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Biodiesel produciton from soybean oil

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  1. A flow-through enzymatic microreactor immobilizing lipase based on layer-by-layer method for biosynthetic process: Catalyzing the transesterification of soybean oil for fatty acid methyl ester production
    Abstract

    Bi, Y. C.; Zhou, H.; Jia, H. H.; Wei, P. 2017. A flow-through enzymatic microreactor immobilizing lipase based on layer-by-layer method for biosynthetic process: Catalyzing the transesterification of soybean oil for fatty acid methyl ester production. Process Biochemistry. 5473-80

    A simple and convenient method was proposed in this paper to develop a flow-through enzymatic micro reactor made from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). It consisted of the polydopamine layer (functioned as a primer) and layer by layer (LBL) coatings composed of polyethylenimine (PEI) and lipase. The multiple deposition of PEI and lipase was the key factor of increasing the enzyme loading on microreactor. After 8 PEI/lipase layers, enzyme loading on the inner surface of 5-m microchannel reached a maximum (350 mu g to 400 mu g), compared With approximately 20 mu g in single layer. Microreactor with higher enzyme loading was successfully applied on transesterification of soybean oil for effective fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, biodiesel) production. A 95.2% conversion rate of biodiesel can be achieved in 53 min under optimized conditions, instead of a couple of hours in the traditional batch reaction. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  2. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Cerri, C. E. P.; You, X.; Cherubin, M. R.; Moreira, C. S.; Raucci, G. S.; Castigioni, B. A.; Alves, P. A.; Cerri, D. G. P.; Mello, F. F. C.; Cerri, C. C. 2017. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production. PLoS One. 12(5) e0176948

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this study would be taken as references for accounting the environmental sustainability of soybean biodiesel within a domestic and global level.
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  3. Biodiesel Production via Transesterification of Soybean Oil Catalyzed by Superhydrophobic Porous Poly(ionic liquid) Solid Base
    Abstract

    Jiang, B.; Wang, Y. M.; Zhang, L. H.; Sun, Y. L.; Yang, H. W.; Wang, B. Y.; Yang, N. 2017. Biodiesel Production via Transesterification of Soybean Oil Catalyzed by Superhydrophobic Porous Poly(ionic liquid) Solid Base. Energy & Fuels. 31(5) 5203-5214

    In this work, the preparation and catalytic application of novel superhydrophobic porous poly(ionic liquid) (PIL) solid base catalyst have been reported. The PIL was synthesized by radical polymerization with subsequent anion exchange providing alkali catalysis. The as-prepared catalyst possesses favorable wetting properties in the reaction of biodiesel production. Various characterization techniques were utilized to characterize the as-prepared PIL catalyst, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption desorption isotherms, thermogravimetric analyses (TG), and static water contact angle measurement. In addition, the catalytic performance of the PIL catalyst was evaluated by the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol to produce biodiesel. The effects of various reaction parameters on the oil conversion ratio were systemically investigated by three-level and three-factorial central composite design of response surface methodology to obtain the optimum reaction conditions. The catalyst was reused for five cycles without a significant decrease in activity, and the activity could be recovered by anion exchange. Moreover, the properties of the prepared biodiesel were within the standards of EN14214 and ASTM D6751.
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  4. Comparison of macauba and soybean oils as substrates for the enzymatic biodiesel production in ultrasound-assisted system
    Abstract

    Santin, C. M. T.; Michelin, S.; Scherer, R. P.; Valerio, A.; di Luccio, M.; Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, J. V. 2017. Comparison of macauba and soybean oils as substrates for the enzymatic biodiesel production in ultrasound-assisted system. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 35525-528

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the batch enzymatic production of biodiesel in solvent-free system under ultrasound using as substrates ethanol, soybean oil and macauba fruit oil. For this purpose, a Pinked & Burman experimental design was carried out for soybean oil while a 2(4-1) design was conducted for macauba oil in order to maximize the biodiesel conversion for each system. Good conversions to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), 88% for soybean oil and 75.2% for macauba oil, was obtained thus demonstrating the potential use of ultrasound for this reaction system. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  5. Comparison of macauba and soybean oils as substrates for the enzymatic biodiesel production in ultrasound-assisted system
    Abstract

    Santin, C. M. T.; Michelin, S.; Scherer, R. P.; Valerio, A.; Luccio, M. D.; Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, J. V. 2017. Comparison of macauba and soybean oils as substrates for the enzymatic biodiesel production in ultrasound-assisted system. Ultrason Sonochem. 35(Pt A) 525-528

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the batch enzymatic production of biodiesel in solvent-free system under ultrasound using as substrates ethanol, soybean oil and macauba fruit oil. For this purpose, a Plackett & Burman experimental design was carried out for soybean oil while a 24-1 design was conducted for macauba oil in order to maximize the biodiesel conversion for each system. Good conversions to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), 88% for soybean oil and 75.2% for macauba oil, was obtained thus demonstrating the potential use of ultrasound for this reaction system.
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  6. Continuous production of biodiesel from soybean flakes by extraction coupling with transesterification under supercritical conditions: Original research article
    Abstract

    Zhou, D.; Qi, L.; Qiao, B. Q.; Xu, Q. Q.; Yin, J. Z. 2017. Continuous production of biodiesel from soybean flakes by extraction coupling with transesterification under supercritical conditions: Original research article. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 120395-402

    Biodiesel is regarded as one of the most promising alternatives for petroleum diesel. In this study, biodiesel continuous production with three kinds of reactor which are straight tube, coil and fixed bed reactor were compared, and the results showed that the fixed bed reactor needed a shortest stable time of 30 min, and with the condition of methanol to oil molar ratio 42:1, 18 MPa, 150 min and 300 degrees C, the highest yield: 80.11% of methyl ester was obtained. A continuous coupling process of supercritical extraction and non catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification method for preparing biodiesel is put forward. Based on the investigation of process optimization, oil extraction was found to be the crucial step for the coupling process. The optimum reaction condition was the extraction and reaction temperature 40 degrees C and 300 degrees C, pressure 18 MPa, and the flow rate of CO2 and n-hexane were 21/min and 0.4mlimin, respectively. In these circumstances, the fixed bed reactor provided a yield of 83.84%. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  7. Evaluating the optimum operating parameters of biodiesel production process from soybean oil using the Li2TiO3 catalyst
    Abstract

    Dai, Y. M.; Mao, I. H.; Chen, C. C. 2017. Evaluating the optimum operating parameters of biodiesel production process from soybean oil using the Li2TiO3 catalyst. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 70260-266

    This study focuses on the transesterification of soybean oil into biodiesel using Li2TiO3. Li2TiO3 is prepared through a solid-state reaction that involves mixing and grinding TiO2 and Li2CO3 followed by the calcination at 800 degrees C for 2 h. The prepared Li2TiO3 is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and BET, and the Hammett indicator is applied to obtain their physical and chemical properties. Li2TiO3 has never been studied as a solid catalyst for transesterification reaction. Under optimal reaction conditions, namely a methanol:oil molar ratio of 24:1, a catalyst amount of 6 wt%, and a reaction temperature of 65 degrees C for 2 h, a biodiesel conversion rate of 98.5% is obtained. Moreover, different vegetable oil and used cooking oil are used as the raw materials for the biodiesel production. Li2TiO3 can be easily recovered and reused for ten cycles without significant deactivation. (C) 2016 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  8. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from soybean oil under ambient conditions using strontium loaded bovine bone
    Abstract

    Chaveanghong, S.; Smith, S. M.; Oopathum, C.; Smith, C. B.; Luengnaruemitchai, A. 2017. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production from soybean oil under ambient conditions using strontium loaded bovine bone. Renewable Energy. 109480-486

    Energy-and cost efficient processes are desirable for the large scale production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) for fuel applications. This work reports the utilization of Sr loaded bovine bone as effective and reusable catalyst for FAME production at low temperatures (30-65 degrees C), in high yields (>90%). Loading of Sr(NO3)(2) into bovine bone (as a porous support) followed by calcination (500-1100 degrees C) affords a series of catalytically active materials. Material calcined at 750 degrees C (denoted as SrC750) gives optimum performance, with very high FAME yields (96.5%) after 1 hat 65 degrees C, and can be reused up to 10 times without yield decrease or need for regeneration. High yields of FAME (>93%) are also achieved at ambient temperature (30 degrees C) using SrC750, with products meeting ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 requirements suggesting their applicability as fuels in diesel engines. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  9. Integrated production of biodiesel in a soybean biorefinery: Modeling, simulation and economical assessment
    Abstract

    Granjo, J. F. O.; Duarte, B. P. M.; Oliveira, N. M. C. 2017. Integrated production of biodiesel in a soybean biorefinery: Modeling, simulation and economical assessment. Energy. 129273-291

    Soybean is currently recognized as a high value crop, allowing the manufacture of a broad range of products. This contribution investigates the synergies resulting from coupling the production of biodiesel with soybean processing facilities, defining the core structure of a soy-based biorefinery. Simulations in Aspen Plus (R) were performed, employing a detailed modeling framework. A base case scenario was established, allowing a detailed economic assessment of the process, a profitability and risk analysis, as well as the identification of plant integration opportunities.
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  10. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer
    Abstract

    Joshi, S.; Gogate, P. R.; Moreira, P. F., Jr.; Giudici, R. 2017. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer. Ultrason Sonochem. 39645-653

    In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel. Various experiments were performed for understanding the effect of operating parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and speed of rotation of the homogenizer. For soybean oil, the maximum biodiesel yield as 84% was obtained with catalyst loading of 3wt% and molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:10 at 50 degrees C with 12,000rpm as the speed of rotation in 30min. Similarly biodiesel yield of 88% was obtained from waste cooking oil under identical operating conditions except for the catalyst loading which was 1wt%. Significant increase in the rate of biodiesel production with yields from soybean oil as 84% (in 30min) and from WCO as 88% (30min) was established due to the use of high speed homogenizer as compared to the conventional stirring method (requiring 2-3h for obtaining similar biodiesel yield). The observed intensification was attributed to the turbulence caused at microscale and generation of fine emulsions due to the cavitational effects. Overall it can be concluded from this study that high speed homogenizer can be used as an alternate cavitating device to efficiently produce biodiesel in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts.
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  11. Kinetic study of soybean oil methanolysis using cement kiln dust as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Al-Sakkari, E. G.; El-Sheltawy, S. T.; Attia, N. K.; Mostafa, S. R. 2017. Kinetic study of soybean oil methanolysis using cement kiln dust as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 206146-157

    Biodiesel may be produced through transesterification reaction between triglycerides and light alcohols in presence of different catalysts. This paper presents a study of kinetics of soybean methanolysis using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a heterogeneous catalyst. All reactions took place at a constant methanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1 and catalyst loading of 3.5%. The study consists of three phases; the first one is to consider the reaction following irreversible homogeneous kinetic models (1st and 2nd orders) due to using high excess of methanol. The second is to add the backward reaction term to the power law models. Finally, models for heterogeneous catalysts such as Eley-Rideal and Langmuir-Hinshelwood models are suggested to describe reaction kinetics. Least squares method, Runge-Kutta methods for ordinary differential equations and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for minimizing objective function were used to obtain the parameters of each suggested model in each phase. Calculation of determination coefficient (R-2) and minimization of squared error summation method were used to determine which model is the best one to fit the experimental data. Eley-Rideal kinetic model was the best model amongst the suggested models. Fisher and Chi-square criteria were used to check the reliability of generated rate equation. The rate differential equation was solved to obtain the main engineering factors controlling the reaction. (C)2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  12. Transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production over CaAlSi mixed oxide nanoparticles
    Abstract

    Farzaneh, F.; Dashtipour, B.; Rashtizadeh, E. 2017. Transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production over CaAlSi mixed oxide nanoparticles. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. 81(3) 859-866

    CaAlSi mixed metal oxide nanoparticles with formula Ca2Al2SiO7 and CaAl2O4 (with molar ratio of 70:30) was prepared by sol-gel method and used as a basic heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil with methanol to methyl esters (biodiesel). The catalyst was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, Fouier Transform Infrared, and Termal Gravimetric Analysis techniques. Effect of important reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, and amount of catalyst were examined. It was found that reaction of methanol and soybean oil with the molar ratio of 30 in the presence of 6 % catalyst (based on soybean oil weight) affords biodiesel almost quantitatively at 60 A degrees C within 6 h. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for four cycles without significant loosing activity.
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  13. A novel one-pot synthesis of tetragonal sulfated zirconia catalyst with high activity for biodiesel production from the transesterification of soybean oil
    Abstract

    Shi, G. L.; Yu, F.; Wang, Y.; Pan, D. H.; Wang, H. G.; Li, R. F. 2016. A novel one-pot synthesis of tetragonal sulfated zirconia catalyst with high activity for biodiesel production from the transesterification of soybean oil. Renewable Energy. 9222-29

    A sulfated zirconia catalyst has been prepared by a novel one-pot vapor-controlled synthesis route using ammonium persulphate as sulfate agent. A possible formation mechanism of the catalyst is proposed. The effect of calcination temperature and S/Zr molar ratio on the structural, textural and catalytic properties of the prepared catalyst were investigated in detail using X-ray diffraction (XRD), N-2 adsorption-desorption, ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTlR) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) which was equipped with an energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS). The results indicated that the samples calcined at 500 degrees C possessed zirconia of pure tetragonal structure, more content of sulfur and better distribution of acid sites on the surface of zirconia compared with the samples calcined at 600 degrees C at fixed S/Zr molar ratio. Moreover, they showed excellent catalytic activity with 100% yields of biodiesel for the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  14. A rapid ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel from a mixture of Karanj and soybean oil
    Abstract

    Parida, S.; Sahu, D. K.; Misra, P. K. 2016. A rapid ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel from a mixture of Karanj and soybean oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(8) 1110-1116

    Karanj oil having high free fatty acid was neutralized with a dilute alkali solution and then mixed with soybean oil in different ratios in order to reduce the free fatty acid content significantly. The mixture of the oils was then transesterified with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl ester. The transesterification was carried out using ultrasonication energy of 20 kHz in pulse mode. It was found that up to 60% Karanj oil in the blended mixture could produce good quality biodiesel that met the ASTM standards. However, the lesser content of Karanj oil in the mixture, the lesser the reaction parameters viz. alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, and reaction time. About 99% yield of methyl esters was obtained when the Karanj oil content in the mixture was 20% with a reaction time of 30 min, catalyst concentration 1 wt%, and a temperature of 55 degrees C.
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  15. Bentonite-enhanced biodiesel production by NaOH-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil with methanol
    Abstract

    Wu, L.; Wei, T. Y.; Tong, Z. F.; Zou, Y.; Lin, Z. J.; Sun, J. H. 2016. Bentonite-enhanced biodiesel production by NaOH-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil with methanol. Fuel Processing Technology. 144334-340

    A new reaction system for biodiesel production by the base-catalyzed transesterification process has been developed. Bentonite is used as a water adsorbent in the traditional homogeneous base-catalyzed transesterification reaction system to create a heterogeneous system that improves the reaction efficiency. The influence of bentonite on the NaOH-catalyzed methanolysis of soybean oil and the accompanying reaction mechanisms were investigated. It was found that an appropriate introduction of bentonite can promote the methanolysis. By the rapidly removal of the water from the system, bentonite enhances the transformation of NaOH to the catalytically active methoxide species. Further, the main side reactions are significantly inhibited. The methanolysis of triglycerides took place in the liquid phase rather than in the solid phase. The introduction of bentonite also lowered the soap concentration in crude biodiesel, which was beneficial for the post-treatment to generate refined biodiesel. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  16. Biodiesel production from soybean and Jatropha oils using cesium impregnated sodium zirconate as a heterogeneous base catalyst
    Abstract

    Torres-Rodriguez, D. A.; Romero-Ibarra, I. C.; Ibarra, I. A.; Pfeiffer, H. 2016. Biodiesel production from soybean and Jatropha oils using cesium impregnated sodium zirconate as a heterogeneous base catalyst. Renewable Energy. 93323-331

    Cesium modified sodium zirconate (Cs-Na2ZrO3) was prepared by ionic exchange from sodium zirconate (Na2ZrO3), which was synthesized via a solid state reaction. Both ceramics, i.e., pristine Na2ZrO3 and the Cs-Na2ZrO3, were used as basic heterogeneous catalysts in biodiesel production. Soybean and Jatropha oils were used as triglyceride sources for transesterification reactions. Parameters, such as catalyst concentration (between 0.5 and 3 wt%), reaction time, different methanol/vegetable oil molar ratios, and temperature of the reaction, were evaluated. The cesium cation influence was evaluated from the basic transesterification reactivity. The results showed that the introduction of cesium significantly modified the catalytic activity in biodiesel production. Cs enhanced the reaction kinetics in obtaining biodiesel and reduced the reaction time in comparison with pristine Na2ZrO3. The results showed that Cs-Na2ZrO3 as a basic heterogeneous catalyst exhibited the best fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) conversion for soybean oil (98.8%) at 1 wt%, 30:1 methanol/oil ratio, 65 degrees C, and 15 min. The best conditions for Jatropha oil (90.8%) were 3 wt%, 15:1 methanol/oil ratio, 65 degrees C, and 1 h. The impregnation of Na2ZrO3 with cesium represents a very exciting alternative heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  17. Biodiesel production from soybean oil by quaternized polysulfone alkali-catalyzed membrane
    Abstract

    Shi, W. Y.; Li, H. B.; Zhou, R.; Zhang, H. X.; Du, Q. Y. 2016. Biodiesel production from soybean oil by quaternized polysulfone alkali-catalyzed membrane. Bioresource Technology. 21043-48

    A series of alkalized polysulfones (APSF) were synthesized by several chemical reactions (chloromethylation, quaternization and alkalization). Among these reactions, chloromethylation and quaternization are two key reactions and have been studied in detail regarding the optimization of both chloromethylation and quaternization. FTIR and H-1 NMR spectrum confirmed the successful preparation of chloromethylated polysulfone. The best IEC of APSF was obtained for 1.68 meq g(-1) under reaction time of 10 h and reaction temperature of 45 degrees C. The APSF membrane as a heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was prepared through the method of solvent evaporation phase inversion. The effects of co-solvent types, mass ratios of soybean oil/co-solvent, water content and free fatty acids (FFAs) content in soybean oil on the conversions using the APSF membrane during transesterification were studied. The reusability of the APSF membrane and the kinetics of the reaction catalyzed by the APSF membrane were also investigated. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  18. Biodiesel production from soybean oil catalyzed by magnetic nanoparticle MgFe2O4@CaO
    Abstract

    Liu, Y. L.; Zhang, P. B.; Fan, M. M.; Jiang, P. P. 2016. Biodiesel production from soybean oil catalyzed by magnetic nanoparticle MgFe2O4@CaO. Fuel. 164314-321

    Magnetic nanoparticle (MgFe2O4@CaO) catalyst coated by CaO was successfully synthesized by using the alkali precipitation with the presence of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). The obtained heterogeneous catalyst was highly efficient for the synthesis of biodiesel with soybean oil and methanol as raw material. Furthermore, under the reaction conditions of catalyst dosage 1.0 wt.%, methanol:soybean oil ratio of 12:1, reaction temperature 70 degrees C, reaction time 3 h, the MgFe2O4@CaO catalyst showed the better activity, the higher acid-resistance and the better water resistance in the transesterification reaction compared with pure CaO. The MgFe2O4@CaO catalyst was characterized by XRD, TEM, VSM and CO2-TPD. The excellent performance of MgFe2O4@CaO catalyst with the yield of biodiesel 98.3% could be mainly attributed to the synergy between calcium and magnesium. Moreover, the catalyst was simply recovered by an external conventional magnet and recycled after completion of reaction, and there was no observation for the significant decrease of the catalytic activity. After further reused for 5 times, the yield of FAME could still reach 89%, which indicated that the MgFe2O4@CaO catalyst had a good stability and recyclability. The development of MgFe2O4@CaO as a novel heterogeneous catalyst would provide an environmentally friendly manner for biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  19. Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate usingcalcined duck eggshell as catalyst
    Abstract

    Yin, X. L.; Duan, X. L.; You, Q. H.; Dai, C. H.; Tan, Z. B.; Zhu, X. Y. 2016. Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate usingcalcined duck eggshell as catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 112199-207

    Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) using calcined duck eggshell (DES) as catalyst was studied. An inexpensive and environment-friendly catalyst was prepared from waste DES which is a source of calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate could be changed to calcium oxide (CaO) under high temperatures. The obtained CaO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transmission Infrared Spectra (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). XRF was used to determine the elemental composition of the catalyst. BET analysis was performed to determine specific surface area, pore volume and particle size of the catalysts. Results showed that at 800 degrees C and 900 degrees C the calcium carbonate in DES was changed to CaO. The pre-esterification of SODD was conducted under the following conditions: H2SO4 concentration (v/w, based on oil weight) 1.5%, methanol to oil molar ratio 12:1, reaction time 120 min and reaction temperature 60 degrees C. Thephytosterols were removed by cooling down step by stepand temperature steps were 15 degrees C, 5 degrees C, -5 degrees C. The process of biodiesel production from pre-esterified SODD using the obtained CaO as catalyst was studied and the optimal conditions were: calcination temperature of 900 degrees C, catalyst amount of 10 wt.%, methanol to oil ratio of 10:1, reaction temperature of 60 degrees C and reaction time of 80 min and the biodiesel yield was 94.6% at these conditions. The reusability of the DES-derived catalyst was tested and the results showed that the biodiesel yield was above 80% after five times usage and was lower than 60% after 8 times usage. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  20. Biodiesel production through transesterification of soybean oil: A kinetic Monte Carlo study
    Abstract

    Bashiri, H.; Pourbeiram, N. 2016. Biodiesel production through transesterification of soybean oil: A kinetic Monte Carlo study. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 22310-15

    In the present study, biodiesel production was investigated through transesterification of soybean oil with methanol in presence of NaOH by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation. In this research the kinetic Monte Carlo simulation results qualitatively agree with the existing experimental data. The kinetic parameters for each step of mechanism have been confirmed by simulation. By using the mechanism and kinetics data, the system was studied at different methanol/oil feed ratios and a comparison between kinetic data was provided. The effects of reaction temperature and percentage of catalyst on the rate of reaction were studied. () 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  21. Continuous production of biodiesel from soybean flakes by extraction coupling with transesterification under supercritical conditions
    Abstract

    Xu, Q. Q.; Li, Q.; Yin, J. Z.; Guo, D.; Qiao, B. Q. 2016. Continuous production of biodiesel from soybean flakes by extraction coupling with transesterification under supercritical conditions. Fuel Processing Technology. 14437-41

    A continuous process of supercritical extraction coupling with supercritical methanol transesterification was put forward to prepare biodiesel directly from full-fat soybean flakes. This method is meaningful to the industrialized production of biodiesel. It can lower the high cost of the refined vegetable oil as feedstock. Furthermore, it gives a possibility that a mobile biodiesel processor could be easily moved to various locations where raw materials are available and produce biodiesel in situ. The experimental results indicated that a residence time of more than 2.5 h was required to obtain a stable fatty acid methyl ester yield. The maximum biodiesel yield of 86% was obtained at 350 degrees C, 20 MPa and 3 h, with the molar ratio of methanol-to-oil of about 42:1. In addition, based on the investigation of the process optimization, oil extraction was found to be the crucial step for the coupling process and other promising routes were proposed to improve both the production efficiency and the capacity. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  22. Effect of homogeneous alkaline catalyst type on biodiesel production from soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] oil
    Abstract

    Saydut, A.; Kafadar, A. B.; Aydin, F.; Erdogan, S.; Kaya, C.; Hamamci, C. 2016. Effect of homogeneous alkaline catalyst type on biodiesel production from soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] oil. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 15(4) 596-600

    Transesterification or alcoholysis is the most commonly applied method for biodiesel production. A catalyst is needed to improve the transesterification reaction and yield. The present study used soybean oil as the raw oil to mix with methanol and four strong alkali catalysts (NaOH, KOH, CH3ONa & CH3OK) to undergo a transesterification reaction. Transesterification was carried out using 100% :excess alcohol, i.e., molar ratio of alcohol to soybean oil was 6:1, and, catalyst concentration of 1% at 60 degrees C. Alkali metal alkoxides were found to be more effective transesterification catalysts compared to hydroxides. Sodium methdxide was the most efficient catalyst, although KOH and NaOH could also be used because they are cheaper and are used widely in large scale processing:
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  23. Ethanolysis and Methanolysis of Soybean and Macauba Oils Catalyzed by Mixed Oxide Ca-Al from Hydrocalumite for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Prado, R. G.; Almeida, G. D.; de Oliveira, A. R.; de Souza, P. M. T. G.; Cardoso, C. C.; Constantino, V. R. L.; Pinto, F. G.; Tronto, J.; Pasa, V. M. D. 2016. Ethanolysis and Methanolysis of Soybean and Macauba Oils Catalyzed by Mixed Oxide Ca-Al from Hydrocalumite for Biodiesel Production. Energy & Fuels. 30(8) 6662-6670

    In this study, Ca-Al mixed oxide produced from the thermal decomposition of a synthetic hydrocalumite was prepared and evaluated as a catalyst in the transesterification reaction for biodiesel production, using the following reagents: refined soybean oil, crude macauba kernel oil, methanol, and ethanol. The synthetic hydrocalumite and the mixed oxide were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry coupled with mass spectrometry, specific surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption of CO2. The catalytic tests indicated that the reactions using methanol exhibited more favorable activity than those employing ethanol, regardless of the type of oil used (soybean or macauba). Ethanolysis produced better results for the higher-molar-mass oil (soybean), because of the effect of the ethanol cosolvent. The catalyst was efficient for transesterification, with conversions of 97% and 95% for soybean and macauba oil, respectively, after 1.5 h of reaction, under atmospheric pressure condition and reflux temperature.
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  24. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil
    Abstract

    Carvalho, M.; da Silva, E. S.; Andersen, S. L. F.; Abrahao, R. 2016. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23(11) 11025-11033

    Biodiesel has been attracting considerable attention as being a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel that can contribute to the solution of some energy issues as it presents potential to help mitigate climate change. The Life Cycle Assessment of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification double step process) was carried out herein. A pilot plant was considered, designed to produce 72 L of biodiesel in daily continuous flow, throughout a lifetime of 15 years (8000 annual hours). The materials and equipment utilized in the construction of the plant were considered as well as the energy and substances required for the production of biodiesel. Environmental impact assessment method IPCC 2013 GWP 100a was utilized within the SimaPro software to express the final result in kg CO2-equivalent. The results quantified the CO2 emissions associated with biodiesel production throughout the lifetime of the production plant (15 years), resulting in a total value of 1,441,426.05 kg CO2-eq. (96,095.07 kg CO2-eq. per year), which was equivalent to 4.01 kg CO2-eq. per liter of biodiesel produced. Decrease of environmental loads associated with the production of biodiesel could include improvements on the handling of biomass agriculture and on the technology production of biodiesel.
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  25. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil
    Abstract

    Carvalho, M.; da Silva, E. S.; Andersen, S. L.; Abrahao, R. 2016. Life cycle assessment of the transesterification double step process for biodiesel production from refined soybean oil in Brazil. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 23(11) 11025-33

    Biodiesel has been attracting considerable attention as being a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel that can contribute to the solution of some energy issues as it presents potential to help mitigate climate change. The Life Cycle Assessment of biodiesel from soybean oil (transesterification double step process) was carried out herein. A pilot plant was considered, designed to produce 72 L of biodiesel in daily continuous flow, throughout a lifetime of 15 years (8000 annual hours). The materials and equipment utilized in the construction of the plant were considered as well as the energy and substances required for the production of biodiesel. Environmental impact assessment method IPCC 2013 GWP 100a was utilized within the SimaPro software to express the final result in kg CO2-equivalent. The results quantified the CO2 emissions associated with biodiesel production throughout the lifetime of the production plant (15 years), resulting in a total value of 1,441,426.05 kg CO2-eq. (96,095.07 kg CO2-eq. per year), which was equivalent to 4.01 kg CO2-eq. per liter of biodiesel produced. Decrease of environmental loads associated with the production of biodiesel could include improvements on the handling of biomass agriculture and on the technology production of biodiesel.
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  26. Lipase immobilized on polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Andrade, M. F. C.; Parussulo, A. L. A.; Netto, C. G. C. M.; Andrade, L. H.; Toma, H. E. 2016. Lipase immobilized on polydopamine-coated magnetite nanoparticles for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Biofuel Research Journal-Brj. 3(2) 403-409

    Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently attached to magnetite nanoparticles coated with a thin polydopamine film, and employed in the enzymatic conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel, in the presence of methanol. The proposed strategy explored the direct immobilization of the enzyme via Michael addition and aldolic condensation reactions at the catechol rings, with no need for using specific coupling agents. In addition, a larger amount of enzymes could be bound to the magnetic nanoparticles, allowing their efficient recycling with the use of an external magnet. For biodiesel production, the transesterification reaction was carried out directly in soybean oil by stepwise addition of methanol, in order to circumvent its inactivation effect on the enzyme. A better yield of 90% was achieved at 37 degrees C compared with the free enzyme. However, the immobilized biocatalyst became gradually less effective after the third cycle, due to its prolonged exposition to the denaturating methanol medium. (C) 2016 BRTeam. All rights reserved.
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  27. Modelling and Analysis of a Soybean Biorefinery for the Production of Refined Oil, Biodiesel and Different Types of Flours
    Abstract

    De Pretto, C.; Tardioli, P. W.; Costa, C. B. B. 2016. Modelling and Analysis of a Soybean Biorefinery for the Production of Refined Oil, Biodiesel and Different Types of Flours. 26th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (Escape), Pt A. 38a925-930

    Soybean crushing and refining facilities, besides producing oil and meal, can also further process these products to generate energy or other products with commercial value. Therefore, these facilities are good candidates for a biorefinery concept application. From the degummed oil obtained after the extraction and degumming of soybean oil, there is the possibility of producing refined oil or biodiesel. From the meal also obtained from the extraction, it is possible to make soy protein concentrates (SPC) or soy protein isolates (SPI). For this reason, the aim of this work is to model a soybean crushing, refining and biodiesel production facility. For that, SuperPro Designer v. 9.0, a process design commercial software, was used with production process data collected from the literature. From the modelled process, it was possible to observe that yields from biodiesel or refined oil production are almost equal, but refined oil results in less residues generation and demands less energy. As for SPC and SPI production, SPI results in lower yields (similar to 44% lower) and produces more residues when compared to SPC (similar to 37-fold more). In addition, the model provides flexibility by varying the amount of raw material that can be diverted for the production of different products, so the production process can be adapted to changes in demands that occur in the market.
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  28. Nanostructured sodium-zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) doped with potassium by sol-gel processing for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Saeedi, M.; Fazaeli, R.; Aliyan, H. 2016. Nanostructured sodium-zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) doped with potassium by sol-gel processing for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. 77(2) 404-415

    Zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) doped with potassium (KNa/ZIF-8) was prepared under hydrothermal conditions. FTIR, powder XRD, scanning electron microscopy, N-2 physisorption and TGA were used to characterize synthesized catalysts. Furthermore, biodiesel was synthesized using soybean oil as the feedstock by KNa/ZIF-8-catalyzed transesterification process. In order to increase the basicity and consequently improve the performance of ZIF-8 in the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, sodium and potassium were added to it. The effect of various reaction parameters, including methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction, catalyst mass and temperature on the reaction, was studied. Using KNa/ZIF-8 and methanol/oil molar ratio of 10:1 over a period of 3.5 h afforded a remarkable conversion of > 98. The solid catalyst can be recycled least three times under mild conditions. KNa/ZIF-8 demonstrated higher activity in the transesterification of soybean oil compared with Na and K (as dopant) modifications on the conventional support (SiO2) and other MOF (MIL-101 and MIL-100) materials.
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  29. Preparation of Zirconia Supported Basic Nanocatalyst: A Physicochemical and Kinetic Study of Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil
    Abstract

    Patil, P.; Pratap, A. 2016. Preparation of Zirconia Supported Basic Nanocatalyst: A Physicochemical and Kinetic Study of Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil. Journal of Oleo Science. 65(4) 331-337

    Zirconia supported cadmium oxide basic nanocatalyst was prepared by simple co-precipitation method using aq. ammonia as precipitating reagent. The catalyst was characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy technique (TEM), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller surface area measurement (BET), temperature program desorption (TPD-CO2) etc. The transesterificaton of soybean oil with methanol into biodiesel was catalysed by employing zirconia supported nanocatalyst. Kinetics of transesterificaton of oil was studied and obeyed the pseudo first order equation. While, the activation energy (E-a) for the transesterification of oil was found to be 41.18 kJ mor(-1). The 97% yield of biodiesel was observed using 7% catalyst loading (with respect of oil), 1:40 molar ratio of oil to methanol at 135 degrees C
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  30. Preparation, basic properties and catalytic activity of Mg/La and Al/La catalysts for biodiesel production from refined and acid soybean oil
    Abstract

    Santorio, R.; Veloso, C. D.; Henriques, C. A. 2016. Preparation, basic properties and catalytic activity of Mg/La and Al/La catalysts for biodiesel production from refined and acid soybean oil. Journal of Molecular Catalysis a-Chemical. 422234-247

    The growing concern for environmental preservation combined with the possibility of depletion of energy obtained from fossil fuels has driven industry to develop alternative fuels from renewable resources and environmentally non-aggressive processes. Biodiesel is an important alternative fuel whose properties are similar to those of petrodiesel. Catalysts containing Mg/La (Mg/La molar ratio =9:1) were prepared by coprecipitation using three methods that differed according to precipitating agent, and calcination temperature. The catalyst prepared with (NH4)(2)CO3/NH4OH as precipitating agent and calcined at 450 degrees C presented the best physicochemical and catalytic properties. Catalysts based on Mg/Al and Al/La with different chemical compositions were synthesized under the selected conditions. The catalytic behavior of these materials for transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was investigated and the catalysts with M/La molar ratio equal to 9:1 (M = Mg or Al) showed the best catalytic performance. Catalytic tests were also carried out in the presence of acid soybean oil. It was verified that the catalysts used have sites capable of catalyzing esterification and transesterification reactions. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  31. Production of biodiesel from soybean oil biomass as renewable energy source
    Abstract

    Churasia, A.; Singh, J.; Kumar, A. 2016. Production of biodiesel from soybean oil biomass as renewable energy source. Journal of Environmental Biology. 37(6) 1303-1307

    Transesterification of vegetable oils with short-chain alcohols is used to produce biodiesel. In the present study, crude soybean oil was investigated on the basis of three principal variables, such as optimum reaction temperature (60 degrees C), the amount of catalyst concentration from 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% and molar ratio of methanol 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5 and 1:6, respectively affecting yield of biodiesel. Under optimum condition, at molar ratio 1:6 in the presence of 0.5% NaOH and 60 degrees C reaction temperature and 350 rpm approximately 99.1% biodiesel yield was obtained.
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  32. Production of soybean ethanol-based biodiesel using CaO heterogeneous catalysts promoted by Zn, K and Mg
    Abstract

    Fernandes, F. A. N.; Lopes, R. M.; Mercado, M. P.; Siqueira, E. S. 2016. Production of soybean ethanol-based biodiesel using CaO heterogeneous catalysts promoted by Zn, K and Mg. International Journal of Green Energy. 13(4) 417-423

    This article focuses on the optimization of the production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil using CaO-based heterogeneous catalysts. Three different catalytic promoters were evaluated: Magnesium, zinc, and potassium. The reaction has evaluated the promoter content (promoter to calcium molar ratio), catalyst load, alcohol to oil molar ratio, and temperature. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of each variable on the yield of biodiesel. The addition of K2O or MgO in the catalyst has enhanced the yield in fatty acid ethyl esters, while the use of ZnO as a promoter was not successful.
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  33. Renewable biofuel production from hydrocracking of soybean biodiesel with a commercial petroleum Ni-W catalyst
    Abstract

    Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhang, W. A.; Sun, D. F.; Zhu, L. W.; Jiang, J. X. 2016. Renewable biofuel production from hydrocracking of soybean biodiesel with a commercial petroleum Ni-W catalyst. International Journal of Green Energy. 13(12) 1185-1192

    As a potential hydrocarbon production method, the hydrocracking of soybean biodiesel, using a commercial petroleum hydrocracking catalyst, was studied. Experiments were carried out in a 1,000 mL, high-pressure autoclave for 2-4 hr over the temperature range of 200-280 degrees C under an initial hydrogen pressure of 10 MPa. Hydrocracking of soybean biodiesel produced n-paraffins in the C-8-C-17 boiling range, which includes both green gasoline and diesel. Both pressure and temperature play important roles in the transformation of soybean biodiesel. Hydrocarbons can be formed above 220 degrees C with a liquid yield of 81.76%. The n-alkanes content of the liquid product reached 32.29% at 280 degrees C, with 88.32% C-11-C-14 selectivity. In addition, hydrocracking results in many changes of catalyst such as physical properties, morphology, etc. For the used catalyst, the concentrations of Ni and C increased, and the pore channels were significantly reduced.
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  34. Synthesis of Zn,La-catalysts for biodiesel production from edible and acid soybean oil
    Abstract

    Veiga, P. M.; Veloso, C. O.; Henriques, C. A. 2016. Synthesis of Zn,La-catalysts for biodiesel production from edible and acid soybean oil. Renewable Energy. 99543-552

    Mixed oxides are widely used as catalyst in biodiesel production. The synthesis of these materials is mostly performed through co-precipitation using a basic solution as precipitating agent. The presence of residual alkali metals in the catalyst is a problem. The use of non-edible raw materials is a challenging issue in biodiesel production. The effect of precipitating agent (NaOH/Na2CO3, urea and (NH4)(2)CO3/NH4OH), calcination temperature (450 and 750 degrees C), and Zn/La molar ratio in the catalytic performance of Zn,La-mixed oxides for edible and non-edible soybean oil methanolysis was studied. ZnO promoted biodiesel production and lanthanum oxide carbonate and carbonate hydroxide phases are more effective for transesterification reaction than lanthanum oxide. The catalytic results for the transesterification of edible soybean oil could be correlated to catalyst basicity. The esterification of oleic acid added to edible soybean oil was favored by La species. In the presence of oleic acid, FAME yield could not be correlated to acid-basic sites density and the lanthanum oxide carbonate and carbonate hydroxide species deactivated more than lanthanum oxide. The best performance for the methanolysis of soybean oil containing 10% of oleic acid (95%) was obtained by the catalyst prepared using urea as coprecipitation agent and calcined at 750 degrees C. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  35. Transesterification of soybean oil in four-way micromixers for biodiesel production using a cosolvent
    Abstract

    Rahimi, M.; Mohammadi, F.; Basiri, M.; Parsamoghadam, M. A.; Masahi, M. M. 2016. Transesterification of soybean oil in four-way micromixers for biodiesel production using a cosolvent. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 64203-210

    In this work, transformation of soybean oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was studied in different four-way micromixers. Hexane was added to the reaction system as a cosolvent for mass transfer intensification. A three-level-five-factorial Central Composite Design using Response Surface Methodology was employed to optimize the reaction conditions. The main factors affecting the FAME content (wt.%) i.e. reaction temperature, residence time, hexane to methanol volumetric ratio, oil to methanol volumetric ratio and mixer configuration were discussed. The optimum combinations for transesterification to achieve a predicted maximum FAME of 97.67% were found. At this optimum condition, the observed FAME content was found to be 98.8%. The closeness of the experimental results and predicted values demonstrated that the regression model is significant. In the present work, residence time was reduced in an order of seconds (3-15 s), which it has not been fulfilled in the previous works. (C) 2016 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  36. Usage of glycerin-derived, hydrogen-rich syngas augmented by soybean biodiesel to power a biodiesel production facility
    Abstract

    Mattson, J.; Langness, C.; Niles, B.; Depcik, C. 2016. Usage of glycerin-derived, hydrogen-rich syngas augmented by soybean biodiesel to power a biodiesel production facility. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 41(38) 17132-17144

    A single-cylinder compression ignition engine undergoing dual-fuel operation with soybean biodiesel and an artificial hydrogen-rich syngas (postulated from glycerin reformation) was tested at varying engine loads and gaseous/liquid fuel flowrates. Overall, increasing syngas usage promotes premixed combustion, with only relatively small deviations in injection timing required to maintain efficient engine operation. Fuel consumption increased while emissions of particulates fell with greater syngas usage due largely to a shift to flame propagation-controlled combustion. Increases in nitrogen dioxide emissions are tied closely to syngas usage, and composed an unusually large portion of all nitrogen oxide emissions via greater levels of flame quenching. The experimental results are combined with an energy analysis of a biodiesel production process in order to determine the amount of glycerin (subsequently converted to a syngas) and, biodiesel required for a small-scale plant to be self-sufficient. Calculations indicate that only 10.88% of the glycerin by-product generated and 3.65% of the biodiesel produced by the facility is needed to provide all of the plant's energy requirements. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC.
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  37. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998
    Abstract

    Souza, A. F.; Rodriguez, D. M.; Ribeaux, D. R.; Luna, M. A. C.; Silva, T. A. L. E.; Andrade, R. E. S.; Gusmao, N. B.; Campos-Takaki, G. M. 2016. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 17(10)

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2(2) experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10(7) cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 mu m), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm(2) of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and gamma-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.
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  38. Zn(II) coordination polymer as a bifunctional catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Farzaneh, F.; Moghzi, F.; Rashtizadeh, E. 2016. Zn(II) coordination polymer as a bifunctional catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Reaction Kinetics Mechanisms and Catalysis. 118(2) 509-521

    In this study, a Zn coordination polymer with formula [Zn(4,4'-bipy)(OAc)(2)](n), designated as compound 1 was prepared with Zn acetate and 4,4'-bipyridine in ethanol. It was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, NH3 and CO2-TPD techniques. Compound 1 was found to be an efficient catalyst for biodiesel production. The effect of reaction parameters on the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs or biodiesel) including the reaction temperature, time, molar ratios of methanol to oil and catalyst amount were investigated. Obtaining the highest biodiesel yield up to 98 % within 2 h in the presence of 2 % of compound 1 as catalyst (based on the soybean oil weight) together with its stability and reusability is promising. Due to insolubility of compound 1 in methanol and methyl esters, it can be easily separated and reused as catalyst. Therefore, the stability and reusability of 1 makes it a good alternative for biodiesel production.
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  39. A Raman spectroscopic approach to investigate the production of biodiesel from soybean oil using 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with intermediate chain length
    Abstract

    Abrahamsson, J.; Andreasson, E.; Hansson, N.; Sandstrom, D.; Wennberg, E.; Marechal, M.; Martinelli, A. 2015. A Raman spectroscopic approach to investigate the production of biodiesel from soybean oil using 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids with intermediate chain length. Applied Energy. 154763-770

    We present a Raman spectroscopic study of the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel by methanol using the lipase B enzyme pseudomonas cepacia as the bio-catalyst and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids (C(n)C(1)Im) as co-solvents, where the alkyl chain length is varied from ethyl (n = 2) to decyl (n = 10). We have limited this study to a low reaction temperature, 40 degrees C, and a low enzyme concentration to investigate the possibility of producing biodiesel with low energy and cost demands. We also demonstrate that Raman spectroscopy is a powerful and straightforward method to estimate the yield of the transesterification reaction, by analysis of the characteristic C=0 stretching mode found in the range similar to 1730-1750 cm(-1). Our results indicate that both reaction yield and reaction rate increase with the chain length, but also that for chains longer than decyl further improvements are marginal. We discuss these results from the viewpoint of local interactions and local structure of the investigated ionic liquids. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  40. Biodiesel production from soybean oil by guanidinylated chitosan
    Abstract

    He, B. Q.; Shao, Y. X.; Liang, M. Z.; Li, J. X.; Cheng, Y. 2015. Biodiesel production from soybean oil by guanidinylated chitosan. Fuel. 15933-39

    Guanidinylated chitosan (GCS), as a heterogeneous alkaline catalyst for the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, was synthesized by grafting aminoiminomethanesulfonic acid onto chitosan. The structure and properties of GCS membrane were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The soybean oil conversion reached 98.8% at the first run and 96.6% at the fifth run under the reaction conditions: catalyst amount of 20 wt.%, methanol/oil mass ratio of 2.5:1 at 60 degrees C for 6 h. Results show that the transesterification mainly took place on the surface of the catalytic membrane. The kinetics study of the transesterification was undertaken in terms of pseudo-homogeneous model and performed as a first order reaction with an activation energy of 76.95 kJ/mol and pre-exponential factor of 7.94 x 10(9) min(-1). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  41. Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound
    Abstract

    Yin, X. L.; You, Q. H.; Ma, H. L.; Dai, C. H.; Zhang, H. N.; Li, K. X.; Li, Y. L. 2015. Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2353-58

    Biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate enhanced by counter-current pulsed ultrasound was studied. Effect of static probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (SPUE) and counter-current probe ultrasonic enhanced transesterification (CCPUE) on the biodiesel conversion were compared. The results indicated that CCPUE was a better method for enhancing transesterification. The working conditions of CCPUE were studied by single-factor experiment design and the results showed that the optimal conditions were: initial temperature 25 C, methanol to triglyceride molar ratio 10:1, flow rate 200 mL/min, catalyst content 1.8%, ultrasound working on-time 4 s, off-time 2 s, total working time 50 min. Under these conditions, the average biodiesel conversion of three experiments was 96.1%. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  42. Comparison between Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil with Ethanol: Design and Economic Evaluation
    Abstract

    Young, A. F.; Pessoa, F. L. P.; Queiroz, E. M. 2015. Comparison between Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil with Ethanol: Design and Economic Evaluation. Icheap12: 12th International Conference on Chemical & Process Engineering. 43325-330

    Biodiesel production by homogeneous alkali catalysis was simulated in PRO/II (R) from crude soybean oil and crude palm oil at industrial level, with ethanol. Actual compositions were assumed for both vegetable oils from the literature and thermodynamic properties were estimated by a group contribution method. Because of the higher content of free fatty acids in crude palm oil, it was demonstrated that some changes in the ethanol content and in the equipment specifications are needed to reach a fuel in agreement with the international quality laws, if compared to biodiesel from soybean oil. A same plant could process both raw materials, because the main structural differences are in vessel volumes and temperatures and not in distillation columns or heat exchangers specifications. An economic evaluation was performed to compare the relative potential of both the oilseeds. In the case of Brazil in the mid-2014, it was not profitable to produce biodiesel from these oilseeds and ethanol. Palm oil had the highest manufacturing cost in that scenario, mainly because of the higher demand for ethanol in the pre-treatment step. However, due to the big contribution of raw materials costs in the total manufacturing cost, this scenario could easily change with tax reductions, subsidy or the simple expansion of palm production in the country. The authors expect that the same methodology could be applied to other technologies and/or other raw materials to update the available information about biodiesel production alternatives in Brazil and elsewhere.
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  43. Design and Economic Evaluation of Alternatives to Effluents Treatment on Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil
    Abstract

    Young, A. F.; Pessoa, F. L. P.; Queiroz, E. M. 2015. Design and Economic Evaluation of Alternatives to Effluents Treatment on Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil. 12th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering (Pse) and 25th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (Escape), Pt B. 371067-1072

    Biodiesel production by homogeneous alkali catalysis was simulated in PRO/II (R) from crude soybean oil and crude palm oil at industrial level, with ethanol. Actual compositions were assumed and thermodynamic properties were estimated by a group contribution method. The main effluents from biodiesel production are streams rich in unreacted oil, water, ethanol and glycerine. Some alternatives to the treatment of these effluents were proposed, including hydrous or anhydrous ethanol production, production and recycle of pure glycerol and unreacted oil recycle. An economic evaluation was done to find out the potential of each treatment possibility. It was demonstrated that, in the case of Brazil in mid-2014, it was not profitable to produce biodiesel from these oilseeds and ethanol without tax reductions or subsidy, but it is possible to reduce production costs and biodiesel prices with effluents treatment, generating more economical and sustainable plants.
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  44. Enzyme-catalyzed production of biodiesel by ultrasound-assisted ethanolysis of soybean oil in solvent-free system
    Abstract

    Trentin, C. M.; Popiolki, A. S.; Batistella, L.; Rosa, C. D.; Treichel, H.; de Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, J. V. 2015. Enzyme-catalyzed production of biodiesel by ultrasound-assisted ethanolysis of soybean oil in solvent-free system. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 38(3) 437-448

    This work reports the transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol using a commercial immobilized lipase, Novozym 435, under the influence of ultrasound irradiation, in a solvent-free s. The experiments were performed in an ultrasonic water bath, following a sequence of experimental designs to evaluate the effects of temperature, enzyme and water concentrations, oil to ethanol molar ratio and output irradiation power on the reaction yield. Besides, a kinetic study varying the substrates molar ratio and enzyme concentration was also carried out. Results show that ultrasound-assisted lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol in solvent-free system might be a potential alternative route to conventional alkali-catalyzed and/or traditional enzymatic methods, as high reaction yields (78 wt%) were obtained at mild irradiation power supply (132 W), and temperature (63 A degrees C) in a relatively short reaction time, 1 h. Additionally, a study regarding the enzyme reuse was carried out at the experimental condition that afforded the best reaction yield.
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  45. Evaluation of the use of degummed soybean oil and supercritical ethanol for non-catalytic biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Rade, L. L.; Arvelos, S.; Barrozo, M. A. D.; Romanielo, L. L.; Watanabe, E. O.; Hori, C. E. 2015. Evaluation of the use of degummed soybean oil and supercritical ethanol for non-catalytic biodiesel production. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 10521-28

    In this work the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from degummed soybean oil in supercritical ethanol was investigated. The process parameters were defined as reaction temperature (250-340 degrees C), residence time (11-50 min) and ethanol:oil molar ratio (9:1-51:1). All experiments were performed in a continuous reactor at 20 MPa. The effect of each parameter and their interactions on the yield of fatty acid ethylic esters was studied using design of experiments (DOE). Results showed that all three single parameters were significant on the yield of FAEE and that reactions of degummed soybean oil with ethanol led to esters yields up to 65%, in these experimental conditions. These values are inferior when compared to the ones obtained with refined soybean oil probably due to the presence of several impurities in degummed soy bean oil such as pigments, antioxidants and phospholipids. Despite of this lower yield, the use of degummed soybean oil can still be a good alternative since this is a non-edible lower cost raw material. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  46. Glycerol-enriched heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste frying oil
    Abstract

    Ferrero, G. O.; Almeida, M. F.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Dias, J. M. 2015. Glycerol-enriched heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste frying oil. Energy Conversion and Management. 89665-671

    In the present work, biodiesel production using a glycerol enriched heterogeneous catalyst was studied. For that purpose, the catalyst performance at different glycerol concentrations and reaction conditions (under ambient atmosphere) was evaluated and two triglyceride sources were used. The most active catalyst was produced using CaO, glycerol and methanol at a mass ratio of 1:1.6:13.4, respectively. By performing the transesterification reaction under ambient atmosphere during 2 h at 333 K, using 0.4 wt.% of catalyst and 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, a good quality product was obtained (EN 14214) using both soybean oil and waste frying oil. The catalyst could be re-used during four cycles and could also be prepared by using ethanol instead of methanol (with differences <4% on product conversion). The glycerol by-product, being rich in calcium soaps, might additionally be used for the enrichment of animal diets. The present process allowed the production of biodiesel from different triglyceride sources using a very active heterogeneous catalyst at competitive reaction conditions compared to the homogeneous process and also enabled a two-way recycling of the glycerol by-product. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  47. Kinetic study on free lipase NS81006-catalyzed biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Li, Y.; Du, W.; Dai, L. M.; Liu, D. H. 2015. Kinetic study on free lipase NS81006-catalyzed biodiesel production from soybean oil. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 12122-27

    In recent years, free lipase has been regarded as a promising biocatalyst for biodiesel production due to its cost efficiency and faster reaction rate. Free lipase NS81006 has been demonstrated to be capable of efficiently catalyzing the methanolysis of soybean oils and further kinetic study is of great significant to reveal the related mechanism of free lipase catalysis. In this paper, the kinetic models based on Ping-Pong Bi Bi mechanism were proposed in lipase-mediated alcoholysis process for biodiesel production. The whole model was calculated from separate reaction blocks including hydrolysis, esterification and transesterification, and Matlab was used to estimate the kinetic constants by fitting experimental data of the conversion of soybean oil. It was found that in the process of NS81006-catalyzed methanolysis of soybean oil, the hydrolysis followed by esterification as well as the methanolysis would occur simultaneously. The inhibitory effect of methanol on free lipase could also be observed from the relative high inhibition constant of methanol compared with other equilibrium constants. Moreover, as it can be seen from the simulated results, the enzymatic rate constants for direct transesterification are much greater than those for hydrolysis, indicating that transesterification is a more dominant reaction pathway for the free lipase NS81006 mediated biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  48. Nanorice-shaped mesoporous V/RSM as an efficient and reusable catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Fazaeli, R.; Aliyan, H. 2015. Nanorice-shaped mesoporous V/RSM as an efficient and reusable catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. 76(2) 456-464

    Sol-gel method was used to synthesize a nanorice-shaped mesoporous V/RSM, which was characterized by FTIR, XRD, BET, UV-Vis and TEM. The mesostructure of silica remains intact after following vanadium modification, as shown by absorption-desorption analysis, while spectral techniques indicate the successful immobilization of the neat vanadium oxide inside the porous silica support. Furthermore, soybean oil was has been used as the feedstock in the preparation of biodiesel by V/RSM-catalyzed transesterification process. Various reaction parameters, including methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction time, catalyst mass and reaction temperature, were studied investigated with regard to their effect on the reaction. A remarkable conversion of 94 % was obtained achieved using a 8 % (wt/wt oil) of V(4.8)/RSM catalyst, methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1 and reflux temperature of methanol during 8 h. The solid catalyst can be reused over at least six cycles under mild conditions.
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  49. PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM SOYBEAN FRYING OIL USING NATIVE STRAINS OF Thraustochytrids
    Abstract

    Silva, D.; Roa, A.; Quevedo, R.; Quilodran, B. 2015. PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM SOYBEAN FRYING OIL USING NATIVE STRAINS OF Thraustochytrids. Chilean Journal of Agricultural & Animal Sciences. 31(1) 29-41

    Thraustochytrids are marine heterotrophic protists classified as oleaginous microorganisms, which use substrate as glucose, glycerol, complex organic matter and carbon-rich residues to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Thraustochytrids can be potentially used to produce biodiesel because their biomass is rich in lipids. This study evaluated three strains isolated from the Chilean coast: AS4A1, VALB1 and IQ81. The biochemical profile shows that VALB1 in glycerol produces mainly palmitic acid (26%), whereas IQ81 and AS4A1 have high values of oleic acid (38 and 39%). These were grown in glycerol (GLI) and residual glycerol (GR) obtained from the production of biodiesel from soybean frying oil (BAFS). Cultures of the three strains generated FAMEs (biodiesel). Saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were identified and quantified, and then compared with BAFS. The profile of BAFS was calculated by adding SFA and MUFAs values and resulted in 30.70%. Regarding the AS4A1 strain in GR, this value reached 38.14%, with a biomass concentration of 13.62 g L-1. VALB1 presented values of 32.61% in GR and a biomass 6.07 g L-1, whereas IQ81 recorded values of 49.56% in GR and a biomass concentration of 5.28 g L-1. The results show that AS4A1 generates higher biomass concentration and presents similar values with BAFS in SFA and MUFAs using GR. This indicates that this residue is a potential self-regulating alternative for the production of biodiesel and the first report of the use of soybean frying oil bioconverted by Thraustochytrids, cyclically using all GLI formed.
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  50. Production of biodiesel through transesterification of soybean oil using ZIF-8@GO doped with sodium and potassium catalyst
    Abstract

    Fazaeli, R.; Aliyan, H. 2015. Production of biodiesel through transesterification of soybean oil using ZIF-8@GO doped with sodium and potassium catalyst. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 88(10) 1701-1710

    One pot encapsulating (hydrothermal) method was used to synthesize ZIF-8@GO hybrid nanocomposites. Na/ZIF-8@GO doped with potassium were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of ZIF-8@GO precursor with a 10 M alkali solution containing both NaOH and KOH. The final product (KNa/ZIF-8@GO) was characterized by FTIR, XRD, BET, TGA, and SEM. The structure of graphene oxide remains intact following various modifications, as shown by absorption-desorption analysis, while spectral techniques indicate successful immobilization of the neat ZIF-8 between the GO sheets. Furthermore, soybean oil has been used as the feedstock in the preparation of biodiesel by KNa/ZIF-8@GO-catalyzed transesterification process. The effects of various reaction parameters, including methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction time, catalyst mass, and reaction temperature were investigated. A remarkable conversion of 98% was obtained using a 8% (wt/wt oil) of KNa/ZIF-8@GO catalyst, methanol/oil molar ratio of 18 : 1, and reflux temperature of methanol over a period of 8 h. The solid catalyst can be reused over at least three cycles under mild reaction conditions.
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  51. Biodiesel production from soybean and Jatropha oils by magnetic CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O5-based catalyst
    Abstract

    Xue, B. J.; Luo, J.; Zhang, F.; Fang, Z. 2014. Biodiesel production from soybean and Jatropha oils by magnetic CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O5-based catalyst. Energy. 68584-591

    Heterogeneous CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O3-based catalyst with weak magnetism was prepared by coprecipitation and calcination. It was characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, Xray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption method. Its active components were identified as mainly Ca Fe composite oxides such as CaFe2O4 for transesterification. The magnetism was further strengthened by reducing its component of Fe2O3 to Fe3O4Fe under H-2 atmosphere for better magnetic separation. Both catalysts were used for the catalytic transesterification of soybean and Jatropha oils to biodiesel. The highest biodiesel yields for soybean oil of 85.4% and 83.5% were obtained over the weak and strong magnetic catalysts, respectively under the optimized conditions (373 K, 30 min, 15/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4 wt% catalyst). The catalysts could be recycled three times. Biodiesel production from pretreated Jatropha oil was tested with the magnetic CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O3-Fe3O4-Fe catalyst, and 78.2% biodiesel yield was obtained. The magnetic CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O3-based catalyst shows a potential application for the green production of biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  52. Biodiesel production from soybean oil in subcritical methanol using MnCO3/ZnO as catalyst
    Abstract

    Wan, L.; Liu, H.; Skala, D. 2014. Biodiesel production from soybean oil in subcritical methanol using MnCO3/ZnO as catalyst. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 152352-359

    The MnCO3/ZnO catalyst with different Mn/Zn molar ratio were prepared using co-precipitation method and used for biodiesel synthesis in subcritical methanol. Prepared catalyst samples were characterized by basic strength, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The triglyceride (TG) conversion and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of Mn/Zn molar ratio, calcination temperature and time, catalyst amount, molar ratio of methanol to oil, and transesterification reaction temperature and time, in regards to the catalyst activity were investigated. Results showed that a maximum TG conversion of 99.25% and FAME yield of 94.20% were obtained using MnCO3/ZnO catalyst (Mn/Zn molar ratio of 1:1) calcined at 573 K for 0.5 h under such reaction conditions for biodiesel synthesis as 4 wt% of catalyst, methanol/oil molar ratio of 18:1, reaction temperature of 448 K, and reaction time of I h. The catalyst kept TG conversion above 91.54% and FAME yield above 86.26% after 17-cycle reuse in batch reaction without regeneration processes. Further reuse of catalyst is followed by deactivation mainly caused by the transformation of small particle ZnO to lamellate zinc glycerolate. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  53. Biodiesel production from soybean oil using heterogeneous solid base catalyst
    Abstract

    Ye, B.; Qiu, F. X.; Sun, C. J.; Li, Y. H.; Yang, D. Y. 2014. Biodiesel production from soybean oil using heterogeneous solid base catalyst. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 89(7) 988-997

    BACKGROUND: Biodiesel is a green, safe, renewable alternative fuel, which could partly solve the problem of energy shortage and environmental pollution. Heterogeneous catalysis is an economically and ecologically important process because catalysts have many advantages: noncorrosive, environmentally benign and fewer disposal problems. They are also much easier to be separated from liquid products and can be designed to give higher activity and longer catalyst lifetimes. This work aims to develop a novel approach for biodiesel production from soybean oil by using heterogeneous catalyst.
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  54. Efficient heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil over modified CaO
    Abstract

    Tang, Y.; Wang, S. S.; Cheng, X. T.; Lu, Y. 2014. Efficient heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil over modified CaO. Progress in Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism. 39(3) 273-280

    Biodiesel production by transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was carried out efficiently over modified CaO by using octadecyltrichlorosilane as surface modifier. It was found that the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield was significantly enhanced from 35.4% to 93.5% over modified CaO with a methanol/oil ratio of 15: 1 at 65 degrees C after 3 h. Furthermore, good catalytic activity, i.e. 82.8% yield of FAME, remains even with a 2% water-content condition over modified CaO. The higher catalytic activity and good stability of modified CaO should be mainly attributed to the organic layer formed by the modifier over the CaO surface, which promotes the absorption of grease to CaO surface and protects CaO from water at the same time.
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  55. Energy flow in the soybean biodiesel production chain using ethanol as solvent extraction of oil from soybeans
    Abstract

    Sangaletti-Gerhard, N.; Romanelli, T. L.; Vieira, T. M. F. D.; Navia, R.; Regitano-d'Arce, M. A. B. 2014. Energy flow in the soybean biodiesel production chain using ethanol as solvent extraction of oil from soybeans. Biomass & Bioenergy. 6639-48

    Technological, energetic, economic and environmental feasibilities of a production system should be analyzed for the best conditions for implementing a process to be established. Refined soybean oil is a high-cost feedstock for biodiesel production, because it involves crop production, oil extraction and refining. Desolventizing and refining steps are required to obtain edible oils within the market quality standards. The introduction of a new technology, i.e. the direct use of the rich-in-soybean oil ethanolic miscella to produce biodiesel would however avoid these high energy demanding steps. Material and energy flow analysis are tools adopted to evaluate production systems and to identify the most energy demanding steps, in order to improve the processes. This study aimed to establish a comparative analysis between the conventional biodiesel production process in Brazil and the direct rich-in-soybean oil ethanolic miscella transesterification based on the energy flow. Energy flows confirmed that biodiesel feedstock production is the most energy demanding step, followed by oil extraction. Rich-in-oil miscella transesterification step by chemical route demanded less energy, followed by refined oil ethanolysis and methanolysis. The enzymatic catalysis had the highest energy demand, due to the amount and especially, the catalyst support composition. Generally speaking, refined oil ethanolysis process presented better energy balance (60.5 MJ kg(-1)), followed by refined oil methanolysis (55.4 MJ rich-in-oil miscella chemical ethanolysis (44.3 MJ kg(-1)), rich-in-oil miscella enzymatic ethanolysis with co-solvent (9.5 MJ kg(-1)) and rich-in-oil miscella enzymatic ethanolysis (9.4 MJ kg(-1)). This showed that rich-in-oil miscella process has high potential to produce biodiesel competitively. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  56. Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil by Using Immobilized Lipase on Fe3O4/Poly(styrene-rnethacrylic acid) Magnetic Microsphere as a Biocatalyst
    Abstract

    Xie, W. L.; Wang, J. L. 2014. Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil by Using Immobilized Lipase on Fe3O4/Poly(styrene-rnethacrylic acid) Magnetic Microsphere as a Biocatalyst. Energy & Fuels. 28(4) 2624-2631

    A magnetic composite poly(styrene-methacrylic acid) microsphere, was prepared using oleic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles as seeds by microemulsion copolymerization of styrene (St) and methacrylic acid (MAA). The lipase from Candida rugosa was then covalently bound to the magnetic polymer-coated microspheres by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDAC) as an activation reagent. The immobilization of lipase could enhance the thermal and pH stability of lipase activity when compared to free lipase. The immobilized lipase microspheres were characterized by lipase activity assays, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating-sample magnetometer techniques. The bound lipase showed high activities to soybean oil transesterification with methanol to produce biodiesel. It was found that the oil conversion of 86% was attained at a reaction temperature of 35 degrees C for 24 h. The immobilized lipase is stable with repeated use for four cycles without severe loss of its activity.
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  57. Genetic divergence and phosphorus use efficiency in the soybean with a view to biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Reina, E.; Peluzio, J. M.; Afferri, F. S.; Oliveira, W. P.; Siebeneichler, S. C. 2014. Genetic divergence and phosphorus use efficiency in the soybean with a view to biodiesel production. Revista Ciencia Agronomica. 45(2) 344-350

    The soybean has an important role in the area of biodiesel, due to having a productive potential and technical feasibility able to meet the growing demand for renewable fuels. In the agricultural year of 2009/10, four competitive trials of soybean cultivars were carried out, two on the Campus of Palmas University and the other two on the University Campus at Gurupi, with a study of genetic divergence being undertaken. At each location, the cultivars were trained under conditions of both high and low phosphorus (150 kg ha(-1) P2O5 and 30 kg ha(-1) P2O5 respectively). The experimental design employed for each trial was of randomised blocks with three replications and 11 treatments. The percentage of oil as a characteristic was studied, and the efficiency of phosphorus usage by the cultivars determined employing the methodology adapted from Fischer (1983). Genetic divergence was evaluated using multivariate procedures: the generalised Mahalanobis distance and Tocher's optimisation method for clustering. In the study of genetic divergence, each test represented a distinct variable in the multivariate model. The cultivars M-SOY 9350, M 8766RR and BR/EMGOPA 314 are the most suitable for the production of biodiesel. The hybrids M 8766RR x M 9056RR, BR/EMGOPA 314 x M 9056RR, P98R91 x M 9056RR are promising for obtaining segregating populations to be used for their oil content.
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  58. Heterogeneous CaO-MoO3-SBA-15 catalysts for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Xie, W. L.; Zhao, L. L. 2014. Heterogeneous CaO-MoO3-SBA-15 catalysts for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Energy Conversion and Management. 7934-42

    The main aim of this research is to develop efficient and environmentally benign heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production. For this purpose, heterogeneous CaO-MoO3-SBA-15 catalysts were prepared by incipient impregnation method, and the prepared catalyst was tested for the transesterification process of soybean oil to produce biodiesel. Various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis were employed for the characterization of the solid catalyst. The catalytic activity was dependent on the calcination temperature and loading amount of calcium and molybdenum oxides. The solid catalyst, with the CaO-MoO3 loading of 40% and calcined at 823 K, showed the best catalytic activity. The effect of methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction time, catalyst loading and catalyst stability was investigated. By using a 6 wt.% of catalyst with methanol/oil molar ratio of 50:1 at reflux of methanol, the oil conversion of 83.2% after 50 h of reaction, could be achieved over the solid catalyst. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused without significant loss of activity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  59. Integrated production of sugarcane ethanol and soybean biodiesel: Environmental and economic implications of fossil diesel displacement
    Abstract

    Souza, S. P.; Seabra, J. E. A. 2014. Integrated production of sugarcane ethanol and soybean biodiesel: Environmental and economic implications of fossil diesel displacement. Energy Conversion and Management. 871170-1179

    The sugarcane industry in Brazil has been considered promising for the production of advanced fuels and bio-based products. However, the sugarcane crop requires high volumes of fossil fuel for cultivation and transport. The use of biodiesel as a diesel substitute could reduce the environmental burdens associated with this high consumption. This work performed a stochastic evaluation of the environmental and economic implications of the integrated production of sugarcane bioethanol and soybean biodiesel, in comparison with the traditional sugarcane-to-ethanol process. The analysis was focused on the states of Goias, Mato Grosso and Sao Paulo, where this integration would be particularly attractive. The environmental aspects addressed were the fossil energy use and the GHG emissions in a cradle-to-gate approach. The economic analysis comprised the evaluation of the net present value of an incremental cash flow generated by the soybean production and by the adjacent plants of oil extraction and biodiesel. Results indicate that the integrated system is likely to improve the ethanol environmental performance, especially with regard to the fossil energy use. The integration is economically feasible but highly uncertain; however, it could be significantly improved through fiscal incentives to biodiesel producers, founded on the reduction of fossil energy use and on improvements in logistics. In addition, the proposed model may also assist in the design of other integrated systems applied to the sugarcane sector in Brazil. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  60. Kinetic Study of Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil
    Abstract

    Alam, J.; Shawon, A. Z.; Sultana, M.; Rahman, W.; Khan, M. R. 2014. Kinetic Study of Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil. 2014 Power and Energy Systems Conference: Towards Sustainable Energy.

    Biodiesel production from soybean oil can play an important role as an alternative source of energy for automobile applications. In this paper an attempt has been made to generate biodiesel from soybean oil using transesterification and three step method. The kinetics of transesterification reaction heterogeneously catalyzed by calcium oxide was studied in order to understand the reaction mechanism of the system. The three step method comprises with saponification of oil, acidification of the soap and finally esterification of free fatty acid (FFA). Both the techniques go through a number of parameters like reaction conditions, catalyst selection, reaction time, temperature and molar ratio of oil to intermediate products and additives required to be optimized. The results showed that transesterification reaction obeyed pseudo first-order kinetics with a reaction rate constant k=0.023 min.(-1) for 5 wt. % CaO and yield obtained 95 % within 120 min with a viscosity of 4.10 mm(2)/s. In the three step method, conversion of biodiesel was found similar to 98% with molar ratio of methanol to FFA 5:1. Conversion of soybean oil into its subsequent biodiesel was verified and the results are comparable to commercial diesel. Consequently, biodiesel from this potential source can be a suitable pathway to commit our present and future fuel demand in the world.
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  61. Novozym 435-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Cervero, J. M.; Alvarez, J. R.; Luque, S. 2014. Novozym 435-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil for biodiesel production. Biomass & Bioenergy. 61131-137

    This paper deals with transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol in the presence of Novozym 435 (lipase from Candida antarctica) catalyst. H-1 NMR was employed to monitor the conversion of soybean oil to fatty acid ethyl esters in a solvent-free medium. Reaction conditions such as enzyme/substrate ratio, temperature and alcohol to oil molar ratio were studied and the highest yields were found at 5 g of enzyme per 100 g of oil, 37 degrees C, and 3:1 respectively. Stepwise addition of ethanol was also performed, and compared with that of methanol, in order to assess the reduction of inhibition that this method causes on the enzymatic activity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  62. Optimization of biodiesel production from soybean oil in a microreactor
    Abstract

    Rahimi, M.; Aghel, B.; Alitabar, M.; Sepahvand, A.; Ghasempour, H. R. 2014. Optimization of biodiesel production from soybean oil in a microreactor. Energy Conversion and Management. 79599-605

    Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide, as a catalyst, in a microreactor has been investigated. The transesterification reaction was performed at specific condition in circular tubes with hydraulic diameter of (0.8 mm). In order to further improve the biodiesel production, the experimental design was performed using Box-Behnken method. The results were analyzed using response surface methodology. The influence of reaction variables including; molar ratio of methanol to oil (6:1-12:1), temperature (55-65 degrees C) and catalyst concentration (0.6-1.8 wt.%) and residence time (20-180 s) under various flow rates of reactants (1-11 ml min(-1)) on Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) transesterification reaction was studied. The optimum condition was found at molar ratio of methanol to oil (9:1), catalyst concentration (1.2 wt.%) and temperature (60 degrees C) with a FAME % of about 89%. Considering optimum parameters, by changing the reactant residence time the FAME % was reached to 98% at 180 s. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  63. Optimized microemulsion production of biodiesel over lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil by response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Tan, Z. Q.; Zhang, X. F.; Kuang, Y. Y.; Du, H.; Song, L. L.; Han, X. X.; Liang, X. L. 2014. Optimized microemulsion production of biodiesel over lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil by response surface methodology. Green Processing and Synthesis. 3(6) 471-478

    Production of biodiesel in water/oil (w/o) microemulsion system through a lipase-catalyzed (lipase from porcine pancreas) methanolysis of soybean oil was investigated. The independent factors were researched and response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design was used to optimize the significant reaction variables, including w(o) (defined as the molar ratio of water to surfactant), lipase concentration, reaction time and substrate molar ratio. Results indicated that the optimal conditions for biodiesel preparation were: w(o) 3.6, lipase concentration 4.3% (based on oil weight, g), reaction time 17 h and molar ratio (methanol/oil) 10.5. The actual fatty acid methyl ester yield (96.8%) coincided with the optimum predicted value (97.5%) under the optimal conditions. Fatty acid methyl ester synthesized in microemulsions directly which may provided a potential way to produce biodiesel microemulsion.
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  64. Process Design for Biodiesel Production with Crude Soybean Oils: Methanol Recovery from the Reacting System
    Abstract

    Pisarello, M. L.; Olalla, P. S.; Querini, C. A. 2014. Process Design for Biodiesel Production with Crude Soybean Oils: Methanol Recovery from the Reacting System. Energy & Fuels. 28(1) 571-577

    Biodiesel production has widely spread out throughout the world, with facilities in a wide range of capacities, from a few liters to more than a million liters per day. The process design is strongly related to the size of the production plant and the quality of the raw material. However, each alternative has advantages and disadvantages that have to be carefully evaluated. Methanol elimination by evaporation from the biodiesel phase or from both phases present after the reaction leads to a reversion of the reaction because of the shift of equilibrium toward the reactants. In this work, this process stage is studied, i.e., methanol evaporation before glycerine and biodiesel phase separation, and the effects that different homogeneous catalysts have on this operation. Through a decrease of the methanol concentration in the system, the soaps and other impurities present in the biodiesel are transferred to the glycerine phase because of a decrease in the solubility in the biodiesel phase. The operation time should be short to avoid an increase in the monoglyceride concentration formed by the reverse reaction between methyl ester and glycerine. This process is especially suitable for small installations that use nonneutralized oils as raw materials.
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  65. Production of Biodiesel with Seed Soybean and Supercritical Ethanol
    Abstract

    Mariano, Gabriel Cassemiro; Lopes, Toni Jefferson; Dias, Rafael; Quadri, Marintho Bastos; Bolzan, Ariovaldo 2014. Production of Biodiesel with Seed Soybean and Supercritical Ethanol. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems. Vol.04No.028

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  66. Sodium zirconate (Na2ZrO3) as a catalyst in a soybean oil transesterification reaction for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Santiago-Torres, N.; Romero-Ibarra, I. C.; Pfeiffer, H. 2014. Sodium zirconate (Na2ZrO3) as a catalyst in a soybean oil transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. Fuel Processing Technology. 12034-39

    Sodium zirconate (Na2ZrO3) was tested as a basic catalyst for the production of biodiesel using a soybean oil transesterification reaction. Initially, Na2ZrO3 was synthesized via a solid-state reaction. The structure and microstructure of the catalyst were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and N-2 adsorption. Various transesterification reactions were then conducted using soybean oil and methanol under differing reaction conditions. The influence of some parameters, such as the reactant concentrations (molar ratios), catalyst percentage, reaction time, temperature and re-use of the catalyst, on the transesterification process in the presence of Na2ZrO3 was investigated. The maximum FAME conversion efficiency was 98.3% at 3 h of reaction time and 3% of catalyst. Additionally, the produced biodiesel was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The resulting biodiesel showed good purity, composition and degree of unsaturation in comparison to previous reports. According to these results, Na2ZrO3 could become an alternative solid base catalyst for scalable and cost-effective biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  67. Soybean Oil Biodiesel Production in Argentina Case Study
    Abstract

    Antonio, J.; Galbusera, H. S.; Galligani, S. 2014. Soybean Oil Biodiesel Production in Argentina Case Study. Papers of the 22nd European Biomass Conference: Setting the Course for a Biobased Economy. 26-35

    Soybean production is immersed within a productive system that cannot be analyzed on its own. A number of political and market factors, both nationally and internationally, explain the development and growth of soybean production throughout the globe. In the case of Argentina, the evolution of the agricultural system of soybean production has been characterized by continuous technological improvement. This has changed the whole agricultural system and set the base for societies growing demands for environmental and socially responsible goods. An advancement of regulatory context has allowed a better control of the future development of land usage. In Argentina's case the Law of minimum budget (Law on Conservation of Native Forest) is an example towards that direction. The Argentinean soy industry is one of the most dynamic economic sectors of the country, generating almost 30% of the external currencies income due to exports and representing almost 30% of GDP from the agroindustrial sector. Argentina is the world's leading exporter in soybean oil, soy meal and soy biodiesel and the third one in soybeans. The future expansion of this industry in the country is heavily dependent on internal and external changes in policies and is thus uncertain. A complete LCA study following EU procedures were performed. Several studies have been carried over in order to clerarly calculate according to international methodologies the GHG emitions of Argentine biodiesel. Since the country has different agroecosystems and distances from the ports can be very different complete research studies were carried over on different regions of the country With respect to GHG emissions (Kg CO2 eq/km), at a global level it could be said that The scenario that showed more GHG emissions was South East of Bs.As. (0,0447 Kg CO2 eq/km). Comparatively and percentage with conventional diesel, its reductions of GHG emissions were of 75,5 %. Recent studies over very precise figures from farm to port on regional plants gave reduction percentages over 70 %.
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  68. Statistical Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil in a Microchannel Reactor
    Abstract

    Dai, J. Y.; Li, D. Y.; Zhao, Y. C.; Xiu, Z. L. 2014. Statistical Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil in a Microchannel Reactor. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(22) 9325-9330

    Microreactors are efficient with regard to the continuous production of biodiesel, because of their enhanced mass transfer. In this study, a novel structure of microchannel reactor was studied to synthesize biodiesel from soybean oil via alkali-catalyzed transesterification. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the relationship between biodiesel yield and reaction parameters, such as residence time, reaction temperature, catalyst amount, and molar ratio of methanol to oil. A three-level four-factor Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to fit the available response data to a second-order polynomial regression model. Under the optimum conditions of a residence time of 14.9 s, a methanol/oil molar ratio of 8.5, 1.17 wt % KOH, and 59 degrees C, the biodiesel yield reached 99.5%. The effect of moisture and free fatty acid on biodiesel production were also explored.
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  69. Utilization of glycerin byproduct derived from soybean oil biodiesel as a carbon source for heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris
    Abstract

    Anastacio, G. S.; Santos, K. O.; Suarez, P. A. Z.; Torres, F. A. G.; De Marco, J. L.; Parachin, N. S. 2014. Utilization of glycerin byproduct derived from soybean oil biodiesel as a carbon source for heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris. Bioresource Technology. 152505-510

    Crude glycerol, also known as glycerin, is the main byproduct of the biodiesel industry. It has been estimated that up to 40,000 tons of glycerin will be produced each year by 2020. This study evaluated the value-added use of crude glycerol derived from soybean biodiesel preparation as a carbon source for heterologous protein production using the yeast Pichia pastoris. Eleven glycerin samples were obtained by methanolysis of soybean oil using different acids or bases as catalysts. Cell growth experiments showed that crude glycerol containing either potassium or sodium hydroxide resulted in 1.5-2 times higher final cell densities when compared to glycerol P. A. Finally, crude glycerol containing sodium hydroxide was successfully utilized for constitutive heterologous a-amylase production in P. pastoris. This study demonstrated that crude glycerol without any purification steps may be directly used as carbon source for protein production in P. pastoris. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  70. Utilization of waste coral for biodiesel production via transesterification of soybean oil
    Abstract

    Moradi, G.; Mohammadi, F. 2014. Utilization of waste coral for biodiesel production via transesterification of soybean oil. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 11(3) 805-812

    In the present study, the waste coral was utilized as a source of calcium oxide for transesterification of soybean oil into biodiesel (methyl esters). Characterization results revealed that the main component of the waste coral is calcium carbonate which transformed into calcium oxide when calcined above 700 A degrees C. The Box-Behnken design of experiment was carried out, and the results were analyzed using response surface methodology. Calcination temperature, methanol- soybean oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration were chosen as variables. The methyl ester content (wt%) was response which must be maximized. A second-order model was obtained to predict methyl ester content as a function of these variables. Each variable was placed in the three low, medium and high levels (calcination temperature of 700, 800 and 900 A degrees C; catalyst concentration of 3, 6 and 9 wt%; methanol-to-oil ratios of 12:1, 18:1 and 24:1). The optimum conditions from the experiment were found that the calcination temperature of 900 A degrees C, catalyst concentration of 6 wt% and methanol-to-oil ratio of 12:1. Under these conditions, methyl ester content reached to 100 wt%. The waste catalyst was capable of being reused up to 4 times without much loss in the activity.
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  71. Aminopropylsilica as an environmentally friendly and reusable catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Xie, W. L.; Zhao, L. L. 2013. Aminopropylsilica as an environmentally friendly and reusable catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Fuel. 1031106-1110

    In this study, 3-aminopropylsilica was prepared by a reaction of silica gel with 3-aminopropyl(trimethoxy)silane, and used as a heterogeneous catalyst for soybean oil transesterification with methanol. This 3-aminopropylsilica catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique. The transesterification conditions, such as the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, reaction time, and catalyst dosage were investigated. It was shown that the conversion of soybean oil to methyl esters could reach 94.5% when the reaction was performed with a molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil of 30: 1, a catalyst amount of 8 wt.%, at a reaction temperature of 423 K. The free fatty acid and water present in the feedstocks decreased the catalyst activity in the transesterification reaction. The heterogeneous catalyst could be recovered with a better reusability. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  72. Biodiesel production by enzymatic process using Jatropha oil and waste soybean oil
    Abstract

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, S. B.; Yoo, H. Y.; Suh, Y. J.; Kang, G. B.; Jang, W. I.; Kang, J.; Park, C.; Kim, S. W. 2013. Biodiesel production by enzymatic process using Jatropha oil and waste soybean oil. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 18(4) 703-708

    In this study, non-edible Jatropha oil and postcooking waste soybean oil were utilized for enzymatic biodiesel production. The process was optimized by using a statistical method. In addition, a novel continuous process using co-immobilized Rhizopus oryzae and Candida rugosa lipases was developed. The optimum conditions for the batch process were determined to be a reaction temperature of 45oC, an agitation speed of 250 rpm, 10 wt% of water, and 20% of immobilized lipases. A conversion of about 98% at 4 h could be achieved for biodiesel production using Jatropha oil, while a conversion of about 97% at 4 h was achieved from waste soybean oil. A packed bed reactor charged with co-immobilized lipases was employed for continuous biodiesel production from Jatropha and waste soybean oil. The reactor consisted of a jacketed glass column (ID 25 mm x 130 mm), in which a temperature of 45A degrees C was maintained by water circulation. A maximum conversion of about 80% in 24 h at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/ min was achieved with the continuous process, whereas in the two-stage continuous process, a conversion of about 90% in 72 h was attained at a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min.
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  73. Biodiesel Production by Esterification of Hydrolyzed Soybean Oil with Ethanol in Reactive Distillation Columns: Simulation Studies
    Abstract

    Machado, G. D.; Pessoa, F. L. P.; Castier, M.; Aranda, D. A. G.; Cabral, V. F.; Cardozo-Filho, L. 2013. Biodiesel Production by Esterification of Hydrolyzed Soybean Oil with Ethanol in Reactive Distillation Columns: Simulation Studies. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 52(27) 9461-9469

    Biodiesel conventional production process, by alkaline transesterification reaction, have disadvantages such as complex products separation and high feedstock costs. In this regard, production of biodiesel by esterification of fatty acids into a reactive distillation column has proved to be promising for overcoming some of these drawbacks. However, only simulation works that consider only one type of fatty acid reagent are available in the literature, and not simulations based on a real fatty material for this process. In this way, this work presents steady-state computational simulations of fatty acid esters (biodiesel) production in a reactive distillation column by esterification reaction of a new feedstock that represents the fatty acids composition of the soybean oil (hydrolyzed soybean oil) with anhydrous ethanol Sensitivity analyses showed that the best operating conditions were the minimum reflux ratio of 0.001 and 15 theoretical stages. As to thermal analysis, it was noted that the process is optimized by increasing the energy consumption of reagent instead of the reboiler. The low thermal load on this equipment can be used in order to avoid exposure of the bottom product at elevated temperatures. Conversions close to 99% were possible with the proper choice of these operating conditions The results show the technical feasibility of this process, and such data can be useful for the design of biodiesel processes.
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  74. Biodiesel Production by Esterification of Oleic Acid and Transesterification of Soybean Oil Using a New Solid Acid Catalyst Comprising 12-Tungstosilicic Acid and Zeolite H beta
    Abstract

    Narkhede, N.; Patel, A. 2013. Biodiesel Production by Esterification of Oleic Acid and Transesterification of Soybean Oil Using a New Solid Acid Catalyst Comprising 12-Tungstosilicic Acid and Zeolite H beta. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 52(38) 13637-13644

    A series of catalysts containing 10-40 wt % of 12-tungstosilicic acid anchored to zeolite H beta were synthesized and characterized by different physicochemical techniques. Their catalytic activity was evaluated for esterification of free fatty acid and oleic acid as well as transesterification of soybean oil with methanol. The effects of reaction variables such as catalyst loading, methanol to acid ratio, reaction time, and temperature on the conversion were studied. The kinetic study was carried out for esterification of oleic acid, and its Arrhenius constant (A) and activation energy (E-a) were evaluated. The maximum conversion obtained for esterification of oleic acid and transesterification of soybean oil were 86% and 95%, respectively. Also the catalyst was recycled up to four cycles without any loss in the conversion.
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  75. Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil in a Membrane Reactor over Hydrotalcite Based Catalyst: An Optimization Study
    Abstract

    Xu, W.; Gao, L. J.; Wang, S. C.; Xiao, G. M. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil in a Membrane Reactor over Hydrotalcite Based Catalyst: An Optimization Study. Energy & Fuels. 27(11) 6738-6742

    Transesterification of soybean oil to produce biodiesel was performed in a membrane reactor packed with shaped KF/Ca-Mg-Al hydrotalcite solid base. The microfiltration ceramic membrane (length: 20 cm, inner/outer diameter: 6/10 mm) was used to retain the oil during the transesterification reaction. High quality biodiesel was produced in the fixed bed membrane reactor by coupling heterogeneous alkali catalyzed transesterification and separation process. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to evaluate the effects of such factors as reaction temperature, catalyst amount, and circulation velocity on biodiesel production. 70 degrees C reaction temperature, 0.531 g/cm(3) catalyst amount and 3.16 mL/min circulation velocity was found to be the optimum condition, achieving a 0.1820 g/min biodiesel yielding rate during 150 min of circulation time.
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  76. Biodiesel production from soybean oil transesterification using tin oxide-supported WO3 catalysts
    Abstract

    Xie, W. L.; Wang, T. 2013. Biodiesel production from soybean oil transesterification using tin oxide-supported WO3 catalysts. Fuel Processing Technology. 109150-155

    The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was carried out using WO3/SnO2 solid as a heterogeneous acid catalyst. The effects of catalyst preparation parameters on the conversion to FAME were investigated. This WO3/SnO2 catalyst prepared by an impregnation method, with the WO3 loading amount of 30% and calcined at a temperature of 1173 K, showed the best catalytic activity. The maximum conversion to FAME of 79.2% was achieved after 5 h at 383 K when 30:1 M ratio of methanol to oil and 5 wt.% of catalyst were employed. The ability of the catalyst to esterify free fatty acids (FFAs) in feedstocks and its insensitivity to water exhibited the potential to prepare biodiesel from low-cost feedstocks. The solid catalyst can be reused for four runs without significant deactivation. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  77. Biodiesel production from soybean soapstock acid oil by hydrolysis in subcritical water followed by lipase-catalyzed esterification using a fermented solid in a packed-bed reactor
    Abstract

    Soares, D.; Pinto, A. F.; Goncalves, A. G.; Mitchell, D. A.; Krieger, N. 2013. Biodiesel production from soybean soapstock acid oil by hydrolysis in subcritical water followed by lipase-catalyzed esterification using a fermented solid in a packed-bed reactor. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 8115-23

    We investigated a new hydroesterification strategy for the production of biodiesel from low-value oil feedstocks: complete hydrolysis of the feedstock to fatty acids in subcritical water, followed by the use of a packed-bed reactor, containing a fermented solid with lipase activity, to convert the fatty acids to their ethyl esters. The fermented solids were produced by cultivating Burkholderia cepacia LTEB11 for 72 h on a 1:1 mixture, by mass, of sugarcane bagasse and sunflower seed meal. The esterification of fatty acids obtained from soybean soapstock acid oil was studied in the packed-bed bioreactor, in a solvent-free system, with the best results being a 92% conversion in 31 h, obtained at 50 C. When the packed-bed reactor was reused in successive 48-h esterification reactions, conversions of over 84% of the fatty acids to esters were maintained for five cycles at 50 C and for six cycles at 45 C. Unlike previous hydroesterification processes that have used lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis followed by chemically-catalyzed esterification, our process does not expose the lipases to contaminants present in low quality feedstocks such as soapstocks. This advantage opens the possibility of operating the packed-bed esterification reactor in continuous mode. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  78. Biodiesel Production from Supercritical Ethanolysis of Soybean Oil
    Abstract

    Nascimento, F. P.; Oliveira, A. R. G.; Paredes, M. L. L.; Costa, A. L. H.; Pesso, F. L. P. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Supercritical Ethanolysis of Soybean Oil. Icheap-11: 11th International Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering, Pts 1-4. 32829-834

    The study of biodiesel production in supercritical media is of interest because compared with conventional technologies it does not need catalysts and, therefore, no negative effects are noticed due to the presence of water. In this context, the present work studied the conversion of soybean oil into biodiesel through a transesterification reaction without catalyst with supercritical ethanol in a batch reactor. The reaction time was 15 minutes, and the initial alcohol:oil molar ratio was 39:1. The reactions were carried out in the temperature range of 260 to 300 degrees C and pressure over 100 bar. The conversion was determined with three different analyses: refractive index, density and dynamic viscosity. All three equipments used to analyze the conversion were calibrated with a soybean biodiesel with purity of 98 %. The results show significant conversion of oil into biodiesel in the temperature of 300 degrees C. The production of biodiesel decreases as the temperature drops and for the temperature of 260 degrees C the conversion is negligible. As an attempt to improve the conversion at 260 degrees C CO2 was added as a co-solvent to the system in a mass ratio of 0.05:1, 0.1:1 and 0.22:1 (CO2:alcohol). The results show that the presence of CO2 did not improved conversion at temperature of 260 degrees C.
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  79. Biodiesel Production via the Transesterification of Soybean Oil Using Waste Starfish (Asterina pectinifera)
    Abstract

    Jo, Y. B.; Park, S. H.; Jeon, J. K.; Ko, C. H.; Ryu, C.; Park, Y. K. 2013. Biodiesel Production via the Transesterification of Soybean Oil Using Waste Starfish (Asterina pectinifera). Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 170(6) 1426-1436

    Calcined waste starfish was used as a base catalyst for the production of biodiesel from soybean oil for the first time. A batch reactor was used for the transesterification reaction. The thermal characteristics and crystal structures of the waste starfish were investigated by thermo-gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction. The biodiesel yield was determined by measuring the content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The calcination temperature appeared to be a very important parameter affecting the catalytic activity. The starfish-derived catalyst calcined at 750 A degrees C or higher exhibited high activity for the transesterification reaction. The FAME content increased with increasing catalyst dose and methanol-over-oil ratio.
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  80. Continuous Catalyst-Free Production of Biodiesel through Transesterification of Soybean Fried Oil in Supercritical Methanol and Ethanol
    Abstract

    Gonzalez, S. L.; Sychoski, M. M.; Navarro-Diaz, H. J.; Callejas, N.; Saibene, M.; Vieitez, I.; Jachmanian, I.; da Silva, C.; Hense, H.; Oliveira, J. V. 2013. Continuous Catalyst-Free Production of Biodiesel through Transesterification of Soybean Fried Oil in Supercritical Methanol and Ethanol. Energy & Fuels. 27(9) 5253-5259

    This work reports the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by means of waste fried oil (WFO) transesterification using methanol and ethanol at supercritical conditions, in a continuous catalyst-free process. Transesterification experiments were performed from 573 to 623 K, at 10, 15, and 20 MPa, with oil/alcohol molar ratios of 1:20, 1:30, and 1:40 and water addition to alcohol of 0, 5, and 10 wt %. The extent of the reaction was explored using a novel parameter, convertibility, which corresponds to the maximum ester content attainable from the feedstock (92.1%). The highest FAME and FAEE contents achieved were 81.7 and 82.2%, respectively. Results show that transesterification of WFO in methanol was more efficient than that in ethanol, the temperature had the strongest influence, and the addition of water considerably improved the ester yield.
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  81. Economic Comparison of Continuous and Batch Production of Biodiesel Using Soybean Oil
    Abstract

    Benavides, P. T.; Salazar, J.; Diwekar, U. 2013. Economic Comparison of Continuous and Batch Production of Biodiesel Using Soybean Oil. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 32(1) 11-24

    Continuing depletion of fossil fuel reserves and increasing environmental concerns have encouraged engineers and scientists to look for alternative, clean, and renewable fuels that can reduce fossil-fuels negative environmental impact and secure the energy supplies. Biodiesel has been considered as one of the best candidates for these renewable fuels. For its production, transesterification reaction of triglycerides is recognized as a feasible pathway. This reaction can be carried out in continuous or batch reactors, however, most of the other unit operations, like decanters and distillation columns, are operated continuously. Most of the studies of biodiesel production have been done in continuous models. In this paper, we evaluate batch and continuous processing options for biodiesel production from the economical point of view. The economic feasibility of biodiesel as well the plants configuration not only depends on technical design aspects but also on other important factors such as seasonal variation of feedstock, transportation costs, and storage costs of material. Therefore, our comparison involves size of the market, transportation distance from supplier to producer facility, and feedstock availability of soybean oil by the allocation of supply of raw material. It was found that based on these aspects, batch processing shows interesting results and should be considered for production rather that continuous production as it is done today. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis provides more insights of the flexibility of batch processing when scheduling variation is considered. (c) 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 1124, 2013
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  82. Effect of alkali catalyst on biodiesel production in South Korea from mixtures of fresh soybean oil and waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Primata, M.; Seo, Y. C.; Chu, Y. H. 2013. Effect of alkali catalyst on biodiesel production in South Korea from mixtures of fresh soybean oil and waste cooking oil. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 15(2) 223-228

    Biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) and soybean oil (SO) mixture was produced by changing the alkali catalyst (NaOH) content and the WCO to SO ratio in the feedstock. All the prepared biodiesel samples satisfied the standard requirement in terms of free glycerol, density, and acid value. The minimum catalyst content and the highest WCO composition to get biodiesel from the WCO/SO mixture feedstock without ruining the biodiesel properties were 1.0 and 60 wt %, respectively. This conclusion implies that the waste cooking oil mixture, which contains 40 wt % fresh soybean oil, could be treated like the fresh soybean oil to produce biodiesel, and that this behavior would be helpful to reduce the biodiesel production cost when waste cooking oil used as feedstock. The unsaturated methyl esters such as linoleic, and oleic acid were dominant (almost 80 % w/w) in the fresh soybean oil. However the saturated methyl ester was increased due to the double bond breaking during the frying process. These results may deteriorate the biodiesel quality by changing the methyl ester composition.
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  83. Enzymatic coproduction of biodiesel and glycerol carbonate from soybean oil in solvent-free system
    Abstract

    Go, A. R.; Lee, Y.; Kim, Y. H.; Park, S.; Choi, J.; Lee, J.; Han, S. O.; Kim, S. W.; Park, C. 2013. Enzymatic coproduction of biodiesel and glycerol carbonate from soybean oil in solvent-free system. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 53(3) 154-158

    The enzymatic coproduction of biodiesel and glycerol carbonate by transesterification of soybean oil and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) has been studied in a solvent-free system. The effects on biodiesel and glycerol carbonate conversion of reaction conditions including the kind of enzyme, the amount of enzyme, the molar ratio of DMC to soybean oil, the reaction temperature, and water addition were investigated. The optimal conditions for biodiesel and glycerol carbonate were 20% Novozym 435, 10:1 molar ratio of DMC to soybean oil, and 0.7% water addition. Under these conditions, the conversions of 96.4% biodiesel and 92.1% glycerol carbonate have been achieved after 48 h. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  84. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean ethanolic miscella for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Sangaletti, N.; Cea, M.; Regitano-d'Arce, M. A. B.; Vieira, T. M. F. D.; Navia, R. 2013. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean ethanolic miscella for biodiesel production. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 88(11) 2098-2106

    BACKGROUNDBiodiesel production is not economically competitive with petroleum diesel particularly when using virgin and refined vegetable oils. Rich-in-oil miscella obtained from the extraction of soybean oil with ethanol may be a promising feedstock for taking off the refining process, simultaneously introducing an environmental friendly step by replacing hexane by ethanol as a renewable solvent in the oil extraction process. The aim of this study was to investigate the production of biodiesel from the oil-ethanol miscella by direct transesterification using Novozym (R) 435 as catalyst and ethanol as acyl acceptor; simultaneously optimizing the process by response surface methodology and enzyme reuse.
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  85. Lipase Production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 on Soybean and Castorbean Meals: Optimization, Immobilization, and Application for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Andrade, M. M.; Barbosa, A. M.; Bofinger, M. R.; Dekker, R. F. H.; Messias, J. M.; Guedes, C. L. B.; Zaminelli, T.; de Oliveira, B. H.; de Lima, V. M. G.; Dall'Antonia, L. H. 2013. Lipase Production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 on Soybean and Castorbean Meals: Optimization, Immobilization, and Application for Biodiesel Production. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 170(7) 1792-1806

    The effects of soybean and castorbean meals were evaluated separately, and in combinations at different ratios, as substrates for lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 in submerged fermentation using only distilled water. The addition of glycerol analytical grade (AG) and glycerol crude (CG) to soybean and castorbean meals separately and in combination, were also examined for lipase production. Glycerol-AG increased enzyme production, whereas glycerol-CG decreased it. A 2(4) factorial design was developed to determine the best concentrations of soybean meal, castorbean meal, glycerol-AG, and KH2PO4 to optimize lipase production by B. ribis EC-01. Soybean meal and glycerol-AG had a significant effect on lipase production, whereas castorbean meal did not. A second treatment (2(2) factorial design central composite) was developed, and optimal lipase production (4,820 U/g of dry solids content (ds)) was obtained when B. ribis EC-01 was grown on 0.5 % (w/v) soybean meal and 5.2 % (v/v) glycerol in distilled water, which was in agreement with the predicted value (4,892 U/g ds) calculated by the model. The unitary cost of lipase production determined under the optimized conditions developed ranged from US$0.42 to 0.44 based on nutrient costs. The fungal lipase was immobilized onto Celite and showed high thermal stability and was used for transesterification of soybean oil in methanol (1:3) resulting in 36 % of fatty acyl alkyl ester content. The apparent K (m) and V (max) were determined and were 1.86 mM and 14.29 mu mol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively.
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  86. Lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 on soybean and castorbean meals: optimization, immobilization, and application for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Andrade, M. M.; Barbosa, A. M.; Bofinger, M. R.; Dekker, R. F.; Messias, J. M.; Guedes, C. L.; Zaminelli, T.; de Oliveira, B. H.; de Lima, V. M.; Dall'antonia, L. H. 2013. Lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 on soybean and castorbean meals: optimization, immobilization, and application for biodiesel production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 170(7) 1792-806

    The effects of soybean and castorbean meals were evaluated separately, and in combinations at different ratios, as substrates for lipase production by Botryosphaeria ribis EC-01 in submerged fermentation using only distilled water. The addition of glycerol analytical grade (AG) and glycerol crude (CG) to soybean and castorbean meals separately and in combination, were also examined for lipase production. Glycerol-AG increased enzyme production, whereas glycerol-CG decreased it. A 2(4) factorial design was developed to determine the best concentrations of soybean meal, castorbean meal, glycerol-AG, and KH2PO4 to optimize lipase production by B. ribis EC-01. Soybean meal and glycerol-AG had a significant effect on lipase production, whereas castorbean meal did not. A second treatment (2(2) factorial design central composite) was developed, and optimal lipase production (4,820 U/g of dry solids content (ds)) was obtained when B. ribis EC-01 was grown on 0.5 % (w/v) soybean meal and 5.2 % (v/v) glycerol in distilled water, which was in agreement with the predicted value (4,892 U/g ds) calculated by the model. The unitary cost of lipase production determined under the optimized conditions developed ranged from US$0.42 to 0.44 based on nutrient costs. The fungal lipase was immobilized onto Celite and showed high thermal stability and was used for transesterification of soybean oil in methanol (1:3) resulting in 36 % of fatty acyl alkyl ester content. The apparent K m and V max were determined and were 1.86 mM and 14.29 mumol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively.
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  87. Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for Compounds of Soybean Ethyl Biodiesel Production by Transesterification
    Abstract

    Franca, B. B.; Villardi, H. G. D.; Pessoa, F. L. P.; Uller, A. M. C. 2013. Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for Compounds of Soybean Ethyl Biodiesel Production by Transesterification. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data. 58(7) 1927-1933

    The phenomenon of liquid liquid equilibrium for products of transesterification reaction has been studied over the past decade. There was an increase of experimental data from different kinds of possible feedstock used to obtained biodiesel. Phase equilibrium data were presented here for systems containing soybean ethyl biodiesel, ethanol, glycerol, and water at 298.15 K. In addition, results on parameter estimation show a satisfactorily adjustment for experimental data with a UNIQUAC model, and a matrix with parameters was presented. The estimation procedure shows high sensibility for structural parameters of the UNIQUAC model. Therefore, new parameters were obtained for the system mentioned, which were capable of representing all experimental data measured at this work and data considered from the literature.
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  88. Optimization of biodiesel production process from soybean oil using the sodium potassium tartrate doped zirconia catalyst under Microwave Chemical Reactor
    Abstract

    Li, Y. H.; Ye, B.; Shen, J. W.; Tian, Z.; Wang, L. J.; Zhu, L. P.; Ma, T.; Yang, D. Y.; Qiu, F. X. 2013. Optimization of biodiesel production process from soybean oil using the sodium potassium tartrate doped zirconia catalyst under Microwave Chemical Reactor. Bioresource Technology. 137220-225

    A solid base catalyst was prepared by the sodium potassium tartrate doped zirconia and microwave assisted transesterification of soybean oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. It was found that the catalyst of 2.0(n((Na))/n((zr))) and calcined at 600 degrees C showed the optimum activity. The base strength of the catalysts was tested by the Hammett indicator method, and the results showed that the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was related to their total basicity. The catalyst was also characterized by FTIR, TGA, XRD and TEM. The experimental results showed that a 2.0:1 volume ratio of methanol to oil, 65 degrees C reaction temperature, 30 min reaction time and 10 wt.% catalyst amount gave the highest the yield of biodiesel. Compared to conventional method, the reaction time of the way of microwave assisted transesterification was shorter. The catalyst had longer lifetime and maintained sustained activity after being used for four cycles. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  89. Optimization of two-step catalyzed biodiesel production from soybean waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Fajriutami, T.; Seo, Y. C.; Chu, Y. H. 2013. Optimization of two-step catalyzed biodiesel production from soybean waste cooking oil. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 15(2) 179-186

    An acid-base-catalyst-based two-step biodiesel production experiment from soybean waste cooking oil was carried out to identify which parameter is the most influential among the experimental parameters by using the Taguchi method. Heterogeneous catalysts were used to avoid a water-consuming homogeneous catalyst removal process. Ferric sulfate and calcium oxide were used as acid and base catalysts, respectively, for the heterogeneous reaction. Reaction time and methanol-to-triglyceride mole ratio were significant factors. The optimum parameters for step 1 (acid esterification) were 4 h of reaction time, 4 wt. % of ferric sulfate amount, a 16:1 methanol to triglyceride mole ratio, and 400 rpm of mixing speed, respectively. For the transesterification step, the most influential factor was reaction time, and CaO amount was significant as well. On the other hand, the mole ratio of methanol and oil was relatively less significant. Optimum parameters were 3 h of reaction time, 2 wt. % of CaO, and a 12:1 methanol to triglyceride mole ratio with mixing speed at 400 rpm in this experimental range. Under the optimum conditions, waste cooking oil with 5.27 mg KOH/g of acid value was converted into crude biodiesel by a two-step process with fatty acid methyl ester content reaching 89.8 % without any further post-purification.
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  90. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of soybean oil using calcium supported tin oxides as heterogeneous catalysts
    Abstract

    Xie, W. L.; Zhao, L. L. 2013. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of soybean oil using calcium supported tin oxides as heterogeneous catalysts. Energy Conversion and Management. 7655-62

    The main objective of this work was to develop an environmentally benign process for the production of biodiesel by using a stable solid base catalyst. To this purpose, different heterogeneous CaO-SnO2 catalysts have been prepared by means of impregnation methods. Various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were applied for the catalyst characterization. The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, to produce biodiesel, was carried out under batch conditions at refluxed methanol over the CaO-SnO2 catalysts. The catalytic activity is found to be highly dependent on the Ca/Sn ratio and calcination temperature. The solid catalyst with the Ca/Sn molar ratio of 4:1 and calcined at a temperature of 973 K, performed the best activity, reaching the conversion to methyl esters of 89.3% after 6 h of reaction at methanol reflux temperature (343 K) when a methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1 and catalyst dosage of 8 wt.% were employed. Further, the solid catalyst is proved to be stable and durable for the transesterification reaction. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  91. Production of biodiesel from soybean oil catalyzed by attapulgite loaded with C4H5O6KNa catalyst
    Abstract

    Ye, B.; Li, Y. H.; Qiu, F. X.; Sun, C. J.; Zhao, Z. Y.; Ma, T.; Yang, D. Y. 2013. Production of biodiesel from soybean oil catalyzed by attapulgite loaded with C4H5O6KNa catalyst. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 30(7) 1395-1402

    Biodiesel is a green, safe, renewable alternative fuel, which is of great significance to solving the problem of energy shortage and environmental pollution. A series of solid base catalysts were prepared with the support of attapulgite (ATP), the load of C4H5O6KNa by impregnation method, and were used to catalyze transesterification of soybean oil with methanol to biodiesel. The activities of prepared catalysts were investigated compared to pure ATP. The optimal conditions for the catalyst preparation were investigated: molar ratio of Na : ATP was 1.7: 1 and calcination temperature was 400 degrees C. The prepared catalysts were characterized by several techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N-2 adsorption-desorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and the Hammett indicator method. The prepared solid base catalyst can be separated from reaction system effectively and easily. The effects of the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature and amount of catalyst on the biodiesel yield were investigated. The experimental results showed that a 22: 1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 10.0% of catalyst amount, 65 degrees C of reaction temperature and 3.0 h of reaction time gave the best results. The catalyst has longer lifetime and maintained sustained activity after being used for five cycles.
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  92. Production of biodiesel from soybean oil on CaO/Al2O3 solid base catalysts
    Abstract

    Pasupulety, N.; Gunda, K.; Liu, Y. Q.; Rempel, G. L.; Ng, F. T. T. 2013. Production of biodiesel from soybean oil on CaO/Al2O3 solid base catalysts. Applied Catalysis a-General. 452189-202

    Transesterification of soybean oil was carried out over calcium oxide supported on Al2O3 as solid base catalysts. Solid base catalysts were synthesized by wet impregnation of CaO on acidic, basic and neutral Al2O3. Solid basic catalysts investigated in this study were characterized by BET surface area, XRD, FTIR, CO2-TPD and TG/DTA techniques. Formation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in this study was influenced by the nature of the catalyst prepared on different Al2O3 supports. CaO supported on neutral-Al2O3 exhibited higher FAME yield and the activation energy was determined to be 30.7 kJ/mol. The formation of the calcium diglyceroxide (CDG), on the surface of CaO supported on neutral Al2O3 was established by C-13 NMR spectroscopy. The catalytic system (with CaO + COG) on neutral Al2O3 showed higher activity in the transesterification of soybean oil. Among the catalysts studied the conversion of soybean oil to FAME formation was as follows: CaO/neutral-Al2O3 > CaO/basic-Al2O3 > CaO/acidic-Al2O3. The presence of COG on neutral Al2O3 probably contributes to the higher activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on identifying the formation of CDG on neutral Al2O3 during the production of biodiesel. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  93. Scale-up of a Continuous Microwave-Assisted Transesterification Process of Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Muley, P.; Boldor, D. 2013. Scale-up of a Continuous Microwave-Assisted Transesterification Process of Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Production. Transactions of the Asabe. 56(5) 1847-1854

    Microwave-assisted transesterification of vegetable oil is emerging as an alternative process for the production of biodiesel. Microwave energy offers a number of advantages over conventional heating methods, including faster reaction rates, reduced processing times, and reduced catalyst consumption. This article describes the result of a pilot-scale continuous microwave-assisted transesterification process in focusing cavities with an analysis of the effect of temperature and time on the transesterification reaction for soybean oil. Experiments were performed in a continuous pilot-scale microwave reactor at temperatures of 60 degrees C and 75 degrees C and total processing times ranging from 1 to 16 min. Ethanol was used as a solvent with NaOH as a catalyst (< 0.2% by weight of oil). The conversion obtained was > 99% for all experimental conditions, compared to 84% in conventional methods, and the energy balance yielded a positive value for this process. The results of the scaled-up microwave heating process are encouraging for the development of an industrial-scale, continuous microwave system for production of biodiesel.
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  94. Single-Stage Biodiesel Production from Used Soybean Oil by using a Sulfuric-Acid Catalyst
    Abstract

    Moradi, G. R.; Arjmandzadeh, E.; Ghanei, R. 2013. Single-Stage Biodiesel Production from Used Soybean Oil by using a Sulfuric-Acid Catalyst. Energy Technology. 1(4) 226-232

    The esterification and transesterification of used soybean oil catalyzed by sulfuric acid was studied. The combined effects of temperature, the amount of sulfuric acid as catalyst, and the methanol/used oil molar ratio (MR) on the biodiesel yield were investigated and optimized by using response surface methodology. The optimum operating conditions are T = 65 degrees C, 6.58 wt% catalyst, and 12: 1 MR. In addition, the transesterification of used soybean oil at 50, 55, and 65 degrees C with 12: 1 MR and 6.58 wt% of catalyst was performed with samples taken at different times to investigate the effect on the conversion and physical properties. Appropriate functions were fitted to the measured data to relate the progress of the reaction to the physical properties. The refractive index and specific gravity were selected as suitable physical properties to predict the progress of the reaction. In addition, a simple second-order rate equation with E-a = 18.5 kJmol(-1) was developed that accurately describes the experimental reaction rate.
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  95. Sonication-assisted production of biodiesel using soybean oil and supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Gobikrishnan, S.; Park, J. H.; Park, S. H.; Indrawan, N.; Rahman, S. F.; Park, D. H. 2013. Sonication-assisted production of biodiesel using soybean oil and supercritical methanol. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 36(6) 705-712

    High temperature and pressure are generally required to produce biodiesel using supercritical methanol. We reduced the harsh reaction conditions by means of sonicating the reaction mixture prior to transesterification using supercritical methanol. Soybean oil was selected as the raw material for transesterification. As soybean oil contains more unsaturated fatty acid triglycerides, the biodiesel degraded more at high temperature. The reactants were sonicated for 60 min at 35 degrees C prior to transesterification to avoid degradation of the product and to enhance biodiesel yield at temperatures < 300 degrees C. The process parameters were optimized using central composite design. The variables selected for optimization were temperature, time, and the oil to methanol molar ratio. The temperature and oil to methanol molar ratios were varied from 250 to 280 degrees C and 1:40-1:50, respectively. The reaction time was tested between 4 and 12 min. The biodiesel was analyzed for any possible degradation by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and for the wt% of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) obtained. The maximum FAME yield (84.2 wt%) was obtained at a temperature of 265.7 degrees C, an oil to alcohol molar ratio of 1:44.7, and a time of 8.8 min. The optimum yield was obtained at a pressure of 1,500 psi. The pressure and optimum temperature used to obtain the maximum yield were the lowest reported so far without the use of a co-solvent. Thus, the severity of the supercritical reactions was reduced by adding sonication prior to the reaction.
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  96. The Catalytic Performance Comparison of Two Different Pyrrolidone Type Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil
    Abstract

    Xu, Y. D. 2013. The Catalytic Performance Comparison of Two Different Pyrrolidone Type Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil. Biotechnology, Chemical and Materials Engineering Ii, Pts 1 and 2. 641-642890-893

    Two different ionic liquid of the N-(3-sulfonic group) propyl pyrrolidone hydrosulfate ([C(3)SO(3)Hnhp]HSO4) and the 2-pyrrolidone hydrosulfate ([Hnhp]HSO4) have been synthesized and used as catalyst for the biodiesel production from the soybean oil. The former exhibited better catalytic performance than that of the later one and the reaction conditions corresponding to [C(3)SO(3)Hnhp]HSO4 were optimized. Under the optimal condition the yield of methyl ester reached 93.6% and after repeatedly used for four times the catalytic activity for [C(3)SO(3)Hnhp]HSO4 still maintained in a high level.
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  97. The optimized operational conditions for biodiesel production from soybean oil and application of artificial neural networks for estimation of the biodiesel yield
    Abstract

    Moradi, G. R.; Dehghani, S.; Khosravian, F.; Arjmandzadeh, A. 2013. The optimized operational conditions for biodiesel production from soybean oil and application of artificial neural networks for estimation of the biodiesel yield. Renewable Energy. 50915-920

    In this study, transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel using KOH in different process conditions were studied. The investigated conditions were the molar ratio of methanol/oil, catalyst amount and reaction temperature. Optimal conditions were found to be methanol/oil molar ratio, 9:1; catalyst amount, 1 wt%; reaction temperature, 60 degrees C. Biodiesel yield for these conditions was obtained 93.2% in 1 h. In addition, the artificial neural network has been applied to estimate the biodiesel yield. The multilayer feed forward neural network with three inputs and one output has been trained with different algorithms and different numbers of neurons in the hidden layer. The accuracy of the proposed model was found to agree nearly with the experimental results over a wide range of experimental conditions. The results clearly depict that the neural network is a powerful tool to estimate the reaction rate and the designed neural network can be used instead of approximate and complex analytical equations. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  98. Transesterification of Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Production Using Hydrotalcite as Basic Catalyst
    Abstract

    Martins, M. I.; Pires, R. F.; Alves, M. J.; Hori, C. E.; Reis, M. H. M.; Cardoso, V. L. 2013. Transesterification of Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Production Using Hydrotalcite as Basic Catalyst. Icheap-11: 11th International Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering, Pts 1-4. 32817-822

    Biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid (methyl) esters (FAME), is a renewable fuel produced from the homogeneous catalytic transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats, using basic hydroxides as catalysts.
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  99. Biodiesel production by soybean oil methanolysis over SrO/MgO catalysts The relevance of the catalyst granulometry
    Abstract

    Dias, A. P. S.; Bernardo, J.; Felizardo, P.; Correia, M. J. N. 2012. Biodiesel production by soybean oil methanolysis over SrO/MgO catalysts The relevance of the catalyst granulometry. Fuel Processing Technology. 102146-155

    The methanolysis of soybean oil was studied over magnesia supported SrO heterogeneous catalysts. The samples (0.05-0.35 Sr/Mg atomic ratio) were prepared by contacting commercial MgO with aqueous solutions of strontium nitrate. Both Mg and Sr oxides were identified by XRD even for the lowest Sr content. The calcination temperature is a critical issue for the catalytic performances because carbonated and hydroxilated surface species are only removed for calcination temperatures higher than 575 degrees C. Carbonated species seems to be more soluble in methanol than oxide species thus increasing the rate of Sr leaching.
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  100. Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil Catalyzed by Li2CO3
    Abstract

    Wang, J. X.; Chen, K. T.; Huang, S. T.; Chen, K. T.; Chen, C. C. 2012. Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil Catalyzed by Li2CO3. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 89(9) 1619-1625

    In the present study, we synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil through a transesterification reaction catalyzed by lithium carbonate. Under the optimal reaction conditions of methanol/oil molar ratio 32:1, 12 % (wt/wt oil) catalyst amount, and a reaction temperature of 65 A degrees C for 2 h, there was a 97.2 % conversion to biodiesel from soybean oil. The present study also evaluated the effects of methanol/oil ratio, catalyst amount, and reaction time on conversion. The catalytic activity of solid base catalysts was insensitive to exposure to air prior to use in the transesterification reaction. Results from ICP-OES exhibited non-significant leaching of the Li2CO3 active species into the reaction medium, and reusability of the catalyst was tested successfully in ten subsequent cycles. Free fatty acid in the feedstock for biodiesel production should not be higher than 0.12 % to afford a product that passes the EN biodiesel standard. Product quality, ester content, free glycerol, total glycerol, density, flash point, sulfur content, kinematic viscosity, copper corrosion, cetane number, iodine value, and acid value fulfilled ASTM and EN standards. Commercially available Li2CO3 is suitable for direct use in biodiesel production without further drying or thermal pretreatment, avoiding the usual solid catalyst need for activation at high temperature.
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  101. Biodiesel production from soybean oil transesterification in subcritical methanol with K3PO4 as a catalyst
    Abstract

    Yin, J. Z.; Ma, Z.; Shang, Z. Y.; Hu, D. P.; Xiu, Z. L. 2012. Biodiesel production from soybean oil transesterification in subcritical methanol with K3PO4 as a catalyst. Fuel. 93(1) 284-287

    Biodiesel production from soybean oil transesterification under the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst tri-potassium phosphate in subcritical methanol has been studied. The results showed that tri-potassium phosphate exhibited high catalytic activity for the transesterification of soybean oil. The effects of reaction variables, including the reaction temperature, the molar ratio of methanol to oil, the catalyst amount, and the water and oleic acid concentrations in the soybean oil, on the yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME or biodiesel) were systematically investigated. Under the optimal conditions, e.g., the temperature of 220 degrees C and methanol to oil molar ratio of 24:1, 95.6% of the FAME yield was obtained in 30 min with only 1 wt% K3PO4. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  102. Biodiesel Production via Transesterification of Soybean Oil Using Acid Catalyst in CO2 Expanded Methanol Liquids
    Abstract

    Ma, Z.; Shang, Z. Y.; Wang, E. J.; Xu, J. C.; Xu, Q. Q.; Yin, J. Z. 2012. Biodiesel Production via Transesterification of Soybean Oil Using Acid Catalyst in CO2 Expanded Methanol Liquids. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 51(38) 12199-12204

    The transesterification of soybean oil and methanol to prepare biodiesel using H2SO4 and solid acid (NaHSO4) as catalysts was conducted in CO2-expanded liquids (CXLs). The aim of adding CO2 in the system is to intensify the reaction, and then to shorten the reaction time and decrease the methanol consumption in the traditional acid catalysis method or decrease the high temperature and pressure in the supercritical methanol method. The parameters affecting the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield, such as pressure, temperature, and the molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil (M/O ratio), as well as catalyst amount were investigated. The results indicated that a complete oil conversion happened at 10 MPa, 70 degrees C (reaction time 6 h) and 80 degrees C (reaction time 4 h) with M/O ratio of 12:1, and H2SO4 amount of 4%, while for NaHSO4 catalytic reactions, the FAME yield was 80.94% after 6 h at 10 MPa, 90 degrees C, and the M/O ratio 9:1, NaHSO4 amount of 5% (based on oil weight). The underlying reasons why CO2 enhances the transesterification of oil and methanol were highlighted.
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  103. Liquid-Liquid Equilibria in Ternary and Quaternary Systems Present in Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil at (298.2 and 333.2) K
    Abstract

    Machado, A. B.; Ardila, Y. C.; de Oliveira, L. H.; Aznar, M.; Maciel, M. R. W. 2012. Liquid-Liquid Equilibria in Ternary and Quaternary Systems Present in Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil at (298.2 and 333.2) K. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data. 57(5) 1417-1422

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for soybean oil biodiesel (BIO-SO) + ethanol + glycerol and BIO-SO + ethanol + glycerol + sodium hydroxide systems at (298.2 and 333.2) K and atmospheric pressure (approximate to 95 kPa) were determined by gas chromatography and potentiometric titration. These systems occur in the biodiesel production process and present a biodiesel-rich (upper layer) and a glycerol-rich phase (bottom layer). The influence of temperature and NaOH in ethanol partition coefficient (K) and biodiesel selectivity (S) was studied. Results show that ethanol distributes preferably to the glycerol-rich phase and that biodiesel solubilizes more ethanol than glycerol. Increasing the temperature by 35 K causes an increase in K and S. Adding 1 wt % of NaOH in the system does not affect K but enhances S at 298.2 K and diminishes it at 333.2 K. The nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) model was used for correlation LLE experimental data, presenting a root-mean-square deviation equal to 1.6 % for both ternary and quaternary systems. Data were submitted to the Ishida test, giving R-2 > 0.96 for all systems.
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  104. Methanolysis of soybean oil over KCl/CaO solid base catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mar, W. W.; Somsook, E. 2012. Methanolysis of soybean oil over KCl/CaO solid base catalyst for biodiesel production. Scienceasia. 38(1) 90-94

    A KCl-doped CaO catalyst synthesized by a wet impregnation method under microwave irradiation was studied in the transesterification of refined soybean oil with methanol at 338 K. The catalyst was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, N-2 adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscopy, and FT-IR techniques. The basic strength of the catalysts was also determined by the Hammett indicator method. The KCl/CaO catalyst exhibited a chemical stability in the reaction medium as well as a good resistance to feedstocks with high acidity.
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  105. Phase-switching Homogeneous Catalysis for Clean Production of Biodiesel and Glycerol from Soybean and Microbial Lipids
    Abstract

    Cao, X. F.; Xie, H. B.; Wu, Z. L.; Shen, H. W.; Jing, B. 2012. Phase-switching Homogeneous Catalysis for Clean Production of Biodiesel and Glycerol from Soybean and Microbial Lipids. Chemcatchem. 4(9) 1272-1278

    With the increasing concerns into the utilization of lipids as renewable resources for production of biofuels, chemicals, and materials, the efficient extraction and conversion of lipid is one of most important issues for the foundation of cost competitive lipid-economy. In this study, we found that by using a range of switchable solvents from 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene to methanol, CO2, a recognized greenhouse gas, can be used as a trigger to catalyze the methanolysis of soybean and microbial lipids, and facilitate the separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and glycerol. It was found that the FAMEs can be decanted from the system in a 95.2?% conversion efficiency. The produced glycerol can be extracted from the FAMEs completely by the switchable solvents, and can be separated with high purity after recycling the DBU by an easy extraction process. Our primary investigation of the in situ extraction and conversion of microbial lipids from oleaginous yeast (Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4) shows that, although a 95.4?% extraction yield was achieved, the methanolysis efficiency was only 21.9?%. Our study presents an efficient and facile process for the integrated clean production of biodiesel and glycerol from soybean and microbial lipids, and the catalyst DBU can be recycled by an easy extraction process.
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  106. Production of biodiesel by methanolysis of soybean oil over basic polymeric catalytic membranes
    Abstract

    dos SAntos, R. N.; Silva, A. G.; Ferreira, L. M.; Casimiro, M. H.; Ramos, A. M.; Vital, J. 2012. Production of biodiesel by methanolysis of soybean oil over basic polymeric catalytic membranes. Euromembrane Conference 2012. 441607-1611

    Polymeric catalytic membranes were prepared in two different ways for the transesterification of soybean oil. In a first approach 1,5,7-Triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ane (TBD) was anchored to a PVA membrane using epichlorohydrin as linking agent. Another attempt was to synthetize poly(N-vinylguanidine) avoiding the need of anchoring the TBD in a polymeric matrix. Catalytic runs were performed in jacket batch reactors and even though the results are still preliminary, they appeared to be promising. The catalysts were characterized by thickness measurements, swelling degree and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).
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  107. Production of biodiesel through transesterification of soybean oil using lithium orthosilicate solid catalyst
    Abstract

    Wang, J. X.; Chen, K. T.; Wu, J. S.; Wang, P. H.; Huang, S. T.; Chen, C. C. 2012. Production of biodiesel through transesterification of soybean oil using lithium orthosilicate solid catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology. 104167-173

    This study synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil using transesterification over a lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4) catalyst Under the optimal reaction condition of a methanol/oil molar ratio of 18:1, a 6% (wt/wt oil) catalyst amount, and a reaction at 65 degrees C for 2 h, the conversion to biodiesel could achieve 98.1%. The catalyst was prepared using a solid-state reaction. Li4SiO4 can be used directly for biodiesel production without being further dried or thermal pretreated, avoiding the usual activation of solid catalysts at high temperature. The effects of the methanol/oil ratio, catalyst amounts, reaction time and reaction temperature on the conversion are also reported in this paper. The solid base catalyst was highly active, air-insensitive and can be reused for at least ten cycles without loss of activity. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, SEM-EDS, FTIR, TGA-DTA, and the Hammett indicator method. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  108. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel from soybean oil using Bronsted acidic ionic liquid as catalyst
    Abstract

    Guo, W. L.; Li, H. L.; Ji, G. L.; Zhang, G. Y. 2012. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel from soybean oil using Bronsted acidic ionic liquid as catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 125332-334

    Biodiesel production from soybean oil with methanol was performed in the presence of a Bronsted acidic ionic liquid-based catalyst under ultrasound irradiation. The influences of various parameters on the transesterification reaction, including the amount of catalyst, the molar ratio of methanol to oil, the temperature and the ultrasound power, were investigated. The optimal conditions were: methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1, 1.0 wt.% catalyst in oil, ultrasound power of 200W, and reaction temperature of 60 degrees C. Under these conditions, the conversion of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters was about 93.2% within the reaction time of 60 min. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  109. A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves
    Abstract

    Kanitkar, A.; Balasubramanian, S.; Lima, M.; Boldor, D. 2011. A critical comparison of methyl and ethyl esters production from soybean and rice bran oil in the presence of microwaves. Bioresource Technology. 102(17) 7896-7902

    Transesterification of vegetable oils (from soybeans and rice bran) into methyl and ethyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A critical comparison between the two alcohols was performed in terms of yields, quality, and reaction kinetics. Parameters tested were temperature (60, 70 and 80 C) and time (5, 10, 15 and 20 min). At all tested conditions, more than 96% conversion rates were obtained for both ethanol and methanol. Use of microwave technology to assist the transesterification process resulted in faster reaction times and reduced catalyst requirement (about ten-fold decrease). Methanol required lower alcohol:oil ratios than normally used in conventional heating, whereas ethanol required higher molar ratios. All esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. Methanol performed better in terms of performance and costs, while ethanol may have some environmental and safety benefits. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  110. A Normative Economic Analysis of Cooperative Biodiesel Production Using Soybeans Produced by Smallholders in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa
    Abstract

    Sparks, G. D.; Ortmann, G. F.; Lyne, M. C. 2011. A Normative Economic Analysis of Cooperative Biodiesel Production Using Soybeans Produced by Smallholders in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Agrekon. 50(3) 51-67

    The South African biofuels industrial strategy promotes a development-oriented strategy with feedstock produced by smallholders and processed by traditional producer-owned cooperatives. This study examines a proposal to apply this strategy to small-scale farmers in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), using soybeans as feedstock for biodiesel production. First, it is argued that value-adding cooperatives established under South Africa's current Cooperatives Act, No. 14 of 2005 (hereafter the Cooperatives Act) would fail to attract the capital and expertise needed to process biodiesel owing to ill-defined voting and benefit rights. Second, a mixed integer linear programming model is used to determine the viability of producing biodiesel from soybeans, viewed from the perspective of the smallholder as grower and co-owner of the processing plant. It is concluded that smallholder participation would require a rental market for cropland, co-ownership of the processing plant in a non-traditional cooperative or investor-owned firm, information and training, and a high level of government subsidy.
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  111. An Economic Evaluation of Soybean-Based Biodiesel Production on Commercial Farms in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa
    Abstract

    Sparks, G. D.; Ortmann, G. F.; Lagrange, L. 2011. An Economic Evaluation of Soybean-Based Biodiesel Production on Commercial Farms in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Agrekon. 50(3) 68-89

    Global biofuel production has risen substantially in recent years, driven primarily by government support for biofuel industries. The stated motivations for these initiatives are numerous and have varied over time. Soybeans are the only field crop produced in sufficient quantities in the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) that the South African industrial biofuel strategy identifies as a potential biodiesel feedstock. Results from a mixed integer linear programming model suggest that significant government support is required to stimulate biodiesel production, and support the notion of Funke et al. (2009), who contend that the incentives and commitments outlined by the industrial biofuel strategy are inadequate to both establish and sustain a domestic biodiesel industry. Under baseline assumptions, a minimum implicit subsidy of R4.37 per litre is required to draw soybean-based biodiesel production into the optimum solution. Results also show that the implicit subsidy is sensitive to changes in the soybean oilcake (by-product) price and the soybean (input) price.
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  112. Application of Li2SiO3 as a heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Wang, J. X.; Chen, K. T.; Huang, S. T.; Chen, C. C. 2011. Application of Li2SiO3 as a heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel from soybean oil. Chinese Chemical Letters. 22(11) 1363-1366

    Biodiesel was synthesized from soybean oil by transesterification over Li2SiO3 catalyst. The Li2SiO3 can be used for biodiesel production directly without further drying or thermal pretreatment, no obvious difference in the FAME conversion (92.4-96.7%) between the air-exposed catalyst (24-72 h) and the fresh one (94.2%). This leads to important benefits when considering industrial applications of Li2SiO3 as a solid catalyst for storing and handling catalyst without taking special actions. (C) 2011 Chiing Chang Chen. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.
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  113. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of biodiesel production by transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol
    Abstract

    Silva, G. F.; Camargo, F. L.; Ferreira, A. L. O. 2011. Application of response surface methodology for optimization of biodiesel production by transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol. Fuel Processing Technology. 92(3) 407-413

    In this paper, the transesterification of soybean oil with ethanol is studied. The transesterification process can be affected by differing parameters. The biodiesel production process was optimized by the application of factorial design 2(4) and response surface methodology. The combined effects of temperature, catalyst concentration, reaction time and molar ratio of alcohol in relation to oil were investigated and optimized using response surface methodology. Optimum conditions for the production of ethyl esters were the following: mild temperature at 56.7 degrees C, reaction time in 80 min, molar ratio at 9:1 and catalyst concentration of 1.3 M. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  114. Biodiesel production from degummed soybean oil and glycerol removal using ceramic membrane
    Abstract

    Gomes, M. C. S.; Arroyo, P. A.; Pereira, N. C. 2011. Biodiesel production from degummed soybean oil and glycerol removal using ceramic membrane. Journal of Membrane Science. 378(1-2) 453-461

    In the present study, biodiesel was produced by ethylic transesterification of degummed soybean oil using sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. The influence of temperature and oil:alcohol molar ratio was evaluated using experiment factorial design and response surface methodology. According to the results, the maximum yields of esters were obtained when the temperature was lower than 40 degrees C and the oil:alcohol molar ratio was higher than 1:7. A membrane separation process was used to separate glycerol from biodiesel after transesterification. The reaction mixture was directly microfiltered after the addition of acidified water without previous settling. Microfiltration runs were performed in batch mode using a 0.2-mu m ceramic membrane at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 bar transmembrane pressures. Membrane performance was evaluated based on the capacity of glycerol retention and on the permeate flux values. The results showed that the water concentration added to the mixture plays an important role in glycerol separation, as well as in the permeate flux, according to the proposed glycerol separation mechanism using ceramic membrane. The use of filtration with ceramic membrane was efficient to remove glycerol from biodiesel, and the permeates obtained for all conditions showed free glycerol values lower than 0.02%, which is the maximum specification limit. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  115. Biodiesel production from mixed soybean oil and rapeseed oil
    Abstract

    Qiu, F. X.; Li, Y. H.; Yang, D. Y.; Li, X. H.; Sun, P. 2011. Biodiesel production from mixed soybean oil and rapeseed oil. Applied Energy. 88(6) 2050-2055

    The biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) was prepared by transesterification of the mixed oil (soybean oil and rapeseed oil) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as catalyst. The effects of mole ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst amount and reaction time on the yield were studied. In order to decrease the operational temperature, a co-solvent (hexane) was added into the reactants and the conversion efficiency of the reaction was improved. The optimal reaction conditions were obtained by this experiment: methanol/oil mole ratio 5.0:1, reaction temperature 55 degrees C, catalyst amount 0.8 wt.% and reaction time 2.0 h. Under the optimum conditions, a 94% yield of methyl esters was reached similar to 94%. The structure of the biodiesel was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The sulfur content of biodiesel was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma emission spectrometer (ICP), and the satisfied result was obtained. The properties of obtained biodiesel from mixed oil are close to commercial diesel fuel and is rated as a realistic fuel as an alternative to diesel. Production of biodiesel has positive impact on the utilization of agricultural and forestry products. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  116. Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil Catalyzed by K2SiO3/C
    Abstract

    Wang, J. X.; Chen, K. T.; Chen, C. C. 2011. Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil Catalyzed by K2SiO3/C. Chinese Journal of Catalysis. 32(10) 1592-1596

    A solid base catalyst ((KSiO3)-Si-2/C) capable of microwave absorption was used for the transesterification of soybean oil under microwave radiation. The K2SiO3/C catalyst was prepared by an impregnation method that loaded K2SiO3 on carbon particles (1-3.5 mm diameter) followed by drying at 120 degrees C. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry, and the Hammett indicator method. K2SiO3 was well distributed on the support. The effects of reaction variables such as catalyst loading, molar ratio of methanol to oil, and reaction time (under microwave radiation and conventional heating) were studied. When the conventionally heated reaction was carried out at 65 degrees C with a methanol/oil molar ratio of 30:1 and a catalyst concentration of 24 wt%, the biodiesel conversion was 96.5% after 2.5 h reaction time. The same reaction reached equilibrium after 1.5 h under microwave radiation, and the conversion of biodiesel was 96.7%.
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  117. Commercial Hydrated Lime as a Cost-Effective Solid Base for the Transesterification of Wasted Soybean Oil with Methanol for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Sanchez-Cantu, M.; Perez-Diaz, L. M.; Rosales, R.; Ramirez, E.; Apreza-Sies, A.; Pala-Rosas, I.; Rubio-Rosas, E.; Aguilar-Franco, M.; Valente, J. S. 2011. Commercial Hydrated Lime as a Cost-Effective Solid Base for the Transesterification of Wasted Soybean Oil with Methanol for Biodiesel Production. Energy & Fuels. 25(7) 3275-3282

    The transesterification of used soybean oil with methanol was carried out over hydrated lime (HL), Ca(OH)(2), and its decomposition products in the 200-500 degrees C range. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The XRD powder patterns demonstrated that the pristine sample consisted of a mixture of calcium hydroxide and calcite. It was noticed that the coexistence of CaO, Ca(OH)(2), and CaCO3 remained up to 400 degrees C. At 500 degrees C, Ca(OH)(2) is transformed into CaO so that this and CaCO3 are the only remaining phases. In the transesterification reaction, the influence of calcination temperature, reaction time, catalyst amount, methanol:oil ratio, and reaction temperature was studied. Full conversion of the raw materials into biodiesel (BD) was obtained with the fresh HL. In order to determine any change in the solid, it was recovered after 10, 30, and 60 min of reaction and analyzed by XRD analysis. Only Ca(OH)(2), CaCO3, and traces of monohydrocalcite were detected. From the results it was demonstrated that the active phase for biodiesel production was calcium hydroxide. Furthermore, the catalyst was used up to three times without deactivation. A simple, economic, and environmentally friendly way to obtain biodiesel was developed considering (a) used soybean oil, considered waste, as employed as raw material, (b) hydrated lime is cheap and readily available, and (c) full conversion of the raw materials into BD was achieved with the as-received HL.
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  118. Comparative Study of Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil and Coconut Oil Using a Multiple-Stage Ultra Shear Reactor
    Abstract

    Da Silva, N. D. L.; Batistella, C. B.; Maciel, R.; Maciel, M. R. W. 2011. Comparative Study of Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil and Coconut Oil Using a Multiple-Stage Ultra Shear Reactor. Pres 2011: 14th International Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction, Pts 1 and 2. 25857-862

    This work presents biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by multiple-stage Ultra-Shear reactor (USR). The experiments were carried out in the following conditions: reaction time from 6 to 12 min; catalyst concentration from 0.5 to 1.5 % (by weight of vegetable oil); ethanol: vegetable oil molar ratio from 6:1 to 10:1. The experimental design was used to investigate the influence of process variables on the conversion of biodiesel. Biodiesel conversions greater than 99 wt.% were obtained with both raw materials.
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  119. Continuous Production of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil and Methanol in an Enforced Mass Transfer Reactor
    Abstract

    Xiang, L.; Wang, L.; Cheng, J.; Que, G. H. 2011. Continuous Production of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil and Methanol in an Enforced Mass Transfer Reactor. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 33(9) 859-868

    Biodiesel made from vegetable or animal fats is a renewable substitute fuel for petroleum diesel. Continuous production of biodiesel fuel from soybean oil and methanol in an enforced mass transfer reactor without using any catalyst has been investigated. The effects of reaction temperature and molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil on the conversion of transesterification have been discussed. The optimal operational parameters were 360 degrees C and a molar ratio of 40 in this study. Transesterification of soybean oil could reach the expected conversion in shorter reaction time and lower pressure compared with the supercritical methanol method. The new process could reduce the investment cost of equipment. In addition, the apparent reaction order and activation energy of transesterification was 1.66 and 29.34 kJ/mol, respectively. Transesterification in an enforced mass transfer reactor could be a good alternative to the supercritical methanol method and could be more suitable for industrial production.
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  120. Continuous production of soybean biodiesel with compressed ethanol in a microtube reactor using carbon dioxide as co-solvent
    Abstract

    Trentin, C. M.; Lima, A. P.; Alkimim, I. P.; da Silva, C.; de Castilhos, F.; Mazutti, M. A.; Oliveira, J. V. 2011. Continuous production of soybean biodiesel with compressed ethanol in a microtube reactor using carbon dioxide as co-solvent. Fuel Processing Technology. 92(5) 952-958

    This work investigates the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process using carbon dioxide as co-solvent. The experiments were performed in a microtube reactor in the temperature range of 523 K to 598 K. from 10 MPa to 20 MPa. oil to ethanol molar ratio from 1:20 to 1:40, and co-solvent to substrates mass ratio from 0.05:1 to 0.2:1. Results showed that ethyl esters yield obtained increased with increasing addition of carbon dioxide to the system. Considerable reaction yields were achieved at 598 K,20 MPa. oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:20 and using a CO2 to substrate mass ratio of 0.2:1. (c) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  121. Enzymatic coproduction of biodiesel and glycerol carbonate from soybean oil and dimethyl carbonate
    Abstract

    Seong, P. J.; Jeon, B. W.; Lee, M.; Cho, D. H.; Kim, D. K.; Jung, K. S.; Kim, S. W.; Han, S. O.; Kim, Y. H.; Park, C. 2011. Enzymatic coproduction of biodiesel and glycerol carbonate from soybean oil and dimethyl carbonate. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 48(6-7) 505-509

    The enzymatic coproduction of biodiesel and glycerol carbonate by the transesterification of soybean oil was studied using lipase as catalyst in organic solvent. To produce biodiesel and glycerol carbonate simultaneously, experiments were designed sequentially. Enzyme screening, the molar ratio of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) to soybean oil, reaction temperature and solvent effects were investigated. The results of enzyme screening, at 100 g/L Novozym 435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B), biodiesel and glycerol carbonate showed conversions of 58.7% and 50.7%, respectively. The optimal conditions were 60 degrees C, 100 g/L Novozym 435, 6.0:1 molar ratio with tert-butanol as solvent: 84.9% biodiesel and 92.0% glycerol carbonate production was achieved. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  122. Glycerolysis of Soybean Oil with Crude Glycerol Containing Residual Alkaline Catalysts from Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Echeverri, D. A.; Cardeno, F.; Rios, L. A. 2011. Glycerolysis of Soybean Oil with Crude Glycerol Containing Residual Alkaline Catalysts from Biodiesel Production. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 88(4) 551-557

    The glycerolysis reaction of soybean oil was evaluated using crude glycerol obtained from the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, catalyzed by sodium methoxide and sodium hydroxide, without any purification step other than the methanol removal. Crude glycerol with the lower content of remaining inorganic catalyst produced the highest concentration of monoglycerides (about 42%). The effect of the addition of water on the glycerolysis reaction was analyzed, evidencing a low formation rate of products in the first stages of the reaction due to the transformation of the inorganic catalyst to soaps, which are weaker bases. The sample of crude glycerol that led to the best results was evaluated at several temperatures. It was observed that the reaction with crude glycerol exhibits a lower formation rate of monoglycerides at low temperatures (160 and 180 degrees C) compared with the reaction with pure glycerol and catalyzed with NaOH. This behavior was explained by the lower activity of the soaps present in the crude glycerol respect to the inorganic base. Above 200 degrees C the reaction is very fast and the monoglycerides formed are consumed to produce diglycerides.
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  123. Intake, digestibility and ruminal pH of steers fed diets with pies coming from the production from biodiesel to replacement soybean meal
    Abstract

    Correia, B. R.; Oliveira, R. L.; Jaeger, S. M. P. L.; Bagaldo, A. R.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Oliveira, G. J. C.; Lima, F. H. S.; Oliveira, P. A. 2011. Intake, digestibility and ruminal pH of steers fed diets with pies coming from the production from biodiesel to replacement soybean meal. Arquivo Brasileiro De Medicina Veterinaria E Zootecnia. 63(2) 356-363

    The experiment was conducted with four rumen canulated Holstein-Zebu steers, kept in individual pens and distributed in a 4x4 Latin square with repeated measures of time. The experiment lasted 88 days and the animals were fed Tifton-85 hay and concentrate ration with soybean meal or one of the following cakes: palm kernel, peanuts or sunflower, which constituted the four treatments. Intake, total apparent digestibility and rumen pH were evaluated. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) intakes were lower (P<0.05) in diets containing palm kernel cake. Intake of ether extract (EE) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) did not differ between diets (P>0.05). The total digestibility of nutrients was not affected by the diets (P>0.05). Rumen pH was not influenced by the diets; however, it was affected by time of collection. Peanut and sunflower cake originated from the production of biodiesel can replace the soybean meal in the diet for steers. Total replacement of soybean meal with palm kernel cake decreased DM intake.
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  124. Mesoporous Li/ZrO2 as a solid base catalyst for biodiesel production from transesterification of soybean oil with methanol
    Abstract

    Ding, Y. Q.; Sun, H.; Duan, J. Z.; Chen, P.; Lou, H.; Zheng, X. M. 2011. Mesoporous Li/ZrO2 as a solid base catalyst for biodiesel production from transesterification of soybean oil with methanol. Catalysis Communications. 12(7) 606-610

    Mesoporous 0.1M/ZrO2 (M = Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca) solid base catalysts were successfully synthesized by using a sol-gel method. The catalytic activities of the catalysts were tested via transesterification reactions of soybean oil with methanol. Both 0.1Mg/ZrO2 and 0.1Ca/ZrO2 catalysts showed no catalytic activity in this reaction, while Li, K modified ZrO2 catalysts achieved high yield of biodiesel production. Besides, under the optimum reaction conditions, a FAME yield of as high as 98.2% was achieved on 0.1Li/ZrO2 catalyst calcined at 650 degrees C. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  125. Net energy balance of small-scale on-farm biodiesel production from canola and soybean
    Abstract

    Fore, S. R.; Porter, P.; Lazarus, W. 2011. Net energy balance of small-scale on-farm biodiesel production from canola and soybean. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(5) 2234-2244

    One necessary criterion for a biofuel to be a sustainable alternative to the petroleum fuels it displaces is a positive net energy balance. This study estimated the net energy ratio (NER), net energy balance (NEB), and net energy yield (NEY) of small-scale on-farm production of canola [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel in the upper Midwest. Direct and embodied energy inputs based on well-defined system boundaries and contemporary data were used to estimate the energy requirement of crop production, oil extraction, and biofuel processing. The NER of canola biodiesel was 1.78 compared with 2.05 for soybean biodiesel. Canola biodiesel had a NEB of 0.66 MJ MJ(-1) of biofuel compared with 0.81 MJ MJ(-1) for soybean biodiesel. The NEY of soybean biodiesel was 10,951 MJ ha(-1) less than canola biodiesel which had a NEY of 11,353 MJ ha(-1). Use of soybean as a biodiesel feedstock was more energetically efficient than canola primarily due to reduced nitrogen fertilizer requirement. In terms of energetic productivity, canola was a more productive biodiesel feedstock than soybean due to its higher oil content. A best-case scenario based on optimal feedstock yields, reduced fertilizer input, and advanced biofuel processing equipment suggested that potential gains in energetic efficiency was greater for canola than soybean. According to our results, small-scale on-farm biodiesel production using canola and soybean can be an energetically efficient way to produce energy for on-farm use. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  126. Preparation, characterization and application of heterogeneous solid base catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Li, Y. H.; Qiu, F. X.; Yang, D. Y.; Li, X. H.; Sun, P. 2011. Preparation, characterization and application of heterogeneous solid base catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(7) 2787-2795

    A solid base catalyst was prepared by neodymium oxide loaded with potassium hydroxide and investigated for transesterification of soybean oil with methanol to biodiesel. After loading KOH of 30 wt.% on neodymium oxide followed by calcination at 600 degrees C, the catalyst gave the highest basicity and the best catalytic activity for this reaction. The obtained catalyst was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements and the Hammett indicator method. The catalyst has longer lifetime and maintained sustained activity after being used for five times, and were noncorrosive and environmentally benign. The separate effects of the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, mass ratio of catalyst to oil and reaction time were investigated. The experimental results showed that a 14:1 M ratio of methanol to oil, addition of 6.0% catalyst, 60 degrees C reaction temperature and 1.5 h reaction time gave the best results and the biodiesel yield of 92.41% was achieved. The properties of obtained biodiesel are close to commercial diesel fuel and is rated as a realistic fuel as an alternative to diesel. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  127. Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto the electrospun PAN nanofibrous membranes for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Li, S. F.; Fan, Y. H.; Hu, R. F.; Wu, W. T. 2011. Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto the electrospun PAN nanofibrous membranes for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 72(1-2) 40-45

    Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia has good transesterification activity and can be employed for biodiesel production. For recycled uses, polyacrylonitrile nanofibrous membrane was fabricated by electrospinning method and activated by amidination reaction for immobilizing P. cepacia lipase. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra confirmed that the lipases were covalently attached to the nanofibers. After enzyme immobilization, the immobilized P. cepacia lipase was used as the catalyst for transesterification reaction to convert the soybean oil to biodiesel by adding methanol as the reactant. The effects of methanol concentration, methanol-to-water ratio, reaction temperature, fatty acid content and the reusability were investigated by using the immobilized P. cepacia lipase. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the biodiesel conversion of soybean oil achieved 90% after reacting 24 h. In examining the reusability, the immobilized P. cepacia lipase still retained 91% of its initial conversion capability after 10 times reused. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  128. Reactive distillation for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Simasatitkul, L.; Siricharnsakunchai, P.; Patcharavorachot, Y.; Assabumrungrat, S.; Arpornwichanop, A. 2011. Reactive distillation for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 28(3) 649-655

    Biodiesel, which is regarded as a promising alternative to a conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, can be produced from transesterification of vegetable oils and alcohol in conventional batch and continuous reactors. Since the transesterification is an equilibrium-limited reaction, a large excess of reactants is usually used to increase the production of biodiesel, thereby requiring more expensive separation of unreacted raw materials. This study proposed the use of a reactive distillation for transesterification of soybean oil and methanol catalyzed by sodium hydroxide to produce biodiesel. The simulation results showed that a suitable configuration of the reactive distillation column consists of three reactive stages. The optimal conditions for the reactive distillation operation are at the molar feed ratio of methanol and oil at 4.5 : 1, reflux ratio of 3, and reboiler duty of 1.6 x 10(7) kJ h(-1). Methanol and soybean oil should be fed into the column at the first stage. The effect of important operating and design parameters on the performance of reactive distillation was also presented.
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  129. The influence of free fatty acid intermediate on biodiesel production from soybean oil by whole cell biocatalyst
    Abstract

    Lin, Y. H.; Luo, J. J.; Hwang, S. C. J.; Liau, P. R.; Lu, W. J.; Lee, H. T. 2011. The influence of free fatty acid intermediate on biodiesel production from soybean oil by whole cell biocatalyst. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(5) 2217-2223

    The whole cell of lipase-producing Rhizopus oryzae was employed as biocatalyst for transesterification of soybean oil containing oleic acid. The free fatty acid (FFA) intermediate, playing an important role in the kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil, was thoroughly investigated and characterized. The conversion was more than 97% at the initial FFA content of 5.5%. A high content of FFA could protect the lipase from denaturation. The 34.6 percent of FFA with the optimal 26-mg mL(-1) methanol resulted in a specific reaction rate of 420 mg h(-1)g-dry cell(-1). In addition, the methanol/FFA ratio at 0.83-1.7 provides a good indication of the fatty acid methyl esters conversions for different initial FFA contents. In the transesterification process, more FFA intermediate present would become beneficial to conversion of retrograde feedstock to biodiesel. The immediately generated and original FFA content become the major rate-determining factor in the FFA-mixed transesterification process. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  130. The use of a modified TDSP for biodiesel production from soybean, linseed and waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Guzatto, R.; de Martini, T. L.; Samios, D. 2011. The use of a modified TDSP for biodiesel production from soybean, linseed and waste cooking oil. Fuel Processing Technology. 92(10) 2083-2088

    In this study, the Transesterification Double Step Process (TDSP) for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil was modified to yield a shorter reaction time and products with improved quality. TDSP consists in a two step transesterification procedure which starts with a basic catalysis, followed by an acidic catalysis. The process modifications included a reduction in the concentration of catalysts, a reduction in the reaction time of the first step and the direct mixing of methanol/acid solution, without cooling the system between the first and second step. A comparison between washed and unwashed biodiesel demonstrates that the final washing and drying procedure is necessary for satisfactory results. The products were analyzed by (1)H-NMR and nineteen different biodiesel analyses specific for international quality certification. The modified procedure resulted in a high conversion index (97% for waste cooking oil and soybean oil and 98% for linseed oil) and high yield (87 +/- 5% for waste cooking oil, 92 +/- 3% for soybean and 93 +/- 3% for linseed oil). The biodiesel produced by the modified TDSP met ASTM, EN ISO and ABNT standards before the addition of stabilizer. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  131. A comparative study of KOH loaded on double aluminosilicate layers, microporous and mesoporous materials as catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of soybean oil
    Abstract

    Rashtizadeh, E.; Farzaneh, F.; Ghandi, M. 2010. A comparative study of KOH loaded on double aluminosilicate layers, microporous and mesoporous materials as catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of soybean oil. Fuel. 89(11) 3393-3398

    Transesterification of soybean oil (TSO) with methanol to methyl esters (biodiesel) was found to proceed in the presence of KOH loaded on aluminosilicate layers (bentonite, kaolinite), microporous materials (zeolite Y, clinoptiloite), mesoporous materials (MCM-41, Al-MCM-41), some oxides (Al(2)O(3), TiO(2), SiO(2)), and silica gel as heterogeneous catalysts. Effect of reaction parameters such as KOH wt.%, amount of catalyst, reaction time, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil and TSO yields up to 99% will be discussed in this presentation. Utilization of bentonite and kaolinite as cheap and eco-friendly solid supports is promising. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  132. Biodiesel fuel production from soybean oil waste as agricultural bio-resource
    Abstract

    Hossain, A. A. B. M. S.; Al-Saif, A. M. 2010. Biodiesel fuel production from soybean oil waste as agricultural bio-resource. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 4(7) 538-542

    The study was conducted to investigate the optimum conditions for biodiesel formation from pure (virgin) soybean cooking oil (PSCO) and waste soybean cooking oil (WSCO) coming after alkaline transesterification process in combination with methanol, ethanol and 1-butanol. Some important variables such as volumetric ratio, types of reactants and catalytic activities were selected to obtain a high quality biodiesel fuel with the specification of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D 6751) and European Norm (EN 14214). The highest biodiesel yield (99.6%) was obtained under optimum conditions of 1: 6 volumetric oil-to-methanol weight ratio, 1% KOH catalyst at 40 C reaction temperature and 320 rpm stirring speed. The results showed that biodiesel yield from PSCO and WSCO exhibited no considerable differences. But there was a considerable difference of biodiesel yield produced by methanol, ethanol and 1-butanol. The biodiesel yield increased in the order of 1-butanol < ethanol < methanol. There was a bit difference in viscosity, acid value and chemical elements (Ca, Na, P, Fe, Cu, Pb, Mg etc.) between PSCO and WSCO. The research investigated that biodiesel obtained under optimum conditions from PSCO and WSCO was of good quality and could be used as a diesel fuel which considered as potential use of waste cooking oil.
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  133. Biodiesel production by ethanolysis of mixed castor and soybean oils
    Abstract

    Barbosa, D. D.; Serra, T. M.; Meneghetti, S. M. P.; Meneghetti, M. R. 2010. Biodiesel production by ethanolysis of mixed castor and soybean oils. Fuel. 89(12) 3791-3794

    Biodiesel was produced by ethanolysis of pure castor and soybean oils, and mixtures thereof, using potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The yields and selectivities of these reactions were evaluated. The results revealed that there was no appreciable substrate preference when the vegetable oils were transesterified in admixture. However, higher reaction yields and increased efficiencies of the purification process were directly correlated with the proportion of soybean oil present in the reaction mixture. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  134. Biodiesel production by methanolysis of soybean oil using calcium supported on mesoporous silica catalyst
    Abstract

    Samart, C.; Chaiya, C.; Reubroycharoen, P. 2010. Biodiesel production by methanolysis of soybean oil using calcium supported on mesoporous silica catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 51(7) 1428-1431

    The transesterification of soybean oil with a CaO/mesoporous silica catalyst was achieved. The effects of CaO loading levels in the mesoporous silica catalyst, the amount of catalyst to substrate level and the reaction temperature and time on the conversion of soybean oil were investigated. Increasing the temperature and reaction time raised the total conversion of soybean oil attained. The optimized condition, found to be 15 wt.% of Ca loading on the mesoporous silica catalyst, a 5% (w/w) catalyst to oil level and a reaction temperature of 60 degrees C for 8 h, provided the highest yield of 95.2%. The fuel properties of the biodiesel obtained under these optimized conditions were acceptable under the biodiesel standards of Thailand. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  135. Biodiesel Production from Ricinus Communis Oil and Its Blends with Soybean Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Saribiyik, O. Y.; Ozcanli, M.; Serin, H.; Serin, S.; Aydin, K. 2010. Biodiesel Production from Ricinus Communis Oil and Its Blends with Soybean Biodiesel. Strojniski Vestnik-Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 56(12) 811-816

    In this study, local vegetable oil named as Ricinus Communis (RC) is used as the raw material for the production of biodiesel. In order to obtain RC oil, Soxhalet Extraction apparatus was used. This paper deals with the transesterification of Ricinus Communis oil with methanol to produce biodiesel. Moreover, this study analysis the fuel properties of RC biodiesel and soybean biodiesel blends. Various properties of the RC biodiesel, Soybean biodiesel and their blends such as the cold filter plugging point (CFPP), cetane number, flash point, kinematic viscosity and density were determined. Test results were compared well with European biodiesel standards EN 14214. Analysis showed that the cetane number and the cold flow behavior of the RC biodiesel and soybean biodiesel blends were improved due to the high cetane number (80) and the low cold filter plugging point (-35 degrees C) of RC biodiesel. (C) 2010 Journal a Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved.
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  136. Biodiesel production from soybean oil and methanol using hydrotalcites as catalyst
    Abstract

    Silva, C. C. C. M.; Ribeiro, N. F. P.; Souza, M. M. V