spectra of glycerin's showed some features belonging to matter organic non glycerin and methanol. The catalyst reutilization without intermediate reactivation indicated that catalysts are somewhat stable. When WFO was used, the reused catalysts showed improved performance probably due to the formation of calcium diglyceroxide. Nevertheless, calcium diglyceroxide is bound to promote homogeneous catalysis and consequent deactivation.
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  18. Catalysis for esterification reactions: a key step in the biodiesel production from waste oils
    Abstract

    Vitiello, R.; Li, C. Z.; Russo, V.; Tesser, R.; Turco, R.; Di Serio, M. 2017. Catalysis for esterification reactions: a key step in the biodiesel production from waste oils. Rendiconti Lincei-Scienze Fisiche E Naturali. 28117-123

    One possible method to produce biodiesel from waste oils (characterized by high concentrations of Free Fatty Acids, FFA), is the use of a two step process: an esterification reaction of FFA and a subsequent transesterification reaction with methanol of the whole mixture using a basic catalyst. In this review, we report the most important results and the still open challenges in relation to esterification reactions in the presence of homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts.
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  19. Catalytic performance of sulfonated carbon-based solid acid catalyst on esterification of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Nata, I. F.; Putra, M. D.; Irawan, C.; Lee, C. K. 2017. Catalytic performance of sulfonated carbon-based solid acid catalyst on esterification of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 5(3) 2171-2175

    Carbonaceous material containing sulfonate groups as solid acid catalyst was generated by one-step mild hydrothermal carbonization of glucose. The process took place in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid at 180 degrees C for 4 h. The obtained sulfonated carbon (C-SO3H) was microsphere with diameter size of 50-100 micrometer. The sulfonate groups were further attached on the surface of the carbonaceous materials. The catalytic esterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) with methanol could be easily achieved by using C-SO3H. Free fatty acids (FFAs) in WCO could be decreased up to 93.4% at 60 degrees C for 3 h. The biodiesel yield was achieved about 87% within 1 h at 60 degrees C by transesterification using 1% NaOH (w/w) as catalyst. The C-SO3H was demonstrated to have good stability with only 7% decrease in FFAs conversion after 5 repeat uses. The sulfonated carbon-based solid acid catalyst was thus designed to be an active, stable and reusable solid acid as an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst.
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  20. Continuous flow through a microwave oven for the large-scale production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Tangy, A.; Pulidindi, I. N.; Perkas, N.; Gedanken, A. 2017. Continuous flow through a microwave oven for the large-scale production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Bioresource Technology. 224333-341

    This report presents a method for producing large quantities of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). Preliminary studies on optimization of the WCO transesterification process in a continuous-flow microwave reactor are carried out using commercial SrO as a catalyst. The SrO catalyst can be separated and reused for five reaction cycles without loss in activity. Challenges like mass flow and pressure drop constraints need to be surmounted. SrO nanoparticles deposited on millimeter-sized (3-6 mm) silica beads (41 wt% SrO/SiO2) are prepared and evaluated as a substitute for the SrO catalyst. A WCO conversion value to biodiesel as high as 99.2 wt% was achieved with the reactor packed with 15 g of 41 wt% SrO/SiO2 catalyst in 8.2 min with 820 mL of feed. Excellent performance of the fixed-bed catalyst without loss in activity for a lifetime of 24.6 min converting a feed of 2.46 L to FAME was observed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  21. Covalent immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase on core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Mehrasbi, M. R.; Mohammadi, J.; Peyda, M.; Mohammadi, M. 2017. Covalent immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase on core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Renewable Energy. 101593-602

    In the present work, lipase from Candida antarctica,(CALB) was covalently immobilized on functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to catalyze biodiesel synthesis. Core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by coating Fe3O4 core with silica shell (Fe3O4@SiO2). The nanoparticles functionalized with (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxylsilane (GPTMS) were used as immobilization matrix. The protein binding efficiency on functionalized Fe3O4@SiO2 was calculated as 84%, preserving 97% of specific activity of the free enzyme. Physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles and the immobilized lipase were characterized by TGA, XRD, SEM, IR, TEM and DLS. Higher thermal stability and methanol tolerance for immobilized derivatives were obtained compared to the free enzyme. The immobilized lipase was then used to produce biodiesel by transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol. In an optimization study, the effect of oil to methanol ratio, tert-butanol and molecular sieve as water adsorbent on the yield of biodiesel production were considered. Optimum oil to methanol ratio at 1:3 was observed for immobilized CALB in biodiesel production. Molecular sieve had a great effect on yield, with almost 100% conversion. The immobilized preparation of CALB also presented a good reusability, keeping 100% of its initial activity after 6 cycles of the reaction. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  22. Cucurbituril-protected Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 for optimized biodiesel production from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Li, L.; Zou, C. J.; Zhou, L.; Lin, L. 2017. Cucurbituril-protected Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 for optimized biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Renewable Energy. 10714-22

    In this research, transesterification of waste cooking oil has been studied. The cucurbit[7]uril-protected Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 (CsPW-CB[7]) is prepared as a highly efficient catalyst for the direct biodiesel production via the transesterification of waste cooking oil. The CsPW-CB[7] is characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR. Besides, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the operating parameters on the conversion rate of waste cooking oil. In addition, the maximum conversion rate could reach 95.1% under the optimum experimental conditions that are catalyst of 2 wt%, methanol/oil molar ratio of 11: 1, reaction time of 150 min and temperature of 70 degrees C. According to the assumption of pseudo first order reaction, the activation energy of the reaction was calculated as 36.0 kJ mor(-1), indicating the reaction is easy to react. The physicochemical properties of biodiesel product could reach the ASTM D6751 standard. The results indicated that the CsPW-CB[7] catalyst showed good catalytic performance and its excellent potential application in biodiesel production. Also, based on the coded parameters, the quadratic regression model with determined coefficients was presented. In addition, the model is significant according to the ANOVA analysis and residual plots. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  23. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris using nutrients source from domestic wastewater for biodiesel production: Growth condition and kinetic studies
    Abstract

    Lam, M. K.; Yusoff, M. I.; Uemura, Y.; Lim, J. W.; Khoo, C. G.; Lee, K. T.; Ong, H. C. 2017. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris using nutrients source from domestic wastewater for biodiesel production: Growth condition and kinetic studies. Renewable Energy. 103197-207

    Owning to the presence of essential mineral nutrient content in wastewater, cultivation of microalgae using wastewater sources provides an alternative and sustainable solution for biodiesel production. Hence, the potential of using domestic wastewater as nutrient source to cultivate Chlorella vulgaris was presently studied. It was found that the microalgae was favoured to grow in domestic wastewater under the conditions of 0.02 v/v of wastewater, initial pH of 3, and 0.03 v/v of initial amount of microalgae seed with 24 h of continuous illumination. Under these conditions, a high lipid content of 32.7% was embedded within the microalgae biomass. From the analysis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile, the extracted microalgae lipid was suitable for biodiesel production. The existing growth kinetic models were able to predict the growth of Chlorella vulgaris using the domestic wastewater as nutrients source. The fair model fitting was however limited to contaminant-free conditions, where the growth decays of the microalgae was negligible. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  24. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris with swine wastewater and potential for algal biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Nam, K.; Lee, H.; Heo, S. W.; Chang, Y. K.; Han, J. I. 2017. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris with swine wastewater and potential for algal biodiesel production. Journal of Applied Phycology. 29(3) 1171-1178

    In this study, an alga-based simultaneous process of treating swine wastewater (SWW) and producing biodiesel was explored. Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX-265) was employed as a model species, and a SWW-based medium was prepared by dilution with tap water. Chlorella vulgaris grew well in the SWW-based medium, and at optimum dilution ratios, it exceeded the conventional culture medium in terms of biomass concentration and productivity. In eightfold diluted SWW, which supported the maximum growth, biomass productivity was 0.247 g L-1 day(-1), while the productivity was merely 0.165 g L-1 day(-1) in standard tris-acetate-phosphorous (TAP) algal medium. In addition, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) productivity was greater in the SWW-based medium (0.067 versus 0.058 g L-1 day(-1)). This enhanced productivity resulted in more than 95 % removal of both nitrogen and phosphorous. All these show that C. vulgaris cultivation is indeed possible in a nutrient-rich wastewater with appropriate dilution, and in so doing, the wastewater can effectively be treated.
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  25. Effect of co-solvent on biodiesel production using calcium aluminium oxide as a reusable catalyst and waste vegetable oil
    Abstract

    Singh, V.; Yadav, M.; Sharma, Y. C. 2017. Effect of co-solvent on biodiesel production using calcium aluminium oxide as a reusable catalyst and waste vegetable oil. Fuel. 203360-369

    Calcium aluminium oxide (Ca2Al2O5) was synthesized via solid state method by using calcium carbonate and alumina calcined at 900 degrees C. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by TGA, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and BET. The particle size analysis and basicity test were also conducted. The catalyst was used for production of biodiesel using waste vegetable oil (WVO) as feedstock and methanol through transesterification. Acetone was used and reported as a co-solvent for the first time for synthesis of biodiesel. Effect of cosolvents on reaction parameters has been gaining concern for improvement of transesterification reaction. The reaction parameters such as weight (%) of co-solvent, molar ratio (oil: methanol), catalyst concentration, reaction time, temperature, and reusability of catalyst were studied. Highest conversion (97.98%) of biodiesel was obtained at 20 wt% of acetone, 1: 6 M ratio (oil: methanol), 1.2 wt% calcium aluminate at 55 +/- 1 degrees C for 25 min of reaction time. Calcium aluminate could be reused up to eight cycles with > 75% FAME conversion at this cycle. Composition of crude WVO and respective FAME was analysed by GCMS technique. Physico-chemical properties of FAME such as acid value, cetane number, calorific value, flash point, fire point, viscosity, density, cloud point, pour point and ash content were evaluated and were found to be within ASTM standards. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  26. Effect of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Kitchen Waste for Biodiesel Production Using Alkaline Catalyst
    Abstract

    Wang, C. M.; Xie, S. Y.; Zhong, M. X. 2017. Effect of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Kitchen Waste for Biodiesel Production Using Alkaline Catalyst. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 8(2) 369-377

    The catalyzed conversion of waste cooking oil by transesterification into biodiesel yields exceptional environmental benefits and is the focus of this study. Sodium methoxide (CH3ONa), an alkaline catalyst, was selected for transesterification. A hydrothermal pretreatment was first applied to heat the kitchen waste to 140-170 degrees C. The pretreated waste cooking oil was then extracted from kitchen waste after a set time for use as a reactant. The aim of this study was to discuss whether hydrothermal pretreatment affects biodiesel productivity of waste cooking oil by alkali catalyst. Transesterification was conducted following hydrothermal pretreatment. Transesterification conditions were obtained from results of single factor experiments at 60 degrees C for 80 min, 0.9 wt% sodium methoxide concentration and 5:1 methanol/oil molar ratio. Maximum transesterification productivity reached 80.9 % locating the maximum increment of biodiesel productivity at 2.88 wt% relative to the control obtained under hydrothermal conditions at 160 degrees C for 80 min and a 1:1 volume ratio of kitchen waste to water. Biodiesel productivity was not impacted by hydrothermal temperature or hydrothermal time and analysis indicates principal properties of the final product complied with the European EN14214 Standard.
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  27. Egg shell waste as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimized by response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Pandit, P. R.; Fulekar, M. H. 2017. Egg shell waste as heterogeneous nanocatalyst for biodiesel production: Optimized by response surface methodology. Journal of Environmental Management. 198319-329

    Worldwide consumption of hen eggs results in availability of large amount of discarded egg waste particularly egg shells. In the present study, the waste shells were utilized for the synthesis of highly active heterogeneous calcium oxide (CaO) nanocatalyst to transesterify dry biomass into methyl esters (biodiesel). The CaO nanocatalyst was synthesied by calcination-hydration dehydration technique and fully characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), brunauer emmett teller (BET) elemental and thermogravimetric analysis. TEM image showed that the nano catalyst had spherical shape with average particle size of 75 nm. BET analysis indicated that the catalyst specific surface area was 16.4 m(2) g(-1) with average pore diameter of 5.07 nm. The effect of nano CaO catalyst was investigated by direct transesterification of dry biomass into biodiesel along with other reaction parameters such as catalyst ratio, reaction time and stirring rate. The impact of the transesterification reaction parameters and microalgal biodiesel yield were analyzed by response surface methodology based on a full factorial, central composite design. The significance of the predicted mode was verified and 86.41% microalgal biodiesel yield was reported at optimal parameter conditions 1.7% (w/w), catalyst ratio, 3.6 h reaction time and stirring rate of 140.6 rpm. The biodiesel conversion was determined by H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The fuel properties of prepared biodiesel were found to be highly comply with the biodiesel standard ASTMD6751 and EN14214. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  28. Enhanced biodiesel production from Jatropha oil using calcined waste animal bones as catalyst
    Abstract

    Nisar, J.; Razaq, R.; Farooq, M.; Iqbal, M.; Khan, R. A.; Sayed, M.; Shah, A.; Rahman, I. U. 2017. Enhanced biodiesel production from Jatropha oil using calcined waste animal bones as catalyst. Renewable Energy. 101111-119

    This study is focused on the investigation of animal bones modified with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as heterogeneous solid base catalyst for transesterification of non-edible Jatropha oil. The prepared catalyst was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The prepared catalyst had a high catalytic activity for transesterification. In addition, the catalyst had excellent stability, there by having potential use as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil with a high free fatty acid (FFA) yield. The experimental results revealed the optimal parametric conditions viz. methanol/oil molar ratio, 9:1, calcination temperature, 900 degrees C and catalyst concentration, 6.0 wt % of oil corresponding to a maximum fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield of 96.1% at temperature of 70 +/- 3 degrees C in reaction time of 3 h. Reusability results of the prepared catalyst confirmed that it could be reutilized up to 4 times without losing much activity, thus giving birth to a potentially applicable possibility in biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  29. Evaluation of different lipase biocatalysts in the production of biodiesel from used cooking oil: Critical role of the immobilization support
    Abstract

    Tacias-Pascacio, V. G.; Virgen-Ortiz, J. J.; Jimenez-Perez, M.; Yates, M.; Torrestiana-Sanchez, B.; Rosales-Quintero, A.; Fernandez-Lafuente, R. 2017. Evaluation of different lipase biocatalysts in the production of biodiesel from used cooking oil: Critical role of the immobilization support. Fuel. 2001-10

    A new battery of biocatalyst was evaluated in the synthesis of biodiesel using a mix of used cooking oil and fats and methanol as substrates. Biocatalysts were prepared using five different commercial supports (Lifetech (TM) ECR1061M (styrene/methacrylic polymer), Lifetech (TM) ECR8804M (octadecyl methacrylate), Lifetech (TM) ECR8806M (octadecyl methacylate), Lifetech (TM) ECR1090M (styrene) and Lifetech (TM) ECR1030M (DVB/methacrylic polymer)) for the immobilization of four different lipases (from Rhizomucor miehie (RML), from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) and the A and B forms from Candida antarctica, (CALA and CALB)) and of the phospholipase Lecitase Ultra (TM) (LU), and their performance were compared with that from commercial biocatalysts (when available: TL-IM, RM-IM and Novozyme 435). Results clearly showed that the methyl ester yields and specific activities greatly depend on the support. The addition of organic solvents usually had positive effects on all preparations activities but not on the yields, and the results depend on the solvent used, enzyme and media. In all cases, at least one of the new preparations was better than the commercial one in solvent free conditions, and in general supports having a layer of acyl groups gave better activities (octadecyl) that when the enzyme was directly immobilized on the support surface. TLL immobilized the new supports (except Lifetech (TM) ECR1061M) seemed to be very promising in solvent free medium, and yields near to 80% could be achieved in direct addition of 3:1 methanol to triglyceride molar ratio. The results show that is not possible to discard one couple enzyme/support using other couple because the strong dependence. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  30. Evaluation of Hydrogen Production from Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Organic Solid Waste and Residual Glycerol from Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Silva, F. M. S.; Oliveira, L. B.; Mahler, C. F.; Bassin, J. P. 2017. Evaluation of Hydrogen Production from Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Organic Solid Waste and Residual Glycerol from Biodiesel Production. Quimica Nova. 40(5) 523-527

    The anaerobic co-digestion of solid organic waste with residual glycerol from biodiesel production (1% v v(-1)) for hydrogen production was investigated by means of the Biochemical Hydrogen Potential (BHP). The specific hydrogen production from co-digestion with and without glycerol corresponded to 140 mL H-2 g VS-1 and 87,3 mL H-2 g VS-1 removed, respectively, while the maximum specific H-2 production rate was found to be 14.26 e 8.57 mL H-2 g VS-1, respectively. Co-digestion of solid organic waste with glycerol enhanced hydrogen production and reduced the fermentation lag phase in around 4 hours. The dominant metabolite product of the anaerobic fermentation was butyric acid. The results revealed that co-digestion of organic water and glycerol is promising and can potentially be used to maximize energy production while contributing to the management and treatment of these wastes.
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  31. Experimental assessment of electrolysis method in production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using zeolite/chitosan catalyst with a focus on waste biorefinery
    Abstract

    Fereidooni, L.; Mehrpooya, M. 2017. Experimental assessment of electrolysis method in production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using zeolite/chitosan catalyst with a focus on waste biorefinery. Energy Conversion and Management. 147145-154

    Used waste cooking oil (WCO) or frying oils are being considered as rich sources of economical feedstock for biodiesel production. To carry out the process of trans-esterification of WCO to methyl esters (biodiesel), zeolite/chitosan/KOH composite was used as solid heterogeneous catalysts. The composite was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was found that the treatment of the natural zeolite (clinoptilolite zeolite) with KOH significantly decreased its silica content by desilication and increased its K+ content by formation of hydroxylpotaslite. Electrolysis method (EM) is used as an applicable technology for recovery of energy and resources during waste treatment. Theoretically, EM can convert any biodegradable waste into H-2, O-2, biofuels, as well as other by-products such as glycerol. However, the system efficacy can vary significantly under different circumstances. The conversion of biodiesel from WCO was obtained for 1 wt.% catalyst concentration and alcohol/oil ratio of 1:7 at 40 V in the presence of water as 2 wt.% of the whole solution in 3 h, produced 93% yield. The optimum conversion process was achieved as a result of using co-solvent as acetone. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Viscosity characterization were used the assessing techniques for detection of WCO and biodiesel. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  32. Fermentation of Biodiesel-Derived Waste for 1,3-Propanediol Production with Response Surface Methodology
    Abstract

    Abel, S. E. R.; Loh, S. K. 2017. Fermentation of Biodiesel-Derived Waste for 1,3-Propanediol Production with Response Surface Methodology. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 29(1) 74-80

    The present study aimed to investigate the fermentation conditions favouring the maximum production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) from crude glycerol. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was applied in designing the experiments to evaluate the interactive effects of glycerol concentration (20 to 50 g litre(-1)), pH (6 to 8), temperature (30 degrees C to 40 degrees C) and incubation time (48 to 72 hr) on 1,3-PD production. A total of 30 experimental runs consisting of 16 factorial points, eight axial points and six centre points were conducted. It was found that the derived optimum conditions were: 39.9 g litre(-1) glycerol; pH: 7.6, temperature: 33 degrees C and incubation time: 59.1 hr. Under these conditions, the 1,3-PD produced (9.85 g litre(-1)) was similar to 2% higher than the predicted value by RSM (9.69 g litre(-1)), hence, the experimental design employed in validating the results obtained was significant. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed high coefficient of the determination values (R-2) of 0.9444. The fermentation using RSM was able to increase the 1,3-PD production by two-fold.
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  33. Generation, characterization and reuse of solid wastes from a biodiesel production plant
    Abstract

    Oliveira, F. J. S.; Santana, D. D.; Costa, S. S. B.; Oliveira, L. D.; Liduino, V. S.; Servulo, E. F. C. 2017. Generation, characterization and reuse of solid wastes from a biodiesel production plant. Waste Management. 6187-95

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize industrial solid wastes generated by a biodiesel production plant in Brazil, as well as to present strategies for the management of these materials. This plant produces every year around 100,000 tons of biodiesel from vegetable oils and animal fats. The methodology of the study included technical visits, interviews with the operational and environmental management staff as well as analysis of documents, reports and computerized data systems. An approach to reduce the generation of hazardous waste was investigated. It was take into account the amount of raw material that was processed, reduction of landfill disposal, and the maximization of the their recycling and reuse. The study also identified the sources of waste generation and accordingly prepared an evaluation matrix to determine the types of waste with the higher potential for minimization. The most important residue of the process was the filter material impregnated with oil and biodiesel, requiring, therefore, measures for its minimization. The use of these residues in the production of ceramic artefacts (light bricks) was considered to be very promising, since no significant effect on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the artefacts produced was observed. Phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuva sativa (lettuce), Brassica juncea (mustard), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (daisy), Dendranthema grandiflorum (chrysanthemum) and Allium porrum (leek) were carried out. The results clearly show incorporation of the waste material into bricks did not influence relative germination and relative root elongation in comparison to control tests. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  34. Generation, characterization and reuse of solid wastes from a biodiesel production plant
    Abstract

    Oliveira, F. J.; Santana, D. D.; Costa, S. S.; Oliveira, L. D.; Liduino, V. S.; Servulo, E. F. 2017. Generation, characterization and reuse of solid wastes from a biodiesel production plant. Waste Manag. 6187-95

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize industrial solid wastes generated by a biodiesel production plant in Brazil, as well as to present strategies for the management of these materials. This plant produces every year around 100,000tons of biodiesel from vegetable oils and animal fats. The methodology of the study included technical visits, interviews with the operational and environmental management staff as well as analysis of documents, reports and computerized data systems. An approach to reduce the generation of hazardous waste was investigated. It was take into account the amount of raw material that was processed, reduction of landfill disposal, and the maximization of the their recycling and reuse. The study also identified the sources of waste generation and accordingly prepared an evaluation matrix to determine the types of waste with the higher potential for minimization. The most important residue of the process was the filter material impregnated with oil and biodiesel, requiring, therefore, measures for its minimization. The use of these residues in the production of ceramic artefacts (light bricks) was considered to be very promising, since no significant effect on the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the artefacts produced was observed. Phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuva sativa (lettuce), Brassica juncea (mustard), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (daisy), Dendranthema grandiflorum (chrysanthemum) and Allium porrum (leek) were carried out. The results clearly show incorporation of the waste material into bricks did not influence relative germination and relative root elongation in comparison to control tests.
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  35. Improved biomass and lipid production in Synechocystis sp NN using industrial wastes and nano-catalyst coupled transesterification for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Jawaharraj, K.; Karpagam, R.; Ashokkumar, B.; Kathiresan, S.; Moorthy, I. M. G.; Arumugam, M.; Varalakshmi, P. 2017. Improved biomass and lipid production in Synechocystis sp NN using industrial wastes and nano-catalyst coupled transesterification for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 242128-132

    In this study, the improved biomass (1.6 folds) and lipid (1.3 folds) productivities in Synechocystis sp. NN using agro-industrial wastes supplementation through hybrid response surface methodology-genetic algorithm (RSM-GA) for cost-effective methodologies for biodiesel production was achieved. Besides, efficient harvesting in Synechocystis sp. NN was achieved by electroflocculation (flocculation efficiency 97.8 +/- 1.2%) in 10 min when compared to other methods. Furthermore, different pretreatment methods were employed for lipid extraction and maximum lipid content of 19.3 +/- 0.2% by Synechocystis sp. NN was attained by ultrasonication than microwave and liquid nitrogen assisted pretreatment methods. The highest FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) conversion of 36.5 +/- 8.3 mg FAME/g biomass was obtained using titanium oxide as heterogeneous nano-catalyst coupled whole-cell transesterification based method. Conclusively, Synechocystis sp. NN may be used as a biodiesel feedstock and its fuel production can be enriched by hybrid RSM-GA and nano-catalyst technologies. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  36. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer
    Abstract

    Joshi, S.; Gogate, P. R.; Moreira, P. F., Jr.; Giudici, R. 2017. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer. Ultrason Sonochem. 39645-653

    In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel. Various experiments were performed for understanding the effect of operating parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and speed of rotation of the homogenizer. For soybean oil, the maximum biodiesel yield as 84% was obtained with catalyst loading of 3wt% and molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:10 at 50 degrees C with 12,000rpm as the speed of rotation in 30min. Similarly biodiesel yield of 88% was obtained from waste cooking oil under identical operating conditions except for the catalyst loading which was 1wt%. Significant increase in the rate of biodiesel production with yields from soybean oil as 84% (in 30min) and from WCO as 88% (30min) was established due to the use of high speed homogenizer as compared to the conventional stirring method (requiring 2-3h for obtaining similar biodiesel yield). The observed intensification was attributed to the turbulence caused at microscale and generation of fine emulsions due to the cavitational effects. Overall it can be concluded from this study that high speed homogenizer can be used as an alternate cavitating device to efficiently produce biodiesel in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts.
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  37. Kinetics studies of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using FeCl3-modified resin as heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Ma, Y. Q.; Wang, Q. H.; Sun, X. H.; Wu, C. F.; Gao, Z. 2017. Kinetics studies of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using FeCl3-modified resin as heterogeneous catalyst. Renewable Energy. 107522-530

    In this study, biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using FeCl3-modified resin as heterogeneous catalyst were investigated. Under optimised conditions of methanol/oil molar ratio of 10:1, catalyst content of 8%, reaction time of 90 degrees C and reaction time of 120 min, a high transesterification rate of about 92% was achieved. A comprehensive kinetic model was established for the transesterification reaction, the result illustrated that the transesterification of waste cooking oil and methanol catalysed by FeCl3-modified resin was confirmed for Rideal model, and the transesterification reaction was verified for the first order reaction controlled by the interfacial chemical reaction diffusion. The main physical chemical properties of biodiesel met the ASTM D-6751 (American Society for Testing and Materials D-6751) standard. Compared with concentrated sulfuric acid catalyst, the eminent characteristics of reusability and operational stability made the resin catalyst more ascendant for biodiesel production. The results of present research showed that transesterification process catalysed by FeCl3-modified resin was an effective and low cost technology for biodiesel industry. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  38. Life Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas and PM2.5 Emissions from Restaurant Waste Oil Used for Biodiesel Production in China
    Abstract

    Yang, Y.; Fu, T. C.; Bao, W. Q.; Xie, G. H. 2017. Life Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas and PM2.5 Emissions from Restaurant Waste Oil Used for Biodiesel Production in China. Bioenergy Research. 10(1) 199-207

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) can serve as a feedstock for producing biodiesel, which would not only address food security and waste disposal but also has the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and particulate matter of 2.5 mu m or smaller (PM2.5). In this study, we assessed restaurant waste oil (RWO) availability in China and conducted life cycle analysis (LCA) of GHG and PM2.5 emissions of RWO-based biodiesel using the GREET model. The results showed that the amount of RWO in China varies between 0.56 and 1.67 million tons in 2013 and between 0.54 and 1.63 million tons in 2014. Life cycle analysis estimated reduction of GHG and PM2.5 emissions through the use of RWO-based rather than petroleum-based biodiesel of 82 kg CO2-Eq. (90 %) and 0.92 g PM2.5 (46 %) respectively per 100 km driven by busses in 2014 in Shanghai, China. Given the total amount of RWO available in 2014 in China, the potential mitigated annual GHG emission ranges, in China, are 1.51 similar to 4.52 x 10(6) tons of CO2-eq and 16.94 similar to 50.83 tons of PM2.5.
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  39. Microwave-assisted and carbonaceous catalytic pyrolysis of crude glycerol from biodiesel waste for energy production
    Abstract

    Ng, J. H.; Leong, S. K.; Lam, S. S.; Ani, F. N.; Chong, C. T. 2017. Microwave-assisted and carbonaceous catalytic pyrolysis of crude glycerol from biodiesel waste for energy production. Energy Conversion and Management. 143399-409

    Biodiesel proliferation as a sustainable fuel has led to a glut of crude glycerol as co-product. This scenario made a previously lucrative co-product in the food and pharmaceutical sectors into a bioresource waste. The present study investigates the utilisation of a microwave-assisted pyrolysis technique to convert crude glycerol from biodiesel waste into usable bioenergy source. Operating conditions ranged from a temperature of 300-800 degrees C at carrier gas flow rates of 100-2000 mL/min, with the effects of carbonaceous catalyst on the selectivity of reaction pathway being investigated. Within the aforementioned conditions, the proportion of products phases is mainly dependent on the residence time inside the quartz reactor, followed by the reaction temperature. This is due to the combined factors of the reaction sequence and provision of activation energy to change product phases. The third factor of carbonaceous catalyst shows a predisposition towards hydrogen gas selectivity, leading to a lower overall gaseous product mass when factoring in products from all phases. An analysis of the energy content revealed that overall energy profit increases with decreasing temperature and increasing residence time. This concurs with solid energy content increasing in the same conditions, while it increases for liquid and gaseous products with decreasing temperature and flow rate, respectively. The conversion of waste into portable and energy profit positive products through pyrolysis makes crude glycerol a potential candidate for bioenergy production of bio-oil and syngas. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  40. Oleaginous Microalgae from Dairy Farm Wastewater for Biodiesel Production: Isolation, Characterization and Mass Cultivation
    Abstract

    Sun, Z.; Fang, X. P.; Li, X. Y.; Zhou, Z. G. 2017. Oleaginous Microalgae from Dairy Farm Wastewater for Biodiesel Production: Isolation, Characterization and Mass Cultivation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol.

    Producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in wastewater is environment-friendly and cost-effective. The present study investigated the algae found in wastewater of a local dairy farm for their potential as biodiesel feedstocks. Thirteen native algal strains were isolated. On the basis of morphology and 16S/18S rRNA gene sequences, one strain was identified to be a member of cyanobacteria, while other 12 strains belong to green algae. After screening, two Scenedesmus strains out of the 13 microalgae isolates demonstrated superiority in growth rate, lipid productivity, and sedimentation properties, and therefore were selected for further scale-up outdoor cultivation. Both Scenedesmus strains quickly adapted to the outdoor conditions, exhibiting reasonably good growth and strong anti-contamination capabilities. In flat-plate photobioreactors (PBRs), algal cells accumulated predominantly neutral lipids that accounted for over 60% of total lipids with almost 70% being triacylglycerol. In addition, Scenedesmus obliquus had a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, of which the amount of oleic acid (C18:1) was up to 27.11%. Based on these findings, the dairy farm wastewater-isolated Scenedesmus strains represent promising sources of low-cost, high-quality oil for biofuel production.
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  41. Optimization of batch Novozym435-catalyzed transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol for biodiesel production in a solvent-free medium
    Abstract

    Ismail, A. R.; El-Henawy, S. B.; Betiha, M. A.; Abu Amr, S. S.; El-Gendy, N. S.; Azab, M. S.; Sedky, N. M. 2017. Optimization of batch Novozym435-catalyzed transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol for biodiesel production in a solvent-free medium. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(9) 911-925

    In this study, response surface methodology based on face center composite - 1/2 factorial fraction design (FCCD) of experiments was employed to optimize the batch transesterification process of waste cooking oil as one of the most abundant and readily available domestic wastes with methanol using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase (Novozym435) to maximize the production of high-purity biodiesel. Statistically significant second-order quadratic model equations (p < 0.0001) were elucidated through multiple regression analysis to describe the interrelationships between response of interest (biodiesel yield wt% and % conversion, i.e. the transesterification efficiency) and five independent variables (methanol:oil molar ratio, enzyme concentration wt%, reaction temperature degrees C, reaction time h, and mixing rate rpm). The statistical significance of the effect of these variables (factors) and their interactions on the transesterification efficiency was evaluated and the validity of the predicted models was confirmed. The optimum operating conditions were found to be: 3.63:1 M:O, 8.94 wt% Novozym435, 45.23 degrees C, 2.76 h, and 535.84 rpm. This produced 97 wt% biodiesel yield with % conversion of approximate to 91.79%. An overall acceptable agreement was achieved between the produced biodiesel fuel properties at the aforementioned optimal operating conditions and the Egyptian petrodiesel and international biodiesel standards.
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  42. Optimization of lipase production from organic solid waste by anaerobic digestion and its application in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Selvakumar, P.; Sivashanmugam, P. 2017. Optimization of lipase production from organic solid waste by anaerobic digestion and its application in biodiesel production. Fuel Processing Technology. 1651-8

    Lipases are particularly important due to the fact that they specifically hydrolyze the acylglycerols into free fatty acids and glycerol, which is of greater interest for biodiesel production. In this study, garbage lipase was produced from organic waste (Pomegranate (P), Orange (O) and Pineapple (PA) peels) by optimization the organic waste composition, ultrasonic pre-treatment time and process parameters. Optimization of process parameters using RSM and ANN modelling was performed with the composition of 35(P): 20(0): 35(PA) and 15 min (pre-treatment). The maximum lipase activity of 57.43 U/mL was obtained at pH (6), temperature (33 degrees C), agitation (210 rpm) and time (4 days). The effects of pH, temperature, organic solvents on the stability of partially purified lipase (PPL) and enzyme kinetic parameters were also investigated. PPL yielded 88.63% conversion of palm oil into biodiesel. Hence, garbage lipase would be a potential biocatalyst for biodiesel conversion and other industrial catalytic processes. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  43. Perspectives on the utilization of waste fat from beef cattle and fowl for biodiesel production in Mexico
    Abstract

    Chavarria-Hernandez, J.; Ordonez, L.; Barahona-Perez, L. F.; Castro-Gomez, M.; Paredes-Cervantes, S. 2017. Perspectives on the utilization of waste fat from beef cattle and fowl for biodiesel production in Mexico. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 92(5) 899-905

    The purpose of this research was to perform a preliminary inventory of the waste fat generated from beef cattle and fowl in Mexico that could be used for biodiesel production. Additionally, the CO2 emissions reduction that could be achieved by using the potential biodiesel to replace an energy-equivalent amount of fossil diesel was assessed. Based on national reports for the year 2014, it was estimated that the non-edible fat from beef cattle and fowl annually generated in Mexico is sufficient to produce 216.0 kt of biodiesel, which would furnish 8379 TJ. This amount is equivalent to 1.5% of the energy annually consumed in Mexico as fossil diesel for road transport. The potential 216.0 kt of animal fat-based biodiesel that can be produced annually could replace 198.3 kt of fossil diesel and thus allow a reduction in the WTW (well to wheels) emissions of 592.3 kt CO2, which represents 1.5% of the WTW CO2 emitted from the combustion of the fossil diesel used for road transportation in Mexico in the year 2014. (C) 2016 Society of Chemical Industry
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  44. Pilot-scale study of esterification of waste oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Liu, R.; Li, C.; Zhang, H.; Xiao, Z.; Zhang, A.; Chen, J. 2017. Pilot-scale study of esterification of waste oil for biodiesel production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(1) 29-35

    Biodiesel, one of the alternative energy supplies from sustainable sources, is attracting great attention to replace conventional fossil fuels. Waste oil, including oil from ditches, waste cooking oil, and leftover oil in the oil factory, is considered as raw materials for biodiesel production. A pilot plant with a capacity of 30 metric tonnes of crude biodiesel per day has been built to optimize process conditions for esterification of the waste oil using polyferric sulphate catalysts in a stirred tank. The optimized process conditions are: 1.5-2.0 wt% catalyst, methanol vapor at a molar ratio of 1.5 to the waste oil, and reaction temperature at 100-110 degrees C. The conversion of waste oil to fatty acid methyl esters was above 98% for most batches. Refined biodiesel was obtained in a yield of 93%, and the main properties of biodiesel from waste oil in this process are comparable to the international standards.
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  45. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel
    Abstract

    Gomaa, M. A.; Abed, R. M. M. 2017. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel. Journal of Biotechnology. 25314-22

    Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Carbohydrates and lipids in fecal waste could reach up to 50% of the dry weight, which also suggests a potential as a feedstock for bioethanol and biodiesel production. We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion. We also compared the fecal waste for cellulase production, saccharification and fermentation to produce bioethanol and for lipid content and fatty acid profiles to produce biodiesel. All fecal waste produced biomethane, with the highest yield of 433.4 +/- 77.1 ml CH4/g VS from cow fecal waste. Production of bioethanol was achieved from all samples, with chicken fecal waste yielding as high as 1.6 +/- 0.25 g/l. Sludge samples exhibited the highest extractable portion of lipids (20.9 +/- 0.08 wt%) and conversion to fatty acid methyl esters (11.94 wt%). Utilization of fecal waste for the production of biofuels is environmentally and economically beneficial.
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  46. Process optimization for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using multi-enzyme systems through response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Babaki, M.; Yousefi, M.; Habibi, Z.; Mohammadi, M. 2017. Process optimization for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using multi-enzyme systems through response surface methodology. Renewable Energy. 105465-472

    Lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (RML) and lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) were covalently immobilized onto epoxy-functionalized silica. In this study, we developed a multi-enzyme system to produce biodiesel with waste cooking oil and methanol. To increase the biodiesel production yield, a mixture of 1,3-specific lipase (RML) and nonspecific lipase (CALB) was used. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used to study the effects of four factors, CALB:RML ratio, ratio of t-butanol to oil (wt.%), water adsorbent Content (wt.%) and reaction time on the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield. A quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for methanolysis reaction by multiple regression analysis. The optimum combinations for the reaction were CALB:RML ratio (3:1), t-butanol to oil (10 wt%), water adsorbent content (22.5 wt%) at the reaction time of 10 h. FAME yield of 91.5%, which was very close to the predicted value of 95.6%, was obtained. Verification experiment confirmed the validity of the predicted model. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  47. Production of Biodiesel from Vietnamese Waste Coffee Beans: Biofuel Yield, Saturation and Stability are All Elevated Compared with Conventional Coffee Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Jenkins, R. W.; Ellis, E. H.; Lewis, E. J.; Paterson, M.; Le, C. D.; Ting, V. P.; Chuck, C. J. 2017. Production of Biodiesel from Vietnamese Waste Coffee Beans: Biofuel Yield, Saturation and Stability are All Elevated Compared with Conventional Coffee Biodiesel. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 8(4) 1237-1245

    The suitability of biodiesel produced from spent Vietnamese coffee was examined. Previous work shows that the geographical origin of coffee beans has little effect on the composition and physical properties of the biodiesel produced Jenkins et al. [1]. Vietnamese coffee, however, is roasted in a range of fats and oils for flavour enhancement and therefore has a unique fatty acid profile. The oil yield and biodiesel properties of three Vietnamese coffees were assessed and compared to a coffee of more typical composition-Colombian-and traditional biodiesel feedstocks (rapeseed, sunflower and palm). The oil yield from fresh Vietnamese coffee was higher (12.0-14.0 %) than Colombian coffee (9.3 %), while the oil yield from spent Vietnamese coffee (9.3-10.4 %) was comparable to the Colombian coffee (9.5 %). The unsaponifiable matter was only present in low levels in the Vietnamese coffee (1.9-4.9 %) compared to Colombian coffee (30.4 % fresh, 21.4 % spent). Vietnamese coffee biodiesel was more saturated than Columbian coffee biodiesel. It was therefore more viscous and had a higher pour point than the Colombian coffee, and possessed properties more akin to palm biodiesel. Vietnamese coffee biodiesel would therefore be a suitable feedstock for use locally due to the more suitable climate and compatibility with the palm feedstock that is currently used.
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  48. Production of Microbial Lipids from Tomato Waste to Be Used as Feedstock for Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Yousuf, A.; Sannino, F.; Pirozzi, D. 2017. Production of Microbial Lipids from Tomato Waste to Be Used as Feedstock for Biodiesel. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. 16(1) 59-65

    In this study, the oleaginous yeasts cultured in tomato waste hydrolysates (TWH) to produce microbial lipids that offer a suitable alternative to vegetable oils as feedstock for the biodiesel synthesis. The TWH were prepared by acid hydrolysis (2.5% H2SO4). To obtain higher growth rates, as well as higher lipid contents, Lipomyces starkeyi were cultured under original nitrogen content (TWHON), lower nitrogen content (TWHLN), attained by alkaline precipitation of TWHON followed by centrifugation and filtration, and higher nitrogen content (TWHHN), prepared by addition of (NH4)(2)SO4.
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  49. Production, characterization, and evaluation of the stability of biodiesel obtained from greasy agroindustrial waste during storage
    Abstract

    Petenucci, M. E.; Fonseca, G. G. 2017. Production, characterization, and evaluation of the stability of biodiesel obtained from greasy agroindustrial waste during storage. Environmental Technology. 38(10) 1255-1262

    Greasy agroindustrial waste from the process of cooking hog meat was used to produce biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid ethyl esters) under a specific storage condition. The operating conditions necessary to achieve the optimal relationship between quality and productivity were assessed. Next, batches of methyl and ethyl biodiesels were produced, generating 2 L of each product to evaluate their stability during 150 days of storage. The following study indicates that, for methyl route, the molar ratio (1:5) and catalyst (0.5%) yielded the best result of 90.77% (w/v) and quality parameters within the international standards. The ethyl route also showed the highest yield (77.09% w/v) and better quality parameters with a molar ratio (1: 5) and catalyst (0.5%). No significant differences were observed in the methyl biodiesel obtained from the batch process for up to 45 days, while the ethyl biodiesel degraded in 30 days of storage.
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  50. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts
    Abstract

    Gutierrez-Zapata, C. A.; Martinez, D. B.; Collazos, C. A.; Acuna, H. E. C.; Cuervo, J. A.; Fernandez, C. P. 2017. Productions of sunflower oil biodiesel and used cooking oil through heterogeneous catalysts compared to conventional homogeneous catalysts. Ii Colombian Congress of Electrochemistry (Cceq) and 2nd Symposium on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (Snn). 786

    This document compares homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts used by production of biodiesel of sunflower oil and cooking oil used in frying. For this, NaOH was used as a catalyst homogeneous, and K2CO3 and Na2CO3 supported in gamma-alumina (K2CO3/.Al2O3 y Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3) were synthesized as heterogeneous catalysts, which were characterized by X-ray diffraction. The transesterification tests were carried out for the sunflower oil and used cooking oil, in a reflux system, to different molar relations methanol/oil, depending on the type of oil and characterization of the same. The reflux system is performed at a temperature of 55-60 degrees C for one hour. Finally, biofuel was characterized and the yield of the reaction was calculated.
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  51. Repeated batch production of 1,3-propanediol from biodiesel derived waste glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae
    Abstract

    Yang, X.; Kim, D. S.; Choi, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Thapa, L. P.; Park, C.; Kim, S. W. 2017. Repeated batch production of 1,3-propanediol from biodiesel derived waste glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Chemical Engineering Journal. 314660-669

    In this study, 1,3-propanediol production was achieved from waste glycerol using Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 8724 under both batch and repeated batch fermentation. The inhibitory effects of the culture conditions were investigated considering the waste glycerol components. Anaerobic conditions showed better performance than aerobic conditions. Significant inhibitory effects in batch fermentation were observed in the following conditions: above pH 8, 60 g/L of initial glycerol concentration or 2% (w/v) of salts contents. However, improvement in 1,3-propanediol production and cell growth was represented below 1% (w/v) content of salts (NaCl and KCl). The highest yield of 1,3-propandiol using batch fermentation was achieved at 0.77 and 0.65 (mol/mol) with pure and waste glycerol, respectively. In addition, repeated batch fermentation was demonstrated with immobilized cells using waste glycerol. Compared to the first cycle of cultivation, 83% of 1,3-propanediol was obtained after five cycles of batch cultivation. The highest concentration and yield of 1,3-propanediol Were respectively achieved 0.64 (mol/mol) and 20 g/L at the second cycle cultivation. The performance of by-products of the repeated batch fermentation with immobilized cells was also investigated for further application. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  52. Resource utilization of wasted black pulping liquor for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus
    Abstract

    Yang, J.; Jiang, J. C.; Zhang, N.; Wei, M.; Zhao, J. 2017. Resource utilization of wasted black pulping liquor for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus. International Journal of Green Energy. 14(1) 92-96

    The possibility of application of black liquor for oil-riched algae cultivation is inspected. The results show that after ligin removal and enzymatic hydrolysis, the hydrolysate of black liquor contained 9.18 g L-1 of reducing sugar. When the hydrolysate was used for Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) cultivation, a 1.23 g L-1, 24.52%, and 23.20 mg L(-1)d(-1) was obtained for growth yield, oil content, and the lipid productivity, seperately. The hemicellulose was extracted from black liquor and hydrolyzed. With addition of 3 g L-1 yeast extract, the growth yield of S. obliquus in hemicellulose hydrolysate increased to 2.7 g L-1, an increase of 26.8% than that of in glucose medium, oil content was 25.7% and the final lipid productivity reached 53.37 mg L(-1)d(-1). The results indicate that black liquor can not be directly used by microalgae, but with approprate treatment, the carbohydrate of it could be recovered and uitilized for the oil production from microalgae.
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  53. Solar-Heated Sustainable Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using a Sonochemically Deposited SrO Catalyst on Microporous Activated Carbon
    Abstract

    Tabah, B.; Nagvenkar, A. P.; Perkas, N.; Gedanken, A. 2017. Solar-Heated Sustainable Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using a Sonochemically Deposited SrO Catalyst on Microporous Activated Carbon. Energy & Fuels. 31(6) 6228-6239

    A novel catalyst, SrO on microporous activated carbon (SrO/C), was synthesized by sonochemical deposition of SrO on carbon. The SrO/C demonstrated high catalytic performance in solar-heated transesterification reactions of canola oil, soybean oil, and waste cooking oil (WCO). The catalytic activity increased more than 5-fold (corresponding to 81% less catalyst compared to pristine SrO), using soybean oil as a feedstock. Similar enhancement was also observed with canola oil and WCO, where the catalytic activity improved more than 4-fold, corresponding to 76% less catalyst compared to pristine SrO. A yield of 98.5 wt % fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was obtained from WCO in 60 min using a 1:6 oil:methanol molar ratio and 7.1 wt % SrO/C catalyst (24% SrO loading) at 46 degrees C (solar heating). The SrO/C catalyst was used for four consecutive transesterification reactions of WCO without any significant decrease in its catalytic activity (only 3% decrease in FAME yield and less than 5 ppm leaching). The results confirm the Stability and sustained activity of the SrO/C catalyst, which is of great importance for industrial applications. The proposed method can significantly minimize the cost of biodiesel production by harnessing solar thermal energy. Performing the reaction without any additional energy consumption for heating, using a carbon-supported catalyst and low-cost feedstock, make the current biodiesel production a simple, economically worthwhile, environmentally-friendly, and industrially appealing process.
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  54. Sulfonated Char From Waste Tire Rubber Used as Strong Acid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Sanchez-Olmos, L. A.; Medina-Valtierra, J.; Sathish-Kumar, K.; Cardenas, M. S. 2017. Sulfonated Char From Waste Tire Rubber Used as Strong Acid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 36(2) 619-626

    A new acid catalyst based in a carbonaceous solid was functionalized using sulfuric acid as source of -SO3H acid groups. This carbon-based material prepared by the pyrolysis of waste tire rubber was used either as catalyst or as catalytic support. The pyrolysis process was performed with a flow of N-2 at relatively low temperature to obtain a mesoporous carbon and achieve an effective sulfonation. The sulfonation method of carbon obtained from tire rubber was through direct immersion into concentrated H2SO4 under reflux. The mesoporous solids were characterized by several analytic techniques including an elemental analysis derived from scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). These ones indicated the presence of polycyclic disordered carbon plates in the carbonaceous structure with a low surface area and wide pores that provided many surface acid sites. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst is related to the acid site density of Bronsted acid sites and to its homogeneous distribution. The hydrophobicity presented by this material favorably prevented hydration of hydrophilic -OH and -SO3H functional groups. The transesterification and esterification of waste oil under sub-critical methanol mainly in the presence of sulfonated char were achieved. Hence, it was required shorter times, low temperature and significantly, a low amount of methanol compared to other studies. (C) 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 36: 619-626, 2017
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  55. The Effect of Glycerol from Biodiesel Production Waste as a Plasticizer on Physical Character Edible Film of Chitosan
    Abstract

    Rosyid, F. A.; Triastuti, R. J.; Andriyono, S. 2017. The Effect of Glycerol from Biodiesel Production Waste as a Plasticizer on Physical Character Edible Film of Chitosan. 1st International Conference on Mathematics, Science and Computer Science (Icmsc) 2016: Sustainability and Eco Green Innovation in Tropical Studies for Global Future. 1813

    Chitosan edible film is a thin layer of clear packaging made from chitosan edible and biodegradable. Edible chitosan films are stiffer and less elastic, so it should be added plasticizer glycerol. One source of glycerol is inexpensive and easily obtained is crude glycerol from biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of various concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer on the physical characteristics of chitosan edible film and determine the best concentration of crude glycerol plasticizer. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and four replications. The Edible film using the g chitosan and some plasticizers concentration of crude glycerol (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1 mL) and a control treatment that used 0.4 mL of pure glycerol was made. The results showed that the use of crude glycerol plasticizer had effect to the physical character of chitosan edible film. Increasing concentrations of crude glycerol plasticizer exhibits the lowers value of the thickness and tensile strength, however, can increase the value of percent elongation. The best concentration of this research is the treatment of B (0.2 ml crude glycerol) which resulted in 0.55 mm thickness, the tensile strength of 95.38 kgf/cm(2) and a percent elongation of 2.13%.
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  56. The growth characteristics and biodiesel production of ten algae strains cultivated in anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste
    Abstract

    Yu, Z.; Song, M. M.; Pei, H. Y.; Han, F.; Jiang, L. Q.; Hou, Q. J. 2017. The growth characteristics and biodiesel production of ten algae strains cultivated in anaerobically digested effluent from kitchen waste. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 24265-275

    The growth characteristics and biodiesel production of ten algae strains cultivated in diluted anaerobically digested effluent kitchen waste (KWADE) were studied in this paper. Four microalgae species could tolerate the high NH3-N concentration in KWADE. Based on the results of PROMETHEE-GAIA, all strains cultivated with KWADE attained better biodiesel properties compared to cultivation in BG11. The most suitable strain was Scenedesmus SDEC-8, followed by Chlorella SDEC-18 and Scenedesmus SDEC-13. The best strain, Scenedesmus SDEC-8, achieved an extraordinary lipid content of 33.85% and lipid productivity of 20.27 mg L-1 d(-1), a desirable fatty acid methyl ester profile of 94.03% and satisfactory biodiesel properties in cetane number (59.39), iodine value (51.58 gI(2)/100 g fat) and lower cloud point (13.01 degrees C) too. In addition, SDEC-8 also exhibited the highest nitrogen average yield coefficient of 53.1 mg g(-1), and had an average yield coefficient of 1.8 mg g(-1) for phosphorous.
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  57. Thermo-chemo-sonic pre-digestion of waste activated sludge for yeast cultivation to extract lipids for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Selvakumar, P.; Sivashanmugam, P. 2017. Thermo-chemo-sonic pre-digestion of waste activated sludge for yeast cultivation to extract lipids for biodiesel production. Journal of Environmental Management. 19890-98

    The low cost biosynthesis of microbial lipids are an efficient feedstock to replace plant based oil for biodiesel production. The present study objective is to explore the effect of thermo-chemo-sonic predigestion of municipal Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) to cultivate oleaginous L starkeyi MTCC-1400 as a model organism to produce high yield biomass and lipid. Higher Suspended Solids (SS) reduction (20 and 15.71%) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilization (27.6 and 22.3%) were achieved at a Specific Energy (SE) input of 5569 kJ/kg for WAS digested with NaOH and KOH, respectively. The maximum biomass of 17.52 g L-1 and lipid 64.3% dwt were attained in NaOH pre-digested sample. The analyzed lipid profile exhibited high content of palmitic acid (45.6%) and oleic acid (38.7%) which are more suitable for biofuel production. Thus, these results strongly motivate the use of pre-digested WAS as an efficient and economical substrate for biodiesel production. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  58. Transesterification activity and characterization of natural CaO derived from waste venus clam (Tapes belcheri S.) material for enhancement of biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Syazwani, O. N.; Teo, S. H.; Islam, A.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2017. Transesterification activity and characterization of natural CaO derived from waste venus clam (Tapes belcheri S.) material for enhancement of biodiesel production. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 105303-315

    In this study, waste venus clam (WVC) was used as a raw materials of catalyst to produce biodiesel from palm oil at atmospheric pressure. The thermogravimetric, surface functional group, morphology, structure, basicity, surface area and leaching properties of catalyst was studied by using TGA, FTIR, SEM, XRD, TPD-CO2, BET, and AAS respectively. The result demonstrated that CS-900 catalyst gave high amount of total basicity at about 44 times than commercial CaO catalyst which is favorable for higher catalytic activity. Further, it was evident from BET that the shells calcined in temperature range 800-900 degrees C was exhibited enhance surface area than uncalcined shells. Under the best reaction condition (temperature 65 C, methanol/oil molar ratio 15:1, reaction time 6 h, and catalysts wt.% of oil), a high biodiesel yield of 97% was obtained. The leaching test on synthesized biodiesel revealed that the concentration of Ca in the biodiesel was 1.214 ppm which is inacceptable levels of metals as ASTM D6751 (United State) and in Europe, EN 14214 (Europe) standards. The subsequent reuse of the catalyst indicates the viability of utilizing waste shell as green catalysts for synthesis of biodiesel. (C) 2016 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  59. Transesterification of Sanitation Waste for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    de Oliveira, J. P.; Antunes, P. W. P.; Santos, A. R.; Mordente, T. Z.; Pinotti, L. M.; Cassini, S. T. A. 2017. Transesterification of Sanitation Waste for Biodiesel Production. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 8(2) 463-471

    This study aimed to assess the generation of biodiesel via enzymatic transesterification (commercial Candida antarctica lipase) using four types of oily waste from environmental sanitation, with the intention of utilising this waste not only to decrease the cost of biofuel but also to mitigate possible negative impacts on the environment. Using factorial experimental design (3(2)), the best temperature and molar ratio (oil:alcohol) conditions were evaluated for each type of catalyser for the studied waste types. The best conversion (96.5 %) was obtained with the C. antarctica lipase (5 % w/w oil/24 h) and raw material from the grease trap at the university restaurant at 50 A degrees C and a molar ratio of 1:9 (oil:alcohol).
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  60. Utilization of spray-dried nanoporous gamma alumina support in biodiesel production from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Khanbolouk, F.; Akia, M.; Arandiyan, H.; Yazdani, F.; Dortaj, Y. 2017. Utilization of spray-dried nanoporous gamma alumina support in biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry. 7(2) 191-200

    Gamma alumina is one of the widely used supports in catalyst preparation, possessing a high specific surface area and good thermal stability. Spray drying is an efficient way to produce narrow particle size distribution and spherical shape powders. In this study, spray drying method has been implemented to prepare microspherical nanoporous gamma alumina with a high specific surface area. The nanoporous gamma alumina support was utilized in the preparation of various heterogeneous base catalysts. The highest biodiesel yield of 99% was obtained at 6 wt% loading of K/gamma-Al2O3 catalyst, using waste cooking oil as feedstock. The obtained results revealed the great potential of the synthesized nanoporous gamma alumina as an effective support for heterogeneous base catalysts preparation in the transesterification reaction.
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  61. Utilization of Starch-Enriched Brewery (Rice Wine) Waste for Mixotrophic Cultivation of Ettlia Sp. YC001 Used in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kam, Y.; Sung, M.; Cho, H.; Kang, C. M.; Kim, J.; Han, J. I. 2017. Utilization of Starch-Enriched Brewery (Rice Wine) Waste for Mixotrophic Cultivation of Ettlia Sp. YC001 Used in Biodiesel Production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol.

    Starch-enriched brewery waste (SBW), an unexplored feedstock, was investigated as a nutritious low-cost source for the mixotrophic cultivation of Ettlia sp. YC001 for biodiesel production. Stirring, autoclaving, and sonication were assessed for the SBW, in conjunction with pH. Stirring at 55 degrees C was found to be the best, in terms of the effectiveness of starch hydrolysis and yeast disintegration as well as cost. The treated solutions were found to support the mixotrophic growth of microalgae: 20 g/L of glucose medium resulted in the highest biomass production of 9.26 g/L and one with 10 g/L of glucose showed the best lipid productivity of 244.2 mg/L/day. The unsaturated fatty acids increased in the resulting lipid and thus quality well suited for the transportation fuel. All these suggested that SBW, when treated properly, could indeed serve as a cheap feedstock for microalgae-based biodiesel production.
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  62. Valorization of waste Date pits biomass for biodiesel production in presence of green carbon catalyst
    Abstract

    Abu-Jrai, A. M.; Jamil, F.; Al-Muhtaseb, A. H.; Baawain, M.; A-Haj, L.; Al-Hinai, M.; Al-Abri, M.; Rafiq, S. 2017. Valorization of waste Date pits biomass for biodiesel production in presence of green carbon catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 135236-243

    In this study, an efficient utilization of waste Date pits biomass for synthesizing green carbon catalyst as well as production of biodiesel were investigated. The green carbon catalyst was modified by KOH and characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, TEM and BET. Taguchi method in Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to study the effect of several process parameters such as reaction temperature, time, catalysts type and methanol to oil ratio, on the yield of the produced biodiesel. The optimized yield obtained was 91.6% when the process temperature was 65 degrees C, with catalyst type C3 (6 wt% KOH on carbon) within 1 h and with 9:1 methanol to oil ratio. The produced biodiesel was completely characterized in order to verify its quality, compared with the international standards. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were found to be a cetane number 60.31, density 881 kg/m(3), viscosity 4.24 mm(2)/s, cloud point 3.9 degrees C, cold filter plugging point 0.62 degrees C, pour point 1.4 degrees C and flash point 141 degrees C, which lies within the limits specified by the international standards of ASTM and EN. Waste Date pits biomass can be a promising platform for the production of green carbon catalysts as well as biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  63. Value chain analysis of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production: Study case of one oil collection company in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil
    Abstract

    Guabiroba, R. C. D.; da Silva, R. M.; Cesar, A. D.; da Silva, M. A. V. 2017. Value chain analysis of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production: Study case of one oil collection company in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1423928-3937

    Environmental harm can be caused by improper disposal of waste cooking oil (WCO). When correctly doing so, besides promoting sustainability, WCO can be reused as raw material for the production of biodiesel. However, even though the prices of WCO are generally lower than those of virgin raw materials, the necessary supply chain for biodiesel plants may not exist or be available. One of the possible elements of such chain would be to have a collection company that processes the WCO and delivers it to the biodiesel producer. In this sense, this paper aims to develop a procedure to determine the activities and the costs related to the value chain of WCO, besides applying the procedures to a specific case in Brazil, as a means to verify whether a company that collects, processes and sells WCO to a biodiesel plant shows loss or profit. It is possible to say that the role of a collection company depends on its financial results, considering its private capital is not complemented by any support from public sector. After the application of the proposed procedures, based on Porter's (1985) theory, it was possible to identify the company's financial outcomes, in fifteen different situations, nine with profit and six with loss. It was also possible to confirm that in the cases of loss, in general there were two or more factors, such as decrease in the selling prices of processed WCO and increase of the distance between the collection company and the biodiesel plant that probably led to this undesirable result.(C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  64. Waste-free technology of wastewater treatment to obtain microalgal biomass for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zayadan, B. K.; Sadvakasova, A. K.; Usserbayeva, A. A.; Bolatkhan, K.; Baizhigitova, A. M.; Akmukhanova, N. R.; Sidorov, R. A.; Sinetova, M. A.; Los, D. A. 2017. Waste-free technology of wastewater treatment to obtain microalgal biomass for biodiesel production. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 42(12) 8586-8591

    Five axenic cultures of microalgae were isolated from the wastewater of Almaty city and identified as Chlorella vulgaris strain No1, Chlorella sp. strain.No3, Scenedesmus obliquus, Phorrnidium foveolarum and Lyngbya limnetica. Among these strains, C. vulgaris strain No1 was characterized by the maximum growth rate and the highest productivity. Mass cultivation of this strain in wastewater resulted in accumulation of 5 x 10(7) cells per ml in 16 days, and in the removal of similar to 95% of pollutants from water. Cells of C. vulgaris consisted of similar to 35% proteins, 29% carbohydrates, 30% lipids, and 6% ash, as calculated on a dry weight basis. The major fatty -acids of C. vulgaris were represented by palmitic, cis-7,10hexadecenoic acid, linoleic, and a-linolenic acids. Culturing in wastewater decreased the unsaturation index of FAs. Thus, C. vulgaris cells are suitable for both waste water purification and accumulation of biomass for further biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  65. A bone-based catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Suwannasom, P.; Tansupo, P.; Ruangviriyachai, C. 2016. A bone-based catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(21) 3167-3173

    Biodiesel production via transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) with methanol using waste chicken bone-derived catalyst was investigated. The calcium carbonate content in the waste chicken bone was converted to calcium oxide (CaO) at a calcinations temperature of 800 degrees C. The catalysts were prepared by calcination at 300-800 degrees C for 5 h and catalyst characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement. CaO was used as catalyst for biodiesel production. The results of the optimization imply that the catalyst concentration of 3.0 wt%, methanol to oil ratio of 3:1, and reaction temperature of 80 degrees C for 3 h provide the maximum values of yield in methyl ester production. Reusability of the catalyst from calcined waste chicken bone was studied for four times, with a good yield.
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  66. A comparative study between Modified Data Envelopment Analysis and Response Surface Methodology for optimisation of heterogeneous biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil
    Abstract

    Saeidi, S.; Jouybanpour, P.; Mirvakilli, A.; Iranshahi, D.; Klemes, J. J. 2016. A comparative study between Modified Data Envelopment Analysis and Response Surface Methodology for optimisation of heterogeneous biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil. Journal of Cleaner Production. 13623-30

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel which is an alternative source of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines without any modification. According to previous research, the importance of biodiesel production through heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking palm oil (WCPO) over Sr/ZrO2 catalyst has led to developing a new mathematical algorithm called Modified Data Envelopment Analysis (MDEA). MDEA, a hybrid of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with Neural Network (NN), was proposed for experiment design of multi-response problems. It was validated with Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which is a statistical method. This method was developed to maximise Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) yield and five decision variables were considered. The optimum amount of methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature, reaction time on Ester yield, and free fatty acid (FFA) conversion were calculated via MDEA method. The obtained results showed that the derived optimal parameter-setting of the proposed method, MDEA, is more reliable and accurate than RSM. The errors of predicted Ester yields are 5% and 14% in MDEA and RSM. The calculated errors of conversions are 3% and 19% in MDEA and RSM. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  67. A green and low-cost room temperature biodiesel production method from waste oil using egg shells as catalyst
    Abstract

    Piker, A.; Tabah, B.; Perkas, N.; Gedanken, A. 2016. A green and low-cost room temperature biodiesel production method from waste oil using egg shells as catalyst. Fuel. 18234-41

    Egg shells were used as catalyst for biodiesel production from both commercial fresh soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) at room temperature. After 11 h of regular stirring, high yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was obtained from fresh soybean oil (98 wt.%) and WCO (97 wt.%). The current work demonstrates the feasibility of utilization and storage of the catalyst as well as the performance of the transesterification reaction at ambient conditions. The reusability of the egg shell-derived catalyst was demonstrated for five cycles for WCO and ten cycles for fresh soybean oil. The catalyst can be stored for at least three months without any decrease in its catalytic activity and for a year with only 10% decrease in FAME yield. Utilization of waste materials (egg shells and used cooking oil) and performing the reaction at ambient conditions make the current method a cheap and environmentally-friendly technique for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  68. A novel hybrid catalyst for the esterification of high FFA in Jatropha oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mushtaq, M.; Tan, I. M.; Sagir, M.; Tahir, M. S.; Pervaiz, M. 2016. A novel hybrid catalyst for the esterification of high FFA in Jatropha oil for biodiesel production. Grasas Y Aceites. 67(3)

    The synthesis and application of a hybrid catalyst for the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) in Jatropha oil is reported. Three catalysts, namely silica sulfuric acid, silica supported boron trifluoride and a combination of the two in the weight ratio of 1:1, the hybrid catalyst, were investigated. Jatropha oil samples with a wide range of FFA values i.e. 6.64 to 45.64% were prepared and utilized for the experimental work. This study revealed that silica sulfuric acid and silica supported boron trifluoride were not very effective when used independently. However, a strong synergistic effect was noted in the catalytic activity of the hybrid catalyst which reduced the FFA value from 45.64 to 0.903% with a conversion efficiency of 98%. Reusability of the catalyst was also tested and the results were promising in up to three cycles of use when used with lower amounts of FFA (6.64%) in the oil. Under the influence of the catalyst, the reaction was found to follow first order kinetics. Activation energy was calculated to be 45.42 KJ.mol(-1) for 2 wt.% of hybrid catalyst. The products were analyzed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques and the results are reported.
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  69. A novel process for low-sulfur biodiesel production from scum waste
    Abstract

    Ma, H.; Addy, M. M.; Anderson, E.; Liu, W. W.; Liu, Y. H.; Nie, Y.; Chen, P.; Cheng, B. J.; Lei, H. W.; Ruan, R. 2016. A novel process for low-sulfur biodiesel production from scum waste. Bioresource Technology. 214826-835

    Scum is an oil-rich waste from the wastewater treatment plants with a high-sulfur level. In this work, a novel process was developed to convert scum to high quality and low sulfur content biodiesel. A combination of solvent extraction and acid washing as pretreatment was developed to lower the sulfur content in the scum feedstock and hence improve biodiesel conversion yield and quality. Glycerin esterification was then employed to convert free fatty acids to glycerides. Moreover, a new distillation process integrating the traditional reflux distillation and adsorptive desulfurization was developed to further remove sulfur from the crude biodiesel. As a result, 70% of the filtered and dried scum was converted to biodiesel with sulfur content lower than 15 ppm. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles showed that the refined biodiesel from the new process exhibited a higher quality and better properties than that from traditional process reported in previous studies. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  70. A study on production of biodiesel using a novel solid oxide catalyst derived from waste
    Abstract

    Majhi, S.; Ray, S. 2016. A study on production of biodiesel using a novel solid oxide catalyst derived from waste. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23(10) 9251-9259

    The issues of energy security, dwindling supply and inflating price of fossil fuel have shifted the global focus towards fuel of renewable origin. Biodiesel, having renewable origin, has exhibited great potential as substitute for fossil fuels. The most common route of biodiesel production is through transesterification of vegetable oil in presence of homogeneous acid or base or solid oxide catalyst. But, the economics of biodiesel is not competitive with respect to fossil fuel due to high cost of production. The vegetable oil waste is a potential alternative for biodiesel production, particularly when disposal of used vegetable oil has been restricted in several countries. The present study evaluates the efficacy of a low-cost solid oxide catalyst derived from eggshell (a food waste) in transesterification of vegetable oil and simulated waste vegetable oil (SWVO). The impact of thermal treatment of vegetable oil (to simulate frying operation) on transesterification using eggshell-derived solid oxide catalyst (ESSO catalyst) was also evaluated along with the effect of varying reaction parameters. The study reported that around 90 % biodiesel yield was obtained with vegetable oil at methanol/oil molar ratio of 18:1 in 3 h reaction time using 10 % ESSO catalyst. The biodiesel produced with ESSO catalyst from SWVO, thermally treated at 150 degrees C for 24 h, was found to conform with the biodiesel standard, but the yield was 5 % lower compared to that of the untreated oil. The utilization of waste vegetable oil along with waste eggshell as catalyst is significant for improving the overall economics of the biodiesel in the current market. The utilization of waste for societal benefit with the essence of sustainable development is the novelty of this work.
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  71. Aerobic, Anaerobic Treatability and Biogas Production Potential of a Wastewater from a Biodiesel Industry
    Abstract

    Queiroz, L. M.; Nascimento, I. O. C.; de Melo, S. A. B. V.; Kalid, R. A. 2016. Aerobic, Anaerobic Treatability and Biogas Production Potential of a Wastewater from a Biodiesel Industry. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 7(4) 691-702

    The purpose was to investigate the treatability of a wastewater from a biodiesel production industry under (1) aerobic conditions, using domestic activated sludge as inoculum; (2) anaerobic conditions, using sludge from an anaerobic domestic wastewater treatment digester; (3) utilization of wastewater for biogas production. The aerobic biodegradation batch tests were conducted in reactors with a working volume of 1.0 L, according to Zahn Wellens's methodology proposed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. The anaerobic treatability was determined by the methodology proposed by Field et al. (4A(0) Seminario de Depuracin anaerobia de aguas residuales, Valladolid Universidad, Secretariado de Publicaciones, Valladolid, 1988). Based on the results of anaerobic biodegradation, four new reactors with a working volume of 1.0 L were inoculated to evaluate the biogas production potential. The experiments showed that wastewater can be degraded under aerobic conditions with no lag-phase. COD maximum concentration of 780 mg L-1 could be metabolized aerobically. The anaerobic biodegradation only started after the adaptation phase (3 days). After 28 days, it was possible to achieve removal efficiencies above 90 % for the conditions applied in anaerobic tests. It was possible to obtain 114 mL of biogas for the highest influent COD concentration of 800 mg L-1 and F/M ratio = 0.25.
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  72. Application of Flying Jet Plasma for Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Wasted Vegetable Oil
    Abstract

    Abdul-Majeed, W. S.; AAl-Thani, G. S.; Al-Sabahi, J. N. 2016. Application of Flying Jet Plasma for Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Wasted Vegetable Oil. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing. 36(6) 1517-1531

    Biodiesel, a good partial or total substitute for petrodiesel, is a renewable clean burning fuel which can be produced from transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with an alcohol in presence of a catalyst. Since the feedstock costs in this process constitutes more than 70 % of the overall cost, use of wasted vegetable oil (i.e. consumed cooking oil) for biodiesel production is a big challenge in terms of cost reduction and environmental impacts. Nonetheless, the content of residues in the wasted vegetable oil, formed during frying, is a major drawback could be faced in this direction. In this research, we applied an unconventional design of flying jet dielectric barrier discharge plasma torch to treat several specimens of wasted cooking oil collected from different resources before transesterification. In other experiments, the jet plasma itself was used to catalyze the reaction process. The examined plasma torch was found more feasible than conventional DBD reactor design in terms of gas and power consumptions. Upon inducting plasma treatment, the transesterification process resulted in higher biodiesel yield, lower reaction time and easier product separation than the conventional path. Upon catalyzing the reaction by the sole jet plasma effect, the biodiesel content of saturated methyl esters was higher than conventional tranesterification. Also, the yield and properties were found within commercial standards.
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  73. Application of waste chicken fat in base catalyzed (potassium hydroxide) biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Razak, N. H.; Safari, M. I. A. K. M.; Merican, H. A.; Ghafar, F.; Zulkafli, N. I. 2016. Application of waste chicken fat in base catalyzed (potassium hydroxide) biodiesel production. Proceedings of Mechanical Engineering Research Day 2016. 13-14

    The objective of this research was to analyze the effect of temperature, catalyst ratio and methanol ratio on biodiesel yield from waste chicken fat. The optimum yield were 95.4% with 0.006 w/w catalyst and 0.3 w/w alcohol at 50 degrees C. The product density was 873.4 kg/m(3), the iodine value, 117 g I/100g and the acid value, 0.561 mg KOH/g. The compositions of fatty acids were 0.22% of methyl laurate, 19.98% of methyl palmitate, 41.08% of methyl stearate and 0.17% of methyl linoleate. Consequently, the biodiesel obtained under these conditions had characteristics very similar to those described in the ASTM standards.
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  74. Biodiesel production by methanolysis of waste lard from piglet roasting over quicklime
    Abstract

    Stojkovic, I. J.; Miladinovic, M. R.; Stamenkovic, O. S.; Bankovic-Ilic, I. B.; Povrenovic, D. S.; Veljkovic, V. B. 2016. Biodiesel production by methanolysis of waste lard from piglet roasting over quicklime. Fuel. 182454-466

    Waste lard from piglet roasting and quicklime (basically CaO) as a priceless fatty feedstock and a cheap solid catalyst, respectively were tested for the biodiesel production by methanolysis in a batch stirred reactor at moderate reaction temperatures (40-60 degrees C) for the kinetic study. For comparison, unheated and heated pork lards, as well as pure CaO, were also included in this study. The mass transfer limitation was observed in the initial period of all methanolysis reactions. The kinetic model combining the changing-and first-order reaction rate laws with respect to triacylglycerols and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), respectively was verified for all three lardy feedstocks and both catalysts. The catalytic activity of quicklime was the same as that of pure CaO. The activation energy was demonstrated to be independent of the feedstock and the catalyst (59.1 +/- 0.6 kJ/mol) but the waste lard reacted faster than the unheated and heated pork lards. At the methanol-to-lard molar ratio of 6:1, the catalyst amount of 5% (based on the lard weight) and the reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, a high FAME concentration in the final ester products (97.5%) within 60 min were achieved with the waste lard and quicklime in two consecutive batches. The same kinetic model was applicable in a continuous packed-bed tubular reactor filled with quicklime bits (2.0-3.15 mm) at the methanol-to-waste lard molar ratio of 6:1, the reaction temperature of 60 degrees C and the residence time of 1 h. Under these conditions, the biodiesel yield was 97.6%, while the FAME concentration in the biodiesel product was 96.5%. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  75. Biodiesel production from green seaweed Ulva fasciata catalyzed by novel waste catalysts from Pakistan Steel Industry
    Abstract

    Khan, A. M.; Fatima, N.; Hussain, M. S.; Yasmeen, K. 2016. Biodiesel production from green seaweed Ulva fasciata catalyzed by novel waste catalysts from Pakistan Steel Industry. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 24(8) 1080-1086

    This research article is based on the biodiesel synthesis from the marine green macroalga Ulva fasciata, collected fromthe coast of Karachi, Pakistan using new and the most potential waste catalysts from Pakistan Steel Industry. The oil was extracted with n-hexane then it was analyzed by GC, TLC and by the examination of fuel properties. The metal analysis of catalysts was carried out by chemical tests and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The thermal treatment of catalysts at 1500-1700 degrees C during various processes in steel manufacturing industry converted the metals to metal oxides. The presence of CaO, MgO and ZnO in these catalysts made them highly reactive for biodiesel synthesis. The basicity of waste industrial catalysts was calculated to know their basic strength. The transesterification of U. fasciata oil was performed by fast stirring using 9:1 molar ratio of methanol/oil in the presence of seven different waste industrial catalysts for 6 h at 80-100 degrees C. The solid catalysts were easily separated from product for re-use. In addition, the rate of reaction in the presence of these catalysts was found to be quite feasible. The waste brown dust fromthe steel converter gave the highest yield (88%) of biodiesel. The production of biodiesel was confirmed by TLC examination and fuel properties in comparison with the ASTM standards. (C) 2016 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. All rights reserved.
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  76. Biodiesel production from oleaginous yeasts using livestock wastewater as nutrient source after phosphate struvite recovery
    Abstract

    Chung, J.; Lee, I.; Han, J. I. 2016. Biodiesel production from oleaginous yeasts using livestock wastewater as nutrient source after phosphate struvite recovery. Fuel. 186305-310

    Microbial oils, which can be converted to biodiesel, could be produced by oleaginous yeast. To reduce the overall cost, which is a limitation of heterotrophic cultivation, the livestock wastewater (LW) was examined as a feedstock. It was found that the LW needed pretreatment, and hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was effective, surpassing sonication and shaking. The nature of HC made it possible to disintegrate cells and release nutrients like phosphorus; it also rendered ammonia stripping and struvite formation, when MgO was added. The pretreated LW with the HC supported the growth of the two yeasts: C. pseudolambica had 3.6 h of doubling time, 2.19 g/L. of DCW, and 35.3% lipid per dry mass; and I. occidentalis had 2.9 h of doubling time with 6.54 g/L of final DCW, and 28.9% lipid per dry mass. All this showed the LW could turn into a valuable resource, as long as a suitable pretreatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  77. Biodiesel production from Silybum marianum L. seed oil with high FFA content using sulfonated carbon catalyst for esterification and base catalyst for transesterification
    Abstract

    Fadhil, A. B.; Aziz, A. M.; Al-Tamer, M. H. 2016. Biodiesel production from Silybum marianum L. seed oil with high FFA content using sulfonated carbon catalyst for esterification and base catalyst for transesterification. Energy Conversion and Management. 108255-265

    In this research work, waste of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was converted into activated carbon and the latter was used in the preparation of a carbon acid catalyst. Waste of PET was converted into activated carbon via carbonization and steam activation, then the activated carbon was sulfonated using fuming sulfuric acid in order to produce the carbon acid catalyst. The prepared carbon acid catalyst was tested for esterification of high acid value non-edible oil, Silybum marianum L. seed oil (SMSO) via optimized protocol. Amount of the carbon acid catalyst, methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature and time were the experimental variables optimized. Esterification of SMSO with methanol using the prepared carbon acid catalyst reduced its parent acid value (20.0 mg KOH/g) to the acceptable limits for base-catalyzed transesterification (<2.0 mg KOH/g) using 6.0% w/w of the catalyst, 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 68 degrees C reaction temperature and 180 min of reaction. The performance of the catalyst was reduced gradually during its recycling and reached to 60.0% at the 5th cycle. Kinetics of esterification of SMSO using the prepared carbon acid catalyst followed pseudo first order kinetics, and the activation energy was found to be 70.98 kJ/mol. The esterified oil was converted to biodiesel through optimized base catalyzed transesterification with methanol. Biodiesel with (96.98% yield and purity of 96.69% w/w) yield was obtained using 0.80% KOH w/w, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 75 min of reaction and 600 rpm rate of stirring. The biodiesel properties were within the recommended biodiesel standards as prescribed by ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. Transesterification of the esterified oil was found to fellow first order kinetics, and the activation energy was calculated to be 17.92 kJ/mol. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  78. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by immobilized lipase on superparamagnetic Fe3O4 hollow sub-microspheres
    Abstract

    Liu, C. X.; Yuan, J. L.; Gao, H. F.; Liu, C. Q. 2016. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by immobilized lipase on superparamagnetic Fe3O4 hollow sub-microspheres. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. 34(6) 283-290

    Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 hollow sub-microspheres (FHSM) with strong response to an external magnet were prepared via a solvothermal method, followed by acid etching. Lipase from Candida sp. 99-125 was directly immobilized onto the amino-functional FHSM by simple adsorption, without glutaraldehyde linkage. The immobilized lipase was used to catalyze the esterification/transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), a major source of biodiesel. FAME yield exceeded 93.4% over a wide range of temperatures from 10 to 40 degrees C. Notably, stability was clearly improved at the lower temperatures, in particular, giving a FAME yield of 89.6% after eight cycles of use at 10 degrees C.
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  79. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil for use as fuel in artisanal fishing boats: Integrating environmental, economic and social aspects
    Abstract

    Moecke, E. H. S.; Feller, R.; dos Santos, H. A.; Machado, M. D.; Cubas, A. L. V.; Dutra, A. R. D.; Santos, L. L. V.; Soares, S. R. 2016. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil for use as fuel in artisanal fishing boats: Integrating environmental, economic and social aspects. Journal of Cleaner Production. 135679-688

    Concern in relation to creating environmental protection policies is increasing, particularly with regard to the reuse of waste for power generation. In this context, biodiesel production from waste cooking oils could play an important role. Biodiesel is a biofuel that can be produced from saturated fatty raw material discarded by restaurants, such as oils and fats used for cooking processes. This paper describes a biodiesel production plant installed at Pinheira Beach in the State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil and aims to discuss the environmental, social and economic impacts by analyzing the biodiesel production by life cycle assessment (LCA), relationship with the emission of greenhouse gases. The plant is run by an association and is aimed at promoting the recycling of waste cooking oil from restaurants and residences in the area and, at the same time, enables the continuity of artisanal fisheries in the region. The transesterification production process was used to convert waste cooking oils into biodiesel using basic catalysis in the presence of methanol. A batch system with the capacity to produce 200 L of biodiesel per day was adopted. The data obtained for the biodiesel produced at the plant were 879.2 kg m(-3) density, 495.74 mg kg(-1) water content, 94.38% ester content, and 1.5 mg.kg(-1) sodium plus potassium. Related to the Life Cycle Assessment the results demonstrate that the category that most contributes to the emissions generated in biodiesel production process is the collection stage with 92.10% contribution, presenting a significant difference to the productions stage which contributed 7.9%. The plant provides environmental, social and economic gains for the community, for instance, increased income for the associates and fishermen, environmental education in schools, and cooking oil recycling opportunities. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  80. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil over sulfonated catalysts
    Abstract

    Tropecelo, A. I.; Caetano, C. S.; Caiado, M.; Castanheiro, J. E. 2016. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil over sulfonated catalysts. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(2) 174-182

    Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) with sulfonic acid groups (PVA-SO3H) and polystyrene with sulfonic acid groups (PS-SO3H), at 60 degrees C. The PVA-SO3H catalyst showed higher catalytic activity than the PS-SO3H one. In order to optimize the reaction conditions, different parameters were studied. An increase of waste cooking oil conversion into fatty acid methyl esters with the amount of PVA-SO3H was observed. When the transesterification and esterification of WCO was carried out with ethanol over PVA-SO3H, at 60 degrees C, a decrease of biodiesel production was also observed. The WCO conversion into fatty acid ethyl ester increased when the temperature was increased from 60 to 80 degrees C. When different amounts of free fatty acids were added to the reaction mixture, a slight increase on the conversion was observed. The PVA-SO3H catalyst was reused and recycled with negligible loss in the activity.
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  81. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oils through esterification: Catalyst screening, chemical equilibrium and reaction kinetics
    Abstract

    Neumann, K.; Werth, K.; Martin, A.; Gorak, A. 2016. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oils through esterification: Catalyst screening, chemical equilibrium and reaction kinetics. Chemical Engineering Research & Design. 10752-62

    Fatty esters provide new building-blocks for sustainable chemical and biochemical processes or can be used as biofuels. For a greener and more economic production of these esters waste cooking oils are a promising feedstock, but a pre-treatment step is required. In this step the high content of free fatty acids is reduced by an acid catalysed esterification. To further enhance the overall process efficiency, reactive distillation is favourable for the pretreatment. In order to enable a comprehensive analysis of an industrial production process, a step-by-step procedure considering lab-scale experiments and determination of important model parameters is provided. In this study the reaction kinetics of the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol forming the ester ethyl oleate is determined. Prior, a suitable catalyst matching the operating window of a reactive distillation process is identified in an experimental screening. (C) 2015 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  82. Biodiesel production from waste cooking sunflower oil and environmental impact analysis
    Abstract

    Saifuddin, M.; Boyce, A. N. 2016. Biodiesel production from waste cooking sunflower oil and environmental impact analysis. Kuwait Journal of Science. 43(3) 110-117

    Waste cooking oil offers great potential as a low cost biodiesel feedstock. Several parameters were tested for the optimum production of biodiesel and these included varying the alcohol: oil molar ratios, different catalyst concentrations, temperatures and stirring speed. For the optimum production of biodiesel, the molar ratio of alcohol to oil used was 6:1. The fatty acid methyl esters identified in the biodiesel were methyl palmitate, methyl linoleate, methyloleate and methyl stearate. The viscosity of the produced biodiesel was within the range of international ASTM standards. Engine exhaust emission tests of biodiesel showed that the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions were lower than that of petrodiesel. The nitrogenous oxides emission and specific fuel consumption were higher than that of conventional diesel fuel. It can be concluded that biodiesel produced from waste sunflower oil can be considered as a great potential source of commercial biodiesel.
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  83. Biodiesel production from waste cotton seed oil: engine performance and emission characteristics
    Abstract

    Suresh, S.; Sinha, D.; Murugavelh, S. 2016. Biodiesel production from waste cotton seed oil: engine performance and emission characteristics. Biofuels-Uk. 7(6) 689-698

    Transesterification of waste cotton cooking oil (WCCO) is reported here. The GC-MS analysis of WCCO oil was studied and the major fatty acids were found to be Palmitic acid (28.26%) and Linoleic acid (43.14%). The molecular weight of the oil was 872.049 g/mol (GC-MS). The results showed maximum biodiesel yield of 96% when the reaction temperature, time, methanol/oil ratio and catalyst loading were fixed at 65 degrees C, 45 min, 6: 1 and 2% (wt.%) respectively. Partial purification of the biodiesel was performed for better engine performance and improved emission characteristics. The flash point and fire point of WCCO biodiesel were found to be 158 degrees C and 165 degrees C respectively. The brake thermal efficiency of WCCO10 biodiesel was 26.64% for maximum load and the specific fuel consumption for diesel was 0.3479 kg/kWh at maximum load. The use of biodiesel blends showed a reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions and a marginal increase in nitrogen oxide emissions.
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  84. Biodiesel Production from Waste Fish for Zero Waste Concept in Remote Area of Eastern of Java, Indonesia
    Abstract

    Harsono, S. S.; Setyobudi, R. H.; Zeemani, T. 2016. Biodiesel Production from Waste Fish for Zero Waste Concept in Remote Area of Eastern of Java, Indonesia. Jurnal Teknologi. 78(4-2) 215-219

    Increasing demand fossil fuel in the world may have a good impact on biodiesel demand. Other than produced from plant oil, biodiesel can also be produced from waste fish and fish wastes. Extracted oil from both of fish waste may be turned into biodiesel to be used for ship's diesel engine or other purposes. The objective of this study is to analyze the energetic efficiency in the production of fish wastes as feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Indonesia. The biodiesel production chain is analyzed to quantify the net yield of energy and exergy and their respective degree of efficiency. The energy consumption calculation for the biodiesel production system is assessed as the sum of energy consumption in different stages in its production chain. Energy efficiency in biodiesel production can be assessed using an index for technical, economic and environmental sustainability analysis. The fish oil was separated from fish wastes using a specially designed oil extraction machine. Both direct and indirect energy and exergy flows are important parameters for evaluating the energetic efficiency of biodiesel. Further, the analysis shows that it is necessary to find ways to improve the exergy efficiency without decreasing the energy efficiency during production of biodiesel from waste fish.
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  85. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil using waste animal bone and solar heat
    Abstract

    Corro, G.; Sanchez, N.; Pal, U.; Banuelos, F. 2016. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil using waste animal bone and solar heat. Waste Management. 47105-113

    A two-step catalytic process for the production of biodiesel from waste frying oil (WFO) at low cost, utilizing waste animal-bone as catalyst and solar radiation as heat source is reported in this work. In the first step, the free fatty acids (FFA) in WFO were esterified with methanol by a catalytic process using calcined waste animal-bone as catalyst, which remains active even after 10 esterification runs. The trans-esterification step was catalyzed by NaOH through thermal activation process. Produced biodiesel fulfills all the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. A probable reaction mechanism for the esterification process is proposed considering the presence of hydroxyapatite at the surface of calcined animal bones.(c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd, All rights reserved.
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  86. Biodiesel Production from Waste Palm Oil Catalyzed by Hierarchical ZSM-5 Supported Calcium Oxide
    Abstract

    Zein, Y. M.; Anal, A. K.; Prasetyoko, D.; Qoniah, I. 2016. Biodiesel Production from Waste Palm Oil Catalyzed by Hierarchical ZSM-5 Supported Calcium Oxide. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry. 16(1) 98-104

    Biodiesel production from waste palm oil catalyzed by hierarchical ZSM-5 supported calcium oxide was studied. The activity of CaO increased after supported on h-ZSM-5 resulting an increase in conversion from 93.17% to 95.40%. A maximum conversion of 95.40% was achieved at 6 h reaction time, 3 wt.% catalyst amount, 12: 1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 65 degrees C reaction temperature. The waste palm oil showed a high potential as a feedstock in biodiesel production in which there was no significant different in the conversion of fresh and waste palm oil. The properties of the obtained biodiesel required the limits of biodiesel specification according to ASTM D6751-08 and EN 14214 with the methyl ester content of 97.18%, the acid value of 0.24 mg KOH/g, the kinematic viscosity of 4.64 cSt and the density of 869.9 kg/m(3).
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  87. Biodiesel production from waste shortening oil from instant noodle factories
    Abstract

    Hoang, N. S. H.; Vinh, L. X.; Hien, T. T. 2016. Biodiesel production from waste shortening oil from instant noodle factories. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 18(1) 93-101

    Waste shortening oil (WSO) from instant noodle factories was used for biodiesel production by transesterification using alkali as a catalyst in a laboratory scale. The effects of various parameters such as potassium hydroxide concentration, methanol/WSO molar ratio, temperature and reaction time on the biodiesel production were investigated. To determine the optimal operating condition for biodiesel production, potassium hydroxide concentration from 0.25 to 1.5 wt%, methanol/WSO molar ratio from 3:1 to 9:1, temperature from 35 to 65 A degrees C and reaction time from 30 to 90 min were employed. The highest ester yield of biodiesel was obtained at the catalyst concentration of 1.0 wt% KOH, methanol/WSO molar ratio of 8:1, temperature of 55 A degrees C, and reaction time of 60 min. Biodiesel obtained had many advantages such as high cetane number, low acid value and carbon residue and can be used as an alternative diesel without modifications to engine or injection system.
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  88. Biodiesel production from waste sunflower oil by using Amberlyst 46 as a catalyst
    Abstract

    Senoymak, M. I.; Ilgen, O. 2016. Biodiesel production from waste sunflower oil by using Amberlyst 46 as a catalyst. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(21) 3139-3143

    In this study, simultaneous transesterification and esterification of high acid value sunflower oil to fatty acid methyl esters was studied using Amberlyst 46 as a heterogeneous catalyst. The influence of reaction conditions such as molar ratio of methanol/oil, reaction time, and reaction temperature was investigated. The highest fatty acids methyl esters yield of 75.8% was obtained in presence of 6 wt% oleic acid content under reaction conditions of 20 wt% Amberlyst 46 catalyst amount, 6/1 methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction temperature of 130 degrees C, and reaction time of 10 h.
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  89. Biodiesel Production from Wastewater Using Oleaginous Yeast and Microalgae
    Abstract

    Ling, J.; de Toledo, R. A.; Shim, H. 2016. Biodiesel Production from Wastewater Using Oleaginous Yeast and Microalgae. Environmental Materials and Waste: Resource Recovery and Pollution Prevention. 179-212

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  90. Biodiesel production potential of mixed microalgal culture grown in domestic wastewater
    Abstract

    Soydemir, G.; Keris-Sen, U. D.; Sen, U.; Gurol, M. D. 2016. Biodiesel production potential of mixed microalgal culture grown in domestic wastewater. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 39(1) 45-51

    In this study, a mixed microalgal culture grown in secondarily treated domestic wastewater effluent was investigated for biodiesel production using in situ transesterification method with conventional heating. The total lipid content of the mixed culture was found as 26.2 % +/- A 0.6 by weight of dry biomass, and 74 % of the lipids were contributed by total glycerides. In situ transesterification with conventional heating process under acidic conditions produced higher biodiesel yield with chloroform as the co-solvent (82.1 % +/- A 3.9) compared to hexane (55.3 % +/- A 3.9) under the same reaction conditions. The gas chromatography analysis showed that FAME composition was mainly composed of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid methyl esters., and thus the mixed microalgal culture fed by domestic wastewaters has had comparable biodiesel conversion yields and FAME composition to mono-culture and pure cultures fed by synthetic culture media. Hence, this study showed that secondarily treated domestic wastewater could potentially be a suitable and sustainable medium for microalgae grown to be used as biodiesel feedstock.
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  91. Biodiesel production potential of wastewater treatment high rate algal pond biomass
    Abstract

    Mehrabadi, A.; Craggs, R.; Farid, M. M. 2016. Biodiesel production potential of wastewater treatment high rate algal pond biomass. Bioresource Technology. 221222-233

    This study investigates the year-round production potential and quality of biodiesel from wastewater treatment high rate algal pond (WWT HRAP) biomass and how it is affected by CO2 addition to the culture. The mean monthly pond biomass and lipid productivities varied between 2.0 +/- 0.3 and 11.1 +/- 2.5 g VSS/m(2)/d, and between 0.5 +/- 0.1 and 2.6 +/- 1.1 g/m(2)/d, respectively. The biomass fatty acid methyl esters were highly complex which led to produce low-quality biodiesel so that it cannot be used directly as a transportation fuel. Overall, 0.9 +/- 0.1 g/m(2)/d (3.2 +/- 0.5 ton/ha/year) low-quality biodiesel could be produced from WWT HRAP biomass which could be further increased to 1.1 +/- 0.1 g/m(2)/d (4.0 ton/ha/year) by lowering culture pH to 6-7 during warm summer months. CO2 addition, had little effect on both the biomass lipid content and profile and consequently did not change the quality of biodiesel. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  92. Biodiesel Production Using Calcined Waste Filter Press Cake from a Sugar Manufacturing Facility as a Highly Economic Catalyst
    Abstract

    Aghabarari, B.; Martinez-Huerta, M. V. 2016. Biodiesel Production Using Calcined Waste Filter Press Cake from a Sugar Manufacturing Facility as a Highly Economic Catalyst. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 93(6) 773-779

    For the first time, a low cost, high performance and environmentally friendly heterogeneous catalyst derived from waste filter press cake (FPC) from a sugar manufacturing facility was used for the production of biodiesel. This industrial waste was calcined in air at 900 A degrees C for 2 h to convert it into an active CaO-based catalyst (FPC-HT). In addition, the calcium oxide nanoparticles (FPC-NAC) were synthesized by surfactant-hydration treatment of FPC-HT. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM and BET analysis. These calcium oxide catalysts were used for a transesterification reaction between canola oil and methanol to produce biodiesel. The results show that the FPC-NAC has higher catalytic activity than FPC-HT under optimized reaction conditions. Therefore, this economic catalyst is able to catalyze the transesterification of canola oil to its methyl esters in 1.5 h with yields above 96 %.
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  93. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology
    Abstract

    Cubas, A. L. V.; Machado, M. M.; Pinto, C. R. S. C.; Moecke, E. H. S.; Dutra, A. R. A. 2016. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology. Waste Management. 47149-154

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 degrees C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin).(c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  94. Biodiesel production waste as promising biomass precursor of reusable activated carbons for caffeine removal
    Abstract

    Batista, M. K. S.; Mestre, A. S.; Matos, I.; Fonseca, I. M.; Carvalho, A. P. 2016. Biodiesel production waste as promising biomass precursor of reusable activated carbons for caffeine removal. Rsc Advances. 6(51) 45419-45427

    Biodiesel production generates low particle size rapeseed waste (recovered from warehouse air filtration systems) that was herein explored as promising biomass precursor of chemically activated carbons. The influence of several experimental parameters on the porosity development was investigated. No benefit was observed when solution impregnation was made nor a significant dependence of the biomass : K2CO3 ratio was observed and, as expected, high porosity development was obtained only for treatments at 700 degrees C. Microporous materials with apparent surface area around 1000 m(2) g(-1) were obtained comparing favorably with literature data regarding activated carbons from rapeseed processing by-products. A selected lab-made sample and two commercial carbons were tested as adsorbents of caffeine from aqueous solution. Although commercial materials present a quicker adsorption rate, regarding adsorption capacity the lab-made sample reaches the same value attained by a benchmark material. The regeneration tests made over the rapeseed derived carbon through heat treatments at 600 degrees C for 1 hour under N-2 flow proved that at least two exhaustion-regeneration cycles can be made since the material retains a caffeine adsorption capacity similar to that of the fresh carbon. Therefore, a waste management problem of biodiesel industry - rapeseed residue - can be transformed in a valuable material with promising properties for environmental remediation processes.
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  95. Bioremediation of domestic and industrial wastewaters integrated with enhanced biodiesel production using novel oleaginous microalgae
    Abstract

    Arora, N.; Patel, A.; Sartaj, K.; Pruthi, P. A.; Pruthi, V. 2016. Bioremediation of domestic and industrial wastewaters integrated with enhanced biodiesel production using novel oleaginous microalgae. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23(20) 20997-21007

    The study illustrates the synergistic potential of novel microalgal, Chlamydomonas debaryana IITRIND3, for phycoremediation of domestic, sewage, paper mill and dairy wastewaters and then subsequent utilisation of its biomass for biodiesel production. Among these wastewaters, maximum lipid productivity (87.5 +/- 2.3 mg L-1 day(-1)) was obtained in dairy wastewater with removal efficiency of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon to be 87.56, 82.17, 78.57 and 85.97 %, respectively. Metal ions such as sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium were also removed efficiently from the wastewaters tested. Pigment analysis revealed loss of chlorophyll a while increase in carotenoid content in algal cells cultivated in different wastewaters. Biochemical data of microalgae grown in different wastewaters showed reduction in protein content with an increase in carbohydrate and lipid contents. The major fatty acids in algal cells grown in dairy wastewater were C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:2 and C18:3. The physical properties of biodiesel derived from microalgae grown in dairy wastewater were in compliance with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 fuel standards and were comparable to plant oil methyl esters.
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  96. Boosting TAG Accumulation with Improved Biodiesel Production from Novel Oleaginous Microalgae Scenedesmus sp IITRIND2 Utilizing Waste Sugarcane Bagasse Aqueous Extract (SBAE)
    Abstract

    Arora, N.; Patel, A.; Pruthi, P. A.; Pruthi, V. 2016. Boosting TAG Accumulation with Improved Biodiesel Production from Novel Oleaginous Microalgae Scenedesmus sp IITRIND2 Utilizing Waste Sugarcane Bagasse Aqueous Extract (SBAE). Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 180(1) 109-121

    This investigation utilized sugarcane bagasse aqueous extract (SBAE), a nontoxic, cost-effective medium to boost triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in novel fresh water microalgal isolate Scenedesmus sp. IITRIND2. Maximum lipid productivity of 112 +/- 5.2 mg/L/day was recorded in microalgae grown in SBAE compared to modified BBM (26 +/- 3 %). Carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio was 12.5 +/- 2 % higher than in photoautotrophic control, indicating an increase in photosystem II activity, thereby increasing growth rate. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile revealed presence of C14:0 (2.29 %), C16:0 (15.99 %), C16:2 (4.05 %), C18:0 (3.41 %), C18:1 (41.55 %), C18:2 (12.41), and C20:0 (1.21 %) as the major fatty acids. Cetane number (64.03), cold filter plugging property (-1.05 A degrees C), and oxidative stability (12.03 h) indicated quality biodiesel abiding by ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 fuel standards. Results consolidate the candidature of novel freshwater microalgal isolate Scenedesmus sp. IITRIND2 cultivated in SBAE, aqueous extract made from copious, agricultural waste sugarcane bagasse to increase the lipid productivity, and could further be utilized for cost-effective biodiesel production.
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  97. Cassava processing wastewater as a platform for third generation biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Neves, C.; Maroneze, M. M.; dos Santos, A. M.; Francisco, E. C.; Wagner, R.; Zepka, L. Q.; Jacob-Lopes, E. 2016. Cassava processing wastewater as a platform for third generation biodiesel production. Scientia Agricola. 73(5) 412-416

    This study aimed to evaluate third generation biodiesel production by microalgae Phormidium autumnale using cassava processing wastewater as a platform. Experiments were performed in a heterotrophic bubble column bioreactor. The study focused on the evaluation of the bioreactor (batch and fed-batch) of different operational modes and the analysis of biofuel quality. Results indicate that fed-batch cultivations improved system performance, elevating biomass and oil productions to 12.0 g L-1 and 1.19 g L-1, respectively. The composition of this oil is predominantly saturated (60 %) and monounsaturated (39 %), resulting in a biodiesel that complys with U.S., European and Brazilian standards. The technological route developed indicates potential for sustainable production of bulk oil and biodiesel, through the minimization of water and chemical demands required to support such a process.
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  98. Catalytic synthesis of glycerol acetates as an example of utilization of waste glycerol fraction from biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Skrzynska, E.; Archacka, R.; Kulesa, A.; Scibior, D. F. 2016. Catalytic synthesis of glycerol acetates as an example of utilization of waste glycerol fraction from biodiesel production. Przemysl Chemiczny. 95(10) 1948-1951

    Five com. glycerols of various purity were esterified with AcOH to glycerol mono-, di- or tri-acetates either in a non-catalyzed process or in presence of H2SO4, HCI, H3PO4, p-MeC6H4SO3H and 6 cation exchange resins at 60-118 degrees C for 90-130 min. The concd. H2SO4 and Dowex DR8H+ resin showed the highest acidity and catalytic activity in the process (conversions close to 100% and selectivity to triacetate above 15%). The presence of H2O resulted in a decrease in glycerol conversion.
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  99. Cation exchange resin catalysed biodiesel production from used cooking oil (UCO): Investigation of impurities effect
    Abstract

    Fu, J. Y.; Li, Z. B.; Xing, S. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Miao, C. L.; Lv, P. M.; Yuan, Z. H. 2016. Cation exchange resin catalysed biodiesel production from used cooking oil (UCO): Investigation of impurities effect. Fuel. 1811058-1065

    Converting used cooking oil (UCO) into biodiesel using solid acid catalysts shows good prospective for renewable and clean bio-fuel production. However, impurities (metal ion, water, etc.) contained in UCO will have effect on its biodiesel production as well as to affect the activity of solid acids. These effects were explored by selecting two UCOs and their model oils (same AV, without impurities) as feedstock, two typical kinds of cation exchange resins Amberlyst 15 and Amberlyst BD20 as solid acid catalysts. The result indicated that metal ion (Fe3+) not only showed deactivation effect on resin catalyst by cationic exchange but also exhibited catalytic activity as Lewis acid when it is in free form. The deactivation effect of water formed hydrated proton (-H3O+-SO3) on resin catalyst cannot be alleviated by increasing methanol concentration but can be reduced through increasing reaction temperature. The organic acids, highly active in catalysing esterification reaction, showed synergistic effect with cation exchange resin. Under the co-effect of organic acid (UCO-1, 0.19 mmol H+ g(-1); UCO-2, 0.12 mmol H+ g(-1)), metal ions (UCO-1, Fe: 0.6 ppm, etc.; UCO-2, Fe: 9.4 ppm, etc.) and other impurities, UCO-1/UCO-2 showed a FFA conversion of 1.2-14.1%/4.5-13.5%, compared with -4.35-9.36%/0.96-8.09% for their model oils at reaction condition of catalyst-free, 70-110 degrees C, 3 h, methanol-to-FFA molar ratio of 15:1. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  100. Cleaner production of methyl ester using waste cooking oil derived from palm olein using a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor
    Abstract

    Chuah, L. F.; Yusup, S.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Bokhari, A.; Abdullah, M. Z. 2016. Cleaner production of methyl ester using waste cooking oil derived from palm olein using a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1124505-4514

    Methyl ester contributes to environmental protection as it is biodegradable, renewable, non-toxic, produces less sulphur oxides emissions and greenhouse gases. The present work highlights the potential of hydrodynamic cavitation for the methyl ester production from waste cooking oil. The transesterification process was conducted under optimised conditions, such as oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:6 in the presence of 1 wt.% potassium hydroxide as alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C. Four newly designed orifice plate geometries induced cavities assisted by a double diaphragm pump in a pilot hydrodynamic cavitation reactor were investigated. It is shown that the high turbulence generated by the cavitating bubbles were effective in reducing the mass transfer resistance between immiscible reactants during the transesterification reaction due to increased interfacial area. At 2 bar inlet pressure, orifice plate with 21 holes of 1 mm diameter resulted in 8 fold higher yield efficiency and 6 fold lower reaction time compared to mechanical stirring. This makes the process more environmental friendly by using hydrodynamic cavitation. In conclusion, waste cooking oil methyl ester produced via hydrodynamic cavitation proved to be energy efficiency and time saving. The properties of the produced methyl ester met both EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  101. Comparative Studies on Biodiesel Production from Waste Cotton Cooking Oil using Alkaline, Calcined Eggshell and Pistachio shell Catalyst
    Abstract

    Sinha, D.; Murugavelh, S. 2016. Comparative Studies on Biodiesel Production from Waste Cotton Cooking Oil using Alkaline, Calcined Eggshell and Pistachio shell Catalyst. 2016 International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for Sustainability (Iceets). 130-133

    Transesterification of Waste Cotton Cooking Oil was reported. Different catalysts were studied. A maximum yield of 92% was reported for calcined eggshells catalyst. KOH and pistachio shell reported 91% and 84% respectively. The temperature, reaction time and catalyst loading were optimized to be 60 degrees C, 60 min and 3% (wt.%) respectively for egg shell and pistachio shells. The methanol to oil molar ratio suitable molar for transesterification catalyzed by calcined eggshell was 9: 1 and 12: 1 for pistachio shell. By using low cost catalysts from waste resources such as eggshell and pistachio shell for biodiesel from waste cotton cooking oil gives higher yield of production. It seems to be relatively easy to separate up to higher production of biodiesel, time saving, energy efficient and eco-friendly.
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  102. Conversion of Agro-industrial Wastes by Serratia marcescens UCP/WFCC 1549 into Lipids Suitable for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Montero-Rodriguez, D.; Andrade, R. F. S.; Lima, R. A.; Silva, G. K. B.; Rubio-Ribeaux, D.; Silva, T. A.; Araujo, H. W. C.; Campos-Takaki, G. M. 2016. Conversion of Agro-industrial Wastes by Serratia marcescens UCP/WFCC 1549 into Lipids Suitable for Biodiesel Production. 5th International Symposium on Industrial Biotechnology (Ibic 2016). 49307-312

    Biodiesel has been becoming one of the most promising biofuels for global fuels market in recent years, due to the depletion of global petroleum and its increasing price. Researchers exploit oleaginous microorganisms as an alternative for biodiesel production. Currently, they are focused on reducing the production costs and searching waste materials as substrates. This study aimed to investigate the ability of Serratia marcescens UCP/WFCC 1549 to produce lipids using agro-industrial residues (cassava wastewater and waste vegetable oils), either alone or as additives of Luria Bertani (LB) medium. S. marcescens demonstrated that have good ability for growth in all media employed, mainly in LB medium supplemented with waste vegetable oils. However, the best results for lipids production were obtained in media consisting only by wastes, with values higher than 40% of lipids in biomass. In media comprising only residues, more balanced profiles of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were found, in terms of the proportion of saturated, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs, respectively). The best result was obtained in lipids produced in medium containing 6 % cassava wastewater (CW) and 7.5 % waste soybean oil (WSO), which had the highest percentage of MUFAs (48.09 %), in accordance with the standards for biodiesel quality. In addition, a high content of oleic acid (46.82 %) was achieved in this medium, showing S. marcescens UCP/WFCC 1549 as an oleaginous microorganism that can be used as potential feedstock for producing good quality biodiesel. Also, this work demonstrated the suitability of CW and waste vegetable oils for microbial lipids production.
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  103. Dark fermentative hydrogen and ethanol production from biodiesel waste glycerol using a co-culture of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter sp.
    Abstract

    Maru, S. T.; Lopez, F.; Kengen, S. W. M.; Constanti, M.; Medina, F. 2016. Dark fermentative hydrogen and ethanol production from biodiesel waste glycerol using a co-culture of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter sp.. Fuel. 186375-384

    In previous comparative studies, Enterobacter spH1 was selected as the best hydrogen and ethanol producer (Knothe, 2010). Here, glycerol fermentation was compared between three other strains: Escherichia coli CECT432, Escherichia coli CECT434 and Enterobacter cloacae MCM2/1. E. coli CECT432 was found to perform best with a H-2 productivity of 69.1 mM (1307 mL/L). A co-culture of this E. coli CECT432 strain with the earlier selected Enterobacter spH1 showed a 3.1-fold higher H-2 productivity (4767 mL/L.) from pure glycerol and higher biomass production. Remarkably, the hydrogen yield per mol of glycerol also increased from 0.61 to 1.26 mol H-2/mol glycerol. The co-culture was also tested using waste glycerol from biodiesel. Waste glycerol was characterized and found to consist of (w/v): glycerol 47.5%, water 40.5%, ash content 4.8% and non-glycerol organic matter (MONG) 7.2%. The amount of total soluble organic carbon (TOC) in the crude glycerol was 317 g/L. A maximum H-2 yield and ethanol yield of 1.53 and 1.21 mol/mol glycerol was obtained on the waste glycerol, respectively. These yields are the highest reported to date using mesophilic strains. The strains metabolized the crude glycerol without any purification step. The ability to produce H-2 without prior purification of the waste glycerol is attractive because it avoids extra costs in the process. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  104. DM Water Plant Sedimentation as a Cheap and Waste Source of Catalyst for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Moradi, G.; Mohadesi, M.; Hosseini, S.; Davoodbeygi, Y.; Moradi, R. 2016. DM Water Plant Sedimentation as a Cheap and Waste Source of Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. 14(1) 113-124

    Transesterification reaction was performed in the presence of soybean oil, methanol, and Demineralized water plant sedimentation catalyst at 60 degrees C for 8 h in this study. Central composite design method was used to study the effect of catalyst concentration and methanol to oil molar ratio on purity and yield of produced biodiesel. The results showed catalyst concentration of 9.08 wt% and methanol to oil molar ratio of 22.49 as the optimum condition in which the values of purity and yield of the produced biodiesel in the second-order models were 99.89% and 81.83%, respectively. Experiments are in good agreement with the mentioned values as corresponded values are 99.95% and 86.68%, respectively. The catalyst was reused five times and XRF analyses showed a reduction in content of available CaO in catalyst after further usages, because of CaO extraction by methanol. Also for kinetics investigation, effects of temperature and time of the reaction on the produced biodiesel conversion at optimal condition were investigated. Rate constant at different temperatures and then activation energy were determined. Results showed high accuracy of first order kinetic model. Mean relative error of experimental data for the presented model was 2.42%.
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  105. Eco-design and evaluation for production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid from carbohydrate wastes discharged after microalgae-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Park, C.; Heo, K.; Oh, S.; Kim, S. B.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, J.; Han, S. O.; Lee, S. W.; Kim, S. W. 2016. Eco-design and evaluation for production of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid from carbohydrate wastes discharged after microalgae-based biodiesel production. Journal of Cleaner Production. 133511-517

    The production process of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA) was designed, and green microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris, was used as the raw material for its production. After the oil extraction of C. vulgaris, the waste carbohydrates were utilized by Acremonium chrysogenum M35 as the carbon source to produce cephalosporin C (CPC). An adsorption process using a nonionic resin was designed for the purification of CPC. The resulting CPC was converted to 7-ACA, which was later purified by crystallization. The feasibility of the production process was evaluated by the economics and productivity, and factorial design was used as the statistical investigation of the significance of the factors. The results of the factorial design in this study indicate that the factors such as the carbohydrates quantity and CPC yield in the fermentation were significant for the production of 7-ACA, and the P-IYF (Process for the production of 7-ACA by increasing the fermentation yield) showed the best economic indices except P-SA (Process for the production of 7-ACA by a statistical analysis) among all the designed processes. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  106. Eco-friendly biodiesel production from olive oil waste using solar energy
    Abstract

    Mihankhah, T.; Delnavaz, M.; Khaligh, N. G. 2016. Eco-friendly biodiesel production from olive oil waste using solar energy. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(24) 3668-3672

    This study was carried out to produce biodiesel from olive oil waste by transesterification reaction. Several important reaction variables (the weight ratio of oil to methanol, the temperature, and reaction time) were evaluated to obtain a high quality of biodiesel fuel that meets authentic standards. Solar energy was applied for the transesterification reaction and electricity generated by photovoltaic panels was used to power a motor for mixing the reaction solution.
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  107. Economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in the UAE
    Abstract

    Hussain, M. N.; Al Samad, T.; Janajreh, I. 2016. Economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in the UAE. Sustainable Cities and Society. 26217-226

    The absence of proper collection methods for waste cooking oil (WCO) particularly in residential areas make the tendency to drain it and clog the sewage stream or dispose of it into the trash bin the only unfavorable choices. Therefore providing an integral residential collection mechanism, incentive or penalty system, inexpensive and robust conversion technology into utilizable fuel, and downstream community usage would change this in environmental malpractice stress and valorize this energy opportunity. The focus of this work is to study the economic feasibility of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in the UAE, subjected to seven economic scenarios. To provide statistical information on the quantity and quality of generated WCO, a social survey was conducted. The local residential and commercial sector was targeted to gain information on the type of oil, method of drainage and quantity of waste cooking oil. A comparison can be made between conventional and sonication methods of production and results are assessed based on the selling price, net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR). As sonication assisted production is suited for high throughput, it demonstrated better profitability despite of its higher CAPEX and OPEX. Results also indicated that large scale production favored reduction in selling prices and subsidies. The auxiliary benefits like CO2 emissions were calculated and it shows a reduction of 23.1% in emissions and reduces in maintenance cost associated with the current drain clogging. The conclusion that can be drawn is that large scale production with sonication and no oil incentive is the most economically feasible model for the UAE. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  108. Efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from Pseudomonas mendocina PSU using a biodiesel liquid waste (BLW) as the sole carbon source
    Abstract

    Chanasit, W.; Hodgson, B.; Sudesh, K.; Umsakul, K. 2016. Efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from Pseudomonas mendocina PSU using a biodiesel liquid waste (BLW) as the sole carbon source. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 80(7) 1440-1450

    Conditions for the optimal production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by Pseudomonas mendocina PSU using a biodiesel liquid waste (BLW) were determined by response surface methodology. These were an initial carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 40 (mole/mole), an initial pH of 7.0, and a temperature of 35 degrees C. A biomass and PHA concentration of 3.65g/L and about 2.6g/L (77% DCW), respectively, were achieved in a growth associated process using 20g/L glycerol in the BLW after 36h of exponential growth. The PHA monomer compositions were 3HB (3-hydroxybutyrate), a short-chain-length-PHA, and the medium-chain-length-PHA e.g. 3-hydroxyoctanoate and 3-hydroxydecanoate. Both the phbC and phaC genes were characterized. The phbC enzyme had not been previously detected in a Pseudomonas mendocina species. A 2.15g/L of an exopolysaccharide, alginate, was also produced with a similar composition to that of other Pseudomonas species.
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  109. Enhancement of biodiesel potential in cyanobacteria: using agro-industrial wastes for fuel production, properties and acetyl CoA carboxylase D (accD) gene expression of Synechocystis sp.NN
    Abstract

    Jawaharraj, K.; Karpagam, R.; Ashokkumar, B.; Pratheeba, C. N.; Varalakshmi, P. 2016. Enhancement of biodiesel potential in cyanobacteria: using agro-industrial wastes for fuel production, properties and acetyl CoA carboxylase D (accD) gene expression of Synechocystis sp.NN. Renewable Energy. 9872-77

    In this study, two freshwater cyanobacteria, Oscillatoria sp. 50A and Synechocystis sp. NN have been evaluated for biodiesel production. Among the two cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp. NN was isolated, identified by its 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (SBC), tannery effluent (TE), coir pith (CP) and light stress (L1) on biomass and lipid production of Synechocystis sp. NN were studied. Result showed that maximum biomass productivity of 18.7 +/- 0.9 mg/L/day (1.9 folds) was observed in TE supplemented BG-11 media than normal BG-11 media. Meantime, maximum lipid productivity of 2.6 +/- 0.4 mg/L/day (1.4 folds) was observed in CP supplemented BG-11 media than normal media. Further, fatty acid composition analyses by GC MS showed that C16, C18:1 in Oscillatoria sp. 50A and C16, C20:1, C22:1 in Synechocystis sp. NN were predominant and the fuel properties were also in accordance with the international standards. Besides gene expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase D of Synechocystis sp. NN, analyzed by RT-PCR revealed that transcripts of accD were up-regulated by 1.2-4.7 folds in different media conditions. The findings of this study showed that Synechocystis sp. NN can be utilized as a suitable feedstock that is amenable for cultivation using wastes as nutrient source. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  110. Enhancement of biodiesel production by cultivating Dipodascaceae moderated-filamentous granular sludge with sugar-containing wastewater
    Abstract

    Li, M. X.; Li, A. J.; Sun, Q.; Jiang, X. M.; Chen, S. H. 2016. Enhancement of biodiesel production by cultivating Dipodascaceae moderated-filamentous granular sludge with sugar-containing wastewater. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 11038-45

    Utilizing excess sludge from a wastewater treatment plant to produce biodiesel has become an increasingly popular topic. However, the low lipid content in activated sludge has hindered the application of biodiesel production from excess sludge. This study was designed to enhance biodiesel production from granular sludge fed with synthetic sugar-containing wastewater. Granules cultivated at different initial sludge loading rates had different morphologies and microbial structure. Low seed biomass and high initial sludge loading resulted in the dominance of the white filamentous fungi Dipodascaceae in granular sludge, thereby enhancing the lipid accumulation of granular sludge and changing the biodiesel constituent produced from the sludge. However, overgrowth of filamentous fungi deteriorated the settling and compression ability of granular sludge. Thus, controlling the filamentous fungi at a moderate level through an effective operating strategy is of great importance to biodiesel production from a granular sludge system fed with sugar-containing wastewater. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  111. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis and kinetics of ultrasonic assisted methanolysis of waste lard for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Adewale, P.; Dumont, M. J.; Ngadi, M. 2016. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis and kinetics of ultrasonic assisted methanolysis of waste lard for biodiesel production. Chemical Engineering Journal. 284158-165

    In this study, the effects of ultrasonic parameters (amplitude, cycle and pulse) and major reaction factors (molar ratio and enzyme concentration) on the reaction kinetics of biodiesel generation from waste lard bio-catalyzed by immobilized lipase [Candida antarctica Lipase B (CALB)] were investigated. A Ping Pang Bi Bi kinetic model approach was employed to study the effect of ultrasonic amplitude on the enzymatic transesterification. Kinetic constants of transesterification reaction were determined at different ultrasonic amplitudes (30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50%) and enzyme concentrations (4, 6, and 8 wt.% of fat) at constant molar ratio (fat:methanol); 1:6, and ultrasonic cycle; 5 kHz. Parametric effects on the yield were studied using three sets of experiments namely A, B, and C. In experiment set A, two factors (ultrasonic amplitude and cycle) were investigated at three levels; in experiment set B, two factors (molar ratio and enzyme concentration) were examined at three levels; and in experiment set C, two factors (ultrasonic amplitude and reaction time) were investigated at five levels. A yield of 96.8% was attained in 20 min at an ultrasonic amplitude (40%) at 5 kHz, fat:methanol molar ratio (1:4) and catalyst level 6% (w/w of fat). The fitted curves of the kinetic mechanism showed a sigmoidal curve due to mass transfer limitations which controlled the process at the beginning of the reaction. The kinetic model results also revealed interesting features of ultrasound assisted enzyme-catalyzed transesterification: at ultrasonic amplitude 40%, the reaction activities within the system seemed to be steady after 20 min which means the reaction could proceed with or without ultrasonic mixing. The kinetic model approach employed describes the whole methanolysis process accurately. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  112. Evaluation and Characterization of Fats and Residual Cooking Oils for the Production of Biodiesel: A Case Study
    Abstract

    Pascacio, V. G. T.; Quintero, A. R.; Sanchez, B. T. 2016. Evaluation and Characterization of Fats and Residual Cooking Oils for the Production of Biodiesel: A Case Study. Revista Internacional De Contaminacion Ambiental. 32(3) 303-313

    The waste cooking oils and fats (WCOF) from the catering industry were systematically evaluated in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. Results pointed out that the eight restaurant types found in the city produced 174 t of WCOF/year in the following proportion: 41 % formal restaurant, 24 % fast food, 8 % taquerias, 7 % antojitos, 6 % soup kitchens, 6 % bars, 4 % gorditas and 4 % roast chicken shops. In addition, representative samples of WCOF coming from every restaurant type were characterized for biodiesel production, in terms of viscosity, oxidative stability, free fatty acid content, acid value, saponification number, moisture content and fatty acid composition. The physicochemical analysis suggests that all the WCOF produced in the city, except that coming from the fast food cooking, met the recommended free fatty acid levels and the acidity values for alkaline transesterification. Based on the population of the city an average production of 0.31 t/year of WCOF per 1000 inhabitants was estimated. Projecting this figure to the whole country of Mexico, 34.9 kt of this fuel would be obtained per year, which would avoid the emission of 92 kt/year of CO2 and contribute to reduce pollution in the country.
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  113. Evaluation of specific lipid production and nutrients removal from wastewater by Rhodosporidium toruloides and biodiesel production from wet biomass via microwave irradiation
    Abstract

    Ling, J. Y.; Nip, S.; de Toledo, R. A.; Tian, Y.; Shim, H. 2016. Evaluation of specific lipid production and nutrients removal from wastewater by Rhodosporidium toruloides and biodiesel production from wet biomass via microwave irradiation. Energy. 108185-194

    This study investigated the potential use of yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides for lipid production and removal of organics and nutrients while treating a mixture of distillery and domestic wastewater at low cost without sterilization. The highest specific biomass (24.1 x 10-9 g L-1 cell(-1) h(-1)), lipid yield (9.9 x 10(-9) g L-1 cell(-1) h(-1)), and lipid content (8.54 x 10(-3) g lipid g(-1) biomass h(-1)) were achieved on the 2nd day of cultivation. The organics and nutrients removal also reached the highest removal rates within 2 days, with the specific removal rates for COD (chemical oxygen demand), TN (total nitrogen), and TP (total phosphorus) at 39.5, 2.57, and 0.29 x 10(-9) mg cell(-1) h(-1), respectively. The indigenous microorganisms slightly contributed to both lipid production and removal of organics and nutrients. The direct transesterification process via microwave irradiation from wet biomass was further optimized under the conditions of solvent to wet biomass rate 16 mL/g, methanol and chloroform mix rate 1:1, addition of catalyst H2SO4 6%, and reaction time 10 min at the reaction temperature of 60 degrees C. The FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) composition and the possibility of biodiesel production from wet oleaginous yeast biomass by the direct transesterification were also assessed. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  114. Extraction of fleshing oil from waste limed fleshings and biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Sandhya, K. V.; Abinandan, S.; Vedaraman, N.; Velappan, K. C. 2016. Extraction of fleshing oil from waste limed fleshings and biodiesel production. Waste Management. 48638-643

    The aim of the study was focused on extraction of fleshing oil from limed fleshings with different neutralization process by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) followed by solvent extraction. The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from limed fleshing oil by two stage process has also been investigated. The central composite design (CCD) was used to study the effect of process variables viz., amount of flesh, particle size and time of fleshing oil extraction. The maximum yield of fleshing oil from limed fleshings post neutralization by ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) was 26.32 g and 12.43 g obtained at 200 g of flesh, with a particle size of 3.90 mm in the time period of 2 h. Gas chromatography analysis reveals that the biodiesel (FAME) obtained from limed fleshings is rich in oleic and palmitic acids with weight percentages 46.6 and 32.2 respectively. The resulting biodiesel was characterized for its physio-chemical properties of diesel as per international standards (EN14214). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  115. Fatty acid methyl ester production from industrial waste by Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 and Rhodococcus gordoniae R3
    Abstract

    Sricoth, T.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Kruatrachue, M.; Poolpak, T. 2016. Fatty acid methyl ester production from industrial waste by Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 and Rhodococcus gordoniae R3. Scienceasia. 42(2) 99-108

    Experiments were performed to test the ability of R. erythropolis IGTS8 and R. gordoniae R3 to accumulate non-polar lipids from industrial waste (molasses and glycerol) to yield fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The bacterium strain IGTS8 grew well in glycerol and yielded 0.11 g/l per day of FAMEs, while the strain R3 used only molasses as a carbon source and yielded 0.03 g/l per day of FAMEs. Fatty acids produced by both strains had 10-22 carbon atoms. Most were C16 fatty acids that are suitable for biodiesel production. Most fatty acids produced are saturated fatty acids with even-numbered carbons, while R. gordoniae R3 grown in molasses produced unsaturated-fatty acids as the major fatty acids. Fatty acids containing two or more double bonds were barely observed. Nitrogenous compounds in molasses had an effect on R. gordoniae R3 growth, yield of FAMEs, and composition of fatty acid produced. In the case of R. erythropolis IGTS8, only the growth of bacteria was noticeably affected. The effect of incubation time on the type of fatty acid was also noted in molasses grown cells. Glycerol and molasses were selected for the large-scale cultivation of R. erythropolis IGTS8 and R. gordoniae R3, respectively, in a 2-l continuously stirred tank bioreactor. The lipid contents produced by R. erythropolis IGTS8 grown in glycerol were increased, whereas the lipid contents produced by R. gordoniae R3 grown in molasses was found to decrease with increasing feeding time. In conclusion, the large-scale experiments gave higher lipid productivity than those performed in the laboratory scale, with the FAMEs productivity of 40 and 0.27 g/l per day for R. erythropolis IGTS8 and R. gordoniae R3, respectively.
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  116. Feasibility of triacyiglycerol production for biodiesel, utilizing Rhodococcus opacus as a biocatalyst and fishery waste as feedstock
    Abstract

    Palmer, J. D.; Brigham, C. J. 2016. Feasibility of triacyiglycerol production for biodiesel, utilizing Rhodococcus opacus as a biocatalyst and fishery waste as feedstock. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 56922-928

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be produced via bacterial fermentation by the oleaginous Gram-positive microorganism Rhodococcus opacus strain PD630 in regulated, nutrient-deprived conditions with sufficient carbon supply. Microbially produced TAGs may be further refined via transesterification into biodiesel and glycerol, with 3 mole of biodiesel and 1 mole of glycerol produced from every 1 mole of TAG by chemical conversion. Large-scale industrial production of biodiesel has been conducted for over a decade, yet microbially derived biodiesel has been, up to this point, absent from the biodiesel market. The use of a novel feedstock, chitin, from New England fishery waste may present a viable, cost-effective, unexplored carbon feedstock source for local biodiesel development. Availability and implementation of chitin as a feedstock, along with analysis of potential fuel characteristics, yield promising results for future industrial development of biodiesel production from R. opacus PD630 TAGs in regional locations with large lobster, shrimp, and crab harvesting operations around the world. With declining resources of fossil fuels and increased societal awareness of carbon emissions and climate change, an analytical review of this nature is critically relevant. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  117. Feasibility of using brewery wastewater for biodiesel production and nutrient removal by Scenedesmus dimorphus
    Abstract

    Lutzu, G. A.; Zhang, W.; Liu, T. Z. 2016. Feasibility of using brewery wastewater for biodiesel production and nutrient removal by Scenedesmus dimorphus. Environmental Technology. 37(12) 1568-1581

    This work investigates the potential use of a brewery wastewater as a medium for the cultivation of the oleaginous species Scenedesmus dimorphus with the double aim of removing nutrients and to produce biomass as feedstock for biodiesel. For this purpose, effects of nitrogen (61.8-247 mg L-1), phosphorous (1.4-5.5 mg L-1), and iron (1.5-6 mg L-1) concentrations on growth, nutrients uptake, lipid accumulation, and fatty acids profile of this microalga were investigated.
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  118. Feasibility of using brewery wastewater for biodiesel production and nutrient removal by Scenedesmus dimorphus
    Abstract

    Lutzu, G. A.; Zhang, W.; Liu, T. 2016. Feasibility of using brewery wastewater for biodiesel production and nutrient removal by Scenedesmus dimorphus. Environ Technol. 37(12) 1568-81

    This work investigates the potential use of a brewery wastewater as a medium for the cultivation of the oleaginous species Scenedesmus dimorphus with the double aim of removing nutrients and to produce biomass as feedstock for biodiesel. For this purpose, effects of nitrogen (61.8-247 mg L(-1)), phosphorous (1.4-5.5 mg L(-1)), and iron (1.5-6 mg L(-1)) concentrations on growth, nutrients uptake, lipid accumulation, and fatty acids profile of this microalga were investigated. Results showed that brewery wastewater can be used as a culture medium even if nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations should have been modified to improve both biomass (6.82 g L(-1)) and lipid accumulation (44.26%). The analysis revealed a C16-C18 composition of 93.47% fatty acids methyl esters with a relative high portion of unsaturated ones (67.24%). High removal efficiency (>99%) for total nitrogen and total phosphorous and a reduction of up to 65% in chemical oxygen demand were achieved, respectively. The final microalgae biomass, considering its high lipid content as well as its compliance with the standards for the quality of biodiesel, and considering also the high removal efficiencies obtained for macronutrients and organic carbon, makes the brewery wastewater a viable option as a priceless medium for the cultivation of microalgae.
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  119. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste
    Abstract

    Leong, S. Y.; Kutty, S. R. M.; Malakahmad, A.; Tan, C. K. 2016. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste. Waste Management. 4784-90

    Hermetic illucens larvae by nature are a decomposer which fed on organic wastes. This study explores the potential of producing biodiesel using lipids from H. illucens larvae. Three types of organic wastes (sewage sludge, fruit waste and palm decanter cake from oil palm mill) were selected based on considerable generation and disposal concern in the area of study as well as lack of investigations as feed for Hermetia illucens larvae in current literatures. Growth rate of the larvae was determined with studying the changes in the biomass per day. H. illucens larvae fed with fruit waste and palm decanter cake have shown growth rates of 0.52 +/- 0.02 and 0.23 +/- 0.09 g d(-1), respectively. No positive sign of growth were observed in the larvae fed with treated sewage sludge (-0.04 +/- 0.01 g d(-1)). Biodiesel as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized by transesterification of the larvae lipid using sulphuric acid as catalyst in methanol. FAME produced was ascertained using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The main compositions of fatty acid were found to be C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1n9c. Fatty acid composition of C12:0 fed with fruit waste, sewage sludge and palm decanter was found to be most abundant in the larvae lipid. The amount of C12:0 obtained was 76.13%, 58.31% and 48.06%, respectively. In addition, fatty acid of C16:0 was attained at 16.48% and 25.48% fed with sewage sludge and palm decanter, respectively. Based on the findings, FAME derived from larvae lipids is feasible to be used for biodiesel production.(c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  120. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste
    Abstract

    Leong, S. Y.; Kutty, S. R.; Malakahmad, A.; Tan, C. K. 2016. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste. Waste Manag. 47(Pt A) 84-90

    Hermetia illucens larvae by nature are a decomposer which fed on organic wastes. This study explores the potential of producing biodiesel using lipids from H. illucens larvae. Three types of organic wastes (sewage sludge, fruit waste and palm decanter cake from oil palm mill) were selected based on considerable generation and disposal concern in the area of study as well as lack of investigations as feed for Hermetia illucens larvae in current literatures. Growth rate of the larvae was determined with studying the changes in the biomass per day. H. illucens larvae fed with fruit waste and palm decanter cake have shown growth rates of 0.52+/-0.02 and 0.23+/-0.09 g d(-1), respectively. No positive sign of growth were observed in the larvae fed with treated sewage sludge (-0.04+/-0.01 g d(-1)). Biodiesel as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized by transesterification of the larvae lipid using sulphuric acid as catalyst in methanol. FAME produced was ascertained using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The main compositions of fatty acid were found to be C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1n9c. Fatty acid composition of C12:0 fed with fruit waste, sewage sludge and palm decanter was found to be most abundant in the larvae lipid. The amount of C12:0 obtained was 76.13%, 58.31% and 48.06%, respectively. In addition, fatty acid of C16:0 was attained at 16.48% and 25.48% fed with sewage sludge and palm decanter, respectively. Based on the findings, FAME derived from larvae lipids is feasible to be used for biodiesel production.
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  121. Ferric-manganese doped sulphated zirconia nanoparticles catalyst for single-step biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: Characterization and optimization
    Abstract

    Alhassan, F. H.; Rashid, U.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2016. Ferric-manganese doped sulphated zirconia nanoparticles catalyst for single-step biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: Characterization and optimization. International Journal of Green Energy. 13(13) 1305-1313

    Biodiesel of waste cooking oil origin is gaining attention as a replacement for current fossil fuels, as its low-priced, recycled feedstock shall prevent food source competition, which is estimated to happen with current biodiesel production processes. As a result, waste cooking oil has been claimed to be a highly potential feedstock for biodiesel production. In the present research work, Fe-Mn doped sulphated zirconia catalyst was synthesized and used in simultaneous esterification and transesterification of waste cooking oil to biodiesel synthesis. The catalyst was prepared through the impregnation method and characterized by using XRD, TPD-NH3, FT-IR, BET, and TEM. Response surface methodology (RSM) in conjunction with the central composite design (CCD) was applied to statistically evaluate and optimize the biodiesel preparation process. It was found that the synthesis of biodiesel achieved an optimum level of 97.2% waste cooking oil methyl ester's (WCOME's) yield at the following reaction conditions: methanol/oil molar ratio: 10:1, catalyst concentration: 3.0 wt %, and reaction temperature: 160 degrees C. The extremely high WCOME's yield of 97.2% was proved to be due to high acidity, surface area, and large pore diameter; reactants can easily diffuse into the interior pore of the catalyst and allow them to be in contact with active sites that enhance catalytic activity.
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  122. Glycerol Carbonate Production from Biodiesel Waste Over Modified Natural Clinoptilolite
    Abstract

    Mahdi, H. I.; Irawan, E.; Nuryoto, N.; Jayanudin, J.; Sulistyo, H.; Sediawan, W. B.; Muraza, O. 2016. Glycerol Carbonate Production from Biodiesel Waste Over Modified Natural Clinoptilolite. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 7(6) 1349-1356

    The conversion of glycerol, a byproduct in biodiesel production, to valuable products will improve the economic feasibility of a biodiesel plant. Conversion of glycerol and sodium bicarbonate to glycerol carbonate over natural clinoptilolite was studied in a 500 mL batch reactor for 30-60 min. The optimum condition for better conversion of glycerol was investigated by altering the ratio of reactant, water content, ratio of catalyst-to-glycerol (wt%), diameter of zeolite particles, treatment of natural clinoptilolite, and temperature. The conversion of glycerol has been improved by increasing temperature, concentration of catalyst and decreasing catalyst diameter. Nevertheless, the conversion decreased with increasing of sodium bicarbonate concentration and with higher amount of water. The highest conversion of glycerol was obtained over treated clinoptilolite with diameter catalyst of 0.46 mm, catalyst-to-glycerol ratio of 9 wt%, sodium bicarbonate/glycerol ratio of 3, and water/glycerol of 3 at temperature of 100 A degrees C for 30 min. Applications of sodium bicarbonate as a reactant and water as solvent and natural clinoptilolite as solid catalyst are potential to reduce cost of production and environmental footprint.
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  123. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Tran, T. T. V.; Kaiprommarat, S.; Kongparakul, S.; Reubroycharoen, P.; Guan, G. Q.; Nguyen, M. H.; Samart, C. 2016. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst. Waste Management. 52367-374

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86 m(2)/g and 1.38 mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110 degrees C, duration time of 4 h, and catalyst loading of 10 wt% under elevated pressure 2.3 bar and 1.4 bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  124. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Tran, T. T.; Kaiprommarat, S.; Kongparakul, S.; Reubroycharoen, P.; Guan, G.; Nguyen, M. H.; Samart, C. 2016. Green biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using an environmentally benign acid catalyst. Waste Manag. 52367-74

    The application of an environmentally benign sulfonated carbon microsphere catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil was investigated. This catalyst was prepared by the sequential hydrothermal carbonization and sulfonation of xylose. The morphology, surface area, and acid properties were analyzed. The surface area and acidity of the catalyst were 86m(2)/g and 1.38mmol/g, respectively. In addition, the presence of sulfonic acid on the carbon surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The catalytic activity was tested for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via a two-step reaction to overcome reaction equilibrium. The highest biodiesel yield (89.6%) was obtained at a reaction temperature of 110 degrees C, duration time of 4h, and catalyst loading of 10wt% under elevated pressure 2.3bar and 1.4bar for first and second step, respectively. The reusability of the catalyst was investigated and showed that the biodiesel yield decreased by 9% with each cycle; however, this catalyst is still of interest because it is an example of green chemistry, is nontoxic, and makes use of xylose waste.
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  125. High-yielding, one-pot, and green production of biodiesel from waste grease using wet cells of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain as catalyst
    Abstract

    Tian, K. Y.; Li, Z. 2016. High-yielding, one-pot, and green production of biodiesel from waste grease using wet cells of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain as catalyst. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 11530-37

    Green and efficient production of biodiesel from cheap and non-edible resources is highly desirable. Here we develop a practical method for the high-yielding one-pot conversion of low-cost waste grease to biodiesel (FAME) by using wet cells of E. coli expressing intracellular Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) as catalyst. E. coli (TLL) was genetically engineered and grew easily to a high cell density with the functional expression of TLL. The easily available and easy to handle wet cells were directly used as catalyst for the biotransformation of waste grease to FAME, with water content of 20-30 wt% (based on grease) and stepwise addition of methanol (4:1 molar ratio to grease) as the optimum conditions. Biotransformation of waste grease from Singapore (21 wt% FFA) and Malaysia (9.8 wt% FFA) with 31 wt% wet cells (26 wt% water) gave 99% and 97% FAME yield, respectively. During the biotransformation, the esterification of FFA was faster than the transesterification of triglycerides and the hydrolysis of triglycerides, and nearly no hydrolysis of FAME was observed. Preparative biotransformation was demonstrated to give FAME in >90% yield with a simple isolation procedure. The wet cells were recyclable and retained 55% productivity in the 5th cycle. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  126. Instant biodiesel production from waste cooking oil under industrial ultrasonic irradiation
    Abstract

    Khosravi, E.; Shariati, A.; Nikou, M. R. K. 2016. Instant biodiesel production from waste cooking oil under industrial ultrasonic irradiation. International Journal of Oil Gas and Coal Technology. 11(3) 308-317

    This study investigates production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) under direct ultrasonic irradiation using KOH and NaOH as catalysts. Specifically, the effects of methanol to oil ratio, catalyst type, catalyst loading and reaction time on biodiesel conversion were studied. Methanol to oil ratio as low as 4: 1 gives a high conversion of 99%. Premixing the WCO with methanol can dramatically reduce the reaction time to ten seconds. Homogenising the reactant mixture before reaction increased the conversion by 20% when NaOH pellets were used as catalyst with methanol to oil ratio of 6: 1 and 1% catalyst loading. Catalyst loadings of 0.75% and 1.25% give the complete conversion for NaOH and KOH, respectively.
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  127. Lipase oriented-immobilized on dendrimer-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes toward catalyzing biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil
    Abstract

    Fan, Y. L.; Wu, G. Y.; Su, F.; Li, K.; Xu, L.; Han, X. T.; Yan, Y. J. 2016. Lipase oriented-immobilized on dendrimer-coated magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes toward catalyzing biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil. Fuel. 178172-178

    A polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was grafted onto magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes (mMWCNTs) to combine magnetic properties with a large surface functionalized with amino groups. Based on three dimensional structural (3D) analysis of enzyme, oriented-immobilization of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) on the obtained m-MWCNTs-PAMAM matrix was achieved. The recovery activity of the immobilized lipase was up to 2808% and the corresponding esterification activity was 27-fold higher than that of the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme was employed to catalyze biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil in a tert-butanol solvent system. Biodiesel conversion reached 94% under optimal conditions. Moreover, the immobilized lipase could be easily recovered and there was no significant decrease in conversion rates after 10 cycles of reuse. The results suggested that the immobilized RML is a potential catalyst with high stability and excellent operational reusability for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  128. Lipase-Catalyzed Production of Biodiesel by Hydrolysis of Waste Cooking Oil Followed by Esterification of Free Fatty Acids
    Abstract

    Vescovi, V.; Rojas, M. J.; Baraldo, A.; Botta, D. C.; Santana, F. A. M.; Costa, J. P.; Machado, M. S.; Honda, V. K.; Giordano, R. D. C.; Tardioli, P. W. 2016. Lipase-Catalyzed Production of Biodiesel by Hydrolysis of Waste Cooking Oil Followed by Esterification of Free Fatty Acids. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 93(12) 1615-1624

    Biodiesel is conventionally produced by alkaline-catalyzed transesterification, which requires high-purity oils. However, low-quality oils can be used as feedstocks for the production of biodiesel by enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The use of enzymes has several advantages, such as the absence of saponification side reactions, production of high-purity glycerol co-product, and low-cost downstream processing. In this work, biodiesel was produced from lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of waste cooking oil (WCO) followed by esterification of the hydrolyzed WCO (HWCO). The hydrolysis of acylglycerols was carried out at 30 A degrees C in salt-free water (WCO/water ratio of 1:4, v/v) and the esterification of HWCO was carried out at 40 A degrees C with ethanol in a solvent-free medium (HWCO/ethanol molar ratio of 1:7). The hydrolysis and esterification steps were carried out using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL/WCO ratio of 1:5.6, w/w) and immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (10 wt%, CALB/HWCO) as biocatalysts, respectively. The hydrolysis of acylglycerols was almost complete after 12 h (ca. 94 %), and in the esterification step, the conversion was around 90 % after 6 h. The purified biodiesel had 91.8 wt% of fatty acid ethyl esters, 0.53 wt% of acylglycerols, 0.003 wt% of free glycerol, viscosity of 4.59 cP, and acid value of 10.88 mg KOH/g. Reuse hydrolysis and esterification assays showed that the immobilized enzymes could be recycled five times in 10-h batches, under the conditions described above. TLL was greatly inactivated under the assay conditions, whereas CALB remained fully active. The results showed that WCO is a promising feedstock for use in the production of biodiesel.
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  129. Manufacturing of zeolite based catalyst from zeolite tuft for biodiesel production from waste sunflower oil
    Abstract

    Al-Jammal, N.; Al-Hamamre, Z.; Alnaief, M. 2016. Manufacturing of zeolite based catalyst from zeolite tuft for biodiesel production from waste sunflower oil. Renewable Energy. 93449-459

    In the present work, zeolite based catalyst was prepared from zeolite tuft by impregnation methods. The zeolite tuft was initially treated with hydrochloric acid (16%) and then several KOH/zeolite catalysts were prepared by impregnation in KOH solutions. Various solutions of KOH with different molarities (1-6 M) were used. Further modification for the catalyst was performed by a 2nd step impregnation treatment by heating and stirring the KOH/zeolite to 80 degrees C for 4 h. The zeolite tuft and the prepared catalysts were characterized by several analytical techniques in order to explore their physicochemical properties. These tests include: X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Zero point of Charge (PHzpc), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Energy-dispersive X-Ray analysis (EDX) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The catalysts were then used for transesterification of waste sunflower vegetable oil in order to produce biodiesel. Among the different catalysts prepared, the 1-4M KOH/TZT catalyst provided the maximum biodiesel yield of 96.7% at 50 degrees C reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio of 11.5:1, agitation speed of 800 rpm, 335 pm catalyst particle size and 2 h reaction time. The physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesel comply with the EN and ASTM standard specifications. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  130. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production
    Abstract

    Qin, L.; Wang, Z. M.; Sun, Y. M.; Shu, Q.; Feng, P. Z.; Zhu, L. D.; Xu, J.; Yuan, Z. H. 2016. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23(9) 8379-8387

    The potential of microalgae consortia used in dairy wastewater treatment combined with microalgae biodiesel feedstock production was evaluated by comparing the nutrient removal of dairy wastewater, the growth of cells, and the lipid content and composition of biomass between monoalgae and microalgae consortia cultivation system. Our results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (maximum, 57.01-62.86 %) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (maximum, 91.16-95.96 %) were achieved in almost microalgae consortia cultivation system than those in Chlorella sp. monoalgae cultivation system (maximum, 44.76 and 86.74 %, respectively). In addition, microalgae consortia cultivation except the mixture of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus spp. reached higher biomass concentration (5.11-5.41 g L-1), biomass productivity (730.4-773.2 mg L-1 day(-1)), and lipid productivity (143.7-150.6 mg L-1 day(-1)) than those of monoalgae cultivation (4.72 g L-1, 674.3, and 142.2 mg L-1 day(-1), respectively) on the seventh day. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles indicated the lipids produced from microalgae consortia cultivation system were more suitable for biodiesel production. The microalgae consortia display superiority in dairy wastewater treatment and the getting feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  131. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production
    Abstract

    Qin, L.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Shu, Q.; Feng, P.; Zhu, L.; Xu, J.; Yuan, Z. 2016. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 23(9) 8379-87

    The potential of microalgae consortia used in dairy wastewater treatment combined with microalgae biodiesel feedstock production was evaluated by comparing the nutrient removal of dairy wastewater, the growth of cells, and the lipid content and composition of biomass between monoalgae and microalgae consortia cultivation system. Our results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (maximum, 57.01-62.86 %) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (maximum, 91.16-95.96 %) were achieved in almost microalgae consortia cultivation system than those in Chlorella sp. monoalgae cultivation system (maximum, 44.76 and 86.74 %, respectively). In addition, microalgae consortia cultivation except the mixture of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus spp. reached higher biomass concentration (5.11-5.41 g L(-1)), biomass productivity (730.4-773.2 mg L(-1) day(-1)), and lipid productivity (143.7-150.6 mg L(-1) day(-1)) than those of monoalgae cultivation (4.72 g L(-1), 674.3, and 142.2 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively) on the seventh day. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles indicated the lipids produced from microalgae consortia cultivation system were more suitable for biodiesel production. The microalgae consortia display superiority in dairy wastewater treatment and the getting feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  132. Microalgae from domestic wastewater facilitys high rate algal pond: Lipids extraction, characterization and biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Drira, N.; Piras, A.; Rosa, A.; Porcedda, S.; Dhaouadia, H. 2016. Microalgae from domestic wastewater facilitys high rate algal pond: Lipids extraction, characterization and biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 206239-244

    In this study, the harvesting of a biomass from a high rate algal pond (HRAP) of a real-scale domestic wastewater treatment facility and its potential as a biomaterial for the production of biodiesel were investigated. Increasing the medium pH to 12 induced high flocculation efficiency of up to 96% of the biomass through both sweep flocculation and charge neutralization. Lipids extracted by ultrasounds from this biomass contained around 70% of fatty acids, with palmitic and stearic acids being the most abundant. The extract obtained by supercritical CO2 contained 86% of fatty acids. Both conventional solvents extracts contained only around 10% of unsaturated fats, whereas supercritical CO2 extract contained more than 40% of unsaturated fatty acids. This same biomass was also subject to direct extractive-transesterification in a microwave reactor to produce fatty acid methyl ester, also known as, raw biodiesel.
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  133. Micro-fibrillated cellulose reinforced eco-friendly polymeric resin from non-edible 'Jatropha curcas' seed waste after biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Rahman, M. M.; Netravali, A. N. 2016. Micro-fibrillated cellulose reinforced eco-friendly polymeric resin from non-edible 'Jatropha curcas' seed waste after biodiesel production. Rsc Advances. 6(52) 47101-47111

    Eco-friendly polymeric resin with desirable mechanical and physical properties was developed from non-edible protein extracted from 'Jatropha curcas' (Jatropha) seed cake, so far considered as an agro-waste after oil extraction for bio-diesel conversion. A green, facile and cost-effective water-based casting and evaporation method was applied to fabricate Jatropha Protein (JP) based resin sheets. High molecular weight and the presence of reactive amino acids (a high content of arginine) in JP provide the basis to form a sustainable polymeric material. Also, JP resins were found to display diverse mechanical properties ranging from brittle and rigid to ductile and soft depending on the external modifiers such as plasticizer, cross-linker and reinforcing element used. Experimental studies using 10% sorbitol as a plasticizer, 10% glyoxal as a cross-linker and 20% microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) as a reinforcing element rendered JP resin with promising mechanical, thermal and physico-chemical properties. A favorable comparison between the modified JP and various polymers opens up possibilities for a sustainable alternative from non-edible protein-based agro-wastes that can reduce the dependency on biobased polymers from edible sources and petroleum based non-degradable polymers for applications such as fiber reinforced composites.
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  134. Microwave-Induced Pyrolysis for Production of Sustainable Biodiesel from Waste Sludges
    Abstract

    Capodaglio, A. G.; Callegari, A.; Dondi, D. 2016. Microwave-Induced Pyrolysis for Production of Sustainable Biodiesel from Waste Sludges. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 7(4) 703-709

    Purpose Disposal of sewage sludge is becoming one of the most important issues in wastewater treatment: the 2005 EU sludge production was estimated at 9.5 million tons dry weight, up 54 % in 10 years. Sludge disposal costs may constitute 30-50 % of the total operation cost of WWTPs. Sewage sludge still contains resources that may be put to use, like nutrients and energy, that can be recovered through a variety of approaches.
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  135. Ni-Co/AlMgOx catalyzed biodiesel production from Waste Cooking Oil in supercritical CO2
    Abstract

    Xi, M. Y.; Zhang, W. Y.; Cui, M. N.; Chu, X. B.; Xi, C. Y. 2016. Ni-Co/AlMgOx catalyzed biodiesel production from Waste Cooking Oil in supercritical CO2. Advances in Energy, Environment and Materials Science. 665-668

    Ni-Co/AlMgOx bimetallic catalysts were evaluated for the production of biodiesel from low quality oil such as Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) containing 15 wt.% free fatty acids. The effects of catalyst preparation conditions such as pH of precipitating solution was the most effective catalyst in simultaneously catalyzing the transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) present in WCO to methyl esters. The variation of the CO2 pressure exhibited a large impact on the reaction rate and product distribution. The optimization of reaction parameters with the most active Ni-Co/AlMgO catalyst showed that at 180 degrees C, 1:10 oil to alcohol molar ratio and CO2 pressure 8 MPa, a maximum ester yield of 96 wt.% could be obtained. The catalysts were recycled and reused many times without any loss in activity.
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  136. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Abbas, J.; Hussain, S.; Iqbal, M. J.; Nadeem, H.; Qasim, M.; Hina, S.; Hafeez, F. 2016. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Environmental Technology. 37(16) 2082-2087

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6: 1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60 degrees C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.
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  137. One-step production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil catalysed by SO3H-functionalized quaternary ammonium ionic liquid
    Abstract

    Qi, J. J.; Lin, J. Q.; Fu, H. Q. 2016. One-step production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil catalysed by SO3H-functionalized quaternary ammonium ionic liquid. Current Science. 110(11) 2129-2134

    The catalytic conversion of waste cooking oil (WCO) with high acid value (120.37 mg KOH/g) to biodiesel has been studied in low-cost SO3H-functionalized quaternary ammonium ionic liquid as catalyst. The ionic liquid (IL) catalyst was efficient in catalysing the simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions of WCO and methanol. Moreover, it can be separated and reused for six cycles without any significant decrease in the biodiesel yield. Under the optimal reaction conditions (methanol/oil/IL molar ratio = 10 : 1 : 0.063, 120 degrees C, 1 h), a maximum biodiesel yield of 95% was achieved.
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  138. Optimization and kinetic modeling of esterification of the oil obtained from waste plum stones as a pretreatment step in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kostic, M. D.; Velickovic, A. V.; Jokovic, N. M.; Stamenkovic, O. S.; Veljkovic, V. B. 2016. Optimization and kinetic modeling of esterification of the oil obtained from waste plum stones as a pretreatment step in biodiesel production. Waste Management. 48619-629

    This study reports on the use of oil obtained from waste plum stones as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Because of high free fatty acid (FFA) level (15.8%), the oil was processed through the two-step process including esterification of FFA and methanolysis of the esterified oil catalyzed by H2SO4 and CaO, respectively. Esterification was optimized by response surface methodology combined with a central composite design. The second -order polynomial equation predicted the lowest acid value of 0.53 mg KOH/g under the following optimal reaction conditions: the methanol:oil molar ratio of 8.5:1, the catalyst amount of 2% and the reaction temperature of 45 degrees C. The predicted acid value agreed with the experimental acid value (0.47 mg KOH/g). The kinetics of FFA esterification was described by the irreversible pseudo first -order reaction rate law. The apparent kinetic constant was correlated with the initial methanol and catalyst concentrations and reaction temperature. The activation energy of the esterification reaction slightly decreased from 13.23 to 11.55 kJ/mol with increasing the catalyst concentration from 0.049 to 0.172 mol/dm(3). In the second step, the esterified oil reacted with methanol (methanol: oil molar ratio of 9:1) in the presence of Ca0 (5% to the oil mass) at 60 degrees C. The properties of the obtained biodiesel were within the EN 14214 standard limits. Hence, waste plum stones might be valuable raw material for obtaining fatty oil for the use as alternative feedstock in biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  139. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater
    Abstract

    Han, S. F.; Jin, W. B.; Tu, R. J.; Abomohra, A.; Wang, Z. H. 2016. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 39(7) 1073-1079

    Despite the significant breakthroughs in research on microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel, its production cost is still much higher than that of fossil diesel. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to optimize algal growth and lipid production in wastewater. The present study examines the optimization of pretreatment of municipal wastewater and aeration conditions in order to enhance the lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus. Results showed that no significant differences were recorded in lipid productivity of S. obliquus grown in primary settled or sterilized municipal wastewater; however, ultrasound pretreatment of wastewater significantly decreased the lipid production. Whereas, aeration rates of 0.2 vvm significantly increased lipid content by 51 %, with respect to the non-aerated culture, which resulted in maximum lipid productivity (32.5 mg L-1 day(-1)). Furthermore, aeration enrichment by 2 % CO2 resulted in increase of lipid productivity by 46 % over the CO2 non-enriched aerated culture. Fatty acid profile showed that optimized aeration significantly enhanced monounsaturated fatty acid production, composed mainly of C18:1, by 1.8 times over the non-aerated S. obliquus culture with insignificant changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion; suggesting better biodiesel characteristics for the optimized culture.
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  140. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater
    Abstract

    Han, S. F.; Jin, W.; Tu, R.; Abomohra Ael, F.; Wang, Z. H. 2016. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 39(7) 1073-9

    Despite the significant breakthroughs in research on microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel, its production cost is still much higher than that of fossil diesel. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to optimize algal growth and lipid production in wastewater. The present study examines the optimization of pretreatment of municipal wastewater and aeration conditions in order to enhance the lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus. Results showed that no significant differences were recorded in lipid productivity of S. obliquus grown in primary settled or sterilized municipal wastewater; however, ultrasound pretreatment of wastewater significantly decreased the lipid production. Whereas, aeration rates of 0.2 vvm significantly increased lipid content by 51 %, with respect to the non-aerated culture, which resulted in maximum lipid productivity (32.5 mg L(-1) day(-1)). Furthermore, aeration enrichment by 2 % CO2 resulted in increase of lipid productivity by 46 % over the CO2 non-enriched aerated culture. Fatty acid profile showed that optimized aeration significantly enhanced monounsaturated fatty acid production, composed mainly of C18:1, by 1.8 times over the non-aerated S. obliquus culture with insignificant changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion; suggesting better biodiesel characteristics for the optimized culture.
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  141. Optimization of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Abubakar, H. G.; Abdulkareem, A. S.; Jimoh, A.; Agbajelola, O. D.; Okafor, J. O.; Afolabi, E. A. 2016. Optimization of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(16) 2355-2361

    The sequences of development that cut across industrialization, population growth, environmental and economic reasons led individuals and organizations to have direct responsibilities in the development and implementation of sound technologies that will curtail the emissions of hazardous gases and particulate matter. As a result, this study focuses on the optimization and characterization of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. It involves the characterization of the feed stock, the transesterification, the purification of the transesterified waste cooking oil, the optimization of the biodiesel produced using 2(4) factorial experimental designs, and the characterization of the biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Result obtained reveals that operating temperature of 30 degrees C, transesterification time of 60 min, catalyst weight of 0.5%, and alcohol to oil ratio of 6:1 are the optimum conditions with optimum yield of 90% of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Experimental determinations of some useful properties of the biodiesel produced were carried out for the purpose of confirming the quality as well as the identification of the biofuel. These were moisture content, specific gravity, viscosity, acid value, sulfated ash, cetane number, cloud point, flash point, distillation characteristic, and refractive index. The results obtained were 0.097%, 0.854, 4.90 mm(2)/s, 0.80 mgKOH/g, 0.01%, 48.00, 53 degrees F, 143 degrees C, 320 degrees C, and 1.412, respectively. The results obtained showed that all the parameters compare favorably with literatures and the standard biodiesel specifications; hence production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil is possible.
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  142. Optimization of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using ion-exchange resins
    Abstract

    Kolyaei, M.; Zahedi, G.; Nasef, M. M.; Azarpour, A. 2016. Optimization of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using ion-exchange resins. International Journal of Green Energy. 13(1) 28-33

    Waste cooking oil is a potential substitution of refined vegetable oil for the production of biodiesel due to the low cost of raw material and for solving their disposal problem. In this study, optimization of esterification process of free fatty acids in artificially acidified soybean oil with oleic acid has been carried out using methanol as an agent and ion exchange resin as a heterogeneous catalyst. The esterification reaction has been investigated based on the mass balance of the developed model. The model has been validated against experimental data and effects of temperature and catalyst weight have been analyzed. Thereafter, optimization process has been fulfilled for two different objective functions as conversion of acid oil and benefit. Optimization results indicated that the maximum conversion of acid is 95.95%, which is achievable at 4.48-g catalyst loading and reaction temperature of 120 degrees C. Maximum benefit was obtained as US$0.057 per batch of reaction at a catalyst amount of 1 g and temperature of 120 degrees C.
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  143. Optimization of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using waste bone as a catalyst
    Abstract

    Suwannasom, P.; Sriraksa, R.; Tansupo, P.; Ruangviriyachai, C. 2016. Optimization of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using waste bone as a catalyst. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(21) 3221-3228

    This work determined the association between several parameters of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO) using waste bovine bone (WBB) as catalyst to achieve a high conversion to fatty acid methyl ester (%FAME). The effect of three independent variables was used as the optimum condition using response surface methodology (RSM) for maximizing the %FAME. The RSM analysis showed that the ratio of MeOH to oil (mol/mol), catalyst amount (%wt), and time of reaction have the maximum effects on the transform to FAME. Moreover, the coefficient of determination (R-2) for regression equations was 99.19%. Probability value (P < 0.05) demonstrated a very good significance for the regression model. The optimal values of variables were MeOH/WCO ratio of 15.49:1 mol/mol, weight of catalyst as 6.42 wt%, and reaction time of 128.67 min. Under the optimum conditions, %FAME reached 97.59%. RSM was confirmed to sufficiently describe the range of the transesterification parameters studied and provide a statistically accurate estimate of the best transform to FAME using WBB as the catalyst.
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  144. Optimization of infrared radiated fast and energy-efficient biodiesel production from waste mustard oil catalyzed by Amberlyst 15: Engine performance and emission quality assessments
    Abstract

    Pradhan, P.; Chakraborty, S.; Chakraborty, R. 2016. Optimization of infrared radiated fast and energy-efficient biodiesel production from waste mustard oil catalyzed by Amberlyst 15: Engine performance and emission quality assessments. Fuel. 17360-68

    A novel protocol has been explored for fast and energy-efficient biodiesel production from waste mustard oil (WMO) using infrared radiated reactor in presence of heterogeneous Amberlyst 15 catalyst. High biodiesel yield (FAME content 97.13%) was obtained from WMO via simultaneous esterification-transester ification reactions in only 0.5 h using an energy-efficient, far infrared radiation (FIR) at the derived optimal conditions predicted through Taguchi Orthogonal Design (8:1 methanol to WMO molar ratio, 6 wt.% catalyst concentration, 800 rpm impeller speed). Experimental observations at the derived optimal conditions indicated much lower FAME yield (43.82%) with conventionally heated reactor even at the expense of 4 times energy input as that of FIR promoted protocol. Promising engine performance was observed at various blends of FIR produced optimal biodiesel with commercial petro-diesel. Notably, in comparison with petro-diesel, lower exhaust temperature was observed for all blends, indicating better engine durability and lower engine depreciation. The exhaust emissions measurements indicated that CO (0.05%) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions (<0.00002) for B-100 were well below standard Euro-VI emission norms and were observed to decrease gradually with increase in biodiesel percentage in the blended fuel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  145. Optimization of oil extraction from waste "Date pits" for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Jamil, F.; Al-Muhtaseb, A. H.; Al-Haj, L.; Al-Hinai, M. A.; Hellier, P.; Rashid, U. 2016. Optimization of oil extraction from waste "Date pits" for biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management. 117264-272

    Biodiesel produced from non-edible feedstocks is increasingly attractive alternative to both fossil diesels and renewable fuels derived from food crops. Date pits are one such lipid containing feedstock, and are widely available in Oman as a waste stream. This study analyses the effects of soxhlet process parameters (temperature, solvent to seed ratio and time) on the extraction of oils from waste Date pits and the subsequent production of biodiesel from it. The highest yield of oil extracted from the Date pits was 16.5 wt% obtained at a temperature of 70 degrees C, solvent to seed ratio of 4:1 and extraction duration of 7 h. Gas Chromatography analysis showed that Date pits oil consisted of 54.85% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Transesterification of the oil extracted was undertaken at 65 degrees C, a methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 and a reaction time of 1 h for biodiesel production. Biodiesel produced from the Date pits oil was found to have a cetane number of 58.23, density 870 of kg m(-3), cloud point of 4 degrees C, pour point of -1 degrees C, CFPP of -0.5 degrees C and kinematic viscosity of 3.97 mm(2) s(-1) (40 degrees C). In general, Date pit oil appears to be a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  146. Optimization of simultaneous production of waste cooking oil based-biodiesel using iron-manganese doped zirconia-supported molybdenum oxide nanoparticles catalyst
    Abstract

    Alhassan, F. H.; Rashid, U.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2016. Optimization of simultaneous production of waste cooking oil based-biodiesel using iron-manganese doped zirconia-supported molybdenum oxide nanoparticles catalyst. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 8(3)

    Biodiesel derived from simultaneous esterification and transesterification of waste cooking oil has been attracting consideration as a replacement green fuel for diesel fuels, as it is economically feasible and circumvents the issue of energy versus food, which is estimated to take place with current biodiesel production techniques. In this optimization study, iron-manganese doped zirconia-supported molybdenum oxide catalyst has been prepared and used in the synthesis of waste cooking oil based biodiesel by a simultaneous esterification and transesterification method. The catalyst is prepared via an impregnation method and consequently characterized by XRD, TEM, TGA (thermogravimetric analysis), TPD-NH3, and Brunauer-Emmer-Teller (BET) techniques. The simultaneous process for biodiesel production has been assessed and improved statistically via response surface methodology in combination with the central composite design. It has been established that the process for synthesis of waste cooking oil based biodiesel achieved about 96.8% biodiesel yield at a best condition of 200 degrees C, waste cooking oil/methanol molar ratio of 1: 30 and 5.0 wt. % as loading of the catalyst. The highest ester yield of 96.8% has been obtained due to the improved physicochemical properties of zirconia-supported molybdenum oxide catalyst which accesses diffusion of the reactants to the active sites. Published by AIP Publishing.
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  147. Organic municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for biodiesel production: A financial feasibility analysis
    Abstract

    Gaeta-Bernardi, A.; Parente, V. 2016. Organic municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for biodiesel production: A financial feasibility analysis. Renewable Energy. 861422-1432

    The pursuit towards an alternative solution to fossil fuel has facilitated science investigation initiatives that compare various options leading to biodiesel production. Besides conventional feedstock derived from vegetable oils, alternative sources that could be produce in large scale at competitive costs are the main scope of research in this field. This paper investigates the financial feasibility using organic solid waste as a feedstock, which results in the production of biodiesel through the conversion of volatile fatty acids into lipids (VFA). As a result, based on existing references of capital and operating costs, production and extraction yields for VFA and lipids and an internal rate of return of 15% in real terms, we concluded that biodiesel production is competitive compared to subsidized biodiesel traded in regions of Europe and the United States. These results encourage research aims to examine this technology at a larger scale. The adoption of public policies for the urban waste's disposal and collection, to reduced municipality's costs associated to the treatment, is also important for the implementation of these technologies. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  148. Pilot-scale production of biodiesel from waste fats and oils using tetramethylammonium hydroxide
    Abstract

    Sanek, L.; Pecha, J.; Kolomaznik, K.; Barinova, M. 2016. Pilot-scale production of biodiesel from waste fats and oils using tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Waste Management. 48630-637

    Annually, a great amount of waste fats and oils not suitable for human consumption or which cannot be further treated are produced around the world. A potential way of utilizing this low-cost feedstock is its conversion into biodiesel. The majority of biodiesel production processes today are based on the utilization of inorganic alkali catalysts. However, it has been proved that an organic base - tetramethylammonium hydroxide - can be used as a very efficient transesterification catalyst. Furthermore, it can be employed for the esterification of free fatty acids - reducing even high free fatty acid contents to the required level in just one step. The work presented herein, is focused on biodiesel production from waste frying oils and animal fats using tetramethylammonium hydroxide at the pilot-plant level. The results showed that the process performance in the pilot unit - using methanol and TMAH as a catalyst, is comparable to the laboratory procedure, even when the biodiesel is produced from waste vegetable oils or animal fats with high free fatty acid content. The reaction conditions were set at: 1.5% wow of TMAH, reaction temperature 65 degrees C, the feedstock to methanol molar ratio to 1:6, and the reaction time to 120 min. The conversion of triglycerides to FAME was approximately 98%. The cloud point of the biodiesel obtained from waste animal fat was also determined. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  149. Process and techno-economic analysis of green diesel production from waste vegetable oil and the comparison with ester type biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Glisic, S. B.; Pajnik, J. M.; Orlovic, A. M. 2016. Process and techno-economic analysis of green diesel production from waste vegetable oil and the comparison with ester type biodiesel production. Applied Energy. 170176-185

    Like ester type biodiesel fuel, green diesel is a next generation transportation fuel emerging due to the need for a renewable replacement of internal combustion engine fuel, which is also fully compatible with existing automotive powertrain systems. Besides other limitations, the main obstacle for wider application of such renewable fuels is their relatively high production cost, depending mainly on the raw material cost and the application of more efficient processing technology. Green diesel and ester type biodiesel can be produced from waste vegetable oil by catalytic hydrogenation, homogeneous alkali catalysed transesterification and supercritical non-catalytic transesterification. Techno-economic analysis and the sensitivity analysis reveal that economics of these production technologies strongly depend on the process unit capacity and the cost of feedstock. Green diesel production by catalytic hydroprocessing located in a petroleum refinery appears to be the most cost effective option for unit capacity close to and above 200,000 tonnes/year. Conventional ester biodiesel process and non-catalytic ester biodiesel process under supercritical conditions are less profitable at specified capacity. Unit capacities of the investigated processes which are below 100,000 tonnes/year are likely to result in negative net present values after 10 years of project lifetime. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  150. Process Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Oil over Montmorillonite Clay K-30
    Abstract

    Ayoub, M.; Ullah, S.; Inayat, A.; Bhat, A. H.; Hailegiorgis, S. M. 2016. Process Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Oil over Montmorillonite Clay K-30. Proceeding of 4th International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials (Icpeam 2016). 148742-749

    Biodiesel that mostly comes from pure renewable resources provide an alternative fuel option for future because of limited fossil fuel resources as well as environmental concerns. The transesterification of non- edible oils for biodiesel production is one of the promising process for biodiesel production to overcome this future crises of energy. The utilization of waste frying oil into biodiesel have great worth for economization of biodiesel cost as well as the conversion of waste into value added product with environmental protection. The purpose of the present work is to optimize the process of biodiesel production over a heterogeneous clay based catalyst. Particularly, the transesterification of waste frying palm oil with methanol was studied in the presence of montmorillonite clay K-30 as solid base catalyst that have both of acid and basic nature. The observed date was then optimized with the help of Design of Experiments software. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on four-variable central composite design (CCD) with a (alpha) = 2 was used for this purpose. The transesterification process variables were reaction temperature, x(1) (40-140 degrees C), reaction period, x(2) (60-300 min), methanol/oil ratio, x(3) (6:1-18: 1mol/ mol) and amount of catalyst, x(4) (1-5% wt). The results showed that waste frying oil is a good feedstock for biodiesel production and high yield of 78.4% was obtained during optimization of this biodiesel process that was noted after 180 min at temperature 90 degrees C, with a 12:1 molar ratio of methanol to waste frying oil and using 3% wt of montmorillonite clay K-30 catalyst. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  151. Process Optimization for SME Level Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Lokuliyana, R. L. K.; Ambawatte, H. C.; Rushen, L. W. T. 2016. Process Optimization for SME Level Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil. 2016 Ieee International Conference on Information and Automation for Sustainability (Iciafs): Interoperable Sustainable Smart Systems for Next Generation.

    Biodiesel is renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic alternative fuel which consist various environmental benefits. Animal fats, non-edible oils and waste cooking oils are the main lipid sources of bio diesel production. Biodiesel production involves the main process of tranesterification where the triglyceride lipid source reacts into Fatty Acid Methyl Esters and Glycerol. Large amount of waste cooking oil is generated per day globally and it is a considerable amount of disposal of available energy. According to the health regulations of waste cooking oil, it is not supposed to be reused in the food industry. In this research, the main objective was to optimize the process requirements and to fabricate a Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SME) level plant for the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. The product can be used in place of petroleum diesel for the automotive and industrial level applications without any environmental effect and it ensures the same performances of the internal combustion engines with required modifications.
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  152. Production and evaluation of biodiesel from mixed castor oil and waste chicken oil
    Abstract

    Fadhil, A. B.; Ahmed, A. I. 2016. Production and evaluation of biodiesel from mixed castor oil and waste chicken oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(14) 2140-2147

    Biodiesel was developed from an unconventional feedstock, i.e. an equivalent blend of castor bean and waste chicken oil through the alkaline-catalyzed transesterification with methanol. The process variables including the alkaline catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and the alkaline catalyst type were investigated. The highest yield of biodiesel (97.20 % similar to 96.98 % w/w ester content) was obtained under optimum conditions of 0.75 % w/w of oil, 8:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C temperature, and a duration of 30 min. Properties of the produced biodiesel satisfied those specified by the ASTM standards. The results thus indicated that the suggested blend oils are suitable feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The process was found to follow pseudo first-order kinetics, and the activation energy was found to be 8.85 KJ/mole.
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  153. Production of biodiesel from food processing waste using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Singhasiri, T.; Tantemsapya, N. 2016. Production of biodiesel from food processing waste using response surface methodology. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(19) 2799-2808

    The optimum conditions for biodiesel production by the transesterification of waste oil form the pork grilling process in the food factory in Udon Thani, Thailand, using NaOH and KOH as catalysts, has been investigated. A Box-Behnken Design (BBD) followed by a Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with 30 runs was used to assess the significance of three factors: the methanol to oil molar ratio, the amount of NaOH and KOH used, and the reaction time required to achieve the optimum percent fatty acid methyl ester (%FAME). The measured %FAME following transesterification using NaOH as a catalyst was an optimum 95.6% with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 12.2:1, a NaOH percentage mass fraction of 0.49% and a reaction time of 63 min. Using KOH as a catalyst, the %FAME was an optimum 93.0% with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 12: 1, a KOH percentage mass fraction of 0.61% and a reaction time of 72 min. The coefficient of determination (R-2) for regression equations were 98.55% and 93.99%, respectively. The probability value (P<0.05) demonstrated a very good significance for the regression model. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesel obtained from the waste oil met the ASTM 6751 biodiesel standard, illustrating that waste oil from the pork grilling process can be used as a raw material for biodiesel production by transesterification.
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  154. Production of Biodiesel from Palm Oil Using Egg Shell Waste as Heterogeneous Catalyst
    Abstract

    Ngadi, N.; Hamdan, N. F.; Hassan, O.; Jaya, R. P. 2016. Production of Biodiesel from Palm Oil Using Egg Shell Waste as Heterogeneous Catalyst. Jurnal Teknologi. 78(9) 59-63

    Egg shell waste was investigated in a triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a solid catalyst for the biodiesel production. The utilization of egg shell as a catalyst not only reduces its environmental effects, but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make it competitive with petroleum diesel. In this study, egg shell waste was ground and the powder produced was calcined at 900 degrees C for 4 hours in a furnace. The physical properties of the catalyst were characterized by using the Fourier Transforminfrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and the biodiesel conversion was determined by the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). 4wt% of catalyst dosage was fixed throughout the experiment. The results obtained indicated that CaO derived from egg shell waste was comparable with the commercial CaO. The maximum percentage yield of biodiesel by using derived CaO is 75.85% under optimum conditions of 6: 1 methanol to oil ratio after 3 hours at 65 degrees C, while for commercial CaO, 74.97% yield of biodiesel with 3:1 methanol to oil ratio after 3 hours at 60 degrees C.
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  155. Progresses in Waste Biomass derived Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel and Bioethanol: A Review
    Abstract

    Chakraborty, R.; Chatterjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Barman, S. 2016. Progresses in Waste Biomass derived Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel and Bioethanol: A Review. Waste Management for Resource Utilisation. 35546-554

    Due to the growing awareness regarding depletion of fossil fuels and increase in harmful emissions, efforts are being made to develop renewable green fuels viz. biodiesel and bioethanol from different waste/natural resources. This article enunciates that biomass derived catalysts has created a new essence in the field of biofuel production. As revealed from published literature, yield of biodiesel and bioethanol had been appreciable through application of the waste derived solid green catalysts. The environmentally benign catalysts demonstrate immense regeneration attributes coupled with superior catalytic properties. Thus, utilization of bio-waste for development of such promising heterogeneous green catalyst(s) or catalyst support(s) can substantially mitigate the problem of solid waste disposal and facilitate reduction of environmental pollution. This review article is based on critical assessments of different biomass supported catalysts in terms of their efficacy in biofuel synthesis from various biomass feedstocks under varying process conditions. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  156. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Sakuragi, K.; Li, P.; Otaka, M.; Makino, H. 2016. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production. Energies. 9(2)

    The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs) in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan) has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME), which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes) were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF) production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV), were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.
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  157. Removal of free fatty acid in Palm Fatty Acid Distillate using sulfonated carbon catalyst derived from biomass wastefor biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Hidayat, A.; Rochmadi; Wijaya, K.; Budiman, A. 2016. Removal of free fatty acid in Palm Fatty Acid Distillate using sulfonated carbon catalyst derived from biomass wastefor biodiesel production. International Conference on Engineering and Technology for Sustainable Development (Icet4sd) 2015. 105

    In this research, the esterification of PFAD using the sulfonatedcoconut shell biochar catalyst was studied. Carbon solid catalysts were prepared by a sulfonation of carbonized coconut shells. The performances of the catalysts were evaluated in terms of the reaction temperatures, the molar ratios of methanol to PFAD, the catalyst loading and the reaction times. The reusability of the solid acid carbon catalysts was also studied in this work. The results indicated that the FFA conversion was significantly increased with increasing catalyst loading and reaction times. It can be concluded that the optimal conditions were an PFAD to methanol molar ratio of 1:12, the amount of catalyst of 10%w, and reaction temperature of 60 degrees C. At this optimum condition, the conversion to biodieselreached 88%.
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  158. Response surface methodology assisted biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using encapsulated mixed enzyme
    Abstract

    Razack, S. A.; Duraiarasan, S. 2016. Response surface methodology assisted biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using encapsulated mixed enzyme. Waste Management. 4798-104

    In the recent scenario, consumption of petroleum fuels has increased to greater height which has led to deforestation and decline in fossil fuels. In order to tackle the perilous situation, alternative fuel has to be generated. Biofuels play a vital role in substituting the diesel fuels as they are renewable and ecofriendly. Biodiesel, often referred to as green fuel, could be a potential replacement as it could be synthesized from varied substrates, advantageous being the microalgae in several ways. The present investigation was dealt with the interesterification of waste cooking oil using immobilised lipase from mixed cultures for biodiesel production. In order to standardize the production for a scale up process, the parameters necessary for interesterification had been optimized using the statistical tool, Central Composite Design Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions required to generate biodiesel were 2 g enzyme load, 1:12 oil to methyl acetate ratio, 60 h reaction time and 35 degrees C temperature, yielding a maximum of 93.61% biodiesel. The immobilised lipase beads remain stable without any changes in their function and structure even after 20 cycles which made this study, less cost intensive. In conclusion, the study revealed that the cooking oil, a residue of many dining centers, left as waste product, can be used as a potential raw material for the production of ecofriendly and cost effective biofuel, the biodiesel.(c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  159. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants
    Abstract

    Wang, Y.; Feng, S.; Bai, X. J.; Zhao, J. C.; Xia, S. Q. 2016. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants. Waste Management. 4791-97

    The main goal of this study was to compare the component and yield of biodiesel obtained by different methods from different sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. Biodiesel was produced by ex-situ and in-situ transesterification of scum, primary and secondary sludge respectively. Results showed that scum sludge had a higher calorific value and neutral lipid than that of primary and secondary sludge. The lipid yield accounted for one-third of the dried scum sludge and the maximum yield attained 22.7% under in-situ transesterification. Furthermore the gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that all sludge contained a significant amount of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) regardless of extraction solvents and sludge types used. However, the difference lay in that oleic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs produced from scum sludge while palmitic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs from primary and secondary sludge. In addition, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid ester in FAMEs from scum sludge accounted for 57.5-64.1% of the total esters, which was higher than the equivalent derived from primary and secondary sludge. In brief, scum sludge is a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel and more work is needed in the future.(c) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  160. SiO2 Beads Decorated with SrO Nanoparticles for Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Microwave Irradiation
    Abstract

    Tangy, A.; Pulidindi, I. N.; Gedanken, A. 2016. SiO2 Beads Decorated with SrO Nanoparticles for Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Microwave Irradiation. Energy & Fuels. 30(4) 3151-3160

    Energy sources are necessary for human existence, comfort, and progress. Limited crude petroleum resources and increasing awareness of the environmental impacts of using fossil fuels motivate the search for new energy sources and alternate fuels. Herein, a low cost, fast, and green methodology for the synthesis of a hybrid solid base catalyst, strontium oxide coated millimetric silica beads (SrO@SiO2), is designed for the transesterification of cooking oil into biodiesel in a domestic microwave oven. The cost reduction is due to the effective utilization of the catalyst by the homogeneous dispersion of the active sites on the silica beads and their reusability. The catalyst synthesis process was optimized with respect to the amount of glass beads, microwave irradiation time, calcination time, and calcination temperature. Several methods for synthesizing Sr-O by minimizing energy consumption were investigated, and an optimized process for designing SrO@SiO2, was developed. The SrO@SiO2 catalyst produced under optimum conditions was characterized by TGA, XRD, FTIR, ICP, SEM, and TEM. XRD analysis indicated peaks typical of SrO alone. ICP analysis indicated 41.3 wt % deposition of SrO on silica beads. The novel solid base catalyst thus generated was used for the transesterification of waste cooking oil. Conversion values as high as 99.4 wt % in 10 s irradiation were observed from NMR analysis using this composite catalyst, indicating the feasibility of economical biodiesel production from cooking oil waste in a very short time.
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  161. Solid-base catalysts for biodiesel production by using silica in agricultural wastes and lithium carbonate
    Abstract

    Dai, Y. M.; Chen, K. T.; Wang, P. H.; Chen, C. C. 2016. Solid-base catalysts for biodiesel production by using silica in agricultural wastes and lithium carbonate. Advanced Powder Technology. 27(6) 2432-2438

    We investigated the use of Li2CO3 and rice husks (RHs) as Li4SiO4 solid-base catalysts for biodiesel production. Li4SiO4 catalysts were prepared using a simple solid-state reaction, mixing, and grinding rice husk ash (RHA) with Li2CO3 calcined at 800 degrees C in air for 4 h. The prepared solid-base catalysts were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) to obtain their physical and chemical properties. The effects of reaction variables, such as catalyst loading, the molar ratio of methanol to oil, and reaction time (conventional heating), were studied. Under the optimal reaction conditions of an methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1, a 1 wt% catalyst amount, and a reaction temperature of 65 degrees C for 3 h, this approach achieved a 98.8% biodiesel conversion rate. (C) 2016 The Society of Powder Technology Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. and The Society of Powder Technology Japan. All rights reserved.
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  162. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Marques, R. V.; da Paz, M. F.; Duval, E. H.; Correa, L. B.; Correa, E. K. 2016. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 47(3) 675-679

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46 C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste. (C) 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
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  163. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Marques, R. V.; Paz, M. F.; Duval, E. H.; Correa, L. B.; Correa, E. K. 2016. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production. Braz J Microbiol. 47(3) 675-9

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46 degrees C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste.
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  164. Study of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Applying the Surface Response
    Abstract

    Quijada, K.; Millan, F.; Di Scipio, S. 2016. Study of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Applying the Surface Response. Latin American Applied Research. 46(3-4) 133-138

    Two ways of synthesis to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil were compared: 1) Transesterification of fatty acids with basic catalyst (KOH) and 2) Esterification with H2SO4 followed by the transesterification evaluated previously, using factorial designs 2(3) with central points and the Surface Response Methodology (RSM). Raw material was characterized through its acid value and moisture content. In synthesis (1) the factorial design factors were: reaction temperature, catalyst wt%/ weight of processed oil and, methanol:oil molar ratio, and response variables were: yield of reaction, density and, kinematic viscosity, with 75 minutes as reaction time. Yields around 88% were achieved. In synthesis (2) the factorial design was applied only for esterification reaction, using two of the preceding factors and reaction time instead of temperature (fixed at 60 degrees C). The best conditions determined for synthesis (1) were applied and yield of reaction increased to 97%. The kinematic viscosities and densities satisfied the standards.
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  165. Supercritical ethanolysis for biodiesel production from edible oil waste using ionic liquid [HMim][HSO4] as catalyst
    Abstract

    Caldas, B. S.; Nunes, C. S.; Souza, P. R.; Rosa, F. A.; Visentainer, J. V.; Junior, O. D. S.; Muniz, E. C. 2016. Supercritical ethanolysis for biodiesel production from edible oil waste using ionic liquid [HMim][HSO4] as catalyst. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 181289-297

    Catalytic ethanolysis of waste cooking soybean oil using the ionic liquid [HMim][HSO4], as catalyst, to yield ethyl esters has been investigated. The ionic liquid, labeled as IL, showed stability under high conditions of temperature and pressure. Transesterification temperature was monitored and was maintained constant. The contents of ethyl esters in all samples were determined through GC (by normalization method) and 1H NMR techniques. Highest yield (97.6 %) was obtained after 45 min of reaction, at 528 K under 9.62 MPa in the presence of 0.35 mL of IL. The transesterification did not occur with high yielding using the same conditions but in absence of the catalyst. The presence of water in reaction medium, in the range of 1.0-3.0% (v/v) due to ethanol impurity, does not affect the ethyl esters yield. The method proposed in this paper is advantageous over others reported in the literature due to the lower reaction time required and the higher biodiesel yield. The results showed that the biodiesel production by transesterification through supercritical ethanolysis is environmental-friendly and presented promising perspectives. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  166. Surfactant mediated enhanced glycerol uptake and hydrogen production from biodiesel waste using co-culture of Enterobacter aerogenes and Clostridium butyricum
    Abstract

    Pachapur, V. L.; Sarma, S. J.; Brar, S. K.; Bihan, Y. L.; Buelna, G.; Verma, M. 2016. Surfactant mediated enhanced glycerol uptake and hydrogen production from biodiesel waste using co-culture of Enterobacter aerogenes and Clostridium butyricum. Renewable Energy. 95542-551

    In the present study, Tween 80, a non-ionic surfactant, has been used for enhanced hydrogen production by crude glycerol bioconversion using co-culture of Enterobacter aerogenes and Clostridium butyricum. The purpose of introducing the surfactant was to decrease the crude glycerol viscosity, so that apparent solubility and bioavailability of glycerol could be improved at the expenses of pretreatment steps. Experiments were planned using central composite design (CCD); crude glycerol and Tween 80 concentrations were optimized whereas, hydrogen production, glycerol utilization and viscosity of the media were considered as responses. The response surface for quadratic model showed, Tween 80 concentration had significant effect (p < 0.05) on all the three responses. Using the optimized conditions at 17.5 g/L crude glycerol and 15 mg/L Tween 80, hydrogen production reached a maximum of 32.1 +/- 0.03 mmol/L of medium. The increase in hydrogen production was around 1.25-fold in presence of Tween 80 in comparison to its absence with 25.56 +/- 0.91 mmol/L production. Selected optimum conditions were also validated against absence of crude glycerol (4.69 +/- 0.76), with pretreated crude glycerol (20.06 +/- 0.51) and across mono-culture system (15.43 +/- 0.79 to 22.14 +/- 0.94). Introduction of Tween 80 to the fermentation medium improved the glycerol utilization rate, resulting in increased hydrogen production and eliminated pretreatment steps. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  167. Sustainable biodiesel production via transesterification of waste cooking oil by using CaO catalysts prepared from chicken manure
    Abstract

    Maneerung, T.; Kawi, S.; Dai, Y. J.; Wang, C. H. 2016. Sustainable biodiesel production via transesterification of waste cooking oil by using CaO catalysts prepared from chicken manure. Energy Conversion and Management. 123487-497

    The low cost and efficient CaO catalysts have been successfully prepared from chicken manure, by a simple calcination, in this present work. Chicken manure contains significant content of calcium compounds that can easily be converted into the active calcium oxide catalyst after calcination at 850 degrees C under air. The Hammett indicator test showed that the obtained CaO catalyst has the basic strength in a range of 15 < H_ < 18.4, revealing that the basicity of the obtained catalyst is mainly ascribed to the strong basic properties of metal-O groups. The obtained CaO catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for biodiesel production from transesterification of waste cooking oil and methanol. Up to 90% FAME yield was obtained at optimum reaction condition (i.e. 7.5 wt% of catalyst, 15:1 of methanol:oil molar ratio and 65 degrees C). The experimental kinetic data fitted well with the pseudo-first order model and the activation energy was found to be 78.8 kJ mol(-1). Moreover, fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were determined according to the European standard and found to be within the specifications. The uses of chicken manure as a catalyst source and waste cooking oil as a raw material for biodiesel production not only offers the environmentally friendly and cost-effective way to recycle those wastes, but also help to lower the biodiesel production cost to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum-based diesel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  168. Synthesis of Ti(SO4)O solid acid nano-catalyst and its application for biodiesel production from used cooking oil
    Abstract

    Gardy, J.; Hassanpour, A.; Lai, X. J.; Ahmed, M. H. 2016. Synthesis of Ti(SO4)O solid acid nano-catalyst and its application for biodiesel production from used cooking oil. Applied Catalysis a-General. 52781-95

    A novel solid acid nano-catalyst [Ti(SO4)O] was synthesised and used for the simultaneous esterification and transesterification of free fatty,acids in used cooking oil (UCO) to produce biodiesel. The synthesised nano-catalyst was fully characterized by different analytical techniques. The XPS results clearly confirmed that the bidentate sulphate coordinated to the Ti4+ metal in the nano-catalyst product. Obtained d-spacing values from the experimental data of XRD peaks and the SAED pattern of produced nano catalyst agreed well with the d-spacing values from the JCPDS-ICDD card numbers 04-011-4951 for titanium sulphate oxide or titanium oxysulfate crystal structures.This confirms the sulphate groups were within the crystalline structure rather than on the surface of titania nanoparticles, which has not been previously reported. It has been demonstrated 97.1% yield for the fatty acid methyl ester can be achieved usign the synthetised catalyst under a reaction time of 3 h, catalyst to UCO ration of 1.5 wt% and methanol to UCO ratio of 9:1 at 75 degrees C reaction temperature. The nano-catalyst showed a good catalytic activity for the feedstock containing <= 6 wt% free fatty acid. Furthermore, the catalytic activity and re-usability of the Ti(SO4)O for the esterification/transesterification of UCO were investigated. XRD results confirmed that the amount of SO42- species in the solid acid nano-catalyst slowly decreased with re-use after 8 cycles under optimised conditions, which is higher than the reusability of other functionalised titania reported in the literature. Finally, the biodiesel prodcued from this process satisfied the ASTM and European Norm standards. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  169. The potential of biodiesel production from Botryococcus sp biomass after phycoremediation of domestic and industrial wastewater
    Abstract

    Gani, P.; Sunar, N. M.; Matias-Peralta, H. M.; Latiff, A. A. A.; Parjo, U. K.; Embong, Z.; Khalid, A.; Tajudin, S. A. A. 2016. The potential of biodiesel production from Botryococcus sp biomass after phycoremediation of domestic and industrial wastewater. International Engineering Research and Innovation Symposium (Iris). 160

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the capability of microalgae, known as Botryococcus sp. for wastewater phycoremediation and potential biodiesel production. The vertical closed photobioreactors (PBR) were employed and supplemented with domestic wastewater (DW) and food industry wastewater (FW) at different batch of study. The cultivation was conducted under natural outdoor condition for 12 days. The results revealed that the removal of pollutant and nutrients presence in both wastewaters with constantly decrease proportionate to the increase in cultivation time. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phosphorus (TP) and total organic carbon (TOC) were successfully removed up to 84.9%, 69.3% and 93.3%, respectively in DW while 96.1%, 35.5% and 87.2%, respectively in FW. The result on FT-IR analysis of microalgae oil was shown comparable with conventional palm oil based biodiesel in term of IR spectra. This study suggests that Botryococcus sp. has tremendous potential in pollutants removal and biodiesel production for renewable energy development.
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  170. The utilization of waste egg and cockle shell as catalysts for biodiesel production from food processing waste oil using stirring and ultrasonic agitation
    Abstract

    Singhasiri, T.; Tantemsapya, N. 2016. The utilization of waste egg and cockle shell as catalysts for biodiesel production from food processing waste oil using stirring and ultrasonic agitation. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(21) 3125-3131

    The use of calcined egg and cockle shell as heterogeneous solid catalysts for a transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel from food processing waste has been investigated in this work. The CaO catalysts were obtained from the calcination of egg and cockle shell and were characterized by surface analysis, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experiments employed stirring and ultrasonic agitation, which proved to be a time-efficient approach for biodiesel production from food processing waste oil. A response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effects of the process variables methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, and reaction time on biodiesel production. The optimal % fatty acid methyl ester values obtained when using egg and cockle shells as catalysts were found to be 94.7% and 94.4% when the methanol to oil molar ratios were 9.3:1 and 8.5:1, egg and cockle shell catalyst mass fraction percentages were 3.8% and 3.5%, and reaction times were 47 and 44 min, respectively. The study has shown that ultrasonic agitation might be employed in a practical pilot reactor for biodiesel production.
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  171. Towards sustainable biofuel production: Design of a new biocatalyst to biodiesel synthesis from waste oil and commercial ethanol
    Abstract

    Ferrero, G. O.; Rojas, H. J.; Argarana, C. E.; Eimer, G. A. 2016. Towards sustainable biofuel production: Design of a new biocatalyst to biodiesel synthesis from waste oil and commercial ethanol. Journal of Cleaner Production. 139495-503

    The sustainable technologies to produce alternative energies as biofuel with focus on the harnessing of renewable sources and waste biomass is gradually gaining ground. Although the biodiesel is a very attractive biofuel its production from vegetable oils competes with the feed generation with the consequent socio-economic costs involved. Therefore, the reuse of waste oils appears as an alternative highly promising. However the high content of free fatty acid and water in this raw material difficult its use in the conventional processes employed in the actuality. In this work, we successfully develop hybrid catalysts based in Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase immobilized over Ca and Na modified mesoporous SBA-15 supports. The physic-chemical properties of the supports were determined by Small-angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP) and N-2 adsorption measurements. These hybrid catalysts were capable to process waste oils, and even, commercial ethanol (96%) obtained from a fermentative process An optimum activity, with around 90% of FAEE yield, was achieved with lipase immobilized on Ca modified SBA-15 using 4% of water respect to oil, 1:4 oil/ethanol ratio, 400 mg/g of enzyme immobilized, at 37 degrees C and 180 oscillations/min. This catalyst could contribute to development of a more environmentally and economically viable process to biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  172. Ultrasound strengthened biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using modified coal fly ash as catalyst
    Abstract

    Xiang, Y. L.; Wang, L. P.; Jiao, Y. R. 2016. Ultrasound strengthened biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using modified coal fly ash as catalyst. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 4(1) 818-824

    This paper investigated the effects of modified coal fly ash as catalyst on the waste cooking oil (WCO) conversion into biodiesel under ultrasound strengthened action. Experimental results showed that the modified coal fly ash catalyst could improve biodiesel yields under ultrasound assisting system, and the maximum biodiesel yield from waste cooking oil reached 95.57% under a molar ratio of methanol to WCO of 10.71: 1, a 4.97 wt% modified CFA catalyst (based on oil weight), and a 1.41 min reaction time. The reusability of the modified coal fly ash catalyst was well, and the conversion yield was still higher than 90% after the catalyst was used for 8 times repeatedly. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  173. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using hydrotalcite prepared by combustion method as catalyst
    Abstract

    Anuar, M. R.; Abdullah, A. Z. 2016. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using hydrotalcite prepared by combustion method as catalyst. Applied Catalysis a-General. 514214-223

    Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by hydrotalcite (HT) catalyst prepared using combustion method was studied. Two important parameters in the HT synthesis i.e., calcination temperature (550-850 degrees C) and fuel type (saccharose, glucose and fructose) were particularly investigated. The dependence of HT's characteristics on the synthesis parameters and correlations with their catalytic performance under ultrasound condition were successfully elucidated. The HT catalyst prepared using saccharose and calcined at 650 degrees C was the best catalyst to be used in the transesterification reaction. It showed high biodiesel yield (about 76.45%) in just 60 min in the presence of low ultrasound amplitude (similar to 11 kHz). The enhancement effect of ultrasound was successfully demonstrated. The reaction only needed short reaction time (about 1 h) to give a biodiesel yield of up to 76.45% compared to conventional stirring method that needed about 5 h to achieve the same yield. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  174. Using Response Surface Methodology in Optimisation of Biodiesel Production via Alkali Catalysed Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Naidoo, R.; Sithole, B.; Obwaka, E. 2016. Using Response Surface Methodology in Optimisation of Biodiesel Production via Alkali Catalysed Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research. 75(3) 188-193

    The report focuses on optimisation of alkali catalysis as a process for producing biodiesel from waste cooking oils. Biodiesel production parameters that were optimised were methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time. A statistical experimental design was conducted using the central composite design method and surface methodology, and the results obtained were analysed using a statistical software package to predict the optimal yields and parameters for the process. The predictions were analysed and the most suitable parameters for biodiesel production were selected. From the results the optimum parameters for biodiesel production were a reaction temperature of 68.4 degrees C, a reaction time of 1.9 hours, a catalyst concentration of 0.75 wt % potassium hydroxide, and a 0.3:1 methanol to oil weight ratio. The optimum yield of biodiesel from these optimum parameters was predicted to be 98.5%. Thus, alkali catalysis was determined to be a suitable process for production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil.
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  175. Validation and enhancement of waste cooking sunflower oil based biodiesel production by the trans-esterification process
    Abstract

    Dhingra, S.; Bhushan, G.; Dubey, K. K. 2016. Validation and enhancement of waste cooking sunflower oil based biodiesel production by the trans-esterification process. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(10) 1448-1454

    This article predicts the optimum conditions for the production of fatty acid ethyl ester (Biodiesel) by trans-esterification process of waste cooking sunflower oil with ethanol in the presence of homogeneous catalyst (KOH). Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was used for predicting the mathematical regression equation and optimizing the biodiesel yield. The optimum reaction conditions were found to be 9.05 (mole mole(-1)) of (ethanol to waste cooking sunflower oil ratio), 0.99 (wt% to oil) of catalyst concentration, 57.31 degrees C of reaction temperature, 77.12 minutes of reaction time, and 494.94 rpm of mixing rate to achieve 96.33% biodiesel yield by weight. The production rate of produced biodiesel also increased significantly. The fuel properties were measured and found closer to the ASTM standards of biodiesel. Therefore, the suggested biofuel has good scope for use in compression ignition (CI) engines.
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  176. Valorization of agro-industrial by-products: analysis of biodiesel production from porcine fat waste
    Abstract

    Skoronski, E.; de Oliveira, D. C.; Fernandes, M.; da Silva, G. F.; Magalhaes, M. D. B.; Joao, J. J. 2016. Valorization of agro-industrial by-products: analysis of biodiesel production from porcine fat waste. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1122553-2559

    Recycling of residual animal fat from industrial meat processing for biodiesel production is an attractive alternative, since provides a renewable energy source and minimizes environmental impact of waste disposal. In this work, we propose a valorization strategy of rendering facilities animal fat by investigation of the optimal parameters for ester production using chemical as well as enzymatic catalysis. Although transesterification reactions for biodiesel production have been previously reported, this is the first report of ester production using waste derived animal fat as substrate. The best-obtained yield for chemical catalysis was 90.72-95.76% conversion using alcohol: potassium hydroxide molar ratios ranging from 1:5 to 1:7. For enzymatic catalysis using commercial lipases, obtained yields were 99.77% using methanol and 76.04% using ethanol as substrates. We have also shown here the feasibility of enzymatic catalysis using immobilized lipases. Catalysis using immobilized enzymes produced the best yields, which is advantageous since enzyme can be directly separated from reaction mixture, yielding cleaner products and allowing enzyme recycling. The valorization strategy presented here can be applied for waste recycling of animal fat in meat processing industries. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  177. Waste Animal Bone as Support for CaO Impregnation in Catalytic Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil
    Abstract

    Ghanei, R.; Dermani, R. K.; Salehi, Y.; Mohammadi, M. 2016. Waste Animal Bone as Support for CaO Impregnation in Catalytic Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 7(3) 527-532

    Heterogeneous catalyst plays a vital role in this process, especially in view of cost and reusability. In the present study, a useless material such as waste animal bone was employed as support for calcium oxide impregnation. CaO was impregnated on the pre-treated waste sheep bone as an active component in different loading levels. The catalyst was then characterized and tested in reaction in similar conditions as follows: atmospheric pressure; reaction temperature: 60 A degrees C; methanol/oil molar ratio: 12:1; catalyst weight (based on oil weight): 5 % and reaction time: 5 h, under vigorous stirring. When 5 wt% of CaO, based on support weight was impregnated, maximum conversion of 95.18 % was obtained and also the catalyst was recoverable. On the other hand, conversion of 49.51 % was obtained when the same amount of CaO was used without support and the catalyst was also non-reusable. Moreover, reusability tests showed only a slight decrease in catalyst activity.
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  178. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998
    Abstract

    Souza, A. F.; Rodriguez, D. M.; Ribeaux, D. R.; Luna, M. A. C.; Silva, T. A. L. E.; Andrade, R. E. S.; Gusmao, N. B.; Campos-Takaki, G. M. 2016. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 17(10)

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2(2) experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10(7) cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 mu m), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm(2) of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and gamma-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.
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  179. A Cost Analysis of Microalgal Biomass and Biodiesel Production in Open Raceways Treating Municipal Wastewater and under Optimum Light Wavelength
    Abstract

    Kang, Z.; Kim, B. H.; Ramanan, R.; Choi, J. E.; Yang, J. W.; Oh, H. M.; Kim, H. S. 2015. A Cost Analysis of Microalgal Biomass and Biodiesel Production in Open Raceways Treating Municipal Wastewater and under Optimum Light Wavelength. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 25(1) 109-118

    Open raceway ponds are cost-efficient for mass cultivation of microalgae compared with photobioreactors. Although low-cost options like wastewater as nutrient source is studied to overcome the commercialization threshold for biodiesel production from microalgae, a cost analysis on the use of wastewater and other incremental increases in productivity has not been elucidated. We determined the effect of using wastewater and wavelength filters on microalgal productivity. Experimental results were then fitted into a model, and cost analysis was performed in comparison with control raceways. Three different microalgal strains, Chlorella vulgaris AG10032, Chlorella sp. JK2, and Scenedesmus sp. JK10, were tested for nutrient removal under different light wavelengths (blue, green, red, and white) using filters in batch cultivation. Blue wavelength showed an average of 27% higher nutrient removal and at least 42% higher chemical oxygen demand removal compared with white light. Naturally, the specific growth rate of microalgae cultivated under blue wavelength was on average 10.8% higher than white wavelength. Similarly, lipid productivity was highest in blue wavelength, at least 46.8% higher than white wavelength, whereas FAME composition revealed a mild increase in oleic and palmitic acid levels. Cost analysis reveals that raceways treating wastewater and using monochromatic wavelength would decrease costs from 2.71 to 0.73 $/kg biomass. We prove that increasing both biomass and lipid productivity is possible through cost-effective approaches, thereby accelerating the commercialization of low-value products from microalgae, like biodiesel.
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  180. A two-step biodiesel production process from waste cooking oil via recycling crude glycerol esterification catalyzed by alkali catalyst
    Abstract

    Cai, Z. Z.; Wang, Y.; Teng, Y. L.; Chong, K. M.; Wang, J. W.; Zhang, J. W.; Yang, D. P. 2015. A two-step biodiesel production process from waste cooking oil via recycling crude glycerol esterification catalyzed by alkali catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology. 137186-193

    A novel biodiesel production process using waste cooking oil (WCO) as feedstock was developed in this work. Free fatty acids (FFAs) from WCO were esterified by crude glycerol catalyzed by NaOH, which lowered the content of free fatty acids of WCO. The conversion of FFA in the WCO (acid value: 124.9 mg KOH/g) to acylglycerols is 99.6% under the optimal conditions (1.4:1 molar ratio of glycerol to FFA, 4 h, 210 degrees C, catalyst loading 0.5 wt.% based on WCO weight). After the transesterification of esterified WCO with methanol catalyzed by NaOH, the yield of the final product is 93.1 wt.% with 98.6 wt.% of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The crude glycerol and the catalyst from transesterification were recycled as reactant for esterification during the biodiesel production. Soap formed from the subsequent processes maintained a high catalyzing activity for FFA esterification after being recycled for 13 times. This new glycerol esterification process using alkali (soap) catalyst provides a promising solution to convert feedstock with high FFA levels to biodiesel. This biodiesel production process has distinct advantages compared with traditional two-step methods, including lower cost of catalyst for both esterification and transesterification processes, less energy consumption for methanol recovery, recycling of the glycerol byproduct and catalyst (soap), and no requirement of anti-corrosive equipment. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  181. Application of waste glycerol from biodiesel productionfor obtaining of modifiers for reduced friction of different motor oils
    Abstract

    Glavcheva-Laleva, Z.; Varadinova, L.; Kerekov, S.; Pavlov, D.; Glavchev, I. 2015. Application of waste glycerol from biodiesel productionfor obtaining of modifiers for reduced friction of different motor oils. Bulgarian Chemical Communications. 47118-123

    Glycerol mono oleate (GMO) was made from waste glycerol (WG) from biodiesel productions by condensation with oleic acid in presence of titanium alcoholate as catalyst. The total acid number was obtained with titration of the samples of GMO with alcohol solution of potassium hydroxide (ASKON). The neutralization of extra oleic acid was made by alcohol solution of methyl amine or 25% amonia. The prepared sample from the obtained modifier was analysed by standard method with four- ball method and the reduced friction was assessed.
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  182. Assessment of sustainable biogas production from de-oiled seed cake of karanja-an organic industrial waste from biodiesel industries
    Abstract

    Barik, D.; Murugan, S. 2015. Assessment of sustainable biogas production from de-oiled seed cake of karanja-an organic industrial waste from biodiesel industries. Fuel. 14825-31

    In this experimental investigation, de-oiled seed cake of Karanja (SCK), an organic industrial waste obtained from Karanja biodiesel industries was mixed with cow dung (CD) in four different proportions, viz., 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 percentages on a mass basis, and the mixtures were denoted as sample S-1, S-2, S-3 and S-4 respectively. The samples were kept in four different reactors and investigated simultaneously, for biogas production. Important parameters, such as the pH, temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) were evaluated and analyzed. The results indicated that sample S-3 gave best result, in comparison with the other samples, and the methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) content in the biogas was found to be 73% and 17% respectively. The biogas and the slurry were characterized to observe the various properties for suitable application and the environmental impacts. The fertilizer value for S3 was found to be better than that of other samples and the slurry became nontoxic, environmental friendly fertilizer. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  183. Biodiesel from wastewater: lipid production in high rate algal pond receiving disinfected effluent
    Abstract

    Assemany, P. P.; Calijuri, M. L.; do Couto, E. D. A.; Santiago, A. F.; dos Reis, A. J. D. 2015. Biodiesel from wastewater: lipid production in high rate algal pond receiving disinfected effluent. Water Science and Technology. 71(8) 1229-1234

    The production of different species of microalgae in consortium with other micro-organisms from wastewaters may represent an alternative process, to reduce the costs, for obtaining biofuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pre-ultraviolet disinfection (UV) in the production of lipids from biomass produced in high rate ponds. Two high rate algal ponds were evaluated: a pond that received domestic sewage without disinfection and the other receiving domestic sewage previously disinfected by UV radiation (uvHRAP). The UV disinfection did not lead to significant differences in fatty acid profile and total lipid productivities, although it increased algal biomass concentration and productivity as well as lipid content. Moreover, the overall biomass concentrations and productivities decreased with the UV disinfection, mostly as a consequence of a loss in bacterial load. We thus conclude that uvHRAP disinfection may represent a potential strategy to promote the cleaner and safer growth of algal biomass when cultivated in consortium with other microorganisms. Mainly regarding the use of wastewater as culture medium, together with a cheaper production of lipids for biodiesel, pre-disinfection may represent an advance since extraction costs could be significantly trimmed due to the increase in lipid content.
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  184. Biodiesel Production from Animal Fats Waste Oil by ZrO2/ZnO-Al2O3 Solid Base Catalyst
    Abstract

    Qiu, L.; Wang, H. H.; Ouyang, F. 2015. Biodiesel Production from Animal Fats Waste Oil by ZrO2/ZnO-Al2O3 Solid Base Catalyst. 2015 4th International Conference on Energy and Environmental Protection (Iceep 2015). 4323-4327

    The ZnO-Al2O3 composite support was prepared by coprecipitation method, and then loaded with ZrO2 by impregnation method to get the solid base catalyst which used for biodiesel produced through transesterification of animal fats waste oil. The effects of the preparation conditions of the catalysts on the catalytic activity were studied and the results showed the best preparation conditions are: the ratio of Zn/Al is 2, doped by 7% ZrO2 and then calcined at 550 degrees C in air. The optimal reaction temperature is 220 degrees C and the optimal reaction time is 90 min. Under these conditions, the transesterification ratio could reach as high as 98.8%.
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  185. Biodiesel Production from High FFA Degummed Rice Bran Oil by a Two-Step Process Using Ethanol/Methanol and a Green Catalyst
    Abstract

    Pereira, E.; dos Santos, L. M.; Einloft, S.; Seferin, M.; Dullius, J. 2015. Biodiesel Production from High FFA Degummed Rice Bran Oil by a Two-Step Process Using Ethanol/Methanol and a Green Catalyst. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 6(3) 343-351

    Degummed rice bran oil (DRBO) is a low cost raw material considered an excellent alternative to reduce the cost of biodiesel production. The aim of this study was to optimize the esterification process of DRBO. In the first stage, using 100 % of ethanol, nontoxic alcohol obtained from renewable source and ferric sulphate (Fe-2(SO4)(3)) as environmentally friendly catalyst adjusting DRBO for the transesterification process in the second step. The raw material had free fatty acids (FFAs) content reduced from 21.8 to 3.0 %, by ethanol esterification reaching 85.8 % conversion of FFA to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), when the molar ratio ethanol: DRBO was 8:1, 3 % of Fe-2(SO4)(3) by weight and 3 h of reaction time at the reflux temperature of ethanol. In the second step of the reaction by transesterification, potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as catalyst in a range from 1.0 to 1.75 % by weight of the esterified oil, the molar ratio methanol: oil (6: 1), magnetic stirring of 450 rpm and temperature of 60 degrees C in 1 h of reaction time. After the two steps reaction, the maximum conversion achieved was 96.6 % of the mixture of FAEE and fatty acid methyl esters.
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  186. Biodiesel production from low FFA waste cooking oil using heterogeneous catalyst derived from chicken bones
    Abstract

    Farooq, M.; Ramli, A.; Naeem, A. 2015. Biodiesel production from low FFA waste cooking oil using heterogeneous catalyst derived from chicken bones. Renewable Energy. 76362-368

    Due to rapid depletion of the fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns biodiesel has attracted a great deal of attention over the last few decades. In this study, heterogeneous catalysts derived from waste chicken bones were employed in the transesterification reaction of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized catalysts were studied by various techniques such as differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA), BET surface area, Xray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed desorption of CO2 (TPD-CO2), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the heterogeneous catalyst calcined at 900 degrees C exhibited good catalytic activity in the transesterification of WCO, providing maximum biodiesel yield of 89.33% at 5.0 g of catalyst loading, 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio at temperature of 65 degrees C in reaction time of 4 h. The better catalytic activity of the aforementioned catalyst in the biodiesel reaction could be attributed to the presence of optimal number of catalytically active basic site density on its surface. Moreover, the catalyst was successfully recycled for 4 times for biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  187. Biodiesel production from mixtures of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil: Optimization of fuel properties
    Abstract

    de Almeida, V. F.; Garcia-Moreno, P. J.; Guadix, A.; Guadix, E. M. 2015. Biodiesel production from mixtures of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil: Optimization of fuel properties. Fuel Processing Technology. 133152-160

    The present work studies the influence of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil as raw material on biodiesel properties. The experimental planning was executed through acid esterification (6:1 methanol to oil ratio, 1 wt.% sulfuric acid, at 60 degrees C, 1 h) followed by transesterification (9:1 methanol to oil ratio, 0.5 wt.% sodium hydroxide, at 60 degrees C for I h). Biodiesel samples showed yield higher than 82%, reaching 90% for palm oil (33.3 wt.%) and waste frying oil (66.7 wt.%) biodiesel. FAME content was higher than 92.3% and had a maximum of 98.5% for waste fish oil (333 wt.%) and palm oil (66.7 wt.%) biodiesel. Special cubic models were used to fit experimental data, and were optimized by response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization. Viscosity (4.3 mm(2)/s) and COM (2.5 degrees C) were minimized when pure fish oil was used as raw material, whereas IP maximum (22.0 h) was found for palm oil biodiesel. Multi-objective optimization evidenced that although the use of the pure oils as feedstock presented more advantages to biodiesel properties, the waste fish oil (42.1 wt.%) and waste flying oil (57.9 wt.%) mix is beneficial, if the aim is IP (20%) and COM (80%) improvement. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  188. Biodiesel production from Scenedesmus bijuga grown in anaerobically digested food wastewater effluent
    Abstract

    Shin, D. Y.; Cho, H. U.; Utomo, J. C.; Choi, Y. N.; Xu, X.; Park, J. M. 2015. Biodiesel production from Scenedesmus bijuga grown in anaerobically digested food wastewater effluent. Bioresource Technology. 184215-221

    Microalgae, Scenedesmus bijuga, was cultivated in anaerobically digested food wastewater effluent (FWE) to treat the wastewater and produce biodiesel simultaneously. Three different mixing ratios with municipal wastewater were compared for finding out proper dilution ratio in biodiesel production. Of these, 1/20 diluted FWE showed the highest biomass production (1.49 g/L). Lipid content was highest in 1/10 diluted FWE (35.06%), and the lipid productivity showed maximum value in 1/20 diluted FWE (15.59 mg/L/d). Nutrient removal was also measured in the cultivation. FAME compositions were mainly composed of C16-C18 (Over 98.94%) in S. bijuga. In addition, quality of FAMEs was evaluated by Cetane Number (CN) and Bis-allylic Position Equivalent (BAPE). (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  189. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by acidic ionic liquid as a catalyst
    Abstract

    Ullah, Z.; Bustam, M. A.; Man, Z. 2015. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by acidic ionic liquid as a catalyst. Renewable Energy. 77521-526

    The production of biodiesel from waste palm cooking oil using acidic ionic liquid as a catalyst was investigated. Generally, alkaline based catalysts are used to catalyze the transesterification reaction, but for waste cooking oil where it contains high free fatty acids, direct usage is not possible due to separation of layers and saponification problems. In this study, a two-step process i.e. esterification and transesterification was performed. The ionic liquid butyl-methyl imidazolium hydrogensulfate (BMIMHSO4) was found to be effective due to its longer side chain. The highest biodiesel Yield was obtained with 5 wt.% BMIMHSO4, methanol:oil of 15:1,60 min reaction time, at 160 degrees C, and agitation speed of 600 rpm, reduced the waste cooking oil acid value lower than 1.0 mg KOH/g. The second step of transesterification catalyzed by KOH at 60 degrees C, 1.0 wt.% and 60 min of reaction time. The final yield was 95.65 wt.%. The synthesized biodiesel was analysed by H-1 NMR, FTIRTGA and GC, and its physiochemical properties were determined by standard ASTM methods. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  190. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil over Mesoporous SO42-/Zr-SBA-15
    Abstract

    Zhang, J. L.; Lei, Z. J.; Zhang, X. C.; Zhang, Q.; Yi, Q.; Li, R. F. 2015. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil over Mesoporous SO42-/Zr-SBA-15. Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics. 28(3) 361-369

    Biodiesel production from waste cooking oils over SO42-/Zr-SBA-15 catalyst was successfully carried out and investigated. SO42-/Zr-SBA-15 catalyst was prepared by one-step process using anhydrous zirconium nitrate as zirconium resource, and endowed with the strong Lewis acid sites formed by supporting the zirconium species onto the SBA-15 surface. The as-prepared SO42-/Zr-SBA-15 showed excellent triglyceride conversion efficiency of 92.3% and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield of 91.7% for the transesterification of waste cooking oil with methanol under the optimized reaction conditions: the methanol/oil molar ratio of 30, the reaction temperature of 160 degrees C, the reaction time of 12 h and 10wt% of catalyst. It was noticed that the as-prepared SO42-/Zr-SBA-15 materials with the higher area surface of mesoporous framework and the surface acidity displayed excellent stability and reusability, maintaining high FAME yield of (74 +/- 1)% after seven runs of reaction.
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  191. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using calcined scallop shell as catalyst
    Abstract

    Sirisomboonchai, S.; Abuduwayiti, M.; Guan, G. Q.; Samart, C.; Abliz, S.; Hao, X. G.; Kusakabe, K.; Abudula, A. 2015. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using calcined scallop shell as catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 95242-247

    Transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) and methanol by using calcined scallop shell (CSS) as catalyst was carried out in a closed system for biodiesel fuel (BDF) production. It is found that the optimum calcination temperature for the preparation of CSS was 1000 degrees C. The effects of transesterification temperature, reaction time, methanol/oil molar ratio and catalyst loading amount on the BDF yield were investigated. Compared with the commercial CaO, CSS showed higher catalytic activity and the BDF yield reached 86% at 65 degrees C with a catalyst loading amount of 5 wt% (WCO basis) and a reaction time of 2 h. The catalyst was reused for 5 cycles whilst the BDF yield decreased 23%. It is found that CaO in CSS was transferred to calcium glyceroxide after the transesterification reaction, and calcium glyceroxide also showed good catalytic activity and reusability. Furthermore, Water content in WCO had negative effect on BDF yield. It is found that BDF yield reduced 15% due to the occurring of saponification when the water content was increased from 0.64% to 2.48%. It is expected that CCS can be used as an alternative and cheap catalyst for the biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  192. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using copper doped zinc oxide nanocomposite as heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Baskar, G.; Aiswarya, R. 2015. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using copper doped zinc oxide nanocomposite as heterogeneous catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 188124-127

    A novel CZO nanocomposite was synthesized and used as heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of waste cooking oil into biodiesel using methanol as acyl acceptor. The synthesized CZO nanocomposite was characterized in FESEM with an average size of 80 nm as nanorods. The XRD patterns indicated the substitution of ZnO in the hexagonal lattice of Cu nanoparticles. The 12% (w/w) nanocatalyst concentration, 1:8 (v:v) O:M ratio, 55 degrees C temperature and 50 min of reaction time were found as optimum for maximum biodiesel yield of 97.71% (w/w). Hence, the use of CZO nanocomposite can be used as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  193. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using KBr impregnated CaO as catalyst
    Abstract

    Mahesh, S. E.; Ramanathan, A.; Begum, K. M. M. S.; Narayanan, A. 2015. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using KBr impregnated CaO as catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 91442-450

    This research paper deals with the synthesis of a heterogeneous catalyst (KBr/CaO) from commercial calcium oxide and potassium bromide by wet impregnation method. This solid catalyst was tested for transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO). The synthesized catalyst was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. Transesterification reaction parameters were varied to obtain the maximum yield of biodiesel. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to study the effect of the process variables like methanol to oil ratio, catalyst loading and reaction time. The optimum conditions obtained using regression models were found to be 12:1 methanol: oil ratio, 3 wt% catalyst loading and 1.8 h reaction time. The composition of FAME was determined using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The performance and emission characteristics for various blends of biodiesel (B10, B20, B50 and B100) were investigated in a four stroke direct injection diesel engine. The results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency, particulate matter, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide emissions reduced with increased concentration of biodiesel in the fuel blends, whereas the specific fuel consumption, NO emissions and exhaust gas temperature increased. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  194. Biodiesel production from waste salmon oil: kinetic modeling, properties of methyl esters, and economic feasibility of a low capacity plant
    Abstract

    Serrano, M.; Marchetti, J. M.; Martinez, M.; Aracil, J. 2015. Biodiesel production from waste salmon oil: kinetic modeling, properties of methyl esters, and economic feasibility of a low capacity plant. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 9(5) 516-528

    Salmon oil directly obtained from salmon silage in a tricanter centrifuge was subjected to homogeneous acid-catalyzed esterification. Alcohol-to-oil molar ratio, catalyst amount, and reaction temperature were varied in order to obtain the kinetic parameters that fit the data satisfactory. A reaction mechanism with four consecutive reactions was considered and the attack of the nucleophile alcohol to the protonated carbonyl substrate was corroborated to be the rate-determining step, in accordance with previous studies in free fatty acids esterification. A kinetic model with 8 independent parameters described with high accuracy the experimental data of 27 reactions with a regression coefficient of 90.94%. Pre-esterified oil was submitted to transesterification and properties of resulting methyl esters were measured. Acidity, peroxide value, viscosity and flash point were acceptable to use as diesel-grade fuel. However, cold flow properties and especially oxidative stability can limit its use as automotive fuel. Finally, a techno-economic analysis was performed and the influence of salmon oil price on the viability of a low capacity fuel production plant was analyzed. (C) 2015 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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  195. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration
    Abstract

    Song, C. F.; Chen, G. Y.; Ji, N.; Liu, Q. L.; Kansha, Y.; Tsutsumi, A. 2015. Biodiesel production process from microalgae oil by waste heat recovery and process integration. Bioresource Technology. 193192-199

    In this work, the optimization of microalgae oil (MO) based biodiesel production process is carried out by waste heat recovery and process integration. The exergy analysis of each heat exchanger presented an efficient heat coupling between hot and cold streams, thus minimizing the total exergy destruction. Simulation results showed that the unit production cost of optimized process is 0.592 $/L biodiesel, and approximately 0.172 $/L biodiesel can be avoided by heat integration. Although the capital cost of the optimized biodiesel production process increased 32.5 % and 23.5 % compared to the reference cases, the operational cost can be reduced by approximately 22.5 % and 41.6 %. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  196. Characterization of the Fatty Acids Present in Wastewaters from Production of Biodiesel Tilapia
    Abstract

    Braga, E. D. A. S.; Malveira, J. D. Q.; Milhome, M. A. L.; de Aquino, M. D.; do Nascimento, R. F. 2015. Characterization of the Fatty Acids Present in Wastewaters from Production of Biodiesel Tilapia. Journal of Chemistry.

    Biodiesel obtained from oil extracted from the viscera of tilapia is a viable alternative in the replacement of petroleum fuels. However, during the purification step is performed biodiesel washing water is performed, which generates high effluent pollutant loads due to the reagents used and the very composition of the raw material. This study aims to characterize the fatty acids present in water from washing of the process of purifying biodiesel tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fatty acid compositions were determined using gas chromatography (GC-FID). The results showed that the fatty acids present in greater quantities in the effluent were lauric (C12: 0), followed bymyristic (C14: 0), palmitic (C16: 0), oleic (C18: 1), stearic (C18: 0), linolenic (C18: 3), and linoleic (C18: 2) acids. Therefore, the levels of oil and grease found in the rinse water from washing of the oil biodiesel tilapia are far above the allowed values above; thus they do not comply with Brazilian federal regulations.
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  197. Continuous biodiesel production in a helicoidal reactor using ultrasound-assisted transesterification reaction of waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Delavari, A.; Halek, F.; Amini, M. 2015. Continuous biodiesel production in a helicoidal reactor using ultrasound-assisted transesterification reaction of waste cooking oil. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 17(1) 273-279

    Designing of a continuous biodiesel production system from waste cooking oil with ultrasonic homogenizer assistant through transesterification reaction was studied. Through some pre-tests based on cavitation phenomenon to accelerate the transesterification reaction, two types of reactors (batch and continuous) were used. GC-MS results showed the total content of 94.2 % of methyl esters derived from different fatty acids formed in a batch reactor using a magnetic stirrer and an electrical heater. These results were then compared to those of two ultrasonic homogenizers with low and high capacities of 400 and 1,500 W, which tested successfully under mild conditions. The results indicated the advantages of using ultrasonic homogenizer. The continuous system consisted of a 1,500 W ultrasonic homogenizer and glass helicoidal reactor with a tube length of 20 m. This set-up was kept submerged in a hot water bath. As a result, the reaction time decreased to 150 s, the methanol/oil molar ratio was 8.6 and the weight % of NaOH/oil was 0.5 %. After separation of undesired contents, the physical and chemical characteristics of the final product were measured according to ASTM standard methods. Study of performance of the system also showed a significant improvement in yield of the reaction (90 %) compared to prior studies.
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  198. Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Hena, S.; Fatimah, S.; Tabassum, S. 2015. Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel production. Water Resources and Industry. 101-14

    Dairy farm wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae bioluels. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of production of biodiesel from consortium of native microalgae culture in dairy farm treated wastewater. Native algal strains were isolated from dairy farm wastewaters collection tank (untreated wastewater) as well as from holding tank (treated wastewater). The consortium members were selected on the basis of fluorescence response after treating with Nile red reagent. Preliminary studies of two commercial and consortium of ten native strains of algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of native strains was found capable to remove more than 98% nutrients from treated wastewater. The biomass production and lipid content of consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were 153.54 t ha(-1) year(-1) and 16.89%, respectively. 72.70% of algal lipid obtained from consortium could be converted into biodiesel. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.ors/licenses/by/4.0/).
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  199. Cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides in anaerobically treated brewery wastewater for cost-effective biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Darpito, C.; Shin, W. S.; Jeon, S.; Lee, H.; Nam, K.; Kwon, J. H.; Yang, J. W. 2015. Cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides in anaerobically treated brewery wastewater for cost-effective biodiesel production. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 38(3) 523-530

    The use of wastewater has been investigated to overcome the economic challenge involved with a production of microalgae-based biodiesel. In this study, to achieve economical biodiesel production along with effective wastewater treatment at the same time, anaerobically treated brewery wastewater (ABWW) was utilized as a low-cost nutrient source, in the cultivation of Chlorella protothecoides. About 96 and 90 % of total nitrogen and phosphorus in ABWW were removed, respectively, while C. protothecoides was accumulating 1.88 g L-1 of biomass. The C. protothecoides grown in ABWW showed increases in cell size and cell aggregation, resulting in a near 80 % enhanced harvesting efficiency within 20 min, as compared with only 4 % in BG-11. In addition, the total fatty acid content of the C. protothecoides grown in ABWW increased by 1.84-fold (35.94 +/- A 1.54 % of its dry cell weight), relative to that of BG-11.
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  200. Cultivation of Chlorella sp using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures
    Abstract

    Lu, W. D.; Wang, Z. M.; Wang, X. W.; Yuan, Z. H. 2015. Cultivation of Chlorella sp using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Bioresource Technology. 192382-388

    The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of simultaneous Chlorella sp. cultivation for biodiesel production and nutrient removal in raw dairy wastewater (RDW) in indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors were compared. Results from the current work show that maximum biomass productivity in indoor bench-scale cultures can reach 260 mg L-1 day(-1), compared to that of 110 mg L-1 day(-1) in outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal rate obtained in indoor conditions was 88.38, 38.34, and 2.03 mg L-1 day(-1), respectively, this compared to 41.31, 6.58, and 2.74 mg L-1 day(-1), respectively, for outdoor conditions. Finally, dominant fatty acids determined to be C16/C18 in outdoor pilot-scale cultures indicated great potential for scale up of Chlorella sp. cultivation in RDW for high quality biodiesel production coupling with RDW treatment. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  201. Efficient biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using p-toluenesulfonic acid doped polyaniline as a catalyst
    Abstract

    Niu, M. J.; Kong, X. J. 2015. Efficient biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using p-toluenesulfonic acid doped polyaniline as a catalyst. Rsc Advances. 5(35) 27273-27277

    p-Toluenesulfonic acid doped polyaniline was developed as a catalyst for the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. The physical and chemical properties of the obtained catalyst were characterized in detail. It was found that the yield of fatty acid methylesters reached 97.1%, and the physical properties of the obtained biodiesel sample satisfied the requirement of ASTM D6751 standards. In addition, the catalyst exhibited excellent stability for 10 runs. Therefore, this heterogeneous catalyst has potential for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil, so further pilot tests deserve to be carried out and may be used in large-scale industries.
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  202. Enhancement in biodiesel production using waste cooking oil and calcium diglyceroxide as a heterogeneous catalyst in presence of ultrasound
    Abstract

    Gupta, A. R.; Yadav, S. V.; Rathod, V. K. 2015. Enhancement in biodiesel production using waste cooking oil and calcium diglyceroxide as a heterogeneous catalyst in presence of ultrasound. Fuel. 158800-806

    This work illustrates ultrasound assisted synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using calcium diglyceroxide as a heterogeneous base catalyst. The effect of different variables such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature, ultrasonic power and duty cycle on the progress of the reaction was studied. Under the optimal reaction conditions viz. methanol to oil molar ratio 9:1, catalyst loading of 1% (w/w) of waste cooking oil, temperature 60 degrees C, low intensity ultrasonic power of 120W and 50% duty cycle, a maximum biodiesel yield of 93.5% was obtained. On the other hand, a conventional stirring method showed 65.6% yield for the similar reaction time of 30 min. It has been observed that the ultrasonic method was effective in terms of mass transfer, energy efficiency (1.083 x 10(-4) g/J), biodiesel yield and time reduction. The reusability of the catalyst under the optimal reaction conditions resulted in a decrease in the biodiesel yield. The kinetic studies of transesterification reaction have been carried out at different operating temperatures. The results revealed that the reaction followed second-order kinetics and the activation energy was found to be 119.23 kJ/mole. The biodiesel synthesized from the ultrasonic method has shown superior properties as compared to conventional method and also matched with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  203. Enzyme-catalysed Biodiesel Production from Edible and Waste Cooking Oils
    Abstract

    Budzaki, S.; Salic, A.; Zelic, B.; Tisma, M. 2015. Enzyme-catalysed Biodiesel Production from Edible and Waste Cooking Oils. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly. 29(3) 329-333

    Biodiesel synthesis was performed as transesterification of edible and waste cooking sunflower oil catalysed by free lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipolase 100L). Experiments were performed at three different temperatures (T = 40, 50 and 60 degrees C) as one-step and four-step reactions with methanol.
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  204. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis and kinetics of ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production from waste tallow
    Abstract

    Adewale, P.; Dumont, M. J.; Ngadi, M. 2015. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis and kinetics of ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production from waste tallow. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 271-9

    The use of ultrasonic processing was evaluated for its ability to achieve adequate mixing while providing sufficient activation energy for the enzymatic transesterification of waste tallow. The effects of ultrasonic parameters (amplitude, cycle and pulse) and major reaction factors (molar ratio and enzyme concentration) on the reaction kinetics of biodiesel generation from waste tallow bio-catalyzed by immobilized lipase [Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)] were investigated. Three sets of experiments namely A, B, and C were conducted. In experiment set A, two factors (ultrasonic amplitude and cycle) were investigated at three levels; in experiment set B, two factors (molar ratio and enzyme concentration) were examined at three levels; and in experiment set C, two factors (ultrasonic amplitude and reaction time) were investigated at five levels. A Ping Pong Bi Bi kinetic model approach was employed to study the effect of ultrasonic amplitude on the enzymatic transesterification. Kinetic constants of transesterification reaction were determined at different ultrasonic amplitudes (30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50%) and enzyme concentrations (4, 6, and 8 wt.% of fat) at constant molar ratio (fat:methanol); 1:6, and ultrasonic cycle; 5 Hz. Optimal conditions for ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from waste tallow were fat:methanol molar ratio, 1:4; catalyst level 6% (w/w of fat); reaction time, 20 min (30 times less than conventional batch processes); ultrasonic amplitude 40% at 5 Hz. The kinetic model results revealed interesting features of ultrasound assisted enzyme-catalyzed transesterification (as compared to conventional system): at ultrasonic amplitude 40%, the reaction activities within the system seemed to be steady after 20 min which means the reaction could proceed with or without ultrasonic mixing. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated the biodiesel yield to be 85.6 0.08%. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  205. Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis and Kinetics of Ultrasonic-Assisted Methanolysis of Waste Choice White Grease for Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Production
    Abstract

    Adewale, P.; Dumont, M. J.; Ngadi, M. 2015. Enzyme-Catalyzed Synthesis and Kinetics of Ultrasonic-Assisted Methanolysis of Waste Choice White Grease for Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Production. Energy & Fuels. 29(10) 6412-6421

    In this study, the effects of ultrasonic parameters (amplitude, cycle, and pulse) and major reaction factors (molar ratio and enzyme concentration) on the reaction kinetics of fatty add methyl ester (FAME) generation from waste choice white grease (CWG) biocatalyzed by immobilized lipase [Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)] were investigated. A yield of 98.2% was attained in 20 min at an ultrasonic amplitude (40%) at 5 kHz, fat/methanol molar ratio (1:4), and catalyst level of 6% (wt/wt of fat). The effect of ultrasonic mixing on the reaction kinetic of enzymatic transesterification was investigated using a Ping Pong Bi Bi kinetic model approach. Kinetic constants of the transesterification reaction were determined at different ultrasonic amplitudes (30, 35, 40, 45, and 50%) and enzyme concentrations (4, 6, and 8 wt % of fat) at a constant molar ratio (fat/methanol) of 1:6 and ultrasonic cycle of S kHz. The fitted curves of the kinetic mechanism showed a sigmoidal curve as a result of mass-transfer limitations, which controlled the process at the beginning of the reaction. The kinetic model results also revealed interesting features of ultrasound-assisted enzyme-catalyzed transesterification. The kinetic model approach described the whole methanolysis process accurately. At the ultrasonic amplitude of 40%, the reaction activities within the system seemed to have steadied after 20 min, which means that the reaction could proceed with or without ultrasonic mixing.
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  206. Evaluation of cyanobacterial endolith Leptolyngbya sp ISTCY101, for integrated wastewater treatment and biodiesel production: A toxicological perspective
    Abstract

    Singh, J.; Thakur, I. S. 2015. Evaluation of cyanobacterial endolith Leptolyngbya sp ISTCY101, for integrated wastewater treatment and biodiesel production: A toxicological perspective. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 11294-303

    The present study evaluates the ability of an endolithic cyanobacterial strain to synergistically treat municipal wastewater and produce biomass. Leptolyngbya sp. ISTCY101 was cultivated in undiluted wastewater influent in batch mode and semi-continuous mode. A semicontinuous marble slab photobioreactor was designed to exploit the endolith's innate capability of developing biofilm and utilizing bicarbonate as source of inorganic carbon. Biomass productivities averaged to 85 mg L-1 d(-1) and 2.93 g m(-2) d(-1) in batch mode and semi-continuous mode respectively. The endolith produced 25% (% w/dw) of lipids mainly consisting of saturated and monounsaturated (C16:0, C16: 1, C18:0, C18: 1) fatty acids (>65%). Maximum Nitrogen and Phosphorus removal rates of 4.37 mgL(-1) d(-1) and 1.01 mg L-1 d(-1) were attained in semi-continuous mode. Post treatment analyses of wastewater via GC-MS and ICP-OES showed remarkable removal of major organic contaminants and trace metals respectively. Methyltetrazolium (MTT) assay for cytotoxicity and Comet assay for genotoxicity were carried out in human hepato-carcinoma cell line HepG2 to validate the treatment efficiency of the strain. A 2.3-fold reduction in MTT EC50 value and 10-fold reduction in olive tail moment after cyanobacterial treatment envisage its potential application in integrated wastewater treatment and biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  207. Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp in anaerobic digestion wastewater for improved nutrient removal and biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ji, F.; Zhou, Y. G.; Pang, A. P.; Ning, L.; Rodgers, K.; Liu, Y.; Dong, R. J. 2015. Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp in anaerobic digestion wastewater for improved nutrient removal and biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 184116-122

    Desmodesmus sp. was used in anaerobically digested wastewater (ADW) for nutrients removal and the biodiesel production was measured and compared using fed-batch cultivation was investigated and compared with batch cultivation. The Desmodesmus sp. was able to remove 236.143, 268.238 and 6.427 mg/L of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P respectively after 40 d of fed-batch cultivation, while in batch cultivation the quantities of TN, NH4-N and PO4-P removed were 33.331, 37.227 and 1.323 mg/L. Biomass production of Desmodesmus sp. was also enhanced in fed-batch cultivation, when ADW loading was carried out every 2 days; the biomass concentration peaked at 1.039 g/L, which was three times higher than that obtained in batch cultivation (0.385 g/L). The highest lipid production (261.8 mg/L) was also recorded in fed-batch cultivation as compared to batch cultivation (83.3 mg/L). Fed-batch cultivation of Desmodesmus sp. could provide effective control of nutrients limitation and/or ammonia inhibition on microalgae cultivation. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  208. Glycerol-enriched heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste frying oil
    Abstract

    Ferrero, G. O.; Almeida, M. F.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Dias, J. M. 2015. Glycerol-enriched heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste frying oil. Energy Conversion and Management. 89665-671

    In the present work, biodiesel production using a glycerol enriched heterogeneous catalyst was studied. For that purpose, the catalyst performance at different glycerol concentrations and reaction conditions (under ambient atmosphere) was evaluated and two triglyceride sources were used. The most active catalyst was produced using CaO, glycerol and methanol at a mass ratio of 1:1.6:13.4, respectively. By performing the transesterification reaction under ambient atmosphere during 2 h at 333 K, using 0.4 wt.% of catalyst and 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, a good quality product was obtained (EN 14214) using both soybean oil and waste frying oil. The catalyst could be re-used during four cycles and could also be prepared by using ethanol instead of methanol (with differences <4% on product conversion). The glycerol by-product, being rich in calcium soaps, might additionally be used for the enrichment of animal diets. The present process allowed the production of biodiesel from different triglyceride sources using a very active heterogeneous catalyst at competitive reaction conditions compared to the homogeneous process and also enabled a two-way recycling of the glycerol by-product. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  209. Heterogeneous Catalyst Derived from Waste Shells for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Li, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Gao, J. 2015. Heterogeneous Catalyst Derived from Waste Shells for Biodiesel Production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(6) 598-605

    The catalysts derived from waste shells were employed to produce biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil. The catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Under the best reaction conditions (temperature 65 degrees C, methanol/oil molar ratio 9: 1, reaction time 3 h, and catalyst loading 3 wt% of oil), a high biodiesel yield of more than 99.0% was obtained. After ultrasonic mixing, the time for reaction completion could be shortened. After reuse for seven times, about 75% of the fatty acid methyl esters yield could be obtained. The activity of the catalysts could be revived absolutely after recalcination.
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  210. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production in agricultural wastewaters and associated challenges-a critical review
    Abstract

    Lowrey, J.; Brooks, M. S.; McGinn, P. J. 2015. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production in agricultural wastewaters and associated challenges-a critical review. Journal of Applied Phycology. 27(4) 1485-1498

    Many studies have demonstrated that heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth for various microalgae species yields greater biomass and lipid content as compared to photoautotrophic cultivation. This review explores the possibility of leveraging the natural ability of the microorganisms to metabolize carbon heterotrophically and mixotrophically in agricultural wastewaters. This has the potential advantage of improving the overall economics for the production of biodiesel and value-added biomolecules from microalgae, mitigating an existing waste stream and minimizing water requirements. However, there are a number of challenges and gaps in scientific knowledge that suggest a need for ongoing research in the area. In this review, specific focus is dedicated to the metabolic mechanisms, reported performances, and practical challenges that contribute to the uncertainty of employing agricultural wastewaters for heterotrophic and mixotrophic microalgae cultures.
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  211. Heterotrophic microalgae cultivation to synergize biodiesel production with waste remediation: Progress and perspectives
    Abstract

    Mohan, S. V.; Rohit, M. V.; Chiranjeevi, P.; Chandra, R.; Navaneeth, B. 2015. Heterotrophic microalgae cultivation to synergize biodiesel production with waste remediation: Progress and perspectives. Bioresource Technology. 184169-178

    Microalgae are inexhaustible feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and valuable bioactive compounds. Their cultivation is critical in sustaining the global economy in terms of human consumption of food and fuel. When compared to autotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic systems are more suitable for producing high cell densities of microalgae for accumulation of large quantities of lipids (triacylglycerols) which can be converted into biodiesel. Consorted efforts are made in this communication to converge recent literature on heterotrophic cultivation systems with simultaneous wastewater treatment and algal oil production. Challenges faced during large scale production and limiting factors which hinder the microalgae growth are enumerated. A strategic deployment of integrated closed loop biorefinery concept with multi-product recovery is proposed to exploit the full potential of algal systems. Sustainable algae cultivation is essential to produce biofuels leading to green future. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  212. Hydrolysis of Waste Frying Oils in Subcritical Water for Biodiesel Production by Esterification Using a Heterogeneous Catalyst
    Abstract

    Toralles, L. P.; Alves, C. T.; Torres, E. A.; Andrade, H. M. C.; Pessoa, F. L. P.; de Melo, S. A. B. V. 2015. Hydrolysis of Waste Frying Oils in Subcritical Water for Biodiesel Production by Esterification Using a Heterogeneous Catalyst. Icheap12: 12th International Conference on Chemical & Process Engineering. 43565-570

    Waste frying oils have become a material of great interest for various routes of biodiesel production. This study investigates waste frying oils (WFO) under subcritical hydrolysis to generate free fatty acids for biodiesel production using zinc aluminate as heterogeneous catalysist. WFO were pre- treated to reduce particulate material and saponified compounds present in the raw material. Their kinematic viscosity, fatty acid composition and proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR+) were determined, which identified strong similarities between WFO and refined soybean oil. Through the fatty acid composition analysis of WFO, a molecular weight of 873 g/mol was obtained and linoleic acid was identified as the main component in the tested oil. The hydrolysis experimental runs were conducted over a range of temperatures between 200-250 degrees C. Once hydrolysis reactions were completed, a significant increase in the acid value was observed for all samples. After phase separation, a subsequent ethyl esterification of free fatty acids obtained from hydrolysis was carried out at 100 degrees C and 150 degrees C, using 10:1 and 20:1 as ethanol: oil molar ratio. The biodiesel produced by subcritical water hydrolysis and esterification was analysed by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results showed that this route provides an effective contribution towards the feasibility of alkyl ester production by esterification of free fatty acids using a zinc aluminate catalyst.
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  213. Kinetic Study of Pyrolysis of Castor Beans (Ricinus communis L.) Presscake: An Alternative use for Solid Waste Arising from the Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Santos, N. A. V.; Magriotis, Z. M.; Saczk, A. A.; Fassio, G. T. A.; Vieira, S. S. 2015. Kinetic Study of Pyrolysis of Castor Beans (Ricinus communis L.) Presscake: An Alternative use for Solid Waste Arising from the Biodiesel Production. Energy & Fuels. 29(4) 2351-2357

    This work investigated the effects of temperature and of rate of heating on the kinetic parameters of pyrolysis of castor beans presscake, a byproduct generated in the biodiesel production process. Pyrolysis process was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and parameters were obtained from nonisothermal experiments. The results obtained from the process of thermal decomposition indicated the elimination of humidity and the decomposition of organic components of the biomass. DTG curves showed that the heating rate affects the temperature of maximum decomposition of the material. Kinetic parameters such as activation energy and pre-exponential factor were obtained by model-free methods proposed by Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), and Kissinger. Experimental results showed that the kinetic parameters values of the FWO and KAS methods display good agreement and can be used to understand the mechanism of degradation of the cake. In a generalized way, the results contribute to better understanding of the processes of biomass pyrolysis.
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  214. Kinetic Study on Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Widayat; Aulia, H. N.; Hadiyanto; Sasongko, S. B. 2015. Kinetic Study on Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil. Journal of Engineering and Technological Sciences. 47(4) 374-388

    The objective of this research was to study a kinetic model of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil assisted by ultrasound power. The model considered the biodiesel production process as a 2nd order reversible reaction, while its kinetic parameters were estimated using MATLAB, based on data extracted from Hingu, et al. [1]. The data represented experiments under low-frequency ultrasonic wave (20 kHz) and variations of temperature, power, catalyst concentration, and alcohol-oil molar ratio. Statistical analysis showed that the proposed model fits well to the experimental data with a determination coefficient (R-2) higher than 0.9.
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  215. Life cycle assessment of hydrogenated biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using the catalytic cracking and hydrogenation method
    Abstract

    Yano, J.; Aoki, T.; Nakamura, K.; Yamada, K.; Sakai, S. 2015. Life cycle assessment of hydrogenated biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using the catalytic cracking and hydrogenation method. Waste Management. 38409-423

    There is a worldwide trend towards stricter control of diesel exhaust emissions, however presently, there are technical impediments to the use of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters)-type biodiesel fuel (BDF). Although hydrogenated biodiesel (HBD) is anticipated as a new diesel fuel, the environmental performance of HBD and its utilization system have not been adequately clarified. Especially when waste cooking oil is used as feedstock, not only biofuel production but also the treatment of waste cooking oil is an important function for society. A life cycle assessment (LCA), including uncertainty analysis, was conducted to determine the environmental benefits (global warming, fossil fuel consumption, urban air pollution, and acidification) of HBD produced from waste cooking oil via catalytic cracking and hydrogenation, compared with fossil-derived diesel fuel or FAME-type BDF. Combined functional unit including "treatment of waste cooking oil" and "running diesel vehicle for household waste collection" was established in the context of Kyoto city, Japan. The calculation utilized characterization, damage, and integration factors identified by LIME2, which was based on an endpoint modeling method. The results show that if diesel vehicles that comply with the new Japanese long-term emissions gas standard are commonly used in the future, the benefit of FAME-type BDF will be relatively limited. Furthermore, the scenario that introduced HBD was most effective in reducing total environmental impact, meaning that a shift from FAME-type BDF to HBD would be more beneficial. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  216. Lipid production in the under-characterized oleaginous yeasts, Rhodosporidium babjevae and Rhodosporidium diobovatum, from biodiesel-derived waste glycerol
    Abstract

    Munch, G.; Sestric, R.; Sparling, R.; Levin, D. B.; Cicek, N. 2015. Lipid production in the under-characterized oleaginous yeasts, Rhodosporidium babjevae and Rhodosporidium diobovatum, from biodiesel-derived waste glycerol. Bioresource Technology. 18549-55

    The growth, lipid production, and carbon use efficiency of two oleaginous yeasts, Rhodosporidium babjevae and Rhodosporidium diobovatum, were compared under nitrogen-limiting conditions with glycerol as the carbon source. Final biomass concentrations of R. babjevae and R. diobovatum were 9.4 +/- 0.80 g/L and 12.0 +/- 0.82 g/L, respectively, after 120 h of growth. Final lipid accumulation in for R. babjevae and R. diobovatum were 34.9 +/- 3.0% cell dry weight (cdw) and 63.7 +/- 4.5% cdw, respectively. Biomass production increased to 9.9 +/- 0.2 g/L for R. babjevae and 14.1 +/- 0.2 g/L for R. diobovatum in medium containing biodiesel-derived waste glycerol, but lipid accumulation decreased in both species. In a 7 L bioreactor with biodiesel-derived glycerol as carbon source, R. diobovatum produced 13.6 +/- 0.4 g/L biomass and accumulated lipids to 50.7 +/- 2.2% cdw, matching flask experiments. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  217. L-Lactate Production from Biodiesel-Derived Crude Glycerol by Metabolically Engineered Enterococcus faecalis: Cytotoxic Evaluation of Biodiesel Waste and Development of a Glycerol-Inducible Gene Expression System
    Abstract

    Doi, Y. 2015. L-Lactate Production from Biodiesel-Derived Crude Glycerol by Metabolically Engineered Enterococcus faecalis: Cytotoxic Evaluation of Biodiesel Waste and Development of a Glycerol-Inducible Gene Expression System. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 81(6) 2082-2089

    Biodiesel waste is a by-product of the biodiesel production process that contains a large amount of crude glycerol. To reuse the crude glycerol, a novel bioconversion process using Enterococcus faecalis was developed through physiological studies. The E. faecalis strain W11 could use biodiesel waste as a carbon source, although cell growth was significantly inhibited by the oil component in the biodiesel waste, which decreased the cellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio and then induced oxidative stress to cells. When W11 was cultured with glycerol, the maximum culture density (optical density at 600 nm [OD600]) under anaerobic conditions was decreased 8-fold by the oil component compared with that under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, W11 cultured with dihydroxyacetone (DHA) could show slight or no growth in the presence of the oil component with or without oxygen. These results indicated that the DHA kinase reaction in the glycerol metabolic pathway was sensitive to the oil component as an oxidant. The lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) activity of W11 during anaerobic glycerol metabolism was 4.1-fold lower than that during aerobic glycerol metabolism, which was one of the causes of low L-lactate productivity. The E. faecalis pflB gene disruptant (Delta pfl mutant) expressing the ldhL1(LP) gene produced 300 mM L-lactate from glycerol/crude glycerol with a yield of > 99% within 48 h and reached a maximum productivity of 18 mM h(-1) (1.6 g liter(-1) h(-1)). Thus, our study demonstrates that metabolically engineered E. faecalis can convert crude glycerol to L-lactate at high conversion efficiency and provides critical information on the recycling process for biodiesel waste.
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  218. Low algal diversity systems are a promising method for biodiesel production in wastewater fed open reactors
    Abstract

    Bhattacharjee, M.; Siemann, E. 2015. Low algal diversity systems are a promising method for biodiesel production in wastewater fed open reactors. Algae. 30(1) 67-79

    Planktivorous fish which limit zooplankton grazing have been predicted to increase algal biodiesel production in wastewater fed open reactors. In addition, tanks with higher algal diversity have been predicted to be more stable, more productive, and to more fully remove nutrients from wastewater. To test these predictions, we conducted a 14-week experiment in Houston, TX using twelve 2,270-L open tanks continuously supplied with wastewater. Tanks received algal composition (monocultures or diverse assemblage) and trophic (fish or no fish) treatments in a full-factorial design. Monocultures produced more algal and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) mass than diverse tanks. More than 80% of lipids were converted to FAME indicating potentially high production for conversion to biodiesel (up to 0.9 T ha(-1) y(-1)). Prolific algal growth lowered temperature and levels of total dissolved solids in the tanks and increased pH and dissolved oxygen compared to supply water. Algae in the tanks removed 91% of nitrate-N and 53% of phosphorus from wastewater. Monocultures were not invaded by other algal species. Fish did not affect any variables. Our results indicated that algae can be grown in open tank bioreactors using wastewater as a nutrient source. The stable productivity of monocultures suggests that this may be a viable production method to procure algal biomass for biodiesel production.
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  219. Low-cost solid catalyst derived from waste Cyrtopleura costata (Angel Wing Shell) for biodiesel production using microalgae oil
    Abstract

    Syazwani, O. N.; Rashid, U.; Yap, Y. H. T. 2015. Low-cost solid catalyst derived from waste Cyrtopleura costata (Angel Wing Shell) for biodiesel production using microalgae oil. Energy Conversion and Management. 101749-756

    In the present work, Cyrtopleura costata (Angel Wing Shell) is used for the first time to synthesis of CaO. The produced CaO was utilized as a catalyst for biodiesel production from microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata oil. The Angel Wing Shell (AWS) was calcined at 800 degrees C and 900 degrees C for 2 h to convert CaCO3 to activate metal oxide phase. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Temperature programmed desorption of CO2 (CO2-TPD), BET surface area and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The calcined Angel Wing Shell at 900 degrees C (CAWS 900) was chosen as the best catalyst due to its high basicity and surface area. This also corresponded to optimization condition where, CAWS 900 showed highest FAME yield (84.11%) at oil to methanol molar ratio 1:150 and catalyst loading of 9 wt.% in 1 h reaction time. The CAWS 900 catalyst also can be reused more than three times with FAME yield greater than 65%. Overall, AWS appears to be an acceptable solid catalyst to convert microalgae oil to biodiesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  220. Microalgae cultivation in urban wastewater: Nutrient removal and biomass production for biodiesel and methane
    Abstract

    Caporgno, M. P.; Taleb, A.; Olkiewicz, M.; Font, J.; Pruvost, J.; Legrand, J.; Bengoa, C. 2015. Microalgae cultivation in urban wastewater: Nutrient removal and biomass production for biodiesel and methane. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 10232-239

    The freshwater microalgae species Chlorella kessleri and Chlorella vulgaris, and the marine microalgae species Nannochloropsis oculata were cultivated in urban wastewater. The freshwater species demonstrated the possibility of growing in urban wastewater reaching high biomass production and nutrient removal when cultured in batch mode using a flat-panel airlift photobioreactor. Both microalgae species reached high biomass dry weights, 2.70 +/- 0.08 g/L and 2.91 +/- 0.02 g/L respectively, accompanied by nitrogen concentration reduction around 96% and 95%, and a phosphorous concentration reduction around 99% and 98% respectively. N. oculata was able to uptake nutrients from wastewater to grow but with less efficiency, indicating the need of microalgae acclimation or process optimisation to achieve high nutrient removals. During C. kessleri and C. vulgaris cultivation, the nitrogen consumption led to a progressive N-starvation process which increased the microalgae potential for biofuels production; both species produced 346 +/- 3 mL(CH4)/g(VS) and 415 +/- 2 mL(CH4)/g(VS) during anaerobic digestion, and 7.4 +/- 0.2 g(Biodiesel)/100 g(VS) and 11.3 +/- 0.1 g(Biodiesel)/100 g(VS) respectively. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  221. Mono lacunary phosphotungstate anchored to MCM-41 as recyclable catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Singh, S.; Patel, A. 2015. Mono lacunary phosphotungstate anchored to MCM-41 as recyclable catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of waste cooking oil. Fuel. 159720-727

    Mono lacunary phosphotungstate (PW11) anchored to MCM-41 was synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical techniques. Preliminary studies for biodiesel production by esterification of oleic acid was carried out and study was further extended to transesterification of waste cooking oil. The Kinetic study reveals that the reactions follow first order kinetics and activation energy for transesterification was 64.1 kJ/mol. The present catalyst can be recycled without any significant change in % conversion. The high activity of this new catalyst for transesterification reactions suggests an alternative path as well as reduction in cost for the production of biodiesel under mild reaction conditions. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  222. Optimization of biodiesel production from the waste cooking oil using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Hamze, H.; Akia, M.; Yazdani, F. 2015. Optimization of biodiesel production from the waste cooking oil using response surface methodology. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 941-10

    In this research, transesterification of the waste cooking oil has been studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design was used to investigate the effects of the main operating parameters, including the methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, and reaction temperature, on the biodiesel yield. The results revealed that the catalyst concentration is the most important parameter. The maximum biodiesel yield under the optimized conditions was 99.38 wt.%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used for the determination of biodiesel conversion and the results were compared with that of gas chromatography (GC) analysis, showing a very small difference. Furthermore, an empirical quadratic equation has been presented to show the relation between biodiesel conversion and product viscosity. (C) 2014 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  223. Phycoremediation potential of Chlorella minutissima on primary and tertiary treated wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Malla, F. A.; Khan, S. A.; Rashmi; Sharma, G. K.; Gupta, N.; Abraham, G. 2015. Phycoremediation potential of Chlorella minutissima on primary and tertiary treated wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. Ecological Engineering. 75343-349

    The integrated approach of wastewater treatment and microalgal biodiesel production based on phycoremediation is a promising process. The experiment was set up to study the phycoremediation potential of Chlorella minutissima to remove the pollution load from primary treated IARI's (Indian Agricultural Research Institute) wastewater and tertiary treated CETP (Common Effluent Treatment Plant) wastewater and evaluation of biomass for biodiesel after harvesting. The physical and chemical parameters of wastewater quality such as nitrate, phosphate, potassium, EC, TDS, BOD, COD, etc., were studied. C. minutissima removed about 90-98% TDS, 70-80% N, 60-70% P and 45-50% K from the wastewater within 12 days. The level of BOD and COD were reduced by 60 and 75%, respectively. The algal biomasses were harvested for biodiesel extraction. The highest specific lipid productivity for CETP and IARI wastewater was 0.171 and 0.132 g-lipids g-cell (1) day (1), respectively. The oleic acid had increased 59.6% in CETP wastewater in comparison to IARI wastewater. The results of this study concluded that algal strain C. minutissima is not only a means for remediation of pollutant load, but it can also be used as potential driving force for biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  224. Potential of tilapia oil and waste in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Martins, G. I.; Secco, D.; Tokura, L. K.; Bariccatti, R. A.; Dolci, B. D.; Santos, R. F. 2015. Potential of tilapia oil and waste in biodiesel production. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 42234-239

    Fish oil shows up as an alternative for the recovery of waste from processing of tilapia as a way of adding value to this raw material for biodiesel production. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the yield and acid number of tilapia oil according to the type of waste used as well as to estimate,its potential for biodiesel production as a function of the oil obtained. The waste consisted of fish viscera, fins, heads, skin, scales and mix of all residues mentioned. Such residues were provided by COPACOL's (Consolata Agro industrial Cooperative) fish refrigerator and kept refrigerated for 24 h. Then oil was obtained by means of cooking and waste pressing. It was not possible to obtain oil from the scales and skin of tilapia by the method used. Fish viscera presented oil content of 22% and the mix of residues had a content of 6.12%. The oil obtained from the viscera showed unsuitable acidity for the production of biodiesel by transesterification, requiring a process of neutralization in order to be processed into biodiesel. The remaining residues, except waste mix, were suitable for the acid transesterification and biodiesel production. Fish oil has potential for biodiesel production from tilapia processing waste. The oil obtained from the viscera presented the highest potential to produce biodiesel per ton of waste processed (217 l), followed by the oil obtained from fish heads (91 l) and mixed waste (60 l), showing that it is possible to convert waste into biodiesel, which can totally or partially replace the use of diesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  225. Process Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Simarouba, Mahua, and Waste Cooking Oils
    Abstract

    Manjunath, H.; Hebbal, O.; Reddy, K. H. 2015. Process Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Simarouba, Mahua, and Waste Cooking Oils. International Journal of Green Energy. 12(4) 424-430

    In this study, Simarouba Glauca (simarouba), Madhuca Indica (mahua), and waste cooking oils were used to produce their methyl esters. The acid value of these oils was determined by titration and was found to be 12.49 mg KOH/g for simarouba oil, 22.87 mg KOH/g for mahua oil and 1.81 mg KOH/g for waste cooking oil. Biodiesel production process consists of two-steps: acid esterification (Step-1) and alkaline transesterification (Step-2). A two-step transesterification for simarouba and mahua; and a single-step (Step-2) for waste cooking oil were used to convert the oils to their ester. The parameters affecting the transesterification process for these different oils were optimized in order to achieve maximum ester yield. This process gives yields of about 95.14% for simarouba, 94.21% for mahua, and 96.31% for waste cooking oil using sodium methoxide as a catalyst. Density, viscosity, flash point, carbon residue, copper strip corrosion, acid value and calorific value of the produced methyl esters were determined and found to be within the limits of ASTM D6751 and IS 15607 specifications.
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  226. Production of biodiesel and its wastewater treatment technologies: A review
    Abstract

    Daud, N. M.; Abdullah, S. R. S.; Abu Hasan, H.; Yaakob, Z. 2015. Production of biodiesel and its wastewater treatment technologies: A review. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 94487-508

    The development of technologies providing alternatives to petroleum fuel has led to the production of biodiesel fuel. This paper reviews the methods used to produce biodiesel fuel from various types of sources such as palm oil, jatropha oil, microalgae, and corn starch. It also includes a brief description of the transesterification process and the point source of biodiesel wastewater, from which it is mainly generated. Biodiesel wastewater is characterized by high contents of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), oil, methanol, soap and glycerol. The treatments developed so far for biodiesel wastewater are also described. The authors also investigate the significance, ability and possibility of biological aerated filter (BAF) to treat biodiesel wastewater discharged from a biodiesel fuel production plant. The whole treatment; coagulation-biological aerated filter (CoBAF); involves the pre-treatment of biodiesel wastewater using coagulation followed by the treatment using BAF. (C) 2014 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  227. Production of biodiesel from chicken wastes by various alcohol-catalyst combinations
    Abstract

    Lin, C. W.; Tsai, S. W. 2015. Production of biodiesel from chicken wastes by various alcohol-catalyst combinations. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. 26(1) 36-45

    An environmentally friendly biorefinery process for producing biodiesel from chicken wastes was performed for this study. Low acid value (0.13+/-0.01 mg KOH/g) chicken oil was obtained by preparing chicken wastes with moderate heating and filtration processes that minimized damage to the lipids and thus facilitated subsequent reactions. Methanollipids in a molar ratio of 6: 1 and a methanolethanol-lipids mixture in a molar ratio of 3: 3: 1 were both reacted with 1% KOH catalyst for transesterfication. Furthermore, ethanol-lipids in a molar ration of 6: 1 were analogously transesterified with 1% sodium ethoxide. The amounts of biodiesel were 771.54 mg/mL+/-15.28, 722.98 mg/mL+/-37.38, and 714.86 mg/mL+/-29.99 from methanol, ethanol, and a mixture of methanol/ethanol (3: 3), respectively, after transesterification. The total amount of ethyl ester was comparable with the total amount of methyl ester. In addition, ethanol is a renewable resource and a biorefinery concept can be contributed for biodiesel production. Furthermore, transesterification of chicken oil with a mixture of methanol/ethanol (3: 3) only needed a relatively short reaction time of an hour. Densities, viscosities, sulphur contents, acid values, and flash points of all esters were within the specifications of CNS 15072 and EN 14214. The transesterification system for chicken oil in ethanol and mixed methanol/ethanol (3: 3) demonstrated in this study is a potential candidate for biodiesel production.
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  228. Production of biodiesel from fishmeal plant waste oil using ultrasonic and conventional methods
    Abstract

    Maghami, M.; Sadrameli, S. M.; Ghobadian, B. 2015. Production of biodiesel from fishmeal plant waste oil using ultrasonic and conventional methods. Applied Thermal Engineering. 75575-579

    The aim of this study was to compare the biodiesel synthesis from waste fish oil (WFO) using the conventional transesterification and using ultrasonic methods. WFO has 10.5 mg KOH/g oil acidity and esterification with H2SO4 was utilized to decrease this amount to 0.6 mg KOH/g oil. Ultrasonic and conventional methods are used for the transesterification of the pre-treated WFO. The results show that the reaction temperature had more effect on the conventional method than using the ultrasonic. Optimum condition for the biodiesel production is 1% KOH, 55 degrees C, 6:1 alcohol to oil molar ratio and biodiesel yields were 79.6% and 78% for the ultrasonic and conventional methods respectively. 87% of methyl ester content in 1 h conventional or 30 min ultrasonic process has been reached. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  229. Production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using impregnated diatomite as heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Modiba, E.; Enweremadu, C.; Rutto, H. 2015. Production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using impregnated diatomite as heterogeneous catalyst. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 23(1) 281-289

    In this study, biodiesel was produced from waste vegetable oil using a heterogeneous base catalyst synthesized by impregnating potassium hydroxide (KOH) onto diatomite. Response surface methodology based on a central composite design was used to optimize four transesterification variables: temperature (30-120 degrees C), reaction time (2-6 h), methanol to oil mass ratio (10%-50%) and catalyst to oil mass ratio (2.1%-7.9%). A quadratic polynomial equation was obtained to correlate biodiesel yield to the transesterification variables. The diatomite-KOH catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS). A maximum biodiesel yield of 90%(by mass) was obtained. The reaction conditions were as follows: methanol to oil mass ratio 30%, catalyst to oil mass ratio 5%, reaction time 4 h, and reaction temperature 75 degrees C. The XRD, FTIR and SEM (EDS) results confirm that the addition of KOH modifies the structure of diatomite. During impregnation and calcination of the diatomite catalyst the K2O phase forms in the diatomite structural matrix and the active basicity of this compound facilitates the transesterification process. It is possible to recycle the diatomite-KOH catalyst up to three times. The crucial biodiesel properties from waste vegetable oil are within the American Standard Test Method specifications. (C) 2014 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. All rights reserved.
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  230. Production of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil via KM Micromixer
    Abstract

    Elkady, M. F.; Zaatout, A.; Balbaa, O. 2015. Production of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil via KM Micromixer. Journal of Chemistry.

    The production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils through its pretreatment followed by transesterification process in presence of methanol was investigated using a KM micromixer reactor. The parameters affecting biodiesel production process such as alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a cosolvent, and the volumetric flow rates of inlet fluids were optimized. The properties of the produced biodiesel were compared with its parent waste oil through different characterization techniques. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using both the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Moreover, the thermal analysis of the produced biodiesel and the comparable waste oil indicated that the product after the transesterification process began to vaporize at 120 degrees C which makes it lighter than its parent oil which started to vaporize at around 300 degrees C. The maximum biodiesel production yield of 97% was recorded using 12 : 1 methanol to oil molar ratio in presence of both 1% NaOH and THF/methanol volume ratio 0.3 at 60 mL/h flow rate.
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  231. Production of Biodiesel Using Alkaline Based Catalysts From Waste Cooking Oil: A Case Study
    Abstract

    Ehsan, M.; Chowdhury, M. T. H. 2015. Production of Biodiesel Using Alkaline Based Catalysts From Waste Cooking Oil: A Case Study. 6th BSME International Conference on Thermal Engineering. 105638-645

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) is typically cheaper than diesel and has much less impact on food-chain, so its use as biodiesel can reduce the cost of diesel run operations. Air-conditioned fast food restaurants (FFR) in Bangladesh generate lot of WCO, but due to frequent load shedding they also need to burn lot of diesel for captive power generation. Recycling part of the waste oils in the form of biodiesel can reduce the need of diesel fuel and increase profitability of the establishment. The techno-economic feasibility of such operation in case of a FFR in Dhaka has been investigated. CH3OH (methanol) and NaOH (sodium hydroxide) as base catalyst are mostly used in this process because of their lowest costs, higher reaction rates and higher yields. From the WCO generation of about 80 lites per week, yield for biodiesel production is considered in the range of 80-90%. Single-stage transesterification (SST) process is the cheapest and the easiest of the different methods. The cost of chemicals can be further minimized by recycling of CH3OH and NaOH in this SST process. The possible 35-40% CH3OH and 80-90% NaOH recoveries were considered for a alcohol to oil molar ratio of 5: 1 of the reactants. It is found from the study that a small scale processing plant could be developed with reactant recovery units for producing biodiesel to supplement diesel fuel needed to run the generators. The monthly savings was equivalent to only 4% of the diesel cost for standby power, with a payback period of about one year. However this can increase up to 50% of the fuel cost and less than six months of payback period if the cost of dumping WCO in considered. The study reveals that even in the case of a FFR where WCO is available at almost no cost, the processing cost for biodiesel does not make it very feasible unless the cost associated with properly dumping the WCO is high enough. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  232. Production of high quality biodiesel from waste acid oil obtained during edible oil refining using ion-exchange resin catalysts
    Abstract

    Shibasaki-Kitakawa, N.; Hiromori, K.; Ihara, T.; Nakashima, K.; Yonemoto, T. 2015. Production of high quality biodiesel from waste acid oil obtained during edible oil refining using ion-exchange resin catalysts. Fuel. 13911-17

    This study was aimed at the continuous production of high quality biodiesel fuel, which fully satisfies international specifications, from waste acid oil with free fatty acids (FFA) content of > 95 wt%. First, the effect of water on the esterification of FFA with the cation-exchange resin catalyst was discussed. Then, a simple method for pretreating the resin without drying, only supplying alcohol of 1.5 cm(3)/g (wet resin), was proposed. Second, the operating conditions for the continuous esterification of FFA to biodiesel were established. The complete conversion of FFA was achieved at the mole ratio of alcohol: fatty acid residue of 2:1 and sufficient residence time. Subsequent processing with an anionexchange resin catalyst for the transesterification of triglycerides in the oil was necessary to produce high quality biodiesel. The biodiesel productivity with acid oil was about 8.5 times higher than that with triglyceride-rich oil. This process demonstrated a commercially feasible route to high quality biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  233. Production of technical-grade sodium citrate from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica
    Abstract

    Kamzolova, S. V.; Vinokurova, N. G.; Lunina, J. N.; Zelenkova, N. F.; Morgunov, I. G. 2015. Production of technical-grade sodium citrate from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica. Bioresource Technology. 193250-255

    The production of technical-grade sodium citrate from the glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Yarrowia lipolytica was studied. Batch experiments showed that citrate was actively produced within 144 h, then citrate formation decreased presumably due to inhibition of enzymes involved in this process. In contrast, when the method of repeated batch cultivation was used, the formation of citrate continued for more than 500 h. In this case, the final concentration of citrate in the culture liquid reached 79-82 g/L. Trisodium citrate was isolated from the culture liquid filtrate by the addition of a small amount of NaOH, so that the pH of the filtrate increased to 7-8. This simple and economic isolation procedure gave the yield of crude preparation containing trisodium citrate 5.5-hydrate up to 82-86%. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  234. Prospects for biodiesel production from algae-based wastewater treatment in Brazil: A review
    Abstract

    Kligerman, D. C.; Bouwer, E. J. 2015. Prospects for biodiesel production from algae-based wastewater treatment in Brazil: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 521834-1846

    The modern world is highly dependent on energy. Biodiesel is recognized as a green and alternative renewable diesel fuel, and Brazil is the world's third largest producer of biodiesel, which in this country is mainly produced from soybeans. As the demand for biodiesel is increasing due to the increasing use of transportation fuel, it is advisable to look for other sources that would not need avast cropland. Recently, microalgae have emerged as a source than can play the dual role of bioremediation of wastewater and generation of biomass for biodiesel production. This paper focuses on the feasibility of utilizing wastewater to cultivate algae for the production of biodiesel in Brazil. By using only domestic wastewater from 40% of Brazilian municipalities, the production of biodiesel would increase by 21.4%. Moreover, the use of wastewater treatment becomes an economically attractive alternative as the revenue from selling biodiesel overcomes the production costs by at least 10%. As a result, Brazil could easily increase its current biodiesel production and simultaneously amazingly improve its index of sanitation. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  235. Recent trends of biodiesel production from animal fat wastes and associated production techniques
    Abstract
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  236. Silica supported microporous melamine tri sulfonic acid catalyst towards biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil and utilization of side stream
    Abstract

    Savaliya, M. L.; Dholakiya, B. Z. 2015. Silica supported microporous melamine tri sulfonic acid catalyst towards biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil and utilization of side stream. Applied Catalysis a-General. 49412-21

    A novel silica based melamine tri sulfonic acid catalyst was successfully prepared by chlorosulfonation of melamine at ambient conditions and applied to the transesterification of waste cooking oil for the production of biodiesel. Glycerol obtained as a side stream at the end of the transesterification reaction along with biodiesel molecules. However, world is facing the problems of disposal of glycerol obtained from biodiesel synthesis as a byproduct and simultaneously they are facing the problem of the abundance of feedstocks for biodiesel synthesis. Therefore, obtained crude glycerol was also successfully converted into triglyceride via esterification of lauric acid over same catalyst. Biodiesel yields were calculated using gas chromatography. Highest biodiesel (%) yield was observed up to 98.00%. Synthesized SMTSA revealed optimistic catalytic activity for transesterification of waste cooking oil with 5% catalyst dose (w/w). SMTSA catalyst was duly characterized by FF-IR, XRD, BET, TPD-NH3 and SEM analysis. While, synthesized biodiesel and triglycerides of lauric acid were well characterized by FT-IR as well as H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopic techniques. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  237. Simple and Efficient Immobilization of Extracellular His-Tagged Enzyme Directly from Cell Culture Supernatant As Active and Recyclable Nanobiocatalyst: High-Performance Production of Biodiesel from Waste Grease
    Abstract

    Vahidi, A. K.; Yang, Y.; Ngo, T. P. N.; Li, Z. 2015. Simple and Efficient Immobilization of Extracellular His-Tagged Enzyme Directly from Cell Culture Supernatant As Active and Recyclable Nanobiocatalyst: High-Performance Production of Biodiesel from Waste Grease. Acs Catalysis. 5(6) 3157-3161

    A simple method for immobilizing extracellular enzyme without prepurification of the enzyme was developed. Extracellular His-tagged Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (His-TLL) was immobilized via affinity by direct treatment of core-shell structured iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles containing long-armed nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid surface groups (Ni-NTA-MNPs) with the cell culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris (h-TLL), giving high enzyme loading efficiency, specific enzyme loading, and specific enzyme activity. The nanobiocatalyst His-TLL-MNPs (80 nm) (5 wt % loading) catalyzed the one-pot conversion of waste grease (24 wt % FFA) to biodiesel with 94% yield and showed excellent recyclability. Ni-NTA-MNPs were easily regenerated from the recycled biocatalyst and reusable for enzyme immobilization. The immobilization method was proven to be general by the immobilization of extracellular His-tagged Candida antarctica lipase B (His-CALB) from the cell culture supernatant of P. pastoris (h-CALB).
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  238. Simultaneous treatment of food-waste recycling wastewater and cultivation of Tetraselmis suecica for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Heo, S. W.; Ryu, B. G.; Nam, K.; Kim, W.; Yang, J. W. 2015. Simultaneous treatment of food-waste recycling wastewater and cultivation of Tetraselmis suecica for biodiesel production. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 38(7) 1393-1398

    There is an increasing interest in the use of cultivated microalgae to simultaneously produce biodiesel and remove nutrients from various wastewaters. For this purpose, Tetraselmis suecica was cultivated in flasks and fermenters using diluted food-waste recycling wastewater (FRW). The effect of FRW dilution on T. suecica growth and nutrient removal was initially tested in flasks. The maximal microalgal concentration after 14 days was in medium with a twofold dilution (28.3 x 10(6) cells/mL) and a fivefold dilution (25.5 x 10(6) cells/mL). When fivefold diluted medium was used in fermenters, the final dry cell weight of T. suecica was 2.0 g/L. The removal efficiencies of ammonium and phosphate in the fermenters were 99.0 and 52.3 %, respectively. In comparison with the results of previous studies, the growth data of T. suecica in the FRW medium indicate that microalgal cultivation system incorporating removal of nutrients in FRW is feasible at the field level.
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  239. Software sensors design and selection for the production of biodiesel from grease trap wastes
    Abstract

    Aguilar-Garnica, E.; Garcia-Sandoval, J. P. 2015. Software sensors design and selection for the production of biodiesel from grease trap wastes. 12th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering (Pse) and 25th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (Escape), Pt B. 371589-1594

    In this paper, a couple of software sensors were designed for CSTR processes and they were tested in the esterification of grease trap wastes which is a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Both software sensors were designed for the estimation of the concentration of Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) from discrete CSTR's temperature measurements. One of these software sensors, called asymptotic observer, is recognized for its capacity to provide estimates without the knowledge of the process kinetics. It has been also designed an estimation algorithm known as reset fuzzy observer. This approach has been recently proposed and is able to update the estimated states at each instant when discrete measurements are available. Both observers were built regarding the structure of a validated dynamical model for the esterification of grease trap wastes and they were tested considering experimental data. The results show that the asymptotic observer offers a very poor performance when some process's disturbances (e.g. input concentration of FFAs, jacket temperature) are carried out, whereas the reset fuzzy observer is able to reconstruct satisfactorily the concentration of FFAs in the presence of such disturbances. Therefore, this fuzzy observer can be selected as reliable monitoring approach that could be further used as a key part of robust control schemes conceived for this specific biodiesel production process.
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  240. Spectroscopic Analysis of Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Biodiesel Production from Expired Sunflower Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Wembabazi, E.; Mugisha, P. J.; Ratibu, A.; Wendiro, D.; Kyambadde, J.; Vuzi, P. C. 2015. Spectroscopic Analysis of Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Biodiesel Production from Expired Sunflower Cooking Oil. Journal of Spectroscopy.

    The study characterized heterogeneous biocatalyst synthesized from sucrose, saw dust, and chicken egg shells using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) technique. Acidic sulphonate (-SO3H) groups were more visible in the spectrum generated for carbonized and sulphonated sucrose than in carbonized and sulphonated saw dust. This was highlighted further by the significantly higher conversion percentage achieved for sulphonated sucrose (62.5%) than sulphonated saw dust (46.6%) during esterification of expired sunflower oil (p = 0.05). The spectra for calcinated egg shells also showed that the most active form of calcium oxide was produced at calcination temperature of 1000 degrees C. This was confirmed in the single-step transesterification reaction in which calcium oxide generated at 1000 degrees C yielded the highest biodiesel (87.8%) from expired sunflower oil. The study further demonstrated the versatility of the FTIR technique in qualitative analysis of biodiesel and regular diesel by confirming the presence of specific characteristic peaks of diagnostic importance. These findings therefore highlight the potential of FTIR-ATR as an inexpensive, fast, and accurate diagnostic means for easy identification and characterization of different materials and products.
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  241. Synthesis of Ferric-Manganese Doped Tungstated Zirconia Nanoparticles as Heterogeneous Solid Superacid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Alhassan, F. H.; Rashid, U.; Yunus, R.; Sirat, K.; Lokman, I. M.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2015. Synthesis of Ferric-Manganese Doped Tungstated Zirconia Nanoparticles as Heterogeneous Solid Superacid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil. International Journal of Green Energy. 12(9) 987-994

    The solid superacid catalyst ferric-manganese doped tungstated zirconia (FMWZ) nanoparticles was prepared by impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600 degrees C for 3 hr and had been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), temperature programmed desorption of NH3 (TPD-NH3), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement. The transesterification reaction was used to determine the optimum conditions of methanolysis of waste cooking oil with FMWZ nanoparticles as heterogeneous solid superacid catalyst. The reactions variables such as reaction temperatures, catalyst loading, molar ratio of methanol/oil and reusability were also assessed which effects the waste cooking oil methyl esters (WCOME's) production yield. The catalyst was reused ten times without any loss in activity and maximum yield of 96% was achieved at the optimized conditions of reaction temperature of 200 degrees C; stirring speed of 600 rpm, 1: 25 molar ratio of oil to alcohol and 4% w/w catalyst loading. The fuel properties of the WCOME's were discussed in light of ASTM D6751 biodiesel standard.
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  242. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil-A Case Study of Hong Kong
    Abstract

    Karmee, S. K.; Patria, R. D.; Lin, C. S. K. 2015. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil-A Case Study of Hong Kong. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16(3) 4362-4371

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.
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  243. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong
    Abstract

    Karmee, S. K.; Patria, R. D.; Lin, C. S. 2015. Techno-economic evaluation of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil--a case study of Hong Kong. Int J Mol Sci. 16(3) 4362-71

    Fossil fuel shortage is a major challenge worldwide. Therefore, research is currently underway to investigate potential renewable energy sources. Biodiesel is one of the major renewable energy sources that can be obtained from oils and fats by transesterification. However, biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as feedstock is expensive. Thus, an alternative and inexpensive feedstock such as waste cooking oil (WCO) can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. In this project, techno-economic analyses were performed on the biodiesel production in Hong Kong using WCO as a feedstock. Three different catalysts such as acid, base, and lipase were evaluated for the biodiesel production from WCO. These economic analyses were then compared to determine the most cost-effective method for the biodiesel production. The internal rate of return (IRR) sensitivity analyses on the WCO price and biodiesel price variation are performed. Acid was found to be the most cost-effective catalyst for the biodiesel production; whereas, lipase was the most expensive catalyst for biodiesel production. In the IRR sensitivity analyses, the acid catalyst can also acquire acceptable IRR despite the variation of the WCO and biodiesel prices.
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  244. The new green catalysts derived from waste razor and surf clam shells for biodiesel production in a continuous reactor
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Loryuenyong, V. 2015. The new green catalysts derived from waste razor and surf clam shells for biodiesel production in a continuous reactor. Green Processing and Synthesis. 4(5) 389-397

    A green catalyst has been derived from a waste material for transesterification of the Jatropha curcas oil feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel in a packed bed reactor (PBR). The razor and surf clam shells were crushed, ground, and calcined at 900 degrees C for 2 h to derive calcium oxide (CaO) as the economic and environmentally friendly catalysts. The heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The effects of reaction variables such as catalyst bed length (mass of catalyst), residence time (reaction time), reaction temperature, and methanol/oil molar ratio on the % yield of biodiesel were investigated. Long-term repeated operation of PBR was also examined. The optimum conditions were catalyst bed length 250 mm, residence time 1.5 h, reaction temperature 60 degrees C, and methanol/oil molar ratio 15:1 which yielded 98% of the conversion. The CaO catalyst could be used repeatedly for three cycles of methanolysis without activity loss and no activation treatment was required. The fuel properties of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) were determined. The results indicated that the new green catalysts derived from razor and surf clam shells showed good catalytic performance and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of J. curcas oil with methanol.
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  245. The study of CaO and MgO heterogenic nano-catalyst coupling on transesterification reaction efficacy in the production of biodiesel from recycled cooking oil
    Abstract

    Tahvildari, K.; Anaraki, Y. N.; Fazaeli, R.; Mirpanji, S.; Delrish, E. 2015. The study of CaO and MgO heterogenic nano-catalyst coupling on transesterification reaction efficacy in the production of biodiesel from recycled cooking oil. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering. 13

    Background: Fossil fuels' pollution and their non-renewability have motivated the search for alternative fuels. Some common example of seed oils are sunflower oil, date seed oil, soy bean oil. For instance, soy methyl and soy-based biodiesel are the main biodiesel. Biodiesel is a clean diesel fuel that can be produced through transesterification reaction. Recycled cooking oil, on the other hand, is one of the inexpensive, easily available sources for producing biodiesel.
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  246. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oils
    Abstract

    de Mora, E. F.; Torres, C.; Valero, A. 2015. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oils. Sustainability. 7(5) 6321-6335

    Biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO) is one of the most sustainable solutions to replace conventional fossil fuels in the transport sector. It can achieve greenhouse gas savings up to 88% and at the same time reducing the disposal of a polluting waste. In addition, it does not provoke potential negative impacts that conventional biofuels may eventually cause linked to the use of arable land. For this reason, most policy frameworks favor its consumption. This is the case of the EU policy that double-counters the use of residue and waste use to achieve the renewable energy target in the transport sector. According to different sources, biodiesel produced from UCO could replace around 1.5%-1.8% of the EU-27 diesel consumption. This paper presents an in-depth thermoeconomic analysis of the UCO biodiesel life cycle to understand its cost formation process. It calculates the ExROI value (exergy return on investment) and renewability factor, and it demonstrates that thermoeconomics is a useful tool to assess life cycles of renewable energy systems. It also shows that UCO life cycle biodiesel production is more sustainable than biodiesel produced from vegetable oils.
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  247. Towards carbon efficient biorefining: Multifunctional mesoporous solid acids obtained from biodiesel production wastes for biomass conversion
    Abstract

    Konwar, L. J.; Maki-Arvela, P.; Salminen, E.; Kumar, N.; Thakur, A. J.; Mikkola, J. P.; Deka, D. 2015. Towards carbon efficient biorefining: Multifunctional mesoporous solid acids obtained from biodiesel production wastes for biomass conversion. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 17620-35

    Multifunctional mesoporous solid acids were prepared by the sulfonation of carbonized de-oiled seed waste cake (DOWC), a solid waste from biodiesel production. Detailed structural characterization of the materials by elemental analysis, FT-IR, Raman, XRD, XPS, TGA, NH3-TPD and N-2-physisorption showed that they were structurally different from the carbohydrate and resin based sulfonated carbon catalysts. In addition to the typical -OH, -COOH and -SO3H groups they contain several N species (pyridinic, pyrrolic etc.) incorporated in their carbon frameworks. The basic structural unit of these materials is a flexible carbon nitride sheet which is extensively functionalized with acidic groups. Our results show distinct effects of raw material composition and preparation methods (activation, sulfonating agent etc.) on structure, stability, surface acidity and textural properties. Here, catalyst -SO3H density and porosity (pore size, pore volume and surface area) had a direct effect on activity. Also, H2SO4 was less useful than 4-BDS (4-benzenediazoniumsulfoante) as a sulfonating agent. The best catalysts with mesoporous structure (average pore diameter 3.9-4.8 nm, pore volume 0.28-0.46 cm(3) g(-1)) and -SO3H density (0.70-0.84 mmol/g(cat)) were obtained by 4-BDS sulfonation of chemically activated DOWCs. In contrast, hydrothermal H2SO4 sulfonation of DOWC produced a non-porous catalyst with high -SO3H density while those obtained by H2SO4 treatment of activated biomass (AC) had a porous structure with low -SO3H density (0.19 mmol/gcat). Furthermore, the reported catalysts show excellent activity in two reactions of interest in biomass conversion: cellulose saccharification (glucose yield 35-53%) and fatty acid esterification (conversion upto 97%) outperforming H2SO4, conventional solid acids (zeolites, ion-exchange resins etc.) as well as sulfonated carbons reported earlier works, confirming their potential as alternative environmentally benign solid catalysts for sustainable, carbon efficient biorefining. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  248. Two-step Biodiesel Production and its Kinetics Studies Using Indion-190/AmberliteIRA-900 from Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Satheesh, K.; JagadeeshBabu, P. E.; Saidutta, M. B. 2015. Two-step Biodiesel Production and its Kinetics Studies Using Indion-190/AmberliteIRA-900 from Waste Cooking Oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(1) 92-100

    Free fatty acid of waste cooking oil was reduced through esterification using Indian-190 and then transesterified using AmberliteIRA-900 to produce biodiesel. Maximum conversion of 93.69% was observed during esterification at optimized conditions (temperature: 337 K; duration: 4 h; methanol: oil: 20: 1; catalyst: 8 wt%). Biodiesel conversion of 98.69% was observed with a yield of 80% through transesterification. Temperature dependence was analyzed using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Activation energy of 134.952 kJ/mol and a frequency factor of 5.49 x 10(15) min(-1) were observed. Thermodynamic parameters were determined using the Van't Hoff plot. Properties of biodiesel were found to be within ASTM standard. Reusability of Indion-190 was analyzed for five cycles, and found to be satisfactory.
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  249. Ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production from waste cooking oil over novel sulfonic functionalized carbon spheres derived from cyclodextrin via one-step: a way to produce biodiesel at short reaction time
    Abstract

    Maneechakr, P.; Samerjit, J.; Karnjanakom, S. 2015. Ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production from waste cooking oil over novel sulfonic functionalized carbon spheres derived from cyclodextrin via one-step: a way to produce biodiesel at short reaction time. Rsc Advances. 5(68) 55252-55261

    In this study, a novel sulfonated carbon catalyst was synthesized via the one-step hydrothermal carbonization of cyclodextrin, hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and citric acid. Ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in the presence of the catalyst was investigated. The novel catalyst was characterized by BET, XRD, PSD, SEM-EDS, TGA, FT-IR, XPS and TPD. The catalyst exhibited a high acidity of up to 1.87 mmol g(-1).2(k) factorial and Box-Behnken designs were applied to find the optimum conditions to obtain a maximum fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield. The results of the optimization imply that a catalyst loading of 11.5 wt%, a reaction time of 8.8 min and a reaction temperature of 117 degrees C provide a maximum FAME yield of up to 90.8% in ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production. The reusability of the catalyst was studied for 4 cycles under the optimum conditions and the results showed that the regenerated catalyst can be reused without any serious reduction of the FAME yield. Kinetic studies showed that the reaction followed first order reaction kinetics with an activation energy of 11.64 kJ mol(-1).
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  250. Use of Phagotrophic Microalga Ochromonas danica to Pretreat Waste Cooking Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Hosseini, M.; Ju, L. K. 2015. Use of Phagotrophic Microalga Ochromonas danica to Pretreat Waste Cooking Oil for Biodiesel Production. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 92(1) 29-35

    In this study, the feasibility of pretreatment and/or upgrading of waste cooking oil (WCO) using the microalga Ochromonas danica was investigated. Two WCO samples with initial acid values (AV) of 10.7 mg KOH/g (similar to 5.4 % FFA content) and 3.9 mg KOH/g (similar to 2.0 % FFA content) were examined. The algal cells engulfed oil droplets and grew rapidly on both WCO samples. The cell growth rates on WCO were compared with the rates on olive oil, with or without surfactant addition to make the oil droplets smaller and easier for algal ingestion. Comparison was also made with the growth rate in a sugar-based medium. More importantly, contacting the WCO with the phagotrophic O. danica cells was found to decrease the acid values of the remaining oil by 2.8 and 2.4 mg KOH/g WCO, respectively. The O. danica-pretreated WCO, with lower acid values, are potentially better feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  251. Use of sulfonic acid-functionalized silica as catalyst for esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) in acid oil for biodiesel production: an optimization study
    Abstract

    Shah, K. A.; Parikh, J. K.; Maheria, K. C. 2015. Use of sulfonic acid-functionalized silica as catalyst for esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) in acid oil for biodiesel production: an optimization study. Research on Chemical Intermediates. 41(2) 1035-1051

    This paper deals with esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) in acid oil (a byproduct of oil refining) to obtain biodiesel. Sulfonic acid-functionalized silica (SiO2-Pr-SO3H) was used as promising solid-acid catalyst. The conditions affecting conversion to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), for example reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst concentration, and methanol-to-oil molar ratio, were investigated and optimized by use of the Taguchi method. The highest conversion obtained under the optimized conditions was 96.78 % after 8 h. Analysis of variance revealed that temperature was the most significant factor effecting conversion among the four conditions studied. The experimental results were found to fit a pseudo first-order kinetic law. SiO2-Pr-SO3H is a highly effective, reusable, and environmentally benign catalyst for biodiesel production from waste low-cost oil feedstock with a high FFA content.
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  252. Utilization of Renewable and Waste Materials for Biodiesel Production as Catalyst
    Abstract

    Kumar, P.; Sarma, A. K.; Jha, M. K.; Bansal, A.; Srivasatava, B. 2015. Utilization of Renewable and Waste Materials for Biodiesel Production as Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis. 10(3) 221-229

    The efficient and economic utilization of natural renewable and waste materials of various industries and biomass having non-homogeneous composition is a new dimension of research for biodiesel production. A combination of these renewable, waste materials and traditional heterogeneous catalyst can also be looked after for the possible solution of heterogeneous catalytic transesterification. This review discusses industrially derived and naturally occurring materials containing calcium, sodium, potassium etc, which were found instrumental for biodiesel production. About 60 research articles and patents have been reviewed and the findings are analysed in this article for developing industrial scale heterogeneous catalytic pilot plant facilities for biodiesel production. (C) 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.
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  253. Valorisation of biodiesel production wastes: Anaerobic digestion of residual Tetraselmis suecica biomass and co-digestion with glycerol
    Abstract

    Santos-Ballardo, D. U.; Font-Segura, X.; Ferrer, A. S.; Barrena, R.; Rossi, S.; Valdez-Ortiz, A. 2015. Valorisation of biodiesel production wastes: Anaerobic digestion of residual Tetraselmis suecica biomass and co-digestion with glycerol. Waste Management & Research. 33(3) 250-257

    One of the principal opportunity areas in the development of the microalgal biodiesel industry is the energy recovery from the solid microalgal biomass residues to optimise the fuel production. This work reports the cumulative methane yields reached from the anaerobic digestion of the solid microalgal biomass residues using different types of inocula, reporting also the improvement of biogas production using the co-digestion of microalgal biomass with glycerol. Results demonstrate that the solid microalgal biomass residues showed better biogas production using a mesophilic inoculum, reaching almost two-fold higher methane production than under thermophilic conditions. Furthermore, the solid microalgal biomass residues methane production rate showed an increase from 173.78 +/- 9.57 to 438.46 +/- 40.50mL of methane per gram of volatile solids, when the co-digestion with glycerol was performed. These results are crucial to improve the energy balance of the biodiesel production from Tetraselmis suecica, as well as proposing an alternative way to treat the wastes derived from the microalgae biodiesel production.
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  254. Waste Eggshells for Production of Biodiesel from Different Types of Waste Cooking Oil as Waste Recycling and a Renewable Energy Process
    Abstract

    El-Gendy, N. S.; Deriase, S. F. 2015. Waste Eggshells for Production of Biodiesel from Different Types of Waste Cooking Oil as Waste Recycling and a Renewable Energy Process. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(10) 1114-1124

    Based on 3-levels-D-optimal design, involving as factors: methanol: oil, molar ratio; catalyst concentration, wt%; reaction time, min; and type of waste cooking oil, a statistical design of experiments strategy was performed to evaluate and investigate the biodiesel production process from different types of waste cooking oil using CaO prepared from waste eggshells. MATLAB software was employed for experimental design and data analysis. An empirical quadratic regression equation model was obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield). The optimum values of the selected predictor variables were obtained by solving the quadratic model equation using LINGO software. They were found to be: methanol: oil, 9.15:1 molar ratio; catalyst concentration, 7.728 wt%; and reaction time, 75 min, regardless of the type of waste cooking oil used as the feedstock. The qualification and yield of biodiesel were comparable to those prepared using chemical CaO and immobilized standard enzyme Novozym 435.
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  255. Waste ostrich- and chicken-eggshells as heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production from used cooking oil: Catalyst characterization and biodiesel yield performance
    Abstract

    Tan, Y. H.; Abdullah, M. O.; Nolasco-Hipolito, C.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2015. Waste ostrich- and chicken-eggshells as heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production from used cooking oil: Catalyst characterization and biodiesel yield performance. Applied Energy. 16058-70

    The primary goal of this paper is to investigate the catalyst characterization and biodiesel yield of a biodiesel converted from a used cooking oil source via heterogeneous catalysts derived from very rare type of eggshell: ostrich-eggshell (ostrich-eggshell derived CaO). It also aims to compare the performance of CaO catalyst derived from both waste ostrich-eggshell and the conventional chicken-eggshell, and to find the optimum conditions for biodiesel production. The prepared catalysts were then characterized by using XRD, FT-IR, BET, SEM, TGA and CO2-TPD. The parametric effects on the biodiesel production, such as catalyst concentration, molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, reaction time, speed and reusability of the catalyst were investigated. The experimental result showed that 1.5 wt.% catalyst, 12:1 M ratio of methanol to oil, 65 degrees C reaction temperature, 2 h reaction time with speed of 250 rpm gave the best results. It was found that the ostrich-eggshell derived CaO catalyst shows higher surface area, higher basicity and smaller particle size. The maximum biodiesel yield is 96% and 94% for calcined ostrich-eggshell and chicken-eggshell, respectively. The CaO catalyst derived from waste calcined ostrich and chicken-eggshell maintained a good catalytic activity even after being repeatedly used for 5 cycles with yield around 70%, which implies potential saving and affordable biodiesel production possibilities. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  256. Wastewater treatment and biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus in a two-stage cultivation process
    Abstract

    Alvarez-Diaz, P. D.; Ruiz, J.; Arbib, Z.; Barragan, J.; Garrido-Perez, M. C.; Perales, J. A. 2015. Wastewater treatment and biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus in a two-stage cultivation process. Bioresource Technology. 18190-96

    The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus was cultured in two cultivation stages: (1) in batch with real wastewater; (2) maintaining the stationary phase with different conditions of CO2, light and salinity according to a factorial design in order to improve the lipid content. The presence of the three factors increased lipid content from 35.8% to 49% at the end of the second stage; CO2 presence presented the highest direct effect increasing lipid content followed by light presence and salt presence. The omega-3 fatty acids content increased with CO2 and light presence acting in isolation, nevertheless, when both factors acted together the interaction effect was negative. The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid content of the oil from S. obliquus slightly exceeded the 1% maximum to be used as biodiesel source (EU normative). Therefore, it is suggested the blend with other oils or the selective extraction of the omega-3 fatty acids from S. obliquus oil. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  257. A green recyclable SO3H-carbon catalyst derived from glycerol for the production of biodiesel from FFA-containing karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil in a single step
    Abstract

    Devi, B. L. A. P.; Reddy, T. V. K.; Lakshmi, K. V.; Prasad, R. B. N. 2014. A green recyclable SO3H-carbon catalyst derived from glycerol for the production of biodiesel from FFA-containing karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil in a single step. Bioresource Technology. 153370-373

    Simultaneous esterification and transesterification method is employed for the preparation of biodiesel from 7.5% free fatty acid (FFA) containing karanja (Pongamia glabra) oil using water resistant and reusable carbon-based solid acid catalyst derived from glycerol in a single step. The optimum reaction parameters for obtaining biodiesel in >99% yield by simultaneous esterification and transesterification are: methanol (1: 45 mole ratio of oil), catalyst 20 wt.% of oil, temperature 160 degrees C and reaction time of 4 h. After the reaction, the catalyst was easily recovered by filtration and reused for five times with out any deactivation under optimized conditions. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high FFA containing oils by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs and effluent generation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  258. A novel waste water scale-derived solid base catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zhang, P. B.; Han, Q. J.; Fan, M. M.; Jiang, P. P. 2014. A novel waste water scale-derived solid base catalyst for biodiesel production. Fuel. 12466-72

    A novel waste water scale-derived catalyst was prepared through calcining the waste water scale and used as an active and stable catalyst for the production of a clean and green alternative fuel-biodiesel via transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol. The effect of calcination temperature in range of 200-1000 degrees C on the catalytic activity was investigated. The maximum biodiesel yield reached about 93% under the optimal condition. Acceleration of the catalytic activity of water scale-derived catalyst for biodiesel synthesis was also studied. In addition, the transesterification reaction mechanism was proposed. Operational simplicity, low cost of catalyst used, high yields, wide applicability and reusability are the key features of the waste water scale-derived catalyst. The results suggest that the waste water scale-derived catalyst is a promising catalyst for a green and durable biodiesel production process. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  259. An Eco-Friendly Catalyst Derived from Waste Shell of Scylla Tranquebarica for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Sivakumar, P.; Sivakumar, P.; Anbarasu, K.; Mathiarasi, R.; Renganathan, S. 2014. An Eco-Friendly Catalyst Derived from Waste Shell of Scylla Tranquebarica for Biodiesel Production. International Journal of Green Energy. 11(8) 886-897

    The present investigation involves the production of environmental-friendly heterogeneous catalyst from waste Scylla tranquebarica crab shell and optimization of process parameter for biodiesel production from sunflower oil. A complete characterization of the catalyst including catalytic transesterification reaction was studied using gas chromatogram (GC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (H-1 NMR). An optimum conversion of 94.2% was achieved at 95 degrees C; methanol--oil molar ratio 12:1; 8 wt % catalyst in 75 min. It was found that the catalytic activity has the ability to compete with the other conventional heterogeneous catalysts. This study includes optimal conditions for the removal of the leached catalyst in biodiesel to enhance product purity. This reaction follows a first-order reaction kinetics. The rate constant and activation energy were determined. Fuel properties of biodiesel produced were determined and compared with ASTM standards.
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  260. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants
    Abstract

    El-Gendy, NSh; Hamdy, A.; Abu Amr, S. S. 2014. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants. Int J Biomater. 2014609624

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.
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  261. Application of magnesium sulfate and its nanoparticles for enhanced lipid production by mixotrophic cultivation of algae using biodiesel waste
    Abstract

    Sarma, S. J.; Das, R. K.; Brar, S. K.; Le Bihan, Y.; Buelna, G.; Verma, M.; Soccol, C. R. 2014. Application of magnesium sulfate and its nanoparticles for enhanced lipid production by mixotrophic cultivation of algae using biodiesel waste. Energy. 7816-22

    CG (Crude glycerol) is one of the major wastes of biodiesel production process. It can be used as a substrate for lipid production by algae and the produced lipid can be recycled as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In order to avoid substrate inhibition, lipid production media are prepared by diluting the CG with distilled water. However, CG contains only a small amount of Mg (57.41 +/- 18 ppm) and its concentration is further decreased to around 0.57 ppm during the dilution process. Apart from having a number of roles in algal physiology, Mg is the central atom of chlorophyll. Therefore, MgSO4 was evaluated as a Mg source to supplement the CG based media used for lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris. By supplementing the process with 1 g/L of MgSO4, nearly 185.29 +/- 4.53% improvement in lipid production has been achieved. Further, application of MgSO4 nanoparticles was found to improve the lipid production by 118.23 +/- 5.67%. Interestingly, unlike MgSO4, its nanoparticles were found to enhance the lipid production at the expense of only a small amount of glycerol. Thus, application of MgSO4 nanoparticles could be a potential strategy for enhanced lipid yield. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  262. Applying green chemistry principles in undergraduate research: Efficiency of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil
    Abstract

    Ackley, B.; MacMurdo, M.; Brush, E. J. 2014. Applying green chemistry principles in undergraduate research: Efficiency of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 247

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  263. Ba doped CaO derived from waste shells of T striatula (TS-CaO) as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Boro, J.; Konwar, L. J.; Thakur, A. J.; Deka, D. 2014. Ba doped CaO derived from waste shells of T striatula (TS-CaO) as heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production. Fuel. 129182-187

    Ba doped CaO derived from waste shells of Turbonilla striatula are prepared by varying the amount of Ba between 0.5 to 1.5 wt% and used as heterogeneous catalyst in the transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO). Catalyst characterization was done by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. In the course of study it was observed that the catalytic activity was highly influenced by the basicity of the catalyst. The catalyst could be reused with slight drop in activity which was attributed to the loss of active sites and reduced basicity. The optimum reaction condition obtained for achieving maximum conversion > 98% were - 6: 1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 3 h of reaction time, 1.0 wt% catalyst amount and 65 degrees C reaction time. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  264. Batch and Dynamics Modeling of the Biosorption of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solutions by Solid Biomass Waste from the Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Shanmugaprakash, M.; Sivakumar, V.; Manimaran, M.; Aravind, J. 2014. Batch and Dynamics Modeling of the Biosorption of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solutions by Solid Biomass Waste from the Biodiesel Production. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 33(2) 342-352

    Pongamia oil cake (POC), a bio-residual waste is obtained during the production of biodiesel as a byproduct. This is used as biosorbent to evaluate the removal of chromium (VI) ions from an aqueous synthetic solution. The effects of various process parameters such as pH, contact time, initial chromium ions concentration and adsorbent dosage have been investigated. The FT-IR and SEM analysis of the adsorbents was done in the native- and Cr(VI)-loaded state, to explore the position of the functional groups available for binding of chromium ions and the structural morphology of the studied adsorbents respectively. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm were used to study the adsorption mechanism, and it was found that the equilibrium data was better represented by the Freundlich isotherm. The maximal removal of hexavalent chromium ion was found to be at a pH of 2.0 within 2 h. The sorption kinetic follows the pseudo second order kinetic model. The Cr(VI) ions bound to the biosorbent could be effectively removed, using dilute H2SO4 (0.05 mM). The ability of POC to adsorb Cr(VI) ions in packed column was also investigated through the column studies. Bed Depth Service Time model and the Thomas model were used to analyze the experimental data and evaluate the model parameters. POC was shown to be a promising adsorbent for removal of Cr(VI) ions from aqueous solutions. (c) 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 33: 342-352, 2014
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  265. Biodiesel derived waste glycerol as an economic substrate for biosurfactant production using indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    Abstract

    Bharali, P.; Singh, S. P.; Dutta, N.; Gogoi, S.; Bora, L. C.; Debnath, P.; Konwar, B. K. 2014. Biodiesel derived waste glycerol as an economic substrate for biosurfactant production using indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Rsc Advances. 4(73) 38698-38706

    The present investigation demonstrates the utilization of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol as a low-cost substrate for the production of biosurfactant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa JBK1 was identified using 16s rRNA sequencing. A maximum of 3.9 g biosurfactant was obtained at 3% raw bio-glycerol having the critical micelle concentration (CMC) at nearly 540 mg l(-1). The bacterium lowered the surface tension (ST) of culture medium up to 33.7 mN m(-1) within 60 h of fermentation and showed better adhesion to the hydrophobic substrate surfaces. The biosurfactant formed stable emulsion with various hydrocarbons and achieved a maximum emulsion index of 62% with kerosene and xylene. The cell free culture supernatant exhibited a stable surface as well as emulsifying activity, and remained unaffected by the exposure of high temperature, pH and salinity. Mass spectrometric studies indicated that the purified product is glycolipid in nature. Sand pack column experiments showed a 10.8% recovery of crude oil from the column after treatment with the cell free culture supernatant. A maximum of 54.6% residual crude oil was removed through washing by the biosurfactant solution. The biosurfactant also exhibited potential antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacterial and fungal strains. The results suggest that the biosurfactant produced by the bacterium on waste glycerol may have potential application in hydrocarbon bioremediation.
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  266. Biodiesel production from acid oils using sulfonated carbon catalyst derived from oil-cake waste
    Abstract

    Konwar, L. J.; Das, R.; Thakur, A. J.; Salminen, E.; Maki-Arvela, P.; Kumar, N.; Mikkola, J. P.; Deka, D. 2014. Biodiesel production from acid oils using sulfonated carbon catalyst derived from oil-cake waste. Journal of Molecular Catalysis a-Chemical. 388167-176

    The utilization of oil-cake waste (OCW) derived catalysts in biodiesel production was demonstrated. The sulfonated carbon materials were utilized as catalysts for pretreatment of acid oils (oils containing 8.17-43.73 wt% of free fatty acids). The catalysts could be used to convert free fatty acids (FFA) present in acid oils into corresponding methyl esters within 6-8 h at 80 degrees C, thus reducing the FFA content to desirable levels below 2 wt%. The esterification activity was found to be dependent on the initial FFA concentration found in the acid oil as well as methanol-to-oil molar ratio. High methanol-to-oil molar ratios and the presence of higher initial FFA concentrations resulted in enhanced esterification rates. Acid oil containing 43.7 wt% FFA was easily converted into mixtures containing up to 71% methyl esters (FAME). The reported catalyst was successfully recycled in five consecutive experiments and exhibited high thermal stability. Most importantly, the catalytic activity of the solid acid was found to outperform homogeneous case when equivalent amount of H2SO4 under similar conditions was applied. Therefore, the OCW derived sulfonated carbon catalyst reported herein could be used as a potential substitute for corrosive, concentrated H2SO4 currently employed for acid oil pretreatment. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  267. Biodiesel production from algae cultivated in winter with artificial wastewater through pH regulation by acetic acid
    Abstract

    Zhu, L. D.; Hiltunen, E.; Shu, Q.; Zhou, W. Z.; Li, Z. H.; Wang, Z. M. 2014. Biodiesel production from algae cultivated in winter with artificial wastewater through pH regulation by acetic acid. Applied Energy. 128103-110

    Algae have been considered as a promising biodiesel feedstock. One of the major factors affecting large-scale algae technology application is poor wintering cultivation performance. In this study, an integrated approach is investigated combining freshwater microalgae Chlorella zofingiensis wintering cultivation in pilot-scale photobioreactors with artificial wastewater treatment. Mixotrophic culture with the addition of acetic acid (pH-regulation group) and autotrophic culture (control group) were designed, and the characteristics of algal growth, lipid and biodiesel production, and nitrogen and phosphate removal were examined. The results showed that, by using acetic acid three times per day to regulate pH at between 6.8 and 7.2, the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphate (TP) removal could be increased from 45.2% to 73.5% and from 92.2% to 100%, respectively. Higher biomass productivity of 66.94 mg L-1 day(-1) with specific growth rate of 0.260 day(-1) was achieved in the pH-regulation group. The lipid content was much higher when using acetic acid to regulate pH, and the relative lipid productivity reached 37.48 mg L-1 day(-1), The biodiesel yield in the pH-regulated group was 19.44% of dry weight, with 16-18 carbons as the most abundant composition for fatty acid methyl esters. The findings of the study prove that pH adjustment using acetic acid is efficient in cultivating C zofingiensis in wastewater in winter for biodiesel production and nutrient reduction. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  268. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater
    Abstract

    Komolafe, O.; Orta, S. B. V.; Monje-Ramirez, I.; Noguez, I. Y.; Harvey, A. P.; Ledesma, M. T. O. 2014. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater. Bioresource Technology. 154297-304

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability.
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  269. Biodiesel production from Stauntonia chinensis seed oil (waste from food processing): Heterogeneous catalysis by modified calcite, biodiesel purification, and fuel properties
    Abstract

    Wang, R.; Sun, L. L.; Xie, X. L.; Ma, L. Z.; Liu, Z. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Ji, N.; Xie, G. F. 2014. Biodiesel production from Stauntonia chinensis seed oil (waste from food processing): Heterogeneous catalysis by modified calcite, biodiesel purification, and fuel properties. Industrial Crops and Products. 628-13

    In the present research, the potential of Stauntonia chinensis (SC) seed oil obtained from processing waste was investigated for the first time as biodiesel feedstock, including physicochemical properties of the oil, the heterogeneous catalysis process, purification, and fuel properties. A 29.37 +/- 0.64 wt.% of oil content and 2.41 mg KOH/g of acid value was found. Under the optimised reaction conditions in the presence of modified calcite, an 88.02% of yield and a 98.90 wt.% of FAME content were achieved. According to EN 14124 (2012), SC biodiesel exhibited superior fuel properties compared to the most of other feedstock oils since it had an ideal fatty acid composition (low Cn:0 (8.06 wt.%), high Cn:1 (80.16 wt.%), and low Cn:2,3 (8.45 wt.%)). It was absolutely vital that the use of SC seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock would not compete with its use in food. In summary, SC seed oil should be recommended as a promising feedstock for biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  270. Biodiesel production from used cooking oil and sea sand as heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Mucino, G. G.; Romero, R.; Ramirez, A.; Martinez, S. L.; Baeza-Jimenez, R.; Natividad, R. 2014. Biodiesel production from used cooking oil and sea sand as heterogeneous catalyst. Fuel. 138143-148

    The aim of this study was to analyze the catalytic performance of sea sand as a nonconventional catalyst in the transesterification reaction of used cooking oil and refined oil with methanol. The sea sand was utilized as a source of calcium oxide. The main characteristic of this sea sand is the high content of CaCO3 which was transformed into CaO by calcination. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption/desorption (BET) and by Hammett method (basicity determination). The produced biodiesel has 95.4% (polar + non polar methyl esters), 96.6% and 97.5% methyl esters content when employing used cooking oil, safflower oil and soybean oil, respectively. The obtained biodiesel at these conditions (atmospheric pressure, reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, 12:1 M ratio of methanol: oil and catalyst amount of 7.5%) met key parameters (viscosity: 4.2-5.0 mm(2)/s and acid value: 0.05-0.011 mg KOH/g) of the European norm EN-14214 (viscosity: 3.5-5.0 mm(2)/g and acid value: max. 0.50 mg KOH/g). (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  271. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by two-step catalytic conversion
    Abstract

    Ho, K. C.; Chen, C. L.; Hsiao, P. X.; Wu, M. S.; Huang, C. C.; Chang, J. S. 2014. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by two-step catalytic conversion. International Conference on Applied Energy, Icae2014. 611302-1305

    The commercial biodiesel production process is very mature today, but the source of biodiesel is mostly plant oil, which has the drawback of high cost and land competition with food crops. Using waste cooking oil as feedstock for biodiesel production can avoid those problems. However, the transesterification of waste cooking oil involves some challenges. For example, waste cooking oil usually contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs), which could react with base catalyst (such as NaOH) to form soap, resulting in a decrease in biodiesel conversion efficiency. To cope with this, a two-step process, consisting of esterification with acid catalyst and follow-up transesterification with base catalyst was developed. This two-step process could lower the content of FFAs in waste cooking oil in the first step and also improve conversion of transesterification in the second step. Although homogeneous acid catalyst, such as sulfuric acid, could reach a high conversion in a short time, an extra downstream processing is required to remove the acid catalyst (e.g., water rinse). Therefore, we developed a magnetic spinel as acid solid catalyst supporter to replace homogeneous catalyst in order to simplify the overall process. In the first step, esterification of FFAs content in cooking oil was conducted using the self-made solid acid catalyst, which has similar catalytic ability to that of sulfuric acid, and is also much easier for separation. In addition, the residual lipid can be easily transesterified without any pre-treatment. The self-made spinel-supported catalyst could be regenerated by simple calcination. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  272. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using a heterogeneous catalyst from pyrolyzed rice husk
    Abstract

    Li, M.; Zheng, Y.; Chen, Y. X.; Zhu, X. F. 2014. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using a heterogeneous catalyst from pyrolyzed rice husk. Bioresource Technology. 154345-348

    A solid acid catalyst was prepared by sulfonating pyrolyzed rice husk with concentrated sulfuric acid, and the physical and chemical properties of the catalyst were characterized in detail. The catalyst was then used to simultaneously catalyze esterification and transesterification to produce biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). In the presence of the as-prepared catalyst, the free fatty acid (FFA) conversion reached 98.17% after 3 h, and the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield reached 87.57% after 15 h. By contrast, the typical solid acid catalyst Amberlyst-15 obtained only 95.25% and 45.17% FFA conversion and FAME yield, respectively. Thus, the prepared catalyst had a high catalytic activity for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In addition, the catalyst had excellent stability, thereby having potential use as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from WCO with a high FFA content. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  273. Biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils over MgO/Al2O3 catalyst
    Abstract

    Sithole, T.; Jalama, K.; Meijboom, R. 2014. Biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils over MgO/Al2O3 catalyst. Power and Energy Systems Iii. 492350-+

    MgO/Al2O3 catalysts with 10 and 20 wt.% MgO loadings have been prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. A low-surface area alumina with small pore sizes was used as catalyst support to stabilise most of the MgO particles on the external surface area of the support. The prepared catalysts were subsequently tested in the conversion of a waste vegetable oil to biodiesel. The waste vegetable oil conversion was found to increase with the increase in reaction temperature, reaction time and MgO loading in the catalyst.
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  274. Biodiesel Production from Waste Vegetable Oils: Combining Process Modelling, Multiobjective Optimization and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
    Abstract

    Mendoza, L. F. M.; Boix, M.; Azzaro-Pantel, C.; Montastruc, L.; Domenech, S. 2014. Biodiesel Production from Waste Vegetable Oils: Combining Process Modelling, Multiobjective Optimization and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). 24th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, Pts a and B. 33235-240

    The objective of this work is to propose an integrated and generic framework for eco-design that generalizes, automates and optimizes the evaluation of the environmental criteria at earlier design stage. The approach consists of three main stages. The first two steps correspond to process inventory analysis based on mass and energy balances and impact assessment phases of LCA methodology. The third stage of the methodology is based on the interaction of the previous steps with process simulation for environmental impact assessment and cost estimation through a computational framework. Then, the use of multi-objective optimization with a multicriteria choice decision making allows to select optimal solutions. The methodology is illustrated through the acid-catalyzed biodiesel production process.
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  275. Comparative Biodiesel Production Potential of Food Waste Oils as Renewable Energy Source
    Abstract

    Muhammad, A.; Mehmood, Z.; Munis, M. F. H.; Chaudhary, H. J.; Masud, T.; Mahmood, T.; Haider, M. I.; Imran, M. 2014. Comparative Biodiesel Production Potential of Food Waste Oils as Renewable Energy Source. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 26(2) 527-530

    The present study alined at the production of biodiesel from used soybean, sunflower and canola cooking oil: These oils amused in food processing industry and at retails for deep frying. Waste cooking Oil,due to its readily-availability and cost-effectiveness is considered as the most appropriate candidate for the production-of biodiesel. Lipase mediated transestrification for the production of fatty acid methyl ester(FAME)of waste cooking oils needs optimization of some important variable such as type of alcohol, temperature, reaction time and oil to alcohol ratio. The best combination for maximum production of biodiesel through transesterification, was achieved at reaction temperature 50 degrees C, by using methanol to oil ratio of 1:6 and optimal reaction time of 2 h. The biodiesel conversions from soybean (93 %), sunflower (90 %) and canola (57.5 %) were obtained when oil to alcohol ratio was 1:6. The FT-IR spectroscopy was used to assess biodiesel composition.
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  276. Comparative Study on Two-Step Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Production from High FFA Crude Palm Oil Using Microwave Technique and Conventional Technique
    Abstract

    Abu Bakar, S.; Yusup, S.; Ahmad, M. M.; Quitain, A. T.; Sasaki, M.; Goto, M.; Uemura, Y.; Ahmad, J. 2014. Comparative Study on Two-Step Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Production from High FFA Crude Palm Oil Using Microwave Technique and Conventional Technique. Proceedings of the International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials 2012-Icpeam 2012. 91787-95

    The production of biodiesel from crude palm oil (CPO) using microwave technique is investigated and has been compared with conventional heating. Two-step biodiesel production process is applied to maximize the highest biodiesel yield in short reaction time using microwave method. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as acid catalysts is used in pre-treatment of feedstock by esterification process followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) as base catalyst for transesterification process with low methanol to oil ratio. The main purpose of the pre-treatment process is to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content of CPO from higher value of FFA content (> 6.8%) to a minimum level for biodiesel production (< 1%). Esterification and transesterification is carried out in fully instrumented and controlled microwave reactor system to get higher yield in shorter time. This two-step esterification and transesterification process showed that the maximum conversion of palm biodiesel obtained is 95.1% with the process conditions of methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 6:1, reaction temperature 65oC, reaction time 15min, and 2% (wt/wt) KOH amount using microwave method compared to conventional heating where the palm oil methyl ester (POME) yield obtained is 81% at the same conditions. The result showed that, the biodiesel production using microwave technique proved to be a fast and easy route to get high yields of biodiesel.
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  277. Continuous flow reactive distillation process for biodiesel production using waste egg shells as heterogeneous catalysts
    Abstract

    Niju, S.; Meera, K. M.; Begum, S.; Anantharaman, N. 2014. Continuous flow reactive distillation process for biodiesel production using waste egg shells as heterogeneous catalysts. Rsc Advances. 4(96) 54109-54114

    A laboratory scale continuous flow jacketed reactive distillation (RD) unit was developed to evaluate the performance of calcium oxide (CaO) derived from egg shells as a heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of waste frying oil. The effects of reactant flow rate, methanol to oil ratio and catalyst bed height on methyl ester conversion were investigated. All the experimental investigations were carried out at atmospheric pressure and the reboiler temperature was maintained at 65 degrees C throughout the process. The results indicated that the system reached the steady state at 7 h. Egg shell based CaO showed high catalytic activity in a continuous flow jacketed reactive distillation system and a maximum methyl ester conversion of 93.48% was obtained at a reactant flow rate of 0.2 mL min(-1), methanol-oil ratio of 4 : 1 and catalyst bed height of 150 mm.
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  278. Conversion of organic-waste derived volatile fatty acids into biodiesel through enhanced microbial lipid production: A novel platform technology
    Abstract

    Vajpeyi, S. M.; Chandran, K. 2014. Conversion of organic-waste derived volatile fatty acids into biodiesel through enhanced microbial lipid production: A novel platform technology. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 248

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  279. Design and Fabrication of Pilot Plant for the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil at Domestic Level
    Abstract

    Bin Aamir, J.; Shehzad, A.; Nigar, M. 2014. Design and Fabrication of Pilot Plant for the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil at Domestic Level. 2014 International Conference on Energy Systems and Policies (Icesp).

    Biodiesel production provides a cost effective solution to economic and environmental problems through waste management. This research gives an understanding of the Transesterification process and use of engineering knowledge in designing a Pilot Plant for the implementation of this process to convert waste cooking oil to Biodiesel. This Biodiesel that operates on Compression ignition Engines without any modification in them. The research paper explains all the aspects and parameters used to design and fabricate a plant to bring down the industrial scale production process to domestic level; a small scale production unit which uses minimum power and provides a user friendly experience, yet keeping it cost effective. Biodiesel produced from this plant is tested and results are comparable with international standards.
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  280. Dynamical modeling for biodiesel production from grease trap wastes
    Abstract

    Aguilar-Garnica, E.; Rodriguez-Palomera, F.; Garcia-Sandoval, J. P.; Escalante, F. M. E. 2014. Dynamical modeling for biodiesel production from grease trap wastes. Chemical Engineering Science. 117396-406

    Grease trap wastes have been recently considered as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to its relatively low cost and availability. These wastes are characterized by a high content of free fatty acids (FFA) and then, its processing towards biodiesel requires an esterification. In this paper, a dynamical model for the esterification of grease trap wastes was constructed. Specifically, this process has been conducted within a continuous stirred tank reactor. Almost all the parameters contained in the dynamical model were deduced from a series of batch temperature-controlled esterification experiments and from thermodynamic essays. The rest of the model parameters have been successfully estimated by means of a proposed algorithm that combines the notion of sensitivity with the Levenberg-Marquardt procedure. This regression procedure provides the estimates in spite of load and temperature variations and processing low-cost measurements. Finally, the proposed dynamical model has been validated with the runs test. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  281. Economic analysis of a plant for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via enzymatic transesterification using supercritical carbon dioxide
    Abstract

    Lisboa, P.; Rodrigues, A. R.; Martin, J. L.; Simoes, P.; Barreiros, S.; Paiva, A. 2014. Economic analysis of a plant for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil via enzymatic transesterification using supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 8531-40

    Enzymatic transesterification is becoming a commercially competitive route to biodiesel. Supercritical CO2 (scCO(2)) is well established as a solvent for extraction processes. Here we analyze the economy of a scCO(2)-based, enzymatic process, for the production of biodiesel from waste cooking sunflower oil (WCO). The conversion of WCO to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM), and downstream separation to recover biodiesel conforming to the EN14214 norm, were studied in a pilot plant unit. The data generated was used to design an envisaged industrial plant, for which an energy balance was carried out. Investment and production costs were estimated for the conversion of 8000 ton(wco)/year. This led to biodiesel costs of 1.64(sic)/L and 0.75(sic)/L (for a WCO price of 0.25(sic)/kg; enzyme prices of 800(sic)/kg and 8(sic)/kg, respectively), which already reflect the ca. 10% impact of glycerol sales. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  282. Energy and cost analyses of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Mohammadshirazi, A.; Akram, A.; Rafiee, S.; Kalhor, E. B. 2014. Energy and cost analyses of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 3344-49

    Waste cooking oil is one of the energy sources for its unique composition which contains glycerol, It can be a good base for producing biodiesel. The objective of this study is to perform the energy and economic analyses of biodiesel production from Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) by the conventional transesterification method at the Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Data is acceded by performed biodiesel machine, with three replications during spring season (2012) in the same condition. The volume of biodiesel machine is 2000 L and the area of this lab is 100 m(2). The total energy input and energy output were calculated as 30.05 and 44.91 MJ L-1, respectively. The energy output/input ratio was 1.49 in biodiesel production. The shares of renewable and non-renewable energy were 77.31% and 22.69%, respectively from total energy input. The benefit to cost ratio was found to be 2.081 according to the result of economical analysis of biodiesel production. The mean net return and productivity from biodiesel production were found to be 1.298 $ L-1 and 0.946 kg $(-1), respectively. The results showed that by applying ultrasonic and microwave instead of transesterfication and great managing, more benefit can be resulted. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  283. Energy requirement estimates for two step ethanolysis of waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ligeris, N.; Jalama, K. 2014. Energy requirement estimates for two step ethanolysis of waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production. Power and Energy Systems Iii. 492356-360

    ChemCad 6.4 simulation package was used to model a two-step biodiesel production process from waste vegetable oils (WVO) and ethanol using homogeneous acid and alkali catalysts respectively. The developed process flowsheet consisted of pre-esterification and transesterification of WVO, ethanol and glycerol recovery, and biodiesel refining. The energy required for each processing unit as well as the energy required for the whole process have been estimated. Ethanol recovery accounted for the highest portion of the energy required for the entire process estimated as 2.75 MJ per kg of biodiesel produced.
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  284. Enriched hydrogen production by bioconversion of biodiesel waste supplemented with ferric citrate and its nano-spray dried particles
    Abstract

    Sarma, S. J.; Brar, S. K.; Reigner, J.; Le Bihan, Y.; Buelna, G. 2014. Enriched hydrogen production by bioconversion of biodiesel waste supplemented with ferric citrate and its nano-spray dried particles. Rsc Advances. 4(91) 49588-49594

    Increasing consumption of fossil fuels as well as the concern over pollution and global climate change has accelerated the development of the sustainable biofuel industry. Biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane are already commercially available as alternatives of fossil fuels and the search for a more environmentally friendly biofuel, preferentially produced from non-food raw materials and capable of fulfilling the transportation energy requirement of the world for longer duration, is ongoing. In this context, biohydrogen produced from waste biomass is an ideal option. It has higher energy content compared to fossil and biofuels of equivalent mass and produces water as the only major emission during combustion. In the present investigation, crude glycerol (CG) generated as by-product of the biodiesel production process has been used as feedstock for biohydrogen production and different supplements have been evaluated for increasing the product yield. Nano-spray dried ferric citrate particles have been found to enhance the hydrogen production by 50.45%. Hydrogen production using extremely low CG concentration of 100 mg L-1 has been found to produce 22.7 mol-H-2 per kg CG; which is 2.75-fold higher than 8.25 mol-H-2 per kg CG, known for dark fermentation.
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  285. Environmentally Friendly Supply Chain Planning and Design for Biodiesel Production via Wastewater Sludge
    Abstract

    Marufuzzaman, M.; Eksioglu, S. D.; Hernandez, R. 2014. Environmentally Friendly Supply Chain Planning and Design for Biodiesel Production via Wastewater Sludge. Transportation Science. 48(4) 555-574

    This study presents mathematical models that capture the impact of different carbon-emission-related policies on the design of the biodiesel supply chain. These mathematical models identify locations and production capacities for biocrude production plants by exploring the trade-offs that exist between transportation costs, facility investments costs, and emissions. The mathematical models capture the dynamics of biomass supply and transportation costs during a predefined time horizon. We analyze the behavior of the chain under different regulatory policies such as carbon cap, carbon tax, carbon cap and trade, and carbon offset mechanisms. A number of observations are made about the impact of each policy on the supply chain performance. The models we developed are solved by using a commercial software GAMS/CPLEX. We use the state of Mississippi as the testing grounds for these models, and employ ArcGIS to visualize and validate the results from the optimization models.
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  286. Ethanol production from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Klebsiella variicola shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions
    Abstract

    Suzuki, T.; Nishikawa, C.; Seta, K.; Shigeno, T.; Nakajima-Kambe, T. 2014. Ethanol production from glycerol-containing biodiesel waste by Klebsiella variicola shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions. New Biotechnology. 31(3) 246-253

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF) waste contains large amounts of crude glycerol as a by-product, and has a high alkaline pH. With regard to microbial conversion of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol, bacteria that can produce ethanol at alkaline pH have not been reported to date. Isolation of bacteria that shows maximum productivity under alkaline conditions is essential to effective production of ethanol from BDF-derived glycerol. In this study, we isolated the Klebsiella variicola TB-83 strain, which demonstrated maximum ethanol productivity at alkaline pH. Strain TB-83 showed effective usage of crude glycerol with maximum ethanol production at pH 8.0-9.0, and the culture pH was finally neutralized by formate, a by-product. In addition, the ethanol productivity of strain TB-83 under various culture conditions was investigated. Ethanol production was more efficient with the addition of yeast extract. Strain TB-83 produced 9.8 g/L ethanol (0.86 mol/mol glycerol) from cooking oil-derived BDF waste. Ethanol production from cooking oil-derived BDF waste was higher than that of new frying oil-derived BDF and pure-glycerol. This is the first report to demonstrate that the K. variicola strain TB-83 has the ability to produce ethanol from glycerol at alkaline pH.
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  287. Evaluation of Waste Process Grease as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Marx, S.; Venter, R. 2014. Evaluation of Waste Process Grease as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 5(1) 75-86

    Awareness of the depletion of fossil energy reserves, the rising demand for energy in the world and the problems associated with the burning of fossil fuel encourage researchers to find alternative energy sources, such as biodiesel. The use of inedible and waste oils as feedstock for biodiesel production is an important way of converting waste into valuable energy products. In this study, waste process grease (WPG) was used to produce biodiesel via two processing routes. The traditional two-step alkaline catalyzed transesterification method (route 1) produced biodiesel that did not conform to the SANS1935 biodiesel standard of South Africa with regard to sulfur and phosphorous levels. The WPG in the second process route was modified by saponification with aqueous sodium hydroxide followed by acidulation with hydrochloric acid to be purified by means of column chromatography. A hydrophobic resin with methanol as the mobile phase was used to reduce the non-polar sulfur from the grease. The crude biodiesel produced by means of acid esterification using sulfuric acid as catalyst was purified using silica gel with hexane as the mobile phase. The sulfur level in the biodiesel was reduced to a low enough level to conform to the SANS1935 standard for biodiesel production. It was shown with this study that waste process grease from the metal working industry can be used to produce biodiesel that conforms to the SANS 1935 specification for sulfur and is suitable to be used in biodiesel blending. A preliminary economic assessment shows that owed to the complexity of the second process route, biodiesel produced by this process is not economically viable given the current petroleum diesel prices. With the rising trend in crude oil prices and the limited supply of feedstock for biodiesel, WPG is anticipated to become a viable feedstock for biodiesel production in future.
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  288. Hydrogen and Methane Production from Biodiesel Wastewater with Added Glycerine by Using Two-Stage Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (ASBR)
    Abstract

    Tangkathitipong, P.; Intanoo, P.; Chavadej, S. 2014. Hydrogen and Methane Production from Biodiesel Wastewater with Added Glycerine by Using Two-Stage Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (ASBR). Pres 2014, 17th Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction, Pts 1-3. 391723-1728

    In this work, a simultaneous production of hydrogen and methane from biodiesel wastewater with added glycerine was investigated by using a two-stage anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) system. The hydrogen and methane reactors with 4 and 24 L of working volumes, respectively were operated under mesophilic temperature (37 degrees C) and 6 cycles per day while the pH in the hydrogen reactor was controlled at 5.5. The glycerine was added to the biodiesel wastewater at 3.5 %w/v to obtain a constant feed COD of 45,000 mg/L. A recycle ratio of 1:1 was used to minimize an NaOH addition in the hydrogen reactor for pH adjustment. The two-stage ASBR system was operated at different COD loading rates (ranging from 33.75 to 84.38 kg/m(3)d based on the hydrogen ASBR system or 5.63 to 14.06 kg/m(3)d based on methane ASBR system) in order to study the effect of organic loading rate on both hydrogen and methane production. The highest hydrogen and methane production performance was found at a COD loading rate of 67.50 kg/m(3) d and 11.25 kg/m(3) d based on hydrogen and methane reactors, respectively.
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  289. Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase A on Chitosan Beads for the Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester from Waste Frying Oil
    Abstract

    Aybastier, O.; Demir, C. 2014. Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase A on Chitosan Beads for the Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester from Waste Frying Oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(21) 2313-2319

    Candida antarctica lipase A was immobilized by covalent binding onto chitosan beads, and these beads were used for production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste frying canola oil. The optimum immobilization conditions were determined as enzyme concentration of 12% (v/v) and immobilization time of 24 h. Transesterification reaction was performed using enzymatic catalysis for the production of fatty acid methyl ester from waste frying oil. The results indicate that 60% yield of fatty acid methyl ester was obtained under optimum immobilization conditions. Operational stability was determined with immobilized lipase and it indicated that 74% residual activity occurred after using repeatedly for five consecutive batches of 24 h each.
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  290. Intensification of biodiesel production from waste goat tallow using infrared radiation: Process evaluation through response surface methodology and artificial neural network
    Abstract

    Chakraborty, R.; Sahu, H. 2014. Intensification of biodiesel production from waste goat tallow using infrared radiation: Process evaluation through response surface methodology and artificial neural network. Applied Energy. 114827-836

    For the first time, an efficient simultaneous trans/esterification process for biodiesel synthesis from waste goat tallow with considerable free fatty acids (FFAs) content has been explored employing an infrared radiation assisted reactor (IRAR). The impacts of methanol to tallow molar ratio, IRAR temperature and H2SO4 concentration on goat tallow conversion were evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions, 96.7% FFA conversion was achieved within 2.5 h at 59.93 wt.% H2SO4, 69.97 degrees C IRAR temperature and 31.88:1 methanol to tallow molar ratio. The experimental results were also modeled using artificial neural network (ANN) and marginal improvement in modeling efficiency was observed in comparison with RSM. The infrared radiation strategy could significantly accelerate the conversion process as demonstrated through a substantial reduction in reaction time compared to conventionally heated reactor while providing appreciably high biodiesel yield. Moreover, the in situ water removal using silica-gel adsorbent could also facilitate achieving higher FFA conversion to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Owing to the occurrence of simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides present in goat tallow, overall 98.5 wt.% FAME content was determined at optimal conditions in the product biodiesel which conformed to ASTM and EN biodiesel specifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  291. Intensification of waste cooking oil transformation by transesterification and esterification reactions in oscillatory baffled and microstructured reactors for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mazubert, A.; Aubin, J.; Elgue, S.; Poux, M. 2014. Intensification of waste cooking oil transformation by transesterification and esterification reactions in oscillatory baffled and microstructured reactors for biodiesel production. Green Processing and Synthesis. 3(6) 419-429

    The transformation of waste cooking oils for fatty acid methyl ester production is investigated in two intensified technologies: microstructured Corning(R) and oscillatory baffled NiTech(R) reactors, compared to a reference batch reactor to quantify the process intensification provided by each technology. Both reactors achieve high conversions in shorter times. For transesterification, 96 wt.% of esters are obtained in 1.4 min at 97 degrees C in the Corning(R) reactor and 92.1 wt.% of esters in 6 min at 44 degrees C in the NiTech(R) reactor, compared with 94.8 wt.% of esters in 10 min at 60 degrees C in the batch reactor. For esterification, 92% conversion is obtained in 2.5 min in the Corning(R) reactor at 75 degrees C compared with 20-30 min in the batch reactor at 60 degrees C, and at 40 degrees C, 96.8% conversion is achieved in 13.3 min in the NiTech(R) reactor, compared with 30 min in the batch reactor. The advantage of the Corning(R) reactor is that it can operate at higher pressures (1-20 bar) and temperatures (100 degrees C), thereby providing faster kinetics than the NiTech(R) reactor. However, oils with a high free fatty acid level (73%) cause the Corning(R) reactor channels to be blocked. A wider range of operating conditions could be obtained in NiTech(R) with a pressure-resistant material.
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  292. Kinetic study on lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Liu, S. H.; Nie, K. L.; Zhang, X.; Wang, M.; Deng, L.; Ye, X. C.; Wang, F.; Tan, T. W. 2014. Kinetic study on lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 9943-50

    A kinetic model of the biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using Candida sp. 99-125 lipase as catalyst was established in this paper. The limited reaction steps in the model were considered to be the hydrolysis of glycerides and the esterification of free fatty acids, while the methanolysis of glycerides were considered to be negligible. Matlab programming platform was used to estimate the parameters of the model. A series of experiments were conducted to verify the validity of the model. The results showed that the model could adequately simulate the reaction results of biodiesel production at different lipase loadings, substrate ratios and initial water concentrations. The agreement between experimental data and calculated values was good, which could prove the validity of the kinetic model. Moreover, the results of biodiesel production using a twelve-step methanol feeding method and a three-step methanol feeding method could be simulated well by the kinetic model. The results indicated that the model could also simulate the biodiesel production using methanol step-wise addition. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  293. Kinetics of the pre-treatment of used cooking oil using Novozyme 435 for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Haigh, K. F.; Vladisavljevic, G. T.; Reynolds, J. C.; Nagy, Z.; Saha, B. 2014. Kinetics of the pre-treatment of used cooking oil using Novozyme 435 for biodiesel production. Chemical Engineering Research & Design. 92(4) 713-719

    The pre-treatment of used cooking oil (UCO) for the preparation of biodiesel has been investigated using Novozyme 435, Candida antarctica Lipase B immobilised on acrylic resin, as the catalyst. The reactions in UCO were carried out using a jacketed batch reactor with a reflux condenser. The liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed to monitor the mono-, di- and triglyceride concentrations and it was found that the method was sensitive enough to separate isomers, including diglyceride isomers. It was found that the 1,3 diglyceride isomer reacted more readily than the 1,2 isomer indicating stereoselectivity of the catalyst. This work showed that Novozyme 435 will catalyse the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of mono- and diglycerides typically found in UCO when Novozyme 435 is used to catalyse the pre-treatment of UCO for the formation of biodiesel. A kinetic model was used to investigate the mechanism and indicated that the reaction progressed with the sequential hydrolysis esterification reactions in parallel with transesterification. (C) 2014 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  294. Mackerel biodiesel production from the wastewater containing fish oil
    Abstract

    Wu, Y. P.; Huang, H. M.; Lin, Y. F.; Huang, W. D.; Huang, Y. J. 2014. Mackerel biodiesel production from the wastewater containing fish oil. Energy. 7043-48

    Marine fish such as mackerel are important for coastal fisheries in Taiwan. Nearly 60,000 tons of mackerel are produced in Suao, I-lan, Taiwan every year. In this study, oil from the discarded parts of mackerel fish contained in wastewater stream were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel through transesterification reaction. The major fuel properties of MB (mackerel biodiesel), including the iodine value, dynamic viscosity, flash point, and heat value, were determined and compared with sunflower seed oil methyl ester (SFM), JCB (jatropha curcas biodiesel), and premium diesel (D). MB had a higher iodine value, dynamic viscosity, density, and flash point, but a lower heat value, than did D. MB was also used as fuel in a regular diesel engine to verify its emission characteristics.-The MB fuel used for exhaust emission test included pure MB (MB100) and a 20% MB blend with premium diesel (MB20). The exhaust emission of MB was also compared with the exhaust emissions of D and JCB. The results showed that MB20 provided a significant reduction in NO, NOx, and SO2 emissions under varied engine loads, and required no engine modification. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  295. Microbial lipid produced by Yarrowia lipolytica QU21 using industrial waste: A potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Poli, J. S.; da Silva, M. A. N.; Siqueira, E. P.; Pasa, V. M. D.; Rosa, C. A.; Valente, P. 2014. Microbial lipid produced by Yarrowia lipolytica QU21 using industrial waste: A potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 161320-326

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of medium composition and culture conditions on lipid content, fatty acid profile and biomass production by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica QU21. Lipid production by the yeast growing on glycerol/(NH4)(2)SO4 (10%/0.1%) reached 1.48 g/L (30.1% according to total cell dry weight). When glycerol was replaced by crude glycerol (industrial waste), the lipid yield was 1.27 g/L, with no significant difference. Some particular fatty acids were found when crude glycerol was combined with fresh yeast extract (FYE, brewery waste), as linolenic acid (C18:3n3), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3). In addition, the FYE promoted an increase of more than 300% on polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA), which is an undesirable feature for biodiesel production. The fatty acid composition of the oil produced by Y. lipolytica QU21 growing on crude glycerol/(NH4)(2)SO4 presented a potential use as biodiesel feedstock, with low PUFA content. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  296. Mitigation of the inhibitory effect of soap by magnesium salt treatment of crude glycerol - A novel approach for enhanced biohydrogen production from the biodiesel industry waste
    Abstract

    Sarma, S. J.; Brar, S. K.; Le Bihan, Y.; Buelna, G.; Soccol, C. R. 2014. Mitigation of the inhibitory effect of soap by magnesium salt treatment of crude glycerol - A novel approach for enhanced biohydrogen production from the biodiesel industry waste. Bioresource Technology. 15149-53

    Owing to its inhibitory effect on microbial growth, soap present in crude glycerol (CG) is a concern in biological valorization of the biodiesel manufacturing waste. By salting out strategy, up to 42% of the soap has been removed and the approach has beneficial effect on H-2 production; however, removal of more than 7% of the soap was found to be inhibitory. Actually, soap is utilized as a co-substrate and due to removal; the carbon nitrogen ratio of the medium might have decreased to reduce the production. Alternatively, without changing the carbon nitrogen ratio of CG, MgSO4 treatment can convert the soap to its inactive form (scum). The approach was found to increase the H-2 production rate (33.82%), cumulative H-2 production (34.70%) as well as glycerol utilization (nearly 2.5-folds). Additionally, the treatment can increase the Mg (a nutrient) content of the medium from 0.57 ppm to 201.92 ppm. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  297. Numerical Simulation of Biodiesel Production Using Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Adeyemi, N. A. 2014. Numerical Simulation of Biodiesel Production Using Waste Cooking Oil. Proceedings of the Asme International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 2013, Vol 8a.

    The goal of this work was to carry out transesterification using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and obtain yield comparable to experimental values. First of all, the single phase flow field was simulated and compared with experimental data obtained by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The velocities calculated from the RSM approach agreed quite well with those from PIV. The CFD simulations of biodiesel production were performed using the Reynolds stress model (RSM) coupled with the eddy dissipation model (EDM). CFD analysis of biodiesel yield compared fairly well with the experimental results available.
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  298. Optimization of biodiesel production from waste fish oil
    Abstract

    Garcia-Moreno, P. J.; Khanum, M.; Guadix, A.; Guadix, E. M. 2014. Optimization of biodiesel production from waste fish oil. Renewable Energy. 68618-624

    The present study deals with the production of biodiesel using waste fish oil. The research assesses the effect of the transesterification parameters on the biodiesel yield and its properties, including temperature (40-60 degrees C), molar ratio methanol to oil (3:1-9:1) and reaction time (30-90 min). The experimental results were fitted to complete quadratic models and optimized by response surface methodology. All the biodiesel samples presented a FAME content higher than 93 wt.% with a maximum, 95.39 wt.%, at 60 degrees C, 9:1 of methanol to oil ratio and 90 min. On the other hand, a maximum biodiesel yield was found at the same methanol to oil ratio and reaction time conditions but at lower temperature, 40 degrees C, which reduced the saponification of triglycerides by the alkaline catalyst employed. Adequate values of kinematic viscosity (measured at 30 degrees C) were obtained, with a minimum of 6.30 mm(2)/s obtained at 60 degrees C, 5.15:1 of methanol to oil ratio and 55.52 min. However, the oxidative stability of the biodiesels produced must be further improved by adding antioxidants because low values of IP, below 2.22 h, were obtained. Finally, satisfactory values of completion of melt onset temperature, ranging from 3.31 degrees C to 3.83 degrees C, were measured. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  299. Optimization of biodiesel production from waste lard by a two-step transesterification process under mild conditions
    Abstract

    Sarantopoulos, I.; Chatzisymeon, E.; Foteinis, S.; Tsoutsos, T. 2014. Optimization of biodiesel production from waste lard by a two-step transesterification process under mild conditions. Energy for Sustainable Development. 23110-114

    The aim of this work is to investigate a two-step homogenous catalyzed waste lard transesterification reaction for low cost biodiesel production. For this purpose, two 23 full factorial design of experiments was applied. Six variables, namely esterification time (60-120 min), H2SO4 concentration (20-40 wt.%), MeOH:FFA (15:1-23:1), transesterification time (30-60 min), KOH concentration (1-2 wt.%), and MeOH:triglycerides (6:1-9:1), that typically affect the production process were studied. The esterification step is significantly affected mostly by the reaction time and the MeOH:FFA ratio value. Specifically, their increase brings a reduction of the FFA acidity. Likewise, the transesterificadon step is positively affected primarily by three independent variables, namely reaction time, KOH concentration and MeOH:triglyceride ratio. Furthermore two empirical models describing evolution of the two-step transesterification reaction were developed. They can become useful tools for further scaling-up the process by predicting its reaction yield within a 95% of confidence level. (C) 2014 International Energy Initiative. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  300. Parametric study of the alkali catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil for Biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Al-Hamamre, Z.; Yamin, J. 2014. Parametric study of the alkali catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oil for Biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management. 79246-254

    Waste frying oil (WFO) conversion to Biodiesel (Biodiesel) by Alkali-catalyzed transesterification was studied. The effect of operating and processing variables e.g. reaction temperature, MeOH/oil ratio, type of catalyst used and its concentration was investigated at different reaction times. Further, the physical and chemical properties of the WFO and the produced methyl ester (Biodiesel) were measured. Results showed that (within the range of variables studied) the optimum conditions for Biodiesel manufacturing were MeOH/oil ratio 0.4 v/v (corresponds to 9.5 M ratio), with 1.0% (% w/v) KOH (corresponds to 0.83% w/w), temperature of 50 degrees C and reaction time between 20 and 40 min. Under these conditions, the obtained Biodiesel yield was approximately 98%. Results also showed that the viscosity of the obtained Biodiesel was 5.86 mm(2)/s which is close to that of petrodiesel with an average decrease of 69.5% in comparison with WFO. Furthermore, the iodine value (25.36 g I-2/100 g sample) and the density (0.877 g/cm(3)) of the Biodiesel met the values specified by JUS EN14214. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  301. Plantwide Control of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Integrated Framework of Simulation and Heuristics
    Abstract

    Patle, D. S.; Ahmad, Z.; Rangaiah, G. P. 2014. Plantwide Control of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Integrated Framework of Simulation and Heuristics. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(37) 14408-14418

    This article describes the systematic plantwide control (PWC) design of an ecofriendly process for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO) feedstock A simulation model was developed to produce biodiesel from WCO that reduces both production costs and adverse environmental impacts. An effective PWC system is crucial for the safe, smooth, and economical operation of a biodiesel plant. Hence, a PWC system was developed for a homogeneously catalyzed biodiesel process using the integrated framework of simulation and heuristics (IFSH). The main merits of the IFSH methodology are effective use of rigorous process simulators and heuristics in developing a PWC system and simplicity of application. Finally, the performance of the developed control system was assessed in terms of settling time, a dynamic economic index based on the deviation from the production target (DPT), and the overall total variation (TV) in manipulated variables. These performance assessments and the results of dynamic simulations showed that the developed PWC system is stable, effective, and robust in the presence of several disturbances and that biodiesel quality can be maintained despite these disturbances. This is the first study to develop a complete PWC system for a homogeneously catalyzed two-step biodiesel production from WCO.
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  302. Potassium Ion Impregnated Calcium Oxide as a Nanocrystalline Solid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Waste Cotton Seed Oil
    Abstract

    Kumar, D.; Ali, A. 2014. Potassium Ion Impregnated Calcium Oxide as a Nanocrystalline Solid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Waste Cotton Seed Oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(10) 1093-1102

    Vegetable oil and animal fat derived fatty acid methyl esters are commonly known as biodiesel and provide an environment friendly and renewable substitute for the conventional diesel fuel. The present work demonstrates an easy preparation of potassium ion impregnated calcium oxide in nano crystalline form (supported by powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies) and its application as a solid catalyst for the transesterification of waste cottonseed oil with methanol. The catalyst prepared by impregnating 3.5 wt% of potassium in CaO support was found to show the best catalytic activity among the prepared catalysts. The same catalyst was found to be effective for the complete transesterification of less expensive feedstock, waste cotton seed oil, even in the presence of 10.26 wt% moisture and 4.35 wt% free fatty acid contents. The selected catalyst has also been reused successfully for three catalytic cycles. Few physicochemical properties of the prepared biodiesel sample have been studied and found to be within the acceptable limits of EN 14214 standards.
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  303. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Zeolite-based Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Hassani, M.; Najafpour, G. D.; Mohammadi, M.; Rabiee, M. 2014. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Zeolite-based Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research. 73(2) 129-133

    Zeolite-based catalyst was prepared from a fine powder and kaolinite by pelletization method and used to synthesize fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) known as biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) containing high amounts of free fatty acids (FFA). The prepared catalyst was characterized by Thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The zeolite-based catalyst was employed to simultaneously catalyze the esterification of fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides present in the waste oil feedstock to biodiesel. The condition for biodiesel synthesis was optimized in terms of reaction temperature (50-85 degrees C), methanol/ WCO molar ratio (2.6-6.0) and reaction time (2-10 h). Maximum triglyceride conversion of 46 % was achieved at the near optimum conditions. These conditions were defined at reaction temperature of 70 degrees C, methanol/ WCO molar ratio of 5.1 and reaction time of 6 h.
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  304. Pretreatment of Waste Frying Oil with High Levels of Free Fatty Acids for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Ridha, B.; Manef, A.; Mounir, B. 2014. Pretreatment of Waste Frying Oil with High Levels of Free Fatty Acids for Biodiesel Production. 2014 5th International Renewable Energy Congress (Irec).

    The decrease of fossil fuel resources and the awareness of the impact of greenhouse gases emissions on the environment have created a need to find alternative energy sources to replace traditional ones. Thus, recent years have seen the development of several sectors of renewable energy production with the government incentives. The production of biodiesel is an alternative of production of non-toxic, clean, renewable and biodegradable fuels.
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  305. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a continuous packed bed reactor with an agglomerated Zr-SBA-15/bentonite catalyst
    Abstract

    Melero, J. A.; Bautista, L. F.; Iglesias, J.; Morales, G.; Sanchez-Vazquez, R. 2014. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a continuous packed bed reactor with an agglomerated Zr-SBA-15/bentonite catalyst. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 145197-204

    Zr-SBA-15 material has been agglomerated with bentonite clay to form a macroscopic structured catalyst with particle sizes of 1.5 mm with the purpose of being used in the continuous production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil on a packed bed reactor. The influence of different reaction parameters was assessed including methanol to oil molar ratio, residence time and temperature. The pellet-type Zr-SBA-15/bentonite catalyst was highly active in the continuous flow process leading to a steady molar FAME yield of ca. 96% at 210 degrees C and 70 bar with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 50:1 and a residence time of 30 min. Long-time on stream experiments revealed an outstanding stability of the Zr-SBA-15 particulate material, since this provided a sustained FAME yield of 96% for over 260 h, being negligible the deactivation of the catalyst during this period. Bentonite clay partially contributed to the methanolysis reaction of triglycerides during the early stages of the reaction, but after a short period (1 h) its influence on the reaction became very low. In this way, the outstanding catalytic performance of the agglomerated catalyst must be attributed mainly to the presence of active acid sites in the Zr-SBA-15 material. The leaching of metal species (Na, K, Ca and Mg) coming from bentonite binder was low in the outlet effluent. Catalyst did not suffer any significant changes in physicochemical properties after the long-time on stream experiment, preserving zirconium content and acid capacity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  306. Production of Biodiesel from Waste Frying Oil Using Whole Cell Biocatalysts: Optimization of Effective Factors
    Abstract

    Ghaderinezhad, F.; Kariminia, H. R.; Yaghmaei, S. 2014. Production of Biodiesel from Waste Frying Oil Using Whole Cell Biocatalysts: Optimization of Effective Factors. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 5(6) 947-954

    Using whole cell as a catalyst of enzymatic transesterification is a method to produce biodiesel with fewer drawbacks and at a lower cost. In the present study, biodiesel was produced by the reaction of waste frying oil with methanol in the presence of Rhizopus oryzae PTCC 5174 in both immobilized and free forms. Effect of four influencing factors including temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, amount of biomass, and shaking speed was investigated. Response surface methodology was used to find the optimum conditions of the transesterification reaction. Each factor was set at three levels and the yield of the biodiesel was considered as the response. A quadratic equation was well-fitted with the experimental data. The optimum condition in immobilized and free forms was: 1 g microorganism for both forms, temperature of 44 and 45 degrees C, 5:1 and 4.7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, and 150 and 160 rpm shaking speed, respectively.
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  307. Production of biodiesel from waste grease using whole cell biocatalysts or nanosize solid acid catalysts
    Abstract

    Li, A. T.; Zillillah, Z.; Tian, K. Y.; Yan, J. Y.; Li, Z. 2014. Production of biodiesel from waste grease using whole cell biocatalysts or nanosize solid acid catalysts. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 247

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  308. Production of bioethanol and biodiesel using instant noodle waste
    Abstract

    Yang, X.; Lee, J. H.; Yoo, H. Y.; Shin, H. Y.; Thapa, L. P.; Park, C.; Kim, S. W. 2014. Production of bioethanol and biodiesel using instant noodle waste. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 37(8) 1627-1635

    Instant noodle manufacturing waste was used as feedstock to convert it into two products, bioethanol and biodiesel. The raw material was pretreated to separate it into two potential feedstocks, starch residues and palm oil, for conversion to bioethanol and biodiesel, respectively. For the production of bioethanol, starch residues were converted into glucose by alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. To investigate the saccharification process of the pretreated starch residues, the optimal pretreatment conditions were determined. The bioethanol conversion reached 98.5 % of the theoretical maximum by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 fermentation after saccharification under optimized pretreatment conditions. Moreover, palm oil, isolated from the instant noodle waste, was converted into valuable biodiesel by use of immobilized lipase (Novozym 435). The effects of four categories of alcohol, oil-to-methanol ratio, reaction time, lipase concentration and water content on the conversion process were investigated. The maximum biodiesel conversion was 95.4 %.
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  309. Rheological, Thermal, and Physicochemical Characterization of Animal Fat Wastes for use in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Adewale, P.; Dumont, M. J.; Ngadi, M. 2014. Rheological, Thermal, and Physicochemical Characterization of Animal Fat Wastes for use in Biodiesel Production. Energy Technology. 2(7) 634-642

    The rheological, thermal and physicochemical properties of animal fat wastes (tallow, lard, choice white grease, and yellow grease) are important parameters for an efficient design of equipment and to optimize the processing procedures of biodiesel production. In this study, the physicochemical properties of animal fat waste samples and the correlation of these properties to their thermal and rheological behaviors were elucidated. Pure lard was equally investigated to monitor the effects of impurities on the rheological and thermal properties of the animal fat wastes. It was established that the presence of impurities had effects on the rheological and thermal properties of fats. Additionally, due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) present in the wastes, transesterification cannot be applied directly. It will be necessary to reduce the FFA level by using acid pretreatment or enzyme catalyzed transesterification.
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  310. Screening microalgae native to Quebec for wastewater treatment and biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Abdelaziz, A. E. M.; Leite, G. B.; Belhaj, M. A.; Hallenbeck, P. C. 2014. Screening microalgae native to Quebec for wastewater treatment and biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 157140-148

    Biodiesel production from microalgae lipids is being considered as a potential source of renewable energy. However, practical production processes will probably require the use of local strains adapted to prevailing climatic conditions. This report describes the isolation of 100 microalgal strains from freshwater lakes and rivers located in the vicinity of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Strains were identified and surveyed for their growth on secondary effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (La Prairie, QC, Canada) using a simple and high throughput microalgal screening method employing 12 well plates. The biomass and lipid productivity of these strains on wastewater were compared to a synthetic medium under different temperatures (10 +/- 2 degrees C and 22 +/- 2 degrees C) and a number identified that showed good growth at 10 degrees C, gave a high lipid content (ranging from 20% to 45% of dry weight) or a high capacity for nutrient removal. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  311. Simple and Low-Cost Method for Processing of Waste from Production of 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol to Give a High-Efficiency Stabilizer of Rubbers and Biodiesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Khabibullina, G. A.; Belyaeva, A. S.; Niyazov, N. A.; Movsum-Zade, E. M. 2014. Simple and Low-Cost Method for Processing of Waste from Production of 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol to Give a High-Efficiency Stabilizer of Rubbers and Biodiesel Fuel. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 87(11) 1680-1685

    Technologically simple and low-cost method is suggested for processing of wastes from manufacture of ionol, a resin from the rectification stage, by isolation of 4,4'-ethylenebis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) via dissolution in hexane with the subsequent crystallization. A high activity of the product as a stabilizer of SKI-3 rubber and biodiesel fuel was demonstrated.
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  312. Simultaneous treatment of municipal wastewater and biodiesel production by cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris with indigenous wastewater bacteria
    Abstract

    Ryu, B. G.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J.; Choi, Y. E.; Yang, J. W. 2014. Simultaneous treatment of municipal wastewater and biodiesel production by cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris with indigenous wastewater bacteria. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 19(2) 201-210

    This study examined the use of Chlorella vulgaris for the simultaneous bioremediation of municipal wastewater and production of biodiesel. We tested the effect of wastewater dilution on C. vulgaris growth in filtered and sterilized wastewater, sterilized wastewater, and untreated wastewater. Growth was the greatest in untreated wastewater, suggesting that certain wastewater components, such as bacteria, may promote microalgal growth. We confirmed the presence of beneficial bacteria by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and inoculation of wastewater bacteria into microalgal cultures in artificial medium. Furthermore, we employed a semi-continuous cultivation process that successfully combined the advantages of indigenous bacteria with a high level of inoculum. Finally, cells grown in wastewater contained high levels of useful fatty acids. Collectively, our data suggest that it may be feasible to use wastewater-grown C. vulgaris biomass for simultaneous bioremediation and biodiesel production.
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  313. Techno-Economic Analysis of an Alkali Catalyzed Biodiesel Production using Waste Palm Oil
    Abstract

    Patle, D. S.; Ahmad, Z. 2014. Techno-Economic Analysis of an Alkali Catalyzed Biodiesel Production using Waste Palm Oil. 4th Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Pts 1 and 2. 465-466120-124

    In this contribution, we present an in-depth analysis of an alkali catalyzed biodiesel production using waste palm oil. In view of the limited availability of non-renewable energy sources and the environmental concerns due to the high polluting nature of fossil fuels, biodiesel is seen as a future fuel alternative. We consider a waste palm oil with 6 % free fatty acids as a feedstock, which makes this process economically attractive.. A complete process including esterification and transesterification is simulated using the Aspen Plus process simulator. The quality of a produced biodiesel is compared against different standards. In the subsequent part, the effect free fatty acid in feed oil on the overall biodiesel production is tested. In the last section of this paper, a techno-economic analysis and the scale-up study is carried out to determine the dependence of the feasibility of process on production capacity. The results show that higher capacity is desirable.
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  314. The Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Corn Oil Using Snails Shells as a Catalyst
    Abstract

    El-Gendy, N. S.; Deriase, S. F.; Hamdy, A. 2014. The Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Corn Oil Using Snails Shells as a Catalyst. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(6) 623-637

    In this study, calcium oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was prepared by a simple calcination process at 800 degrees C for snails shells collected from Egyptian shorelines. D-optimal design of experiments and response surface methodology was applied to analyze the influence of four process variables; methanol:oil (M:O) molar ratio, catalyst concentration (wt%), reaction time (min), and mixing rate (rpm) on biodiesel production through transesterification of waste frying corn oil at 60 degrees C using the prepared biocatalyst. A second order quadratic model was obtained to predict the % biodiesel yield and it adequately described the studied experimental range. Based on the experimental analysis and response surface methodology study, the most suitable operational conditions for this process were: M:O, 6:1 molar ratio; catalyst concentration, 3 wt%; reaction time, 60 min; and mixing rate, 200 rpm. The corresponding predicted % yield of biodiesel was 96.76% and the experimental one was 96%. The activity of the produced green catalyst was comparable to that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435.
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  315. The Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Sunflower Oil Using a Heterogeneous Catalyst
    Abstract

    El-Gendy, N. S.; Abu Amr, S. S.; Aziz, H. A. 2014. The Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Sunflower Oil Using a Heterogeneous Catalyst. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(15) 1615-1625

    This study was performed to optimize a base heterogeneous CaO catalyzed transesterification process for biodiesel production from waste frying sunflower oil. Response surface methodology based on central composite face centered design was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for maximum production of biodiesel and study the significance and interaction of methanol to oil (M:O) molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time on biodiesel yield. A quadratic model equation was obtained for biodiesel production and the validity of the predicted model was confirmed. The optimum combination for transesterification was determined to be 7.05:1 M:O, 8.21 CaO wt% and 1.5 h at 60 degrees C, and mixing rate of 300 rpm. The maximum predicted and actual biodiesel yield was 92.2 and 93%, respectively. The reusability of used CaO was investigated and recorded sufficient biodiesel production up to four cycles. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. Acceptable agreement was observed, encouraging application of biodiesel as an alternative or complementary to petro-diesel.
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  316. The potential for agro-industrial waste utilization using oleaginous yeast for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Leiva-Candia, D. E.; Pinzi, S.; Redel-Macias, M. D.; Koutinas, A.; Webb, C.; Dorado, M. P. 2014. The potential for agro-industrial waste utilization using oleaginous yeast for the production of biodiesel. Fuel. 12333-42

    Environmental problems are making it necessary to find renewable and sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels in the field of transport. Biodiesel may replace diesel fuel under an environmentally friendly and economically sound process, as long as the raw material employed is of low cost and can be derived from sustainable sources. Such an alternative feedstock from non-vegetable sources could be provided by microbial oil produced by oleaginous microorganisms that may possess similar chemical composition to that of the most commonly used vegetable oils in the biodiesel industry. Moreover, oleaginous yeasts could accumulate intracellular lipids through cultivation on various agro-industrial wastes. Oleaginous yeasts may accumulate different amounts of microbial oil with varying fatty acid profiles, depending on the substrate or growing conditions. This review presents the most relevant aspects regarding yeast oil production using agro-industrial waste as culture media and evaluates the potential of this microbial oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  317. The Production and Characterization of Ethyl Ester (Biodiesel) from Waste Vegetable Oil as Alternative to Petro Diesel
    Abstract

    Uthman, H.; Abdulkareem, A. S. 2014. The Production and Characterization of Ethyl Ester (Biodiesel) from Waste Vegetable Oil as Alternative to Petro Diesel. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(19) 2135-2141

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester from "used frying oil" for use as biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of the used frying oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst (NaOH), to yield the ethyl ester as a product and glycerine as a by-product. Prior to the use of the waste vegetable oil as a feedstock in the production of biodiesel, the oil sample was treated with silica gel as an adsorbent and the results obtained indicate that the treatment method employed positively affects the free fatty acids and iodine value of the oil. Results obtained on the characterization of the biodiesel produced also shows that the viscosity, density, flash point, pour point, sulphur content, vapor pressure, and heat of combustion are 4.8 cP, 850 g/cm(3), 145 degrees C, -15 degrees C, 0.02%, 64 kPa, and 42,600 kJ/kg, respectively. These values compared favorably with the petro diesel. The distillation properties of the produced biodiesel also compared favorably with that of the petro diesel with an initial boiling point of 141 degrees C, final boiling point of 347 degrees C, total recovery of 97.74%, with residue and loss of 1.23 and 1.03%, respectively.
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  318. The production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] by a newly isolated Bacillus sp ST1C using liquid waste from biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Chanasit, W.; Sueree, L.; Hodgson, B.; Umsakul, K. 2014. The production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] by a newly isolated Bacillus sp ST1C using liquid waste from biodiesel production. Annals of Microbiology. 64(3) 1157-1166

    A newly isolated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)] producing strain, ST1C, was identified as Bacillus aryabhattai based on its morphological, biochemical and molecular characteristics. It synthesized and accumulated relatively high amounts of P(3HB). The aim of this work was to establish if it could convert an inexpensive liquid waste product from the production of biodiesel, biodiesel liquid waste (BLW), to P(3HB). Using a mineral salt medium (MSM) containing 2.0 % (v/v) glycerol present in the BLW and both normal batch and a draw and fill culture method, B. aryabhattai ST1C produced a maximum P(3HB) content and biomass concentration of 72.31 % dry cell weight (DCW) and 7.24 g/L, respectively, over a 24 h cultivation period in the draw and fill cultivation method. From 24 h to the end of cultivation at 72 h both the P(3HB) content and the biomass concentrations continuously reduced. Concentrations of glycerol in the BLW in this MSM above 3.0 % (v/v) or from pure glycerol (PG) or with an added NaCl concentration of greater than 3.0 % significantly reduced both the maximum P(3HB) content and the biomass concentrations.
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  319. The wastewater treatment in the biodiesel production with alkali-catalyzed transesterification
    Abstract

    Veljkovic, V. B.; Stamenkovic, O. S.; Tasic, M. B. 2014. The wastewater treatment in the biodiesel production with alkali-catalyzed transesterification. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 3240-60

    Biodiesel has been studied in last few decades because of limited energy resources and a huge increase of the energy demand. The basic feedstocks for the production of biodiesel are vegetable oils and animal fats that contain primarily triacylglycerols while the main reaction is transesterification. This reaction is most frequently conducted at commercial scale in the presence of the homogeneous alkali catalyst. Previous studies on biodiesel were mainly focused on its production And fuel properties, while its environmental management is rarely considered. The present work is a review of the previous studies on treating wastewaters generated by the biodiesel production processes involving alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The attention is focused on physical, chemical, physico-chemical, electrochemical, biological and integrated treatment processes of biodiesel wastewaters. Both advantages and disadvantages of different biodiesel wastewater treatment processes are discussed. Since different input biodiesel wastewaters are employed in different studies, it is difficult to compare different treatments with respect to their contaminant removal efficiencies. Proper acidification and chemical coagulation/flocculation or electrocoagulation remove grease and oil successfully but they are unsuccessful in removing COD. The combinations of acidification, coagulation and the electrochemical treatment improve the removal efficiencies of COD and BOD. Advanced oxidation technologies appear not to be effective in removing the contaminants from raw biodiesel wastewaters. The performance of biological processes is improved by the pretreatment of biodiesel wastewater with acidification, chemical coagulation, electrocoagulation or photo-Fenton. When selecting a treatment process, it should be evaluated with respect to its treatment efficiency and operational requirements. The right choice is probably an integration treatment involving acidification, coagulation/flocculation or electrocoagulation and a biological process. The reuse of the pretreated wastewater is also an interesting alternative. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  320. Treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of sludge for biodiesel production by microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors
    Abstract

    Maroneze, M. M.; Barin, J. S.; de Menezes, C. R.; Queiroz, M. I.; Zepka, L. Q.; Jacob-Lopes, E. 2014. Treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of sludge for biodiesel production by microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors. Scientia Agricola. 71(6) 521-524

    Microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors are a potential technological development that can convert organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus of wastewaters into a biomass suitable for energy production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors in the secondary treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of microalgal sludge for biodiesel production. The experiments were performed in a bubble column bioreactor using the microalgae Phormidium sp. Heterotrophic microalgal bioreactors removed 90 % of the chemical oxygen demand, 57 % of total nitrogen and 52 % of total phosphorus. Substantial microalgal sludge is produced in the process (substrate yield coefficient of 0.43 mg(sludge) mg(chemical) (-1)(oxygen demand)) resulting in a biomass with high potential for producing biodiesel (ester content of more than 99 %, cetane number of 55, iodine value of 73.5 g (lodine)100 g(-1), unsaturation degree of similar to 75 % and a cold filter plugging point of 5 degrees C).
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  321. Two-stage stochastic programming supply chain model for biodiesel production via wastewater treatment
    Abstract

    Marufuzzaman, M.; Eksioglu, S. D.; Huang, Y. 2014. Two-stage stochastic programming supply chain model for biodiesel production via wastewater treatment. Computers & Operations Research. 491-17

    This paper presents a two-stage stochastic programming model used to design and manage biodiesel supply chains. This is a mixed-integer linear program and an extension of the classical two-stage stochastic location-transportation model. The proposed model optimizes not only costs but also emissions in the supply chain. The model captures the impact of biomass supply and technology uncertainty on supply chain-related decisions; the tradeoffs that exist between location and transportation decisions; and the tradeoffs between costs and emissions in the supply chain. The objective function and model constraints reflect the impact of different carbon regulatory policies, such as carbon cap, carbon tax, carbon cap-and-trade, and carbon offset mechanisms on supply chain decisions. We solve this problem using algorithms that combine Lagrangian relaxation and L-shaped solution methods, and we develop a case study using data from the state of Mississippi. The results from the computational analysis point to important observations about the impacts of carbon regulatory mechanisms as well as the uncertainties on the performance of biocrude supply chains. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  322. Utilization of waste coral for biodiesel production via transesterification of soybean oil
    Abstract

    Moradi, G.; Mohammadi, F. 2014. Utilization of waste coral for biodiesel production via transesterification of soybean oil. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 11(3) 805-812

    In the present study, the waste coral was utilized as a source of calcium oxide for transesterification of soybean oil into biodiesel (methyl esters). Characterization results revealed that the main component of the waste coral is calcium carbonate which transformed into calcium oxide when calcined above 700 A degrees C. The Box-Behnken design of experiment was carried out, and the results were analyzed using response surface methodology. Calcination temperature, methanol- soybean oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration were chosen as variables. The methyl ester content (wt%) was response which must be maximized. A second-order model was obtained to predict methyl ester content as a function of these variables. Each variable was placed in the three low, medium and high levels (calcination temperature of 700, 800 and 900 A degrees C; catalyst concentration of 3, 6 and 9 wt%; methanol-to-oil ratios of 12:1, 18:1 and 24:1). The optimum conditions from the experiment were found that the calcination temperature of 900 A degrees C, catalyst concentration of 6 wt% and methanol-to-oil ratio of 12:1. Under these conditions, methyl ester content reached to 100 wt%. The waste catalyst was capable of being reused up to 4 times without much loss in the activity.
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  323. Volatile fatty acids derived from waste organics provide an economical carbon source for microbial lipids/biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Park, G. W.; Fei, Q.; Jung, K.; Chang, H. N.; Kim, Y. C.; Kim, N. J.; Choi, J. D. R.; Kim, S.; Cho, J. 2014. Volatile fatty acids derived from waste organics provide an economical carbon source for microbial lipids/biodiesel production. Biotechnology Journal. 9(12) 1536-1546

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) derived from organic waste, were used as a low cost carbon source for high bioreactor productivity and titer. A multi-stage continuous high cell density culture (MSC-HCDC) process was employed for economic assessment of microbial lipids for biodiesel production. In a simulation study we used a lipid yield of 0.3 g/g-VFAs, cell mass yield of 0.5 g/g-glucose or wood hydrolyzates, and employed process variables including lipid contents from 10-90% of cell mass, bioreactor productivity of 0.5-48 g/L/h, and plant capacity of 20 000-1 000 000 metric ton (MT)/year. A production cost of USD 1.048/kg-lipid was predicted with raw material costs of USD 0.2/kg for wood hydrolyzates and USD 0.15/kg for VFAs; 9 g/L/h bioreactor productivity; 100,000 MT/year production capacity; and 75% lipids content. The variables having the highest impact on microbial lipid production costs were the cost of VFAs and lipid yield, followed by lipid content, fermenter cost, and lipid productivity. The cost of raw materials accounted for 66.25% of total operating costs. This study shows that biodiesel from microbial lipids has the potential to become competitive with diesels from other sources.
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  324. Waste animal fats as feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bankovic-Ilie, I. B.; Stojkovic, I. J.; Stamenkovic, O. S.; Veljkovic, V. B.; Hung, Y. T. 2014. Waste animal fats as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 32238-254

    Biodiesel, an alternate and ecologically acceptable substitute for the conventional fuel, is usually produced from a wide range of edible vegetable oils, which are normally used for human consumption and whose prices are expected to increase in the future. In this regard, reliable and low-cost raw materials have increasingly drawn interest for biodiesel production, such as by-products of the meat-processing industries or waste animal fats. This paper provides a review of the different methods employed for biodiesel production from waste animal fats employing transesterification reaction. The aim of this paper is to present the exploitation possibilities of waste animal fats as low-cost feedstocks for biodiesel production. Also, the various methods for treatment of waste animal fats such as chemical (homogeneous and heterogeneous) and enzyme catalysis as well as non-catalytic processes were considered with emphasis on the influence of the operating and reaction conditions on the process rate and the ester yield. In depth discussions were given to the process optimization, kinetics and possibilities for improvement of biodiesel production from waste animal. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  325. A review on novel processes of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Talebian-Kiakalaieh, A.; Amin, N. A. S.; Mazaheri, H. 2013. A review on novel processes of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Applied Energy. 104683-710

    Fossil fuel depletion, environmental concerns, and steep hikes in the price of fossil fuels are driving scientists to search for alternative fuels. The characteristics of biodiesel have made the pursuit of high quality biodiesel production attractive. Utilization of waste cooking oil is a key component in reducing biodiesel production costs up to 60-90%. Researchers have used various types of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyzed transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. Meanwhile, the effect of novel processes such as membrane reactor, reactive distillation column, reactive absorption, ultrasonic and microwave irradiation significantly influenced the final conversion, yield and in particular, the quality of product. This article attempts to cover all possible techniques in production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  326. Anaerobic Treatment of Industrial Biodiesel Wastewater by an ASBR for Methane Production
    Abstract

    Silva, R. C.; Rodrigues, J. A. D.; Ratusznei, S. M.; Zaiat, M. 2013. Anaerobic Treatment of Industrial Biodiesel Wastewater by an ASBR for Methane Production. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 170(1) 105-118

    A mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (5 L, 30 degrees C) containing granular biomass was used to treat the effluent of an industrial biodiesel production process with the purpose to produce methane. Process stability and efficiency were analyzed as a function of applied volumetric organic load (AVOL of 1,000 to 3,000 mgCOD/L), reactor feed time, and cycle length (8-h cycles with 10-min or 4-h feeding and 4-h cycles with 10-min or 2-h feeding). Batch operations (B) with 1,000 to 3,000 mgCOD/L involved 10-min feeding/discharge: (1) 1.0-L influent with 4-h cycle and (2) 2.0-L influent with 8-h cycle. Fed-batch operations (FB) with 1,000 to 3,000 mgCOD/L involved 10-min discharge and the following feeding: (1) 1.0-L influent in 2 h with 4-h cycle and (2) 2.0-L influent in 4 h with 8-h cycle. At 1,000 mgCOD/L (AVOL of 18 to 1.29 gCOD/Lday), kinetic parameter values were 1.03 and 0.92 h(-1) at conditions B-1000-4 h and FB-1000-8/4 h, respectively. At both conditions, removal efficiency was 88 %, and cycle length could be reduced to 3 h (B-1000-4 h) and 5 h (FB-1000-8/4 h). At 2,000 mgCOD/L (AVOL of 2.38 to 2.52 gCOD/Lday), kinetic parameter values were 1.08 and 0.99 h(-1) at conditions B-2000-4/2 h and FB-2000-8/4 h, respectively, and removal efficiencies were 83 and 81 %. Cycle length could be reduced to 3 h (B-2000-4/2 h) and 6 h (FB-2000-8/4 h). At 3,000 mgCOD/L (AVOL of 3.71 to 3.89 gCOD/Lday), conditions allowing stable operation were B-3000-4 h, FB-3000-8/4 h, and FB-3000-4/2 h. Stability could not be obtained at condition B-3000-8 h, and the best results were obtained at condition FB-3000-8/4 h. Specific methane production ranged from 41.1 to 93.7 NmLCH(4)/gCOD, demonstrating reactor application potential and operation flexibility.
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  327. Application of a Chitosan-Immobilized Talaromyces thermophilus Lipase to a Batch Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Oils
    Abstract

    Belhaj-Ben Romdhane, I.; Ben Romdhane, Z.; Bouzid, M.; Gargouri, A.; Belghith, H. 2013. Application of a Chitosan-Immobilized Talaromyces thermophilus Lipase to a Batch Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Oils. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 171(8) 1986-2002

    Waste frying oil, which not only harms people's health but also causes environmental pollution, can be a good alternative to partially substitute petroleum diesel through transesterification reaction. This oil contained 8.8 % of free fatty acids, which cause a problem in a base-catalyzed process. In this study, synthesis of biodiesel was efficiently catalyzed by the covalently immobilized Talaromyces thermophilus lipase and allowed bioconversion yield up to 92 % after 24 h of reaction time. The optimal molar ratio was four to six parts of methanol to one part of oil with a biocatalyst loaded of 25 wt.% of oil. Further, experiments revealed that T. thermophilus lipase, immobilized by a multipoint covalent liaison onto activated chitosan via a short spacer (glutaraldehyde), was sufficiently tolerant to methanol. In fact, using the stepwise addition of methanol, no significant difference was observed from the one-step whole addition at the start of reaction. The batch biodiesel synthesis was performed in a fixed bed reactor with a lipase loaded of 10 g. The bioconversion yield of 98 % was attained after a 5-h reaction time. The bioreactor was operated successfully for almost 150 h without any changes in the initial conversion yield. Most of the chemical and physical properties of the produced biodiesel meet the European and USA standard specifications of biodiesel fuels.
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  328. Biodiesel from dewatered wastewater sludge: A two-step process for a more advantageous production
    Abstract

    Pastore, C.; Lopez, A.; Lotito, V.; Mascolo, G. 2013. Biodiesel from dewatered wastewater sludge: A two-step process for a more advantageous production. Chemosphere. 92(6) 667-673

    Alternative approaches for obtaining biodiesel from municipal sludge have been successfully investigated. In order to avoid the expensive conventional preliminary step of sludge drying, dewatered sludge (TSS: 15 wt%) was used as starting material. The best performance in terms of yield of fatty acid methyl esters (18 wt%) with the lowest energy demand (17 MJ kg(FAME)(-1)) was obtained by a new two-step approach based on hexane extraction carried out directly on dewatered acidified (H2SO4) sludge followed by methanolysis of extracted lipids. It was found that sulphuric acid plays a key role in the whole process not only for the transesterification of glycerides but also for the production of new free fatty acids from soaps and their esterification with methanol. In addition to biodiesel production, the investigated process allows valorization of primary sludge as it turns it into a valuable source of chemicals, namely sterols (2.5 wt%), aliphatic alcohols (0.8 wt%) and waxes (2.3 wt%). (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  329. Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil by the inclusion complex of heteropoly acid with bridged bis-cyclodextrin
    Abstract

    Zou, C. J.; Zhao, P. W.; Shi, L. H.; Huang, S. B.; Luo, P. Y. 2013. Biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil by the inclusion complex of heteropoly acid with bridged bis-cyclodextrin. Bioresource Technology. 146785-788

    The inclusion complex of Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 with bridged bis-cyclodextrin (CsPW/B) is prepared as a highly efficient catalyst for the direct production of biodiesel via the transesterification of waste cooking oil. CsPW/B is characterized by X-ray diffraction, and the biodiesel is analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. The conversion rate of waste cooking oil is up to 94.2% under the optimum experimental conditions that are methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1, catalyst dosage of 3 wt%, temperature of 65 degrees C and reaction time of 180 mm. The physical properties of biodiesel sample satisfy the requirement of ASTM 06751 standards. The novel CsPW/B catalyst used for the transesterification can lead to 96.9% fatty acid methyl esters and 86.5% of the biodiesel product can serve as the ideal substitute for diesel fuel, indicating its excellent potential application in biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  330. Biodiesel production by enzymatic process using Jatropha oil and waste soybean oil
    Abstract

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, S. B.; Yoo, H. Y.; Suh, Y. J.; Kang, G. B.; Jang, W. I.; Kang, J.; Park, C.; Kim, S. W. 2013. Biodiesel production by enzymatic process using Jatropha oil and waste soybean oil. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 18(4) 703-708

    In this study, non-edible Jatropha oil and postcooking waste soybean oil were utilized for enzymatic biodiesel production. The process was optimized by using a statistical method. In addition, a novel continuous process using co-immobilized Rhizopus oryzae and Candida rugosa lipases was developed. The optimum conditions for the batch process were determined to be a reaction temperature of 45oC, an agitation speed of 250 rpm, 10 wt% of water, and 20% of immobilized lipases. A conversion of about 98% at 4 h could be achieved for biodiesel production using Jatropha oil, while a conversion of about 97% at 4 h was achieved from waste soybean oil. A packed bed reactor charged with co-immobilized lipases was employed for continuous biodiesel production from Jatropha and waste soybean oil. The reactor consisted of a jacketed glass column (ID 25 mm x 130 mm), in which a temperature of 45A degrees C was maintained by water circulation. A maximum conversion of about 80% in 24 h at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/ min was achieved with the continuous process, whereas in the two-stage continuous process, a conversion of about 90% in 72 h was attained at a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min.
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  331. Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris
    Abstract

    Wang, W. R.; Zhou, W. W.; Liu, J.; Li, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. K. 2013. Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris. Bioresource Technology. 13624-29

    To reduce the cost of algal-based biodiesel, a waste material from oil industry, Cyperus esculentus waste, was used as the carbon source of the oleaginous microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. It demonstrated that C vulgaris grew better in C esculentus waste hydrolysate (CEWH1) than in glucose medium under the same reducing sugar concentration. CEWH concentration influenced the cell growth and lipid production significantly. The maximum lipid productivity 438.85 mg l(-1) d(-1) was achieved at 40 g l(-1). Fed-batch culture was performed to further enhance lipid production. The maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid productivity were 20.75 g l(-1), 36.52%, and 621.53 mg l(-1) d(-1), respectively. The produced biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS and the results suggested that lipids produced from CEWH could be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  332. Biodiesel production from leather industry wastes as an alternative feedstock and its use in diesel engines
    Abstract

    Altun, S.; Yasar, F. 2013. Biodiesel production from leather industry wastes as an alternative feedstock and its use in diesel engines. Energy Exploration & Exploitation. 31(5) 759-770

    Waste leather fat is produced by the leather industry in fleshing processing and discarded as waste. These wastes can be used as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to their considerable fat content. In this work, raw fleshing oil which is a fat-originated waste of the leather industry was transesterified using methanol in the presence of an alkali catalyst to obtain biodiesel. The obtained biodiesel was then used in a four-stroke and direct injection diesel engine to evaluate the biodiesel behavior as an alternative diesel fuel, at a constant speed under variable load conditions. Blends [20 and 50% (v/v)] of biodiesel with diesel reference fuel were tested too. The emissions test results compared with diesel reference fuel showed that diesel engine fueled by biodiesel emitted significantly lower opacity and gaseous emissions than the same engine fueled by diesel reference fuel, and with very similar performance. The obtained data indicated that biodiesel from leather industry wastes is promising as an alternative fuel for diesel engines, and can be used to substitute diesel fuel in terms of performance and emission parameters without any engine modification.
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  333. Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oil Using Controlled Reactor Plant
    Abstract

    Okoye, E. K.; Edeh, C. P. C.; Ezumezu, C. O.; Ejiogu, E. C. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oil Using Controlled Reactor Plant. Africon, 2013. 137-140

    Transesterification of waste (used) cooking oil presents an economic and environmental friendly means of producing biodiesel. In Africa and Nigeria in particular, the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil will also serve to eliminate or at least reduce a looming potential health risk associated with the consumption of over used cooking oil among the populace particularly those working in hotels, restaurants, eateries, etc and their families. Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel produced from a catalyzed reaction of the triglycerides in the oil or fat with a simple monohydric alcohol (methanol). The thrust of this work is the design and building of a compact table-top chemical reactor for carrying out trans-esterification of used cooking oil for the production of biodiesel. We first designed a special filter used to filter the used vegetable oil. The filter was made of activated carbon felt material, having an equivalent surface area of 1300m(2)/g. Subsequently, we developed a process to produce biodiesel from a compact chemical reactor plant with a control system using temperature sensors and an adjustable speed electric drive. Detailed operating conditions and equipment design for the process were obtained and analysis of the characteristic properties of our product was carried out to evaluate the technical and economic benefits, including environmental effects. Our analysis showed that the biodiesel we produced using waste cooking oil (used vegetable oil) met with international standards such as ASTM D 6751-07b. The cost of our pilot-scale produced biodiesel was $0.52/litre, which is about half the price of petroleum diesel in the Nigerian market. Thus, biodiesel from waste cooking oil proved to be technically and economically feasible and can be a competitive alternative to the highly priced petroleum diesel
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  334. Biodiesel production from used cooking oil: A review
    Abstract

    de Araujo, C. D. M.; de Andrade, C. C.; Silva, E. D. E.; Dupas, F. A. 2013. Biodiesel production from used cooking oil: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 27445-452

    This paper aims at the assessment of the methods of production of biodiesel from different types of used cooking oil. Researches into the productive chain of this type of biofuel were performed in Brazil while several scientific studies approaching processes of pretreatment and transesterification of waste cooking oil were analyzed with their possible variations: alkaline catalysis, acid catalysis, enzymatic catalysis and non-catalytic conversion techniques, highlighting the main advantages and disadvantages of each analyzed route. The use of alkaline catalysts in transesterification is the most common technique employed by the industry, being the KOH the most recommended catalyst for the reaction with waste cooking oil. When water and acidity contents are high, pretreatment techniques and other types of catalysts such as solid acids are recommended. Moreover, the economic benefits provided by used cooking oil were analyzed, indicating reductions of up to 45% of direct production costs compared to virgin oils, even with the additional costs of the pretreatment. Finally, the availability of raw materials was estimated, indicating that the used cooking oil would have potential to supply up to 13% of the demand for biodiesel in Brazil. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  335. Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat with low free fatty acids by an integrated catalytic process of composite membrane and sodium methoxide
    Abstract

    Shi, W. Y.; Li, J. X.; He, B. Q.; Yan, F.; Cui, Z. Y.; Wu, K. W.; Lin, L. G.; Qian, X. M.; Cheng, Y. 2013. Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat with low free fatty acids by an integrated catalytic process of composite membrane and sodium methoxide. Bioresource Technology. 139316-322

    An integrated process of catalytic composite membranes (CCMs) and sodium methoxide was developed to produce biodiesel from waste chicken fat. The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the chicken oil were converted to methyl esters by esterification with methanol using a novel sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES)/PES/non-woven fabric (NWF) CCMs in a flow-through catalytic membrane reactor. The CCM is that the NWF fibers were fully embedded in SPES/PES with a homogeneous and microporous structure. The oil obtained after esterification was carried out by transesterification of sodium methoxide. The results showed that the FFAs conversion obtained by CCMs with the acid capacity of 25.28 mmol (H+) was 92.8% at the residence time 258 s. The CCMs present a good stability during the continuous running of 500 h. The conversion of transesterification was 98.1% under the optimum conditions. The quality of the biodiesel met the international standards. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved,
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  336. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by solid acid SO42-/TiO2/La3+
    Abstract

    Wang, K.; Jiang, J. C.; Si, Z.; Liang, X. Y. 2013. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by solid acid SO42-/TiO2/La3+. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 5(5)

    A solid acid catalyst SO42-/TiO2/La3+ was prepared via sol-gel method using tetrabutyl titanate as TiO2 precursor. The catalyst simultaneously catalyzed esterification and transesterification resulting in the synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil with high content of free fatty acids as feedstock. The optimization of reaction conditions was also performed. The maximum yield of more than 90% could be obtained under the optimized conditions that catalyst amount 5 wt.% of oil, 10:1 molar ratio (methanol to oil), temperature 110 degrees C, and esterification of 1 h. The catalyst can be reused for five times by activation without observing the decrease of its catalytic performance. The final products were purified by molecular distillation and detected by GC-MS. The content of fatty acid methyl esters was 96.16%. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
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  337. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in a microtube reactor
    Abstract

    Tanawannapong, Y.; Kaewchada, A.; Jaree, A. 2013. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil in a microtube reactor. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 19(1) 37-41

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) was used to produce biodiesel in a microtube reactor. First, the acid value of the WCO was reduced from 3.96 mg KOH/g to less than 1 mg KOH/g via acid catalyzed esterification. The effects of the methanol-to-WCO molar ratio (4.5:1-18:1), the H2SO4 concentration (0.5-2 wt.%), reaction temperature (55-70 degrees C), and reaction time (5-20 s) were studied. The optimal conditions were 9:1 methanol-to-WCO molar ratio, 1 wt.% H2SO4, 65 degrees C and 5 s of reaction time. Triglycerides in the product from the first step were transesterified with methanol and alkaline catalyst. Methyl ester content of the biodiesel was 91.76%. (C) 2012 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  338. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using bifunctional heterogeneous solid catalysts
    Abstract

    Farooq, M.; Ramli, A.; Subbarao, D. 2013. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using bifunctional heterogeneous solid catalysts. Journal of Cleaner Production. 59131-140

    In the present work, bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts were studied to develop an effective catalyst for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil with improved catalytic activity and stability. The catalysts were characterized by various analytical techniques to explore their physicochemical properties. The catalytic activity was evaluated in the transesterification of waste cooking oil for low cost biodiesel production. The bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts show improved transesterification activities. Among the different catalysts tested, the Mo-Mn/gamma-Al2O3-15 wt% MgO catalyst provides the maximum biodiesel yield of 91.4% in reaction time of 4 h at reaction temperature of 100 degrees C, methanol to oil molar ratio of 27:1 and an agitation speed of 500 rpm. Moreover, the bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst shows substantial chemical stability and could be reused for at least eight times without major loss in its catalytic activity. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil were further studied and compared with the ASTM and the EN biodiesel specifications. The results show that the properties of the biodiesel produced comply with the international standard specifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  339. Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Oil and Its Application to a Diesel Engine
    Abstract

    Al-Hasan, M. I. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Oil and Its Application to a Diesel Engine. Transport. 28(3) 276-289

    A transesterification reaction of Waste Frying Oil (WFO) with methanol in the presence of a sodium hydroxide catalyst was performed by means of two different methods: a one-step and a two-step. The effects of NaOH concentration and the molar ratio of methanol to WFO on the conversion of WFO to biodiesel were investigated and optimized for both methods. The results showed that, for one-step method, the optimal parameters for maximum biodiesel yields were found to be methanol to WFO molar ratio of 5:1, catalyst concentration of 0.7 wt% of WFO, reaction temperature of 50 degrees C, reaction time of 1 h and stirring speed of 200 rpm, whereas the maximum biodiesel yield reached 95%. While, for the two-step method, the optimal parameters were 3.5:1 and 0.49 wt% of WFO for the first step, and 1.5:1 and 0.21wt% of WFO for the second step, whereas the maximum biodiesel yield reached 88.3% and 96.4%, respectively. Other parameters were the same as for one-step method. The two-step method enhances the yields of biodiesel by about of 2% as compared with the one-step method. In addition, the properties of WFO, the produced biodiesel and the diesel fuel were characterized by the Fatty Acid (FA) content (except diesel fuel), using Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis, and the density, viscosity, flash point, cloud point, carbon residue, and the acid value according to ASTM D6751-12 standard. While the Cetane Number (CN), lower heating value, stoichiometric Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) and iodine value were calculated based on FA composition, the results of GC analysis showed that, the FA composition of the WFO and its methyl esters was not changed with transesterification. Palmitic (C16:0), Stearic (C18:0) and Palmitoleic (C16:1) and Oleic (C18:1) acids were the most common saturated and monounsaturated FAs, respectively. Similarly, Linoleic (C18:2) and Linolenic (C18:3) were the most common polyunsaturated FAs. The physical and chemical properties results showed that the biodiesel density, viscosity and acid value were lower than of WFO and higher than diesel fuel. Also, the molecular weight, the CN, the flash point and the carbon residue of the biodiesel were higher, and the lower heating value and the stoichiometric AFR were lower than those of diesel fuel. However, all biodiesel properties met the ASTM D6751-12 or EN 14214:2008 standards. Additionally, an experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of produced biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel on a diesel engine performance in comparison with diesel fuel. The results showed that, when the engine operates on pure biodiesel and on a fuel blend, the brake power and the brake specific fuel consumption were increased, while the brake thermal efficiency and the equivalence AFR were decreased. Inconsequence, the produced biodiesel can be used as a diesel fuel substitute from the point of view of their characteristics similarity.
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  340. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil in sub- and supercritical methanol on a zeolite Y solid acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Medina-Valtierra, J.; Ramirez-Ortiz, J. 2013. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil in sub- and supercritical methanol on a zeolite Y solid acid catalyst. Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering. 7(4) 401-407

    Waste frying oil (WFO) is a very important feedstock for obtaining biodiesel at low cost and using WFO in transesterification reactions to produce biodiesel helps eliminate local environmental problems. In this study biodiesel was produced from WFO in sub- and super-critical methanol on a zeolite Y solid acid catalyst. The procedure was optimized using a design of experiments by varying the methanol to WFO molar ratio, the reaction temperature, and the amount of catalyst. Typical biodiesel yields varied from 83 to nearly 100% with methyl esters content ranging from 1.41-1.66 mol.L-1 and typical dynamic viscosities of 22.1-8.2 cP. Gas chromatography was used to determine the molecular composition of the biodiesel. The reaction products contained over 82 wt-% methyl esters, 4.2 wt-% free acids, 13.5 wt-% monoglycerides, and 0.3 wt-% diglycerides. The transesterification of WFO with methanol around its critical temperature combined with a zeolite Yas an acid catalyst is an efficient approach for the production of biodiesel with acceptable yields.
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  341. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils over lime catalysts
    Abstract

    Puna, J. F.; Correia, M. J. N.; Dias, A. P. S.; Gomes, J.; Bordado, J. 2013. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils over lime catalysts. Reaction Kinetics Mechanisms and Catalysis. 109(2) 405-415

    Biodiesel production from semi-refined oils (SRO) and waste frying oils (WFO) was studied using commercial CaO as heterogeneous catalyst. The methanolysis tests were carried out in mild reaction conditions (62 A degrees C, atmospheric pressure). With such conditions, SRO (soybean and rapeseed) allowed to produce a biodiesel containing 97-98 % of methyl esters (FAME), whereas WFO only provided 86-87 % of FAME. The lower FAME yield for WFO oil is ascribable to the partial neutralization of the catalyst by free fatty acids. Also, soaps formation from the WFO oil reduced the weight yield of the oil phase (containing FAME) obtained and increased the MONG content of the glycerin phase. The catalysts stability tests showed high stability even when WFO oil was processed. Catalytic tests performed with blends of WFO/semi-refined oils showed blending as a good strategy to process low value raw oils with minor decay of the catalyst performance. Both WFO and semi-refined oils showed S-shape kinetics curves thus discarding significant differences of the reaction mechanisms.
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  342. Biodiesel production using oil from fish canning industry wastes
    Abstract

    Costa, J. F.; Almeida, M. F.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Dias, J. M. 2013. Biodiesel production using oil from fish canning industry wastes. Energy Conversion and Management. 7417-23

    The present study evaluated biodiesel production using oil extracted from fish canning industry wastes, focusing on pre-treatment and reaction conditions. Experimental planning was conducted to evaluate the influence of acid catalyst concentration (1-3 wt.% H2SO4) in the esterification pre-treatment and the amount of methanolic solution (60-90 vol.%) used at the beginning of the further two-step alkali transesterification reaction. The use of a raw-material mixture, including waste oil obtained from olive oil bagasse, was also studied. The results from experimental planning showed that catalyst concentration mostly influenced product yield and quality, the best conditions being 1 wt.% catalyst and 60 vol.% of methanolic solution, to obtain a product yield of 73.9 wt.% and a product purity of 75.5 wt.%. Results from a one-step reaction under the selected conditions showed no advantage of performing a two-step alkali process. Although under the best conditions several of the biodiesel quality parameters were in agreement with standard specifications, a great variation was found in the biodiesel acid value, and oxidation stability and methyl ester content did not comply with biodiesel quality standards. Aiming to improve fuel quality, a mixture containing 80% waste olive oil and 20% of waste fish oil was evaluated. Using such mixture, biodiesel purity increased around 15%, being close to the standard requirements (96.5 wt.%), and the oxidation stability was in agreement with the biodiesel quality standard values (>= 6 h), which are promising results clearly showing the potential of using such wastes, of very low value, for biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  343. Biodiesel Production via the Transesterification of Soybean Oil Using Waste Starfish (Asterina pectinifera)
    Abstract

    Jo, Y. B.; Park, S. H.; Jeon, J. K.; Ko, C. H.; Ryu, C.; Park, Y. K. 2013. Biodiesel Production via the Transesterification of Soybean Oil Using Waste Starfish (Asterina pectinifera). Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 170(6) 1426-1436

    Calcined waste starfish was used as a base catalyst for the production of biodiesel from soybean oil for the first time. A batch reactor was used for the transesterification reaction. The thermal characteristics and crystal structures of the waste starfish were investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The biodiesel yield was determined by measuring the content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The calcination temperature appeared to be a very important parameter affecting the catalytic activity. The starfish-derived catalyst calcined at 750 A degrees C or higher exhibited high activity for the transesterification reaction. The FAME content increased with increasing catalyst dose and methanol-over-oil ratio.
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  344. Calcium Oxide Derived from Waste Shells of Mussel, Cockle, and Scallop as the Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Chaiyut, N.; Loryuenyong, V.; Worawanitchaphong, P.; Trongyong, S. 2013. Calcium Oxide Derived from Waste Shells of Mussel, Cockle, and Scallop as the Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. Scientific World Journal.

    The waste shell was utilized as a bioresource of calcium oxide (CaO) in catalyzing a transesterification to produce biodiesel (methyl ester). The economic and environmen-friendly catalysts were prepared by a calcination method at 700-1,000 degrees C for 4 h. The heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the CaO catalysts derived from waste shell showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of palm oil with methanol.
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  345. Catalytic Packed-Bed Reactor Configuration for Biodiesel Production Using Waste Oil as Feedstock
    Abstract

    Borges, M. E.; Diaz, L. 2013. Catalytic Packed-Bed Reactor Configuration for Biodiesel Production Using Waste Oil as Feedstock. Bioenergy Research. 6(1) 222-228

    Pumice, a natural porous silica material, exchanged with potassium is an efficient heterogeneous particulate catalytic material for triglycerides and free fatty acids transesterification reaction from sunflower oil and waste frying oil at low temperature. In this work, a packed-bed catalytic configuration reactor using this catalytic material was developed for biodiesel fuel production from sunflower oil and frying oil feedstock. Reactor operation variables as methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction time, and reaction temperature were studied. Results were compared with those obtained from the same transesterification reaction proceeding in a slurry batch reactor. The packed-bed catalytic reactor configuration can be useful in order to minimize catalyst mechanical damage occurring in the slurry reactor due to continuous stirring. The possibility of using a packed-bed reactor shows some advantages because the catalyst stays confined in the reactor bed and the reaction products can be easily separated, besides the mechanical stability of the catalyst particles is achieved.
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  346. Comparison of Novozyme 435 and Purolite D5081 as heterogeneous catalysts for the pretreatment of used cooking oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Haigh, K. F.; Abidin, S. Z.; Vladisavljevic, G. T.; Saha, B. 2013. Comparison of Novozyme 435 and Purolite D5081 as heterogeneous catalysts for the pretreatment of used cooking oil for biodiesel production. Fuel. 111186-193

    The catalytic performance of two types of catalysts, an ion-exchange resin, Purolite D5081 and an immobilised enzyme, Novozyme 435, was compared for the esterification pretreatment of used cooking oil (UCO) for the preparation of biodiesel. The reactions were carried out using a jacketed batch reactor with a reflux condenser. The effect of mass transfer limitations was investigated and it was shown that internal and external mass transfer limitations were negligible. An immobilised enzyme, Novozyme 435, was investigated because it has been shown to give high free fatty acids (FFAs) conversion. This catalyst has been compared to an ion-exchange resin, Purolite D5081, which was developed for the esterification of UCO for the production of biodiesel. It was found that a conversion of 94% was achieved using Purolite D5081 compared to 90% conversion with Novozyme 435. However, the optimum methanol to FFA ratio for Purolite D5081 was 98: 1 compared to 6.2:1 for Novozyme 435. In addition, it has been found that with Novozyme 435 there are side reactions which result in the formation of additional fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and FFAs at longer reaction times. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  347. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris on wastewater containing high levels of ammonia for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    He, P. J.; Mao, B.; Shen, C. M.; Shao, L. M.; Lee, D. J.; Chang, J. S. 2013. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris on wastewater containing high levels of ammonia for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 129177-181

    The feasibility of cultivating Chlorella vulgaris with wastewater containing high ammonia nitrogen concentrations was examined. The average specific growth rate of C vulgaris was 0.92 d(-1) at 17 mg L-1 NH4+-N, but declined to 0.33 d(-1) at NH4+-N concentrations of 39-143 mg L-1. At 39 mg L-1 NH4+-N, lipid productivity reached a maximum value (23.3 mg L-1 d(-1)) and dropped sharply at higher NH4+-N levels, which demonstrated NH4+-N should be controlled for biodiesel production. C16 and C18 fatty acids accounted for 80% of total fatty acids. Increasing NH4+-N from 17 to 207 mg L-1 yielded additional short-chain and saturated fatty acids. Protein content was in positive correlation with NH4+-N content from 17 mg L-1 (12%) to 207 mg L-1 (42%). Carbohydrate in the dried algae cell was in the range of 14-45%, with a peak value occurring at 143 mg L-1 NH4+-N. The results demonstrate that product quality can be manipulated by NH4+-N concentrations of the initial feeds. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  348. Design of a Small Pilot Plant for the Study of Supercritical Processes for the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Chicken Fat
    Abstract

    Nguyen, N. A.; Rice, P. A.; Tavlarides, L. L. 2013. Design of a Small Pilot Plant for the Study of Supercritical Processes for the Production of Biodiesel from Waste Chicken Fat. 2013 39th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (Nebec 2013). 155-156

    A process to produce biodiesel from chicken fat and other oils using supercritical methanol at 200 bars and 400 degrees C with residence times 6-9 minutes was designed using CHEMCAD. Major process units for the process (pumps, heat exchangers, reactor, and distillation columns) were sized and the heating and cooling requirements for several process variations were evaluated. Methanol to oil ratios or 6/1, 9/1 and 9/1 with recycle were considered. The results were then used to estimate the cost of a small pilot plant to produce 2 gal/day of biodiesel fuel.
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  349. Development of eggshell derived catalyst for transesterification of used cooking oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Navajas, A.; Issariyakul, T.; Arzamendi, G.; Gandia, L. M.; Dalai, A. K. 2013. Development of eggshell derived catalyst for transesterification of used cooking oil for biodiesel production. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering. 8(5) 742-748

    The major drawback that prevents commercialization of biodiesel is the high cost of vegetable oil feedstock. In this work, used cooking oil, which is much less expensive than fresh vegetable oil, is used as an alternative raw material. Prior to transesterification reaction, esterification was conducted and catalyzed homogeneously to eliminate free fatty acid. Heterogeneous catalyst derived from cheap and easily obtained egg-shell (industrial waste) was used for transesterification reaction. A 100% ester yield was obtained at the optimized reaction conditions, which is 5h of reaction duration, 24:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 4wt% catalyst loading. (c) 2013 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  350. Effect of alkali catalyst on biodiesel production in South Korea from mixtures of fresh soybean oil and waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Primata, M.; Seo, Y. C.; Chu, Y. H. 2013. Effect of alkali catalyst on biodiesel production in South Korea from mixtures of fresh soybean oil and waste cooking oil. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 15(2) 223-228

    Biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) and soybean oil (SO) mixture was produced by changing the alkali catalyst (NaOH) content and the WCO to SO ratio in the feedstock. All the prepared biodiesel samples satisfied the standard requirement in terms of free glycerol, density, and acid value. The minimum catalyst content and the highest WCO composition to get biodiesel from the WCO/SO mixture feedstock without ruining the biodiesel properties were 1.0 and 60 wt %, respectively. This conclusion implies that the waste cooking oil mixture, which contains 40 wt % fresh soybean oil, could be treated like the fresh soybean oil to produce biodiesel, and that this behavior would be helpful to reduce the biodiesel production cost when waste cooking oil used as feedstock. The unsaturated methyl esters such as linoleic, and oleic acid were dominant (almost 80 % w/w) in the fresh soybean oil. However the saturated methyl ester was increased due to the double bond breaking during the frying process. These results may deteriorate the biodiesel quality by changing the methyl ester composition.
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  351. Energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions of biodiesel production from oil derived from wastewater and wastewater sludge
    Abstract

    Zhang, X. L.; Yan, S.; Tyagi, R. D.; Surampalli, R. Y. 2013. Energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions of biodiesel production from oil derived from wastewater and wastewater sludge. Renewable Energy. 55392-403

    It has been recognized that oils derived from microorganism and wastewater sludge are comparable replacements of traditional biodiesel production feedstock, which is energy intensive and costly. Energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are essential factors to assess the feasibility of the production. This study evaluated the energy balance and GHG emissions of biodiesel production from microbial and wastewater sludge oil. The results show that energy balance and GHG emissions of biodiesel produced from microbial oil are significantly impacted by the cultivation methods and carbon source. For phototrophic microorganism (microalgae), open pond system gives 3.6 GJ higher energy gain than photo bioreactor system in per tonne biodiesel produced. For heterotrophic microorganisms, the energy balance depends on the type of carbon source. Three carbon sources including starch, cellulose, and starch industry wastewater (SIW) used in this study showed that utilization of SW as carbon source provided the most favorable energy balance. When oil extracted from municipal sludge is used for biodiesel production, the energy gain is up to 29.7 GJ per tonne biodiesel produced, which is higher than the energy gain per tonne of biodiesel produced from SIW cultivated microbes. GHG emissions study shows that biodiesel production from microbes or sludge oil is a net carbon dioxide capture process except when starch is used as raw material for microbial oil production, and the highest capture is around 40 tonnes carbon dioxide per tonne of biodiesel produced. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  352. Enhanced 1,3-propanediol production by a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii strain cultivated on biodiesel-derived waste glycerol through sterile and non-sterile bioprocesses
    Abstract

    Metsoviti, M.; Zeng, A. P.; Koutinas, A. A.; Papanikolaou, S. 2013. Enhanced 1,3-propanediol production by a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii strain cultivated on biodiesel-derived waste glycerol through sterile and non-sterile bioprocesses. Journal of Biotechnology. 163(4) 408-418

    The production of 1,3-propanediol (PD) by a newly isolated Citrobacter freundii strain [FMCC-B 294 (VK-19)] was investigated. Different grades of biodiesel-derived glycerol were employed. Slightly lower PD biosynthesis was observed in batch experiments only when crude glycerol from waste-cooking oil trans-esterification was utilized and only at elevated initial substrate concentrations employed. Batch bioreactor cultures revealed the capability of the strain to tolerate elevated amounts of substrate (glycerol up to 170 g/L) and produce quantities of PD in such high substrate concentrations. Nevertheless, maximum PD quantities (45.9 g/L) were achieved at lower initial glycerol concentrations (similar to 100 g/L) employed, suggesting some inhibition exerted due to the increased initial substrate concentrations. In order to improve PD production, a fed-batch fermentation was carried out and 68.1 g/L of PD were produced (the highest PD quantity achieved by C. freundii strains so far) with yield per glycerol consumed similar to 0.40 g/g and volumetric productivity 0.79 g/L/h. Aiming to perform a more economical and eco-friendlier procedure, batch and fed-batch fermentations under completely non-sterile conditions were carried out. During non-sterilized fed-batch process, 176 g/L of raw glycerol were converted to 66.3 g/L of PD, suggesting the potentiality of the non-sterile fermentation by C. freundii FMCC-B 294. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  353. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a packed-bed reactor: An engineering approach to separation of hydrophilic impurities
    Abstract

    Hama, S.; Yoshida, A.; Tamadani, N.; Noda, H.; Kondo, A. 2013. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a packed-bed reactor: An engineering approach to separation of hydrophilic impurities. Bioresource Technology. 135417-421

    An engineering approach was applied to an efficient biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. In this work, an enzymatic packed-bed reactor (PBR) was integrated with a glycerol-separating system and used successfully for methanolysis, yielding a methyl ester content of 94.3% and glycerol removal of 99.7%. In the glycerol-separating system with enhanced retention time, the effluent contained lesser amounts of glycerol and methanol than those in the unmodified system, suggesting its promising ability to remove hydrophilic impurities from the oil layer. The PBR system was also applied to oils with high acid values, in which fatty acids could be esterified and the large amount of water was extracted using the glycerol-separating system. The long-term operation demonstrated the high lipase stability affording less than 0.2% residual triglyceride in 22 batches. Therefore, the PBR system, which facilitates the separation of hydrophilic impurities, is applicable to the enzymatic biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  354. Fatty acid methyl ester production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by CuO-CeO2/NiO mixed oxides
    Abstract

    Hussain, S. T.; Ahmed, W.; Saeed, M.; Ali, S. D.; Asma, M. 2013. Fatty acid methyl ester production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by CuO-CeO2/NiO mixed oxides. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 5(2)

    The diminution of edible oils and increasing cost of edible oils and biodiesel have gained the interest of many researchers for non-edible oils as biodiesel feed stock. The major hurdle in the commercialization of biodiesel is the high cost of feedstock. Due to fast mushrooming of fast food centers, waste cooking oil is one of the most economical feedstock available for the biodiesel production. The high free fatty acid contents and moisture in the waste cooking oil hinders the homogenous transesterification for the commercial purposes. Mixed oxides of Cu with Ni and Ce were synthesized by co-precipitation method and their efficacy for the production of biodiesel from the waste cooking oil was inspected. The acid catalyzed heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking oil was performed in the sealed container. It was also interesting to mention that no pretreatment was executed for the waste cooking oil conversion to biodiesel. It was investigated that mixed oxide catalyst CuO-CeO2 proved to be the potential candidate in pilot scale biodiesel production from waste cooking oil having about 92% conversion rate. Comprehensive chemical analysis of biodiesel including NMR, GC-MS, and FT-IR supports our result. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4794437]
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  355. Full-scale treatment of wastewater from a biodiesel fuel production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification
    Abstract

    De Gisi, S.; Galasso, M.; De Feo, G. 2013. Full-scale treatment of wastewater from a biodiesel fuel production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification. Environmental Technology. 34(7) 861-870

    The treatment of wastewater derived from a biodiesel fuel (BDF) production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification was studied at full scale. The investigated wastewater treatment plant consisted of the following phases: primary adsorption/coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation processes, biological treatment with the combination of trickling filter and activated sludge systems, secondary flocculation/sedimentation processes, and reverse osmosis (RO) system with spiral membranes. All the processes were developed in a continuous mode, while the RO experiment was performed with batch tests. Two types of BDF wastewater were considered: the first wastewater (WW1) had an average total chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH and feed flow rate of 10,850.8mg/L, 5.9 and 2946.7L/h, respectively, while the second wastewater (WW2) had an average total COD, pH and feed flow rate of 43,898.9mg/L, 3.3 and 2884.6L/h, respectively. The obtained results from the continuous tests showed a COD removal percentage of more than 90% for the two types of wastewater considered. The removal of biorefractory COD and salts was obtained with a membrane technology in order to reuse the RO permeate in the factory production cycle. The rejections percentage of soluble COD, chlorides and sulphates were 92.8%, 95.0% and 99.5%, respectively. Because the spiral membranes required a high number of washing cycles, the use of plane membranes was preferable. Finally, the RO reject material should be evaporated using the large amount of inexpensive heat present in this type of industry.
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  356. Green microalga Scenedesmus acutus grown on municipal wastewater to couple nutrient removal with lipid accumulation for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    de Alva, M. S.; Luna-Pabello, V. M.; Cadena, E.; Ortiz, E. 2013. Green microalga Scenedesmus acutus grown on municipal wastewater to couple nutrient removal with lipid accumulation for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 146744-748

    The green microalga Scenedesmus acutus was cultivated in two different municipal wastewater discharges (pre- and post-treated), and was compared to a culture medium with basic nutrients (20% of N, P, K), in order to study the simultaneous potential of nutrient removal and lipid accumulation ability. The highest level of nutrient removal was found in the pretreated wastewater discharge (achieving a high removal of phosphorus [66%] and organic nitrogen [94%]). Likewise, better results on biomass productivity and lipid accumulation were found in cultures using pretreated wastewater compared to enriched medium, obtaining 79.9 mg/L, and 280 mg/L, respectively. Since the best results were found in pretreated wastewater, the biodiesel preparation was performed using said medium at small-scale. After cultivation, 249.4 mg/L of biodiesel were obtained. According to this analysis, S. acutus could be used for wastewater treatment producing biomass with a suitable content of lipids, convenient for biodiesel production. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  357. High-cell-density cultivation of oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus for biodiesel production using organic waste from the brewery industry
    Abstract

    Ryu, B. G.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Choi, Y. E.; Han, J. I.; Yang, J. W. 2013. High-cell-density cultivation of oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus for biodiesel production using organic waste from the brewery industry. Bioresource Technology. 135357-364

    Waste spent yeast from brewery industry was used as a sole growth substrate to grow an oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus for the purpose of biodiesel production. Approximately 7 g/l/d of biomass productivity was obtained using only spent yeast (30 g/l) without additional nutrients and pretreatment of any kind. To make best use of available nutrients in the spent yeast, stepwise cultivation was carried out in a batch culture mode and the highest biomass and lipid content, which were 50.4 g/l and 37.7%, respectively, were obtained at 35:1 of C/N ratio. Lipid from C. curvatus was found to be a quality-sufficient source of oil as a transportation fuel in terms of cetane, iodine values, and oxidation stability, although the values of cold filter plugging point were less desirable. Economic evaluation revealed that the use of the spent yeast could significantly reduce the unit cost of yeast-based biodiesel production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  358. Industrial wastes as a promising renewable source for production of microbial lipid and direct transesterification of the lipid into biodiesel
    Abstract

    Cheirsilp, B.; Louhasakul, Y. 2013. Industrial wastes as a promising renewable source for production of microbial lipid and direct transesterification of the lipid into biodiesel. Bioresource Technology. 142329-337

    Two strategies of converting industrial wastes to microbial lipid and direct transesterification of obtained lipid into biodiesel were attempted. Several oleaginous yeasts were cultivated on industrial wastes. The yeasts grew well on the wastes with low C/N ratio (i.e. serum latex) but accumulated high lipid content only when the wastes had a high C/N ratio (i.e. palm oil mill effluent and crude glycerol). The yeast lipids have similar fatty acid composition to that of plant oil indicating their potential use as biodiesel feed-stocks. The combination of these wastes and two-phase cultivation for cell growth and lipid accumulation improved lipid productivity of the selected yeast. The direct transesterification process that eliminates cell drying and lipid extraction steps, gave comparable yield of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester >70% within 1 h) to that of conventional method. These two successful strategies may contribute greatly to industrializing oil production from microbes and industrial wastes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  359. Kinetic study of hydroxide-catalyzed methanolysis of Jatropha curcas-waste food oil mixture for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Berchmans, H. J.; Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. 2013. Kinetic study of hydroxide-catalyzed methanolysis of Jatropha curcas-waste food oil mixture for biodiesel production. Fuel. 10446-52

    Hydroxide-catalyzed methanolysis kinetic reaction model that considers the side effects of saponification of glycerides, esters and free fatty acids (FFAs) was proposed. Methanolysis of a mixture of Jatropha curcas-waste food oil that contains 1%wt FFAs under reaction temperature 50 degrees C, mixing speed 900 rpm, methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and KOH to oil mass ratio 1%wt, was accurately and completely described by the kinetic reaction model. Simulation and experiment results showed that the FFAs were neutralized by the hydroxide ion, resulting in production of water and more soap. This was undesired side reaction because it consumed more catalyst to achieve the same reaction rate. However, 1%wt FFAs content in the oil mixture and 2 h reaction time of methanolysis produced biodiesel with 97.1%wt purity. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  360. Low Temperature Glycerolysis as a High FFA Pre-Treatment Method for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kombe, Godlisten G.; Temu, Abraham K.; Rajabu, Hassan M.; Mrema, Godwill D.; Lee, Keat Teong 2013. Low Temperature Glycerolysis as a High FFA Pre-Treatment Method for Biodiesel Production. Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science. Vol.03No.047

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  361. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production
    Abstract

    Fukui, K.; Maeda, K.; Kuramochi, H. 2013. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production. Journal of Crystal Growth. 373102-105

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1]. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  362. Microalgal cultivation in wastewater from the fermentation effluent in Riboflavin (B2) manufacturing for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Sun, X. F.; Wang, C. W.; Li, Z. H.; Wang, W. G.; Tong, Y. J.; Wei, J. 2013. Microalgal cultivation in wastewater from the fermentation effluent in Riboflavin (B2) manufacturing for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 143499-504

    In this work, the acclimation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in diluted wastewater was studied to produce biomass and remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia-N and phosphorous. The results indicated that the optimal conditions (the volume ratio of wastewater, light intensity, culture temperature, CO2 concentration in feeding gas) which could influence the wastewater treatment efficiency were 0.05, 250 photons m(-2) s(-1), 28 degrees C and 5%, respectively. Under these conditions, the removal efficiency of COD reached up to 89.2%, while the total nitrogen and total phosphorous decreased by 64.52% and 82.20%, respectively. With the second treatment, COD in the wastewater was further reduced to less than 100 mg/L while it was only reduced to 542.9 mg/L after the first treatment. The treated wastewater could be discharged directly or subjected to for further treatment for recycling. In addition, 1.25 g/L of the biomass and 38.27% (dry basis, w%) of lipid content were reached after microalgal cultivation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  363. Microalgal species growing on piggery wastewater as a valuable candidate for nutrient removal and biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Abou-Shanab, R. A. I.; Ji, M. K.; Kim, H. C.; Paeng, K. J.; Jeon, B. H. 2013. Microalgal species growing on piggery wastewater as a valuable candidate for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. Journal of Environmental Management. 115257-264

    Six microalgal species were examined in this study to determine their effectiveness in the coupling of piggery wastewater treatment and biodiesel production. The dry biomasses of Ourococcus multisporus, Nitzschia cf. pusilla, Chlamydomonas mexicana, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chiorella vulgaris, and Micractinium reisseri were 0.34 +/- 0.08, 0.37 +/- 0.13, 0.56 +/- 0.35, 0.53 +/- 0.30, 0.49 +/- 0.26, and 0.35 +/- 0.08 g dwt/L, respectively. The highest removal of nitrogen (62%), phosphorus (28%), and inorganic carbon (29%) were achieved by C mexicana. In the absence of microalgae, the spontaneous precipitation of phosphorus, calcium, and inorganic carbon occurred at slightly alkaline pH. The highest lipid productivity and lipid content (0.31 +/- 0.03 g/L and 33 +/- 3%, respectively) were found in C mexicana. The fatty acid compositions of the studied species were mainly palmitic, linoleic, a-linolenic, and oleic. The results of our study suggest that C mexicana is one of the most promising candidates for simultaneous nutrient removal and high-efficient biodiesel production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  364. Microalgal species growing on piggery wastewater as a valuable candidate for nutrient removal and biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Abou-Shanab, R. A.; Ji, M. K.; Kim, H. C.; Paeng, K. J.; Jeon, B. H. 2013. Microalgal species growing on piggery wastewater as a valuable candidate for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. J Environ Manage. 115257-64

    Six microalgal species were examined in this study to determine their effectiveness in the coupling of piggery wastewater treatment and biodiesel production. The dry biomasses of Ourococcus multisporus, Nitzschia cf. pusilla, Chlamydomonas mexicana, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris, and Micractinium reisseri were 0.34 +/- 0.08, 0.37 +/- 0.13, 0.56 +/- 0.35, 0.53 +/- 0.30, 0.49 +/- 0.26, and 0.35 +/- 0.08 g dwt/L, respectively. The highest removal of nitrogen (62%), phosphorus (28%), and inorganic carbon (29%) were achieved by C. mexicana. In the absence of microalgae, the spontaneous precipitation of phosphorus, calcium, and inorganic carbon occurred at slightly alkaline pH. The highest lipid productivity and lipid content (0.31 +/- 0.03 g/L and 33 +/- 3%, respectively) were found in C. mexicana. The fatty acid compositions of the studied species were mainly palmitic, linoleic, alpha-linolenic, and oleic. The results of our study suggest that C. mexicana is one of the most promising candidates for simultaneous nutrient removal and high-efficient biodiesel production.
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  365. Microbial Conversion of Waste Glycerol from Biodiesel Production into Value-Added Products
    Abstract

    Li, C.; Lesnik, K. L.; Liu, H. 2013. Microbial Conversion of Waste Glycerol from Biodiesel Production into Value-Added Products. Energies. 6(9) 4739-4768

    Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel that is capable of being utilized by a conventional diesel engine. However, the biodiesel production process generates glycerol-containing waste streams which have become a disposal issue for biodiesel plants and generated a surplus of glycerol. A value-added opportunity is needed in order to compensate for disposal-associated costs. Microbial conversions from glycerol to valuable chemicals performed by various bacteria, yeast, fungi, and microalgae are discussed in this review paper, as well as the possibility of extending these conversions to microbial electrochemical technologies.
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  366. Municipal wastewater utilization for biomass and biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus HM103382 and Micractinium reisseri JN169781
    Abstract

    Abou-Shanab, R. A. I.; Kim, S. H.; Ji, M. K.; Lee, S. H.; Roh, H. S.; Jeon, B. H. 2013. Municipal wastewater utilization for biomass and biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus HM103382 and Micractinium reisseri JN169781. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 5(5)

    Municipal wastewater is a major problem due to its high concentration of nutrients, which can cause eutrophication of the surrounding water, resulting in serious disturbance in health and ecosystem. Microalgae can utilize nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater as a potential source of cost effective and sustainable means for biodiesel production. Two microalgal species including Scenedesmus obliquus HM103382 and Micractinium reisseri JN169781 were cultivated in domestic wastewater (influent and effluent) that was pretreated and supplemented with 15% CO2 in order to accomplish simultaneous nutrient removal and lipid production from wastewater. The biomass yield and lipid production were relatively high using either autoclaved or filter-sterilized wastewater compared to using either UV-irradiated or unsterilized wastewater (control). M. reisseri and S. obliquus grown in the autoclaved influent showed high biomass yield (0.41 +/- 0.01 and 0.26 +/- 0.03 g dry wt. l(-1)) and lipid content (22% and 19%), respectively. The highest removal rates of nitrogen (97%), phosphorus (98%), and inorganic carbon (77%) were achieved by M. reisseri cultivated in the autoclaved influent. The saturated fatty acids fractions accounted for 66% and 60% of the total fatty acids accumulated in M. reisseri grown in the filter-sterilized influent and the autoclaved effluent, respectively, which is desirable for good quality biodiesel. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
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  367. Nutrient removal and biodiesel production by integration of freshwater algae cultivation with piggery wastewater treatment
    Abstract

    Zhu, L. D.; Wang, Z. M.; Shu, Q.; Takala, J.; Hiltunen, E.; Feng, P. Z.; Yuan, Z. H. 2013. Nutrient removal and biodiesel production by integration of freshwater algae cultivation with piggery wastewater treatment. Water Research. 47(13) 4294-4302

    An integrated approach, which combined freshwater microalgae Chlorella zofingiensis cultivation with piggery wastewater treatment, was investigated in the present study. The characteristics of algal growth, lipid and biodiesel production, and nutrient removal were examined by using tubular bubble column photobioreactors to cultivate C. zofingiensis in piggery wastewater with six different concentrations. Pollutants in piggery wastewater were efficiently removed among all the treatments. The specific growth rate and biomass productivity were different among all the cultures. As the initial nutrient concentration increased, the lipid content of C. zofingiensis decreased. The differences in lipid and biodiesel productivity of C. zofingiensis among all the treatments mainly resulted from the differences in biomass productivity. It is worthy of note that the diluted piggery wastewater with 1900 mg L (1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for C. zofingiensis cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient removal and the highest productivities of biomass, lipid and biodiesel were presented. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  368. Nutrient removal and biodiesel production by integration of freshwater algae cultivation with piggery wastewater treatment
    Abstract

    Zhu, L.; Wang, Z.; Shu, Q.; Takala, J.; Hiltunen, E.; Feng, P.; Yuan, Z. 2013. Nutrient removal and biodiesel production by integration of freshwater algae cultivation with piggery wastewater treatment. Water Res. 47(13) 4294-302

    An integrated approach, which combined freshwater microalgae Chlorella zofingiensis cultivation with piggery wastewater treatment, was investigated in the present study. The characteristics of algal growth, lipid and biodiesel production, and nutrient removal were examined by using tubular bubble column photobioreactors to cultivate C. zofingiensis in piggery wastewater with six different concentrations. Pollutants in piggery wastewater were efficiently removed among all the treatments. The specific growth rate and biomass productivity were different among all the cultures. As the initial nutrient concentration increased, the lipid content of C. zofingiensis decreased. The differences in lipid and biodiesel productivity of C. zofingiensis among all the treatments mainly resulted from the differences in biomass productivity. It is worthy of note that the diluted piggery wastewater with 1900 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for C. zofingiensis cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient removal and the highest productivities of biomass, lipid and biodiesel were presented.
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  369. Optimization of biodiesel production from animal fat residue in wastewater using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Awad, S.; Paraschiv, M.; Varuvel, E. G.; Tazerout, M. 2013. Optimization of biodiesel production from animal fat residue in wastewater using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology. 129315-320

    Animal fat residues (AFR) from waste water were used as feedstock to produce biodiesel by a two-step acid-catalyzed process. Treatment of the AFRs with 5.4% (w/w) of 17 M H2SO4 at a methanol/AFR ratio of 13:1 (50% w/w) at 60 degrees C converted more than 95% of the triglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with an acid value (AV) of 1.3 mg(KOH)/g(biodiesel). Response surface methodology indicated that a lower AV cannot be reached using a one-step acid catalyzed process. Thus a two-step acid catalyzed process was employed using 3.6% catalyst and 30% methanol for 5 h for the first step and 1.8% catalyst and 10% methanol for I h in the second step, resulting in a yield higher than 98% and an AV of 0.3 mg(KOH)/g(biodiesel). The product thus conforms to the European norm EN14214 concerning biodiesel. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  370. Optimization of biodiesel production using waste mussel shell catalyst
    Abstract

    Rezaei, R.; Mohadesi, M.; Moradi, G. R. 2013. Optimization of biodiesel production using waste mussel shell catalyst. Fuel. 109534-541

    Calcium oxide is an appropriate catalyst for biodiesel production. In this study, an inexpensive and environment-friendly catalyst was used. The waste mussel shell collected in of Persian Gulf coast is a source of calcium carbonate which changes to calcium oxide in calcinations temperatures higher than 950 degrees C. Transesterification reaction was done in the presence of soybean oil, methanol and mussel shell catalyst in a temperature of 60 degrees C. Using response surface methodology (RSM) the effects of different parameters (calcination temperature, catalyst concentration and molar ratio of methanol to oil) were studied. Each parameter was set at three levels labeled as low, medium and high, respectively (calcination temperature of 950, 1000, and 1050 degrees C; catalyst concentration of 6, 9 and 12 wt.%; methanol to oil ratios of 12: 1, 18: 1 and 24: 1). The results of the optimization implies that the calcination temperature of 1050 degrees C, catalyst concentration of 12 wt.%, and methanol to oil ratio of 24:1 provide the maximum values of purity and yield in biodiesel production. The reusability of mussel shell catalyst was studied for five times and the result showed that the catalyst re-calcination in reusability step has negative effects on the yield of biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  371. Optimization of biosurfactant production using waste from biodiesel industry in a new membrane assisted bioreactor
    Abstract

    Pereira, A. G.; Pacheco, G. J.; Tavares, L. F.; Neves, B. C.; Kronemberger, F. D.; Reis, R. S.; Freire, D. M. G. 2013. Optimization of biosurfactant production using waste from biodiesel industry in a new membrane assisted bioreactor. Process Biochemistry. 48(9) 1271-1278

    The main byproduct of biodiesel production is glycerol. Here, crude glycerol - byproduct of biodiesel industry - was evaluated as sole carbon source in rhamnolipids production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The optimal concentration of crude glycerol and sodium nitrate was assessed using response surface methodology, resulting in about 40-50 mg/L.h of rhamnolipids, which was about four times higher than previously reported in the literature. Fermentation parameters were similar to those observed with commercial glycerol as sole carbon source. The optimized medium was suitable for production using simple (22.9 mg/L.h) and fed-batch (32.4 mg/L.h) fermentation in oxygen-controlled bioreactor without foaming formation. Composition and relative abundance of rhamnolipid congeners showed that crude glycerol had little effect on metabolic pathways involved in their production. CMC values were approximately 130 mg/L and 230-260 mg/L for rhamnolipids from crude and commercial glycerol fermentation, respectively, which were about 2-6 times lower than CMC values of synthetic surfactants. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  372. Optimization of two-step catalyzed biodiesel production from soybean waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Fajriutami, T.; Seo, Y. C.; Chu, Y. H. 2013. Optimization of two-step catalyzed biodiesel production from soybean waste cooking oil. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 15(2) 179-186

    An acid-base-catalyst-based two-step biodiesel production experiment from soybean waste cooking oil was carried out to identify which parameter is the most influential among the experimental parameters by using the Taguchi method. Heterogeneous catalysts were used to avoid a water-consuming homogeneous catalyst removal process. Ferric sulfate and calcium oxide were used as acid and base catalysts, respectively, for the heterogeneous reaction. Reaction time and methanol-to-triglyceride mole ratio were significant factors. The optimum parameters for step 1 (acid esterification) were 4 h of reaction time, 4 wt. % of ferric sulfate amount, a 16:1 methanol to triglyceride mole ratio, and 400 rpm of mixing speed, respectively. For the transesterification step, the most influential factor was reaction time, and CaO amount was significant as well. On the other hand, the mole ratio of methanol and oil was relatively less significant. Optimum parameters were 3 h of reaction time, 2 wt. % of CaO, and a 12:1 methanol to triglyceride mole ratio with mixing speed at 400 rpm in this experimental range. Under the optimum conditions, waste cooking oil with 5.27 mg KOH/g of acid value was converted into crude biodiesel by a two-step process with fatty acid methyl ester content reaching 89.8 % without any further post-purification.
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  373. Optimized enzymatic production of waste oil to biodiesel
    Abstract

    Zhang, X. L.; Li, J. J.; Tang, X. H.; Xe, Z. R.; Huang, Z. X. 2013. Optimized enzymatic production of waste oil to biodiesel. Advances in Energy Science and Technology, Pts 1-4. 291-294284-289

    This study employed statistically based on experimental designs to optimize transesterification conditions for biodiesel production from waste oil via lipase-catalyzed in homoeothermy. Optimization of different reaction parameters were done by using response surface methodology. Results indicated optimum conditions including: alcohol to oil molar ratio 3:1, lipase concentration 58.38 U each gram of oil, water and n-hexane content were 24.59% and 13.28% respectively, reaction temperature at 20 degrees C, and reaction time for 24 h. Under these optimal conditions, 98.24% yield of biodiesel was obtained. This study will probably contribute to the development of continuous enzymatic processes, and maybe a suitable method for industrial production of biodiesel.
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  374. Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles
    Abstract

    Yu, C. Y.; Huang, L. Y.; Kuan, I. C.; Lee, S. L. 2013. Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 14(12) 24074-24086

    Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% (w/w of oil) and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content (w/w of oil) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 degrees C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 80% and 79%, respectively.
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  375. Overview of the production of biodiesel from Waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Yaakob, Z.; Mohammad, M.; Alherbawi, M.; Alam, Z.; Sopian, K. 2013. Overview of the production of biodiesel from Waste cooking oil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 18184-193

    In recent years, biodiesel has attracted significant attention from researchers, governments, and industries as a renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic fuel. However, several feedstocks have been proven impractical or infeasible because of their extremely high cost due to their usage primarily as food resources. Waste cooking oil (WCO) is considered the most promising biodiesel feedstock despite its drawbacks, such as its high free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of the pre-treatment and the usage of WCO for the production of biodiesel using several methods, different types of reactors, and various types and amounts of alcohol and catalysts. The most common process in the production of biodiesel is transesterification, and using a methanol-ethanol mixture will combine the advantages of both alcohols in biodiesel production. In addition, this paper highlights the purification and analysis of the produced biodiesel, operating parameters that highly affect the biodiesel yield, and several economic studies. This review suggests that WCO is a promising feedstock in biodiesel production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  376. Potential of Microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus Grown in Brewery Wastewater for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Mata, T. M.; Melo, A. C.; Meireles, S.; Mendes, A. M.; Martins, A. A.; Caetano, N. S. 2013. Potential of Microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus Grown in Brewery Wastewater for Biodiesel Production. Icheap-11: 11th International Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering, Pts 1-4. 32901-906

    This work aims to analyze the possibility of growing microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) in a brewery wastewater as a potential candidate for biodiesel production. For this purpose S. obliquus was cultivated in a synthetic brewery wastewater at 12,000 Lux of light intensity, with a 12 h period of daily light and aeration. Under these conditions, results revealed an average lipid content of 27 % of dry-weight (dwt) biomass and average biomass and lipid concentrations of respectively, 0.90 and 0.24 g/L (of dwt biomass). The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) transesterified from the lipids are mainly composed of saturated esters (56.4 %) among which, palmitate (C16:0) is the most significant with a relative percentage of 47.8 % (wt). With regard to the unsaturated esters, the percentage of 10.6 % (wt) obtained for linolenate (C18:3) is below the maximum limit imposed by the EN 14214: 2003 standard for this ester in biodiesel. The average molecular mass of these lipids and FAME are respectively 845.2 and 283.1 g/mol.
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  377. Preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of moisture removal and energy usage in pretreatment module of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Palanisamy, K.; Idlan, M. K.; Saifudin, N. 2013. Preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of moisture removal and energy usage in pretreatment module of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (Icee 2013). 16

    Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) is a plausible low cost biodiesel feedstock but it exhibits few unfavorable parameters for conversion into biodiesel. One of the parameter is the presence of high moisture content which will inhibit or retard catalyst during the acid esterification or base transesterification causing lower purity and yield of biodiesel. This will effect the post processing and escalate production cost making WCO a not favorable biodiesel feedstock. Therefore, it is important to have an effective moisture removal method to reduce the moisture content below 0.05% wt or 500 ppm in WCO for an efficient biodiesel production. In this work, the effectiveness of moisture removal and the energy usage of a newly develop innovative pretreatment module has been evaluated and reported. Results show that the pretreatment module is able to reduce up to 85% to effectively reduce the moisture content to below 500ppm of the initial moisture content of WCO and only consume 157 Wh/l energy compared to conventional heating that consume 386 Wh/l and only remove 67.6% moisture in 2 hours.
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  378. Production of biodiesel from microalgae Chlamydomonas polypyrenoideum grown on dairy industry wastewater
    Abstract

    Kothari, R.; Prasad, R.; Kumar, V.; Singh, D. P. 2013. Production of biodiesel from microalgae Chlamydomonas polypyrenoideum grown on dairy industry wastewater. Bioresource Technology. 144499-503

    This study involves a process of phyco-remediation of dairy industry wastewater by algal strain Chlamydomonas polypyrenoideum. The results of selected algal strain indicated that dairy industry wastewater was good nutrient supplement for algal growth in comparable with BG-11 growth medium. Alga grown on dairy industry wastewater reduced the pollution load of nitrate (90%), nitrite (74%), phosphate (70%), chloride (61%), fluoride (58%), and ammonia (90%) on 10th day of its growth as compared to that of uninoculated wastewater. The lipid content of algal biomass grown on dairy wastewater on 10th day (1.6 g) and 15th day (1.2 g) of batch experiment was found to be higher than the lipid content of algal biomass grown in BG-11 growth medium on 10th day (1.27 g) and 15th day (1.0 g) of batch experiment. The results on FTIR analysis of the extracted bio-oil through transesterification reaction was comparable with bio-oil obtained from other sources. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  379. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oils using Ferric hydrogen sulphate as an effective reusable heterogeneous solid acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Alhassan, F. H.; Yunus, R.; Rashid, U.; Sirat, K.; Islam, A.; Lee, H. V.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2013. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oils using Ferric hydrogen sulphate as an effective reusable heterogeneous solid acid catalyst. Applied Catalysis a-General. 456182-187

    Biodiesel production by simultaneous esterification and transesterification of waste oil with methanol has been studied in a heterogeneous system using solid ferric hydrogen sulphate [Fe (HSO4)(3)] acid catalyst. The catalyst was prepared by displacement reaction followed by calcination at 400 degrees C for 3 h. The prepared catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement (BET), thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 (TPD - NH3). Furthermore, the dependence of the conversion of mixed waste oil on the reactions variables such as the molar ratio of methanol/oil, the amount of catalysts used, reaction temperatures, reusability were also investigated. The catalyst was reused many times with slight loss in activity and the maximum yield of 94.5% was achieved at the optimized conditions of reaction temperature of 205 degrees C; stirring speed of 350 rpm, 1:15 molar ratio of oil to alcohol and 1% w/w catalyst loading. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  380. Production of biodiesel from wastewater grown Chlorella minutissima
    Abstract

    Singh, S. K.; Bansal, A.; Jha, M. K.; Jain, R. 2013. Production of biodiesel from wastewater grown Chlorella minutissima. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology. 20(5) 341-345

    The present study has been undertaken to assess integrated algal harvesting in sewage wastewater for biodiesel feedstock. Chlorella minutissirna microalgae are grown in wastewater from local hotel sewage drain and produced biomass is used to produce biodiesel. C. minutissima effectively removes the wastewater nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus with the 99.19% and 96% removal respectively. Content of oil in produced algal biomass is drastically reduced i.e. 4% in response to 57% of total dry biomass reported in literature. The extracted oil mainly consists of small chain fatty acids (C-16:0, C-18:1, C-18:2, C-18:3). Transesterification reaction shows that maximum fatty acid methyl ester (FAMEs) concentration is converted from free fatty acids of oil during 1-2 h at 65 degrees C.
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  381. Production of Fatty Acid Esters (Biodiesel Oil) from Waste Animal Fats
    Abstract

    Visek, L.; Pokorny, M. 2013. Production of Fatty Acid Esters (Biodiesel Oil) from Waste Animal Fats. Chemicke Listy. 107(6) 476-478

    The technology as well as physicochemical, fuel and ecological properties of the title products are described.
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  382. Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester by Esterification of Waste Frying Oil with Methanol Using Acidified Silica as Heterogeneous Catalyst
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Chaiyut, N.; Loryuenyong, V.; Pin-Ngern, K.; Tonprasert, N.; Dangnuan, S. 2013. Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester by Esterification of Waste Frying Oil with Methanol Using Acidified Silica as Heterogeneous Catalyst. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 7(2) 229-232

    Heterogeneous catalysis of esterification using acidified silica catalyst was utilized to produce fatty acid methyl ester from waste frying oil and methanol. The effects of reaction time (1-5 h), temperature (50-80 degrees C) and catalyst loading (2-4 wt%) on the conversion to methyl ester were studied. The results showed that increasing reaction time, temperature and amount of catalyst can enhance the conversion of free fatty acid. The optimum conditions were the reaction time 3 h, temperature at 60 degrees C and a catalyst amount of 3 wt% which yielded 81.88% of the conversion. Catalyst could be used repeatedly for 4 times without any activation treatment and no obvious activity loss was observed. The fuel properties of methyl ester were determined. It was found that kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C was 4.8 mm(2)/s, specific gravity was 0.888, flash point was 180 degrees C, cloud point was 17 degrees C and water content was 0.05 wt%, respectively.
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  383. Production possibility frontier analysis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Kagawa, S.; Takezono, K.; Suh, S.; Kudoh, Y. 2013. Production possibility frontier analysis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Energy Policy. 55362-368

    This paper presents an assessment of the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant in Japan using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The empirical analysis uses monthly input data (waste cooking oil, methanol, potassium hydroxide, power consumption, and the truck diesel fuel used for the procurement of waste cooking oil) and output data (biodiesel) of a biodiesel fuel plant for August 2008-July 2010. The results of this study show that the production activity with the lowest cost on the biodiesel production possibility frontier occurred in March 2010 (production activity used 1.41 kL of waste cooking oil, 0.18 kL of MeOH, 16.33 kg of KOH, and 5.45 kW h of power), and the unit production cost in that month was 18,517 yen/kL. Comparing this efficient production cost to the mean unit production cost on the production possibility frontier at 19,712 yen/kL, revealed that the cost of producing 1 kL of biodiesel could be reduced by as much as 1195 yen. We also find that the efficiency improvement will contribute to decreasing the cost ratio (cost per sale) of the biodiesel production by approximately 1% during the study period (24 months) between August 2008 and July 2010. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  384. Purification of Crude Glycerol from Waste Cooking Oil Based Biodiesel Production by Orthogonal Test Method
    Abstract

    Cai, T. F.; Li, H. P.; Zhao, H.; Liao, K. J. 2013. Purification of Crude Glycerol from Waste Cooking Oil Based Biodiesel Production by Orthogonal Test Method. China Petroleum Processing & Petrochemical Technology. 15(1) 48-53

    Purification of original crude glycerol obtained from biodiesel production was conducted in a laboratory scale equipment by means of a combined chemical and physical treatment method based upon repeated cycles of acidification of liquid phase to the desired pH value by using 5.85% H3PO4 solution for pH value adjustment, and the mixture was kept at 70 degrees C for 60 min to make phase separation for obtaining a glycerol-rich middle phase. The yield of crude glycerol reached 81.2%. Subsequently, upon reaction of the obtained glycerol phase with 0.03% of sodium oxalate at 80 degrees C for 30 min the impurity removal rate was equal to 19.8%. The fraction boiling between 164 degrees C and 200 degrees C was collected by vacuum distillation followed by decolorization with 2% of active carbon at 80 degrees C for two times to yield the product glycerol with an acceptable purity of 98.10%.
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  385. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: A pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil
    Abstract

    Torres, E. A.; Cerqueira, G. S.; Ferrer, T. M.; Quintella, C. M.; Raboni, M.; Torretta, V.; Urbini, G. 2013. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: A pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil. Waste Management. 33(12) 2670-2674

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Serra Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH.
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  386. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil
    Abstract

    Torres, E. A.; Cerqueira, G. S.; Tiago, M. F.; Quintella, C. M.; Raboni, M.; Torretta, V.; Urbini, G. 2013. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil. Waste Manag. 33(12) 2670-4

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertao Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated.
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  387. Scale-up potential of cultivating Chlorella zofingiensis in piggery wastewater for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zhu, L. D.; Wang, Z. M.; Takala, J.; Hiltunen, E.; Qin, L.; Xu, Z. B.; Qin, X. X.; Yuan, Z. H. 2013. Scale-up potential of cultivating Chlorella zofingiensis in piggery wastewater for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 137318-325

    Scale-up potential of cultivating Chlorella zofingiensis in piggery wastewater for simultaneous wastewater treatment and biodiesel production was tested. The cultivation of C zofingiensis with autoclaved wastewater and NaClO-pretreated wastewater, cultivation of algae indoors and outdoors, and stability of semi-continuous feeding operation were examined. The results showed that C zofingiensis cultivated in piggery wastewater pretreated by autoclaving and NaClO had no evident difference in the performance of nutrient removal, algal growth and biodiesel production. The outdoor cultivation experiments indicated that C zofingiensis was able to adapt and grow well outdoors. The semi-continuous feeding operation by replacing 50% of algae culture with fresh wastewater every 1.5 days could provide a stable net biomass productivity of 1.314 g L-1 day(-1). These findings in this study can prove that it is greatly possible to amplify the cultivation of C zofingiensis in piggery wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  388. Single Step Production of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Unni, K. S.; Yaakob, Z.; Pudukudy, M.; Mohammedl, M.; Narayanan, B. N. 2013. Single Step Production of Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil. Proceedings of 2013 International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (Irsec). 461-464

    Single stage production of biodiesel is achieved by the transesterification of used cooking oil. The presence of high free fatty acid (FFA) content showed insignificant effect on the transesterification reaction, and even the FFA was effectively converted into the methyl ester under basic medium. The reaction was done in a closed stainless steel reactor, where the solvothermal condition of methanol was achieved at the reaction temperature (65 degrees C). The FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) content was more than 98% within 1.5 h of the reaction.
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  389. Studies on a Customized Carbon Catalyst in Biodiesel Production from Waste Sunflower Oil
    Abstract

    Sivakumar, P.; Suganya, T.; Renganathan, S. 2013. Studies on a Customized Carbon Catalyst in Biodiesel Production from Waste Sunflower Oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 35(7) 595-603

    In this study, transesterification of waste sunflower oil with high free fatty acid was studied in a combined heterogeneous and homogeneous catalytic system. Production of hetero-carbon catalyst and their characteristics were done. The effects of the heterogeneous carbon on the homogeneous acid and base catalyzed transesterification reaction were analyzed. Parameters, such as reaction temperature, reaction time, and excess methanol, affecting the reaction were optimized to obtain a high yield of biodiesel. The results clearly showed that the introduction of customized carbon reduced both acid and base catalyst consumption. It was observed that carbon alone is not responsible for catalyzing the transesterification reaction but the addition of carbon reduces the homogeneous catalyst consumption. It was found that the catalytic activity of carbon with acid catalyst was found to have maximum performance. The highest conversion of waste sunflower oil was found to be 82% with acid catalyst at the following optimized process conditions: Combination of 1.5 wt% H2SO4, 5 wt% carbon, 90 minutes reaction time at 65 degrees C, and 100% excess methanol.
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  390. Synergetic Sustainability Enhancement via Current Biofuel Infrastructure: Waste-to-Energy Concept for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kwon, E.; Yi, H.; Jeon, Y. J. 2013. Synergetic Sustainability Enhancement via Current Biofuel Infrastructure: Waste-to-Energy Concept for Biodiesel Production. Environmental Science & Technology. 47(6) 2817-2822

    The concept of waste-to-energy (WtE) with regards to the utilization of byproducts from the bioethanol industry (e.g., distiller's dried grain with solubles: DDGS) was employed to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, which would be an initiative stage of a biorefinery due to the conjunction between bioethanol and biodiesel. For example, DDGS is a strong candidate for use as a biodiesel feedstock due to the tremendous amount that is regularly generated. On the basis of an estimation of possible lipid recovery from DDGS, similar to 30% of the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010 could be supported by the total DDGS generation in the same year. Considering the future expansion of the bioethanol industry up to 2020, the possible lipid recovery from DDGS would provide more than 6 times the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010. In order to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, the transformation of lipid extracted from DDGS into fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via a noncatalytic transesterification reaction under ambient pressure was investigated in this work. The newly introduced method reported here enables the combination of the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides into a single step. This was achieved in the presence of a porous material (i.e., charcoal), and the optimal conditions for transformation into biodiesel via this noncatalytic method were assessed at the fundamental level.
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  391. Syntheis of acidic ionic liquids functionalized ordered mesoporous polymer for efficient, green, and low cost production of biodiesel from waste brown grease
    Abstract

    Noshadi, I.; Kanjilal, B.; Liu, F. J.; Parnas, R. 2013. Syntheis of acidic ionic liquids functionalized ordered mesoporous polymer for efficient, green, and low cost production of biodiesel from waste brown grease. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 246

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  392. The Potential of Chlorella Vulgaris for Wastewater Treatment and Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Ahmad, F.; Khan, A. U.; Yasar, A. 2013. The Potential of Chlorella Vulgaris for Wastewater Treatment and Biodiesel Production. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 45461-465

    The release of municipal wastewater from various sources can cause contamination of water bodies and algal blooms. In this study isolated strain of chlorella vulgaris was used for treatment of municipal wastewater and biodiesel production. Initially Chlorella culture was prepared in artificial media then it was inoculated in transparent and covered, glass ponds containing wastewater to investigate its treatment efficiency. A lab scale biological wastewater treatment design was also made using chlorella vulgaris. Harvested biomass was transesterified to biodiesel using sodium metal as a catalyst. Percent reduction of COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), NO3-, PO42- and TC (total coliforms) was almost similar in all types of transparent and covered ponds after treatment with chlorella vulgaris. Analysis of selected parameters was carried out at each step of biological treatment design and maximum reduction percentage of COD (99.9%), BOD (100%), NO3- (99.98%), PO42- (99.96%) and TC (100%), was observed by applying chlorella vulgaris. Biodiesel produced by direct transesterification of dried algal biomass was analyzed and compared with ASTM (American Standard Test Method) standards. Results showed that biodiesel produced was of good quality and it can be used as a fuel in vehicles.
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  393. Ultrasound assisted interesterification of waste cooking oil and methyl acetate for biodiesel and triacetin production
    Abstract

    Maddikeri, G. L.; Pandit, A. B.; Gogate, P. R. 2013. Ultrasound assisted interesterification of waste cooking oil and methyl acetate for biodiesel and triacetin production. Fuel Processing Technology. 116241-249

    Intensification of the interesterification reaction of waste cooking oil with methy. I acetate using potassium methoxide as a catalyst has been carried out using ultrasonic horn (frequency of irradiation of 22 kHz and rated power of 750 W). Experiments have been performed at different operating parameters viz, reaction temperature (30, 40 and 50 degrees C), oil to methyl acetate molar ratio (over the range of 1:4 to 1:14), catalyst concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% by weight of oil) and amplitude of ultrasound (40, 50, 60 and 70%) with an objective of understanding the effect of important operating parameters on the extent of conversion of waste cooking oil to the ester. It has been observed that maximum yield (90%) of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using sonochemical reactors was observed at a molar ratio of 1:12, catalyst concentration of 1.0% and temperature of 40 degrees C. It is also observed that higher conversion was obtained in the presence of ultrasound as compared to the conventional method. Kinetic studies have been carried out to determine the rate constant by fitting the obtained experimental data to a second-order rate equation. It has been observed that rate constant increases with an increase in temperature and the activation energy is found to be 56.97 kJ/mol. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  394. Utilization of constructional lime as heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production from waste frying oil
    Abstract

    Ghanei, R.; Moradi, G.; Heydarinasab, A.; Seifkordi, A. A.; Ardjmand, M. 2013. Utilization of constructional lime as heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production from waste frying oil. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 10(4) 847-854

    Waste frying oil as valueless material which is disposed to environment can be used as a promising feedstock to produce biodiesel. In this study, constructional lime was used as alkaline heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from virgin and waste frying oil. After determining the best activation temperature for the catalyst (600 A degrees C), transesterification reactions were carried out at 65 A degrees C, MeOH to oil molar ratio of 12:1, and 1 wt% of activated constructional lime under vigorous mixing for 5 h. Yield of reactions for virgin and waste frying oil (2.17 % free fatty acid) and pretreated waste frying oil (0.918 % free fatty acid) were 87, 93.9, and 94 %, respectively. Transesterification of virgin frying oil and pretreated waste frying oil were done at 65 A degrees C, MeOH to oil molar ratio of 6:1, and 1 wt% of KOH as catalyst under vigorous mixing for 2 h, for comparison. Yield of the reaction was 98.6 and 95.1 %, respectively. Therefore, when constructional lime is used as catalyst pretreatment of waste oil is not necessary.
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  395. Waste capiz (Amusium cristatum) shell as a new heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Suryaputra, W.; Winata, I.; Indraswati, N.; Ismadji, S. 2013. Waste capiz (Amusium cristatum) shell as a new heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy. 50795-799

    The waste Capiz shell was utilized as raw material for catalyst production for biodiesel preparation. During calcination process, the calcium carbonate content in the waste capiz shell was converted to CaO. This calcium oxide was used as catalyst for transesterification reaction between palm oil and methanol to produce biodiesel. The biodiesel preparation was conducted under the following conditions: the mole ration between methanol and palm oil was 8:1, stirring speed was 700 rpm, and reaction temperature was 60 degrees C for 4, 5, and 6 h reaction time. The amount of catalyst was varied at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wt %. The maximum yield of biodiesel was 93 +/- 2.2%, obtained at 6 h of reaction time and 3 wt % of amount of catalyst. In order to examine the reusability of catalyst developed from waste of capiz (Amusiurn cristatum) shell, three transesterification reaction cycles were also performed. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  396. Waste cooking oil: a promising feedstock for biodiesel production through power ultrasound and hydrodynamic cavitation
    Abstract

    Pal, A.; Kachhwaha, S. S. 2013. Waste cooking oil: a promising feedstock for biodiesel production through power ultrasound and hydrodynamic cavitation. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research. 72(6) 387-392

    The present research work deals with the details of development of laboratory test rigs for power ultrasound and hydrodynamic cavitation test rigs for conversion of WCO into biodiesel in comparison to conventional mechanical stirring. Results show that cavitation techniques can be successfully applied to transesterification reactions, to achieve more than 90% yield of the product for molar ratio 4.5:1 with minimum catalyst percentage of 0.5% and appears to be rapid and effective compared to the mechanical stirring method, for preparing alkyl esters from triglycerides.
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  397. A life cycle assessment comparison between centralized and decentralized biodiesel production from raw sunflower oil and waste cooking oils
    Abstract

    Iglesias, L.; Laca, A.; Herrero, M.; Diaz, M. 2012. A life cycle assessment comparison between centralized and decentralized biodiesel production from raw sunflower oil and waste cooking oils. Journal of Cleaner Production. 37162-171

    In this study, a comparative Life Cycle Assessment has been performed with the aim of finding out how the environmental impact derived from biodiesel production (using raw sunflower oil or waste cooking oils) could be affected by the degree of decentralization of the production (number of production plants in a given territory). The decentralized production of biodiesel has been proposed for several reasons, such as the possibility of small scale production, the fact that there is no need to use high technology or make large investments, and because small plants do not need highly specialized technical staff. Thus, hypothetical territories (considering scenarios in which the production and area were theoretically modified), as well as real territories, have been analyzed to determine which environmental indicators were most affected. Results showed that the optimum degree of centralization was different for each analyzed case. In general, in small territories centralized production was more suitable for the environment, decentralization being more advisable as the territory increased in area. For each of the cases analyzed, an optimum number of plants, which minimized the environmental impacts, was found. This work illustrates the importance of considering the number of industrial plants in the production design, not only from an economic aspect but also from an environmental point of view. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  398. A review on solid oxide derived from waste shells as catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Boro, J.; Deka, D.; Thakur, A. J. 2012. A review on solid oxide derived from waste shells as catalyst for biodiesel production. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16(1) 904-910

    The waste eggs and mollusk shells are found to be the richest sources of calcium carbonate and have been utilized for various purposes after proper treatments. When calcined at a proper temperature calcium carbonate converts into CaO, which is a metal oxide. Researchers have found that the CaO prepared from the waste shells can be used as catalyst in biodiesel production process. Utilization of waste shells as a source of CaO not only gives an opportunity to use it as catalyst but also adds value to the waste generated. In this paper a brief discussion with recent development on biodiesel production using waste shell derived solid oxide as catalyst is presented. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  399. An investigation of restaurant waste oil characteristics for biodiesel production in Trinidad and Tobago
    Abstract

    Wyse-Mason, R. R.; Beckles, D. M. 2012. An investigation of restaurant waste oil characteristics for biodiesel production in Trinidad and Tobago. Energy for Sustainable Development. 16(4) 515-519

    In this study, the effect of cooking conditions on waste oil characteristics and yield of methyl esters was investigated for biodiesel production in Trinidad and Tobago. Used cooking oil was collected from eleven restaurants that were subdivided into four categories according to the type of meals served: four Chinese restaurants. four Indian restaurants, two Fried-Chicken restaurants and one Pizzeria. The waste oils were characterised as to their acid value, free fatty acid levels, saponification, peroxide value, water concentrations and fatty acid composition. Waste oil from one restaurant from each category was then selected to undergo base catalysed transesterification. The waste oils collected from the Indian restaurants were used less intensely and had the most desirable properties with the lowest free fatty acid content while those of the Chinese restaurants produced the highest yields of methyl esters. Biodiesel produced from the waste oil of these two restaurants also met the ASTM standard for the properties tested. Waste oils from the Fried-Chicken restaurants and the Pizzeria demonstrated high degradation that was reflected in their high acid values and free fatty acid levels and correspondingly poor yields of methyl esters. Given the high proportion of these less suitable waste oil feedstocks in the local market, biodiesel production via base catalysed transesterification may not be suitable in the Trinidad and Tobago context. (c) 2012 International Energy Initiative. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  400. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste
    Abstract

    Almeida, J. R. M.; Favaro, L. C. L.; Quirino, B. F. 2012. Biodiesel biorefinery: opportunities and challenges for microbial production of fuels and chemicals from glycerol waste. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 5

    The considerable increase in biodiesel production worldwide in the last 5 years resulted in a stoichiometric increased coproduction of crude glycerol. As an excess of crude glycerol has been produced, its value on market was reduced and it is becoming a "waste-stream" instead of a valuable "coproduct". The development of biorefineries, i.e. production of chemicals and power integrated with conversion processes of biomass into biofuels, has been singled out as a way to achieve economically viable production chains, valorize residues and coproducts, and reduce industrial waste disposal. In this sense, several alternatives aimed at the use of crude glycerol to produce fuels and chemicals by microbial fermentation have been evaluated. This review summarizes different strategies employed to produce biofuels and chemicals (1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, ethanol, n-butanol, organic acids, polyols and others) by microbial fermentation of glycerol. Initially, the industrial use of each chemical is briefly presented; then we systematically summarize and discuss the different strategies to produce each chemical, including selection and genetic engineering of producers, and optimization of process conditions to improve yield and productivity. Finally, the impact of the developments obtained until now are placed in perspective and opportunities and challenges for using crude glycerol to the development of biodiesel-based biorefineries are considered. In conclusion, the microbial fermentation of glycerol represents a remarkable alternative to add value to the biodiesel production chain helping the development of biorefineries, which will allow this biofuel to be more competitive.
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  401. Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil: Optimization of Production and Monitoring of Exhaust Emission Levels from Its Combustion in a Diesel Engine
    Abstract

    Mumtaz, M. W.; Adnan, A.; Mahmood, Z.; Mukhtar, H.; Malik, M. F.; Qureshi, F. A.; Raza, A. 2012. Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil: Optimization of Production and Monitoring of Exhaust Emission Levels from Its Combustion in a Diesel Engine. International Journal of Green Energy. 9(7) 685-701

    Present study describes optimized production of waste cooking oil biodiesel (WCOB) using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. Maximum WCOB yield was 89% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOCH3 and 95.9% for enzymatic transesterification using NOVOZYME-435. Optimized WCOB yield was procured for chemical transesterification when reactions were performed for 90 min at 45 degrees C using 0.75% NaOCH3 and 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, whereas, enzymatic transesterification at 32.50 degrees C for 60 h using 0.75% NOVOZYME-435 and 6:1 methanol : oil molar ratio. When compared the exhaust emission levels from diesel engine exhaust operated on conventional diesel fuel with the waste cooking oil biodiesel blends (WCOB), a notable reduction (%) in CO and PM levels was observed for WCOB5, WCOB20, WCOB40, WCOB50, WCOB80, and WCOB100 whereas in case of NOx emissions reduction (%) was observed only in case of WCOB5, WCOB20, and WCOB40, respectively.
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  402. Biodiesel production based on heterogeneous process catalyzed by solid waste coral fragment
    Abstract

    Roschat, W.; Kacha, M.; Yoosuk, B.; Sudyoadsuk, T.; Promarak, V. 2012. Biodiesel production based on heterogeneous process catalyzed by solid waste coral fragment. Fuel. 98194-202

    We present an environmentally friendly, efficient, simple heterogeneous transesterification process combining palm oil, soybean oil, rice bran oil, and waste cooking oil with methanol to make a biodiesel and glycerol by-product using calcined waste coral fragments in solid form as a catalyst. Under optimum reaction conditions, the coral fragments calcined at 700 degrees C for 1 h; catalyst/oil ratio of 100 wt.%; methanol/oil molar ratio of 15:1; reaction temperature of 65 degrees C with a constant stirring are able to transesterify oils to a biodiesel product with a FAME yield over 98% in 2 h. The catalyst can be easily separated from the reaction mixture by pouring off the reaction solution and can be reused several times with consistent results. Biodiesel and glycerol products without any treatment and cleansing show a high quality product in which fuel properties of the biodiesel meet all EN 14214 standards for bio-auto fuels. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  403. Biodiesel production from Palm oil using calcined waste animal bone as catalyst
    Abstract

    Obadiah, A.; Swaroopa, G. A.; Kumar, S. V.; Jeganathan, K. R.; Ramasubbu, A. 2012. Biodiesel production from Palm oil using calcined waste animal bone as catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 116512-516

    Waste animal bones was employed as a cost effective catalyst for the transesterification of palm oil. The catalyst was calcined at different temperatures to transform the calcium phosphate in the bones to hydroxyapatite and 800 degrees C was found to give the best yield of biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). Under the optimal reaction conditions of 20 wt.% of catalyst, 1:18 oil to methanol molar ratio, 200 rpm of stirring of reactants and at a temperature of 65 degrees C, the methyl ester conversion was 96.78% and it was achieved in 4 h. The catalyst performed equally well as the laboratory-grade CaO. Animal bone is therefore a useful raw material for the production of a cheap catalyst for transesterification. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  404. Biodiesel production from rice straw and restaurant waste employing black soldier fly assisted by microbes
    Abstract

    Zheng, L. Y.; Hou, Y. F.; Li, W.; Yang, S.; Li, Q.; Yu, Z. N. 2012. Biodiesel production from rice straw and restaurant waste employing black soldier fly assisted by microbes. Energy. 47(1) 225-229

    Biodiesel has become attractive as an alternative renewable fuel, but its large-scale production has been restricted because of the high cost of feedstock. Therefore, alternative feedstock is urgently needed to enable biodiesel production from cheap raw materials. Toward this goal, a co-conversion process using BSFL (black soldier fly larvae) and microbes (Rid-X) was established to convert rice straw and RSW (restaurant solid waste) into the larval grease of black soldier fly. In this study, about 43.8 g biodiesel was produced from 2000 BSFL grown on 1000 g mixed feed of rice straw (30%) and RSW (70%) within 10 days. About 65.5% of cellulose, 56.3% of hemicellulose, 8.8% of the lignin, 91.6% of protein and 71.6% of lipid in the feed were digested and utilized for insect biomass accumulation with the aid of Rid-X. The results showed that grease from BSFL fed on rice straw and RSW was suitable for biodiesel and most of the fuel properties were corresponding to the requirements of the standard EN 14214. The new alternative method was introduced to produce biodiesel from lignocellulose abundant materials by insect and microbes, partly bypassing the complex pretreatment of lignocellulose that needed by other biofuel technologies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  405. Biodiesel production from used cooking oil by two-step heterogeneous catalyzed process
    Abstract

    Srilatha, K.; Devi, B. L. A. P.; Lingaiah, N.; Prasad, R. B. N.; Prasad, P. S. S. 2012. Biodiesel production from used cooking oil by two-step heterogeneous catalyzed process. Bioresource Technology. 119306-311

    The present study demonstrates the production of biodiesel from used cooking oil containing high free fatty acid by a two-step heterogeneously catalyzed process. The free fatty acids were first esterified with methanol using a 25 wt.% TPA/Nb2O5 catalyst followed by transesterification of the oil with methanol over ZnO/Na-Y zeolite catalyst. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET surface area and CO2-TPD. In the case of transesterification the effect of reaction parameters, such as catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature, on the yield of ester were investigated. The catalyst with 20 wt.% ZnO loading on Na-Y exhibited the highest activity among the others. Both the solid acid and base catalysts were found to be reusable for several times indicating their efficacy in the two-step process. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  406. Biodiesel production from waste animal fats using pyrolysis method
    Abstract

    Ito, T.; Sakurai, Y.; Kakuta, Y.; Sugano, M.; Hirano, K. 2012. Biodiesel production from waste animal fats using pyrolysis method. Fuel Processing Technology. 94(1) 47-52

    It is necessary to utilize waste cooking oil as a raw material of biodiesel because the land area available for cultivation in Japan is limited. Waste cooking oil also includes long-chain saturated compounds and free fatty acids derived from animal fats. The former has a high freezing point and the latter forms a soap with the alkali catalyst typically used in biodiesel production, reducing the yield. To make waste cooking oil available for biodiesel production, pyrolysis of the waste oil was attempted. The resulting triacylglycerols were found to decompose at 360 to 390 degrees C, fatty acids were generated by cleavage of the ester bond, and short-chain hydrocarbons and short-chain fatty acids were generated by cleavage of the unsaturated bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. When the retention time was extended with a reaction temperature of 420 degrees C, light-oil hydrocarbons were generated by decarboxylation of the fatty acids. By adding palladium supported by activated carbon (Pd/C) as a catalyst, decarboxylation was promoted, and hydrocarbons comparable to light oil were selectively obtained in high yield at 85 wt.%. Compared to the biodiesel obtained by transesterification, the biodiesel obtained by pyrolysis showed improvement of about -5 degrees C in the pseudo-cold filter plugging point. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  407. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Sulfuric Acid and Microwave Irradiation Processes
    Abstract

    Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar; Reddy, Harvind K.; Muppaneni, Tapaswy; Deng, Shuguang 2012. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Sulfuric Acid and Microwave Irradiation Processes. Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol.03No.017

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  408. Biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil using calcium oxide supported on activated carbon as catalyst in a fixed bed reactor
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Ksapabutr, B.; Panapoy, M.; Chaiyut, N. 2012. Biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil using calcium oxide supported on activated carbon as catalyst in a fixed bed reactor. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 29(12) 1708-1712

    A reactor has been developed to produce high quality fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from waste cooking palm oil (WCO). Continuous transesterification of free fatty acids (FFA) from acidified oil with methanol was carried out using a calcium oxide supported on activated carbon (CaO/AC) as a heterogeneous solid-base catalyst. CaO/AC was prepared according to the conventional incipient-wetness impregnation of aqueous solutions of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)(2)center dot 4H(2)O) precursors on an activated carbon support from palm shell in a fixed bed reactor with an external diameter of 60 mm and a height of 345 mm. Methanol/oil molar ratio, feed flow rate, catalyst bed height and reaction temperature were evaluated to obtain optimum reaction conditions. The results showed that the FFA conversion increased with increases in alcohol/oil molar ratio, catalyst bed height and temperature, whereas decreased with flow rate and initial water content in feedstock increase. The yield of FAME achieved 94% at the reaction temperature 60 A degrees C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 25: 1 and residence time of 8 h. The physical and chemical properties of the produced methyl ester were determined and compared with the standard specifications. The characteristics of the product under the optimum condition were within the ASTM standard. High quality waste cooking palm oil methyl ester was produced by combination of heterogeneous alkali transesterification and separation processes in a fixed bed reactor. In sum, activated carbon shows potential for transesterification of FFA.
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  409. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils: Optimization of reaction parameters and determination of fuel properties
    Abstract

    Uzun, B. B.; Kilic, M.; Ozbay, N.; Putun, A. E.; Putun, E. 2012. Biodiesel production from waste frying oils: Optimization of reaction parameters and determination of fuel properties. Energy. 44(1) 347-351

    Alkali-catalyzed transesterification of waste frying oils (WFO) was carried out in various conditions to investigate the effects of catalyst concentration, reaction time, methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst type (hydroxides, methoxides and ethoxides), and purification type (such as washing with hot water, purification with silica gel and dowex) on the biodiesel yields. The optimum conditions were 0.5% wt. of NaOH, 30 min reaction time, 50 degrees C reaction temperature, 7.5 methanol to oil ratio and purification with hot distilled water. 96% biodiesel yield with similar to 97% ester content was obtained within in these conditions, and the activation energy was found to be as 11741 J mol(-1). The determined specifications of obtained biodiesel according to ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214 standards were in accordance with the required limits. As a conclusion, the present study indicates that WFO derived fuel promises being an alternative for petrodiesel, and could be used in engines without a major modification due to its qualifications. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  410. Biodiesel production from waste lard using supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Shin, H. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Ryu, J. H.; Bae, S. Y. 2012. Biodiesel production from waste lard using supercritical methanol. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 61134-138

    In this study, transesterification of refined lard in supercritical methanol with no pre-treatment was performed in a temperature range of 320-350 degrees C, molar ratios of methanol to oil from 30 to 60, pressures from 15 to 25 MPa, reaction times from 5 to 20 min, and agitation speeds of 0-1000 rpm. The effects of reaction parameters were investigated to determine the optimum reaction conditions. The highest content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMES) from refined lard was 89.91%, which was obtained at a temperature of 335 degrees C, a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 45, a pressure of 20 MPa, a reaction time of 15 min, and an agitation speed of 500 rpm. Biodiesel production from waste lard under the optimal reaction conditions was also carried out to validate the use of waste lard as a feedstock. Even though waste lard samples contain various free fatty acids and water contents, FAME contents from waste lard with no pre-treatment were found to be comparable with those from refined lard. From this result, it is concluded that waste lard can be utilized as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production using a supercritical process, thus replacing the high-cost refined vegetable oil feedstock. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  411. Biodiesel production over Ca-based solid catalysts derived from industrial wastes
    Abstract

    Viriya-empikul, N.; Krasae, P.; Nualpaeng, W.; Yoosuk, B.; Faungnawakij, K. 2012. Biodiesel production over Ca-based solid catalysts derived from industrial wastes. Fuel. 92(1) 239-244

    The solid oxide catalysts derived from the industrial waste shells of egg, golden apple snail, and meretrix venus were used as biodiesel production catalysts. Their catalytic activity in transesterification of palm olein oils and their physicochemical properties (by TG/DTA, EDX, SEM, N(2) sorption, CO(2)-TPD, and XRD) were systematically investigated. The waste materials calcined in air with optimum conditions (temperature of 800 degrees C, time of 2-4 h) transformed calcium species in the shells into active CaO catalysts. The activity of the catalysts was in line with the basic amount of the strong base sites, surface area, and crystalline phase in the catalysts. All catalysts derived from egg and mollusk shells at 800 degrees C provided high activity (>90% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) in 2 h). These abundant wastes showed good potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  412. Catalysts derived from waste sources in the production of biodiesel using waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Boey, P. L.; Ganesan, S.; Maniam, G. P.; Khairuddean, M. 2012. Catalysts derived from waste sources in the production of biodiesel using waste cooking oil. Catalysis Today. 190(1) 117-121

    Catalysts fully derived from waste materials in order to make sustainable chemical reactions have been a recent topic of interest. Calcined (900 degrees C, 2 h) calcium oxide (CaO) sourced from waste mud crab shells and cockleshells were mixed in a 1:1 mass ratio to be used for transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO) at 5 wt.% catalyst and a methanol to oil molar ratio of 13:1 for 3 h at methanol refluxing temperature to give 98% conversion. Then, boiler ash (BA) from agricultural waste was used to transesterify WCO at 3 wt.% catalyst and a methanol to oil molar ratio of 15:1 for 0.5 h at methanol refluxing temperature to give 89% conversion. In order to reduce the reaction time (for CaO-catalyzed reaction) and to increase the conversion (for BA-catalyzed reaction) various amounts of BA were added to 5 wt.% of mixed CaO and optimized using Central Composite Design (CCD). The optimized conditions predicted by CCD were found to be 3.39 wt.% boiler ash, with a reaction time of 32.3 min and a conversion of 99.5%. The predicted results agree with the experimental results (3 wt.% boiler ash, reaction time of 30 min with 99% conversion). (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  413. Continuous Process for Biodiesel Production in Packed Bed Reactor from Waste Frying Oil Using Potassium Hydroxide Supported on Jatropha curcas Fruit Shell as Solid Catalyst
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Chaiyut, N.; Loryuenyong, V.; Rodklum, C.; Chaikwan, T.; Kumphan, N. 2012. Continuous Process for Biodiesel Production in Packed Bed Reactor from Waste Frying Oil Using Potassium Hydroxide Supported on Jatropha curcas Fruit Shell as Solid Catalyst. Applied Sciences-Basel. 2(3) 641-653

    The transesterification of waste frying oil (WFO) with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on Jatropha curcas fruit shell activated carbon (KOH/JS) was studied. The catalyst systems were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The effects of reaction variables such as residence time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio and catalyst bed height in packed bed reactor (PBR) on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. SEM images showed that KOH was well distributed on the catalyst support. The optimum conditions for achieving the conversion yield of 86.7% consisted of a residence time of 2 h, reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 16 and catalyst bed height of 250 mm. KOH/JS could be used repeatedly five times without any activation treatment, and no significant activity loss was observed. The results confirmed that KOH/JS catalyst had a great potential to be used for industrial application in the transesterification of WFO. The fuel properties of biodiesel were also determined.
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  414. Continuous production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a reactive distillation column catalyzed by solid heteropolyacid: Optimization using response surface methodology (RSM)
    Abstract

    Noshadi, I.; Amin, N. A. S.; Parnas, R. S. 2012. Continuous production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a reactive distillation column catalyzed by solid heteropolyacid: Optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). Fuel. 94(1) 156-164

    This study aims to develop an optimal continuous process to produce fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from waste cooking oil in a reactive distillation column catalyzed by a heteropolyacid, H3PW12O40 center dot 6H(2)O. The conventional production of biodiesel in the batch reactor has some disadvantage such as excessive alcohol demand, short catalyst life and high production cost. Reactive distillation combines reaction and separation to simplify the process operation. The reaction catalyzed by H3PW12O40 center dot 6H(2)O overcomes the neutralization problem that occurs in conventional transesterification of waste cooking oil with high free fatty acid (FFAs) and water content. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was used to design the experiment and analyzed four operating parameters: total feed flow, feed temperature, reboiler duty and methanol/oil ratio. The optimum conditions were determined to be 116.23 (mol/h) total feed flow, 29.9 degrees C feed temperature, 1.3 kW reboiler duty, and 67.9 methanol/oil ratio. The optimum and actual free fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was 93.98% and 93.94%, respectively, which demonstrates that RSM is an accurate method for the current procedure. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  415. Conversion of Solid Organic Wastes into Oil via Boettcherisca peregrine (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) Larvae and Optimization of Parameters for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Yang, S.; Li, Q.; Zeng, Q. L.; Zhang, J. B.; Yu, Z. I.; Liu, Z. D. 2012. Conversion of Solid Organic Wastes into Oil via Boettcherisca peregrine (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) Larvae and Optimization of Parameters for Biodiesel Production. Plos One. 7(9)

    The feedstocks for biodiesel production are predominantly from edible oils and the high cost of the feedstocks prevents its large scale application. In this study, we evaluated the oil extracted from Boettcherisca peregrine larvae (BPL) grown on solid organic wastes for biodiesel production. The oil contents detected in the BPL converted from swine manure, fermentation residue and the degreased food waste, were 21.7%, 19.5% and 31.1%, respectively. The acid value of the oil is 19.02 mg KOH/g requiring a two-step transesterification process. The optimized process of 12:1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 1.5% H2SO4 reacted at 70 degrees C for 120 min resulted in a 90.8% conversion rate of free fatty acid (FFA) by esterification, and a 92.3% conversion rate of triglycerides into esters by alkaline transesterification. Properties of the BPL oil-based biodiesel are within the specifications of ASTM D6751, suggesting that the solid organic waste-grown BPL could be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  416. Could sewage sludge be considered a source of waste lipids for biodiesel production?
    Abstract

    Navia, R.; Mittelbach, M. 2012. Could sewage sludge be considered a source of waste lipids for biodiesel production?. Waste Management & Research. 30(9) 873-874

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  417. Cyanobacteria cultivation in industrial wastewaters and biodiesel production from their biomass: A review (Retraction of vol 58, pg 220, 2011)
    Abstract

    Balasubramanian, L.; Subramanian, G.; Nazeer, T. T.; Simpson, H. S.; Rahuman, S. T.; Raju, P. 2012. Cyanobacteria cultivation in industrial wastewaters and biodiesel production from their biomass: A review (Retraction of vol 58, pg 220, 2011). Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 59(2) 153-153

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  418. Double the biodiesel yield: Rearing black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, on solid residual fraction of restaurant waste after grease extraction for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zheng, L. Y.; Li, Q.; Zhang, J. B.; Yu, Z. N. 2012. Double the biodiesel yield: Rearing black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, on solid residual fraction of restaurant waste after grease extraction for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy. 4175-79

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative diesel fuel which has increased worldwide public interest in a number of countries including China. But the high cost of producing biodiesel from feedstock, predominately food grade oils, limited its economic feasibility. An alternative of using grease extracted from restaurant waste to produce biodiesel is a potential low cost approach. However, this approach generates a significant large quantity of solid residual fraction which required proper disposal. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of a secondary biodiesel production from the solid residual fraction of restaurant waste after typical grease extraction (SRF) employing a high fat containing insect, black soldier fly. Hermetia illucens. The SRF was sampled and fed to black soldier fly larvae. The resulting larval biomass was used for crude grease extraction by petroleum ether. The extracted crude grease was then converted into biodiesel by acid-catalyzed (1% H2SO4) esterification and alkaline-catalyzed (0.8% NaOH) transesterification. About 23.6 g larval grease-based biodiesel was produced from approximately 1000 larvae grown on 1 kg of SRF. The weight of SRF was reduced by about 61.8% after being fed by the black soldier fly larvae for 7 days. The amount of biodiesel yield from restaurant waste was nearly doubled (original restaurant waste grease, 2.7%; larval grease, 2.4%). The major methyl ester components of the biodiesel derived from black soldier fly larvae fed on SRF were oleinic acid methyl ester (27.1%), lauric acid methyl ester (23.4%), and palmitic acid methyl ester (18.2%). Most of the properties of this biodiesel met the specifications of the standard EN 14214, including density (860 kg/m(3)), viscosity (4.9 mm(2)/s), flash point (128 degrees C), cetane number (58) and ester contents (96.9%). These results indicated that black soldier fly larval biomass obtained from larvae reared on SRF could potentially be used as a non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. This approach not only enhances the efficiency of biodiesel production from restaurant waste, it also helps to better manage and significantly reduce the large quantity of solid residual fraction produced during the process of biodiesel production using restaurant waste. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  419. Effect of light intensity on algal biomass accumulation and biodiesel production for mixotrophic strains Chlorella kessleri and Chlorella protothecoide cultivated in highly concentrated municipal wastewater
    Abstract

    Li, Y. C.; Zhou, W. G.; Hu, B.; Min, M.; Chen, P.; Ruan, R. R. 2012. Effect of light intensity on algal biomass accumulation and biodiesel production for mixotrophic strains Chlorella kessleri and Chlorella protothecoide cultivated in highly concentrated municipal wastewater. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 109(9) 2222-2229

    In this research, the effect of light intensity on biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrient removal through algae cultivation, and biodiesel productivity was investigated with algae species Chlorella kessleri and Chlorella protothecoide. The light intensities studied were 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 200?mu mol?m-2?s-1. The results showed that light intensity had profound impact on tested responses for both strains, and the dependence of these responses on light intensity varied with different algae strains. For C. kessleri, the optimum light intensity was 120?mu mol?m-2?S-1 for all responses except for COD removal. For C. protothecoide, the optimum light intensity was 30?mu mol?m-2?S-1. The major components of the biodiesel produced from algae biomass were 16-C and 18-C FAME, and the highest biodiesel contents were 24.19% and 19.48% of dried biomass for C. kessleri and C. protothecoide, respectively. Both species were capable of wastewater nutrients removal under all lighting conditions with high removal efficiencies. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2012;109: 22222229. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  420. Effect of light intensity on algal biomass accumulation and biodiesel production for mixotrophic strains Chlorella kessleri and Chlorella protothecoide cultivated in highly concentrated municipal wastewater
    Abstract

    Li, Y.; Zhou, W.; Hu, B.; Min, M.; Chen, P.; Ruan, R. R. 2012. Effect of light intensity on algal biomass accumulation and biodiesel production for mixotrophic strains Chlorella kessleri and Chlorella protothecoide cultivated in highly concentrated municipal wastewater. Biotechnol Bioeng. 109(9) 2222-9

    In this research, the effect of light intensity on biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrient removal through algae cultivation, and biodiesel productivity was investigated with algae species Chlorella kessleri and Chlorella protothecoide. The light intensities studied were 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 200 micromol m(-2) s(-1). The results showed that light intensity had profound impact on tested responses for both strains, and the dependence of these responses on light intensity varied with different algae strains. For C. kessleri, the optimum light intensity was 120 micromol m(-2) S(-1) for all responses except for COD removal. For C. protothecoide, the optimum light intensity was 30 micromol m(-2) S(-1). The major components of the biodiesel produced from algae biomass were 16-C and 18-C FAME, and the highest biodiesel contents were 24.19% and 19.48% of dried biomass for C. kessleri and C. protothecoide, respectively. Both species were capable of wastewater nutrients removal under all lighting conditions with high removal efficiencies.
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  421. Efficient production of biodiesel from waste grease: One-pot esterification and transesterification with tandem lipases
    Abstract

    Yan, J. Y.; Li, A. T.; Xu, Y.; Ngo, T. P. N.; Phua, S.; Li, Z. 2012. Efficient production of biodiesel from waste grease: One-pot esterification and transesterification with tandem lipases. Bioresource Technology. 123332-337

    A novel concept and efficient method for producing biodiesel (FAME) from grease (15-40 wt% free fatty acid, FFA) were developed by using tandem lipases for one-pot esterification of FFA and transesterification of triglyceride with methanol in a solvent-free system. Combining immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) (Novozyme 435) favoring the esterification and immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) (Lipozyme TLIM) preferring the transesterification at 2:8 (wt/wt) gave FAME in 80% yield, being better than that with Novozyme 435 or Lipozyme TLIM. Recombinant Escherichia coli (Calb/TII) co-expressing CALB and TLL was engineered as a more efficient tandem-lipases system. Using wet or dry cells (4 wt%) gave FAME in 87% or 95% yield, which is much better than that with E. coli cells expressing either CALB or TLL alone. Cells of E. coli (Calb/TII) were recycled for five times and retained 75% productivity, thus being practical for producing biodiesel from grease. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  422. Enhanced methane production from pig manure anaerobic digestion using fish and biodiesel wastes as co-substrates
    Abstract

    Regueiro, L.; Carballa, M.; Alvarez, J. A.; Lema, J. M. 2012. Enhanced methane production from pig manure anaerobic digestion using fish and biodiesel wastes as co-substrates. Bioresource Technology. 123507-513

    Co-digestion of pig manure (PM1) with fish (FW2) and biodiesel waste (BW3) was evaluated and compared with sole PM digestion. Results indicated that co-digestion of PM with FW and/or BW is possible as long as ammonium and volatile fatty acids remained under inhibitory levels by adjusting the operating conditions, such as feed composition, organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). PM and FW co-digestion (90:10 and 95:5, w/w(4)) was possible at OLR of 1-1.5 g COD/L d, resulting in biogas production rates of 0.4-0.6 L/L d and COD removal efficiencies of 65-70%. Regarding BW, good results (biogas production of 0.9 L/L d and COD elimination of 85%) were achieved with less than 5% feeding rate. Overall, operating at the same OLR, the biogas production and methane content in the co-digester was higher than in the only PM digester. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  423. Esterification and Deacidification of a Waste Cooking Oil (TAN 68.81 mg KOH/g) for Biodiesel Production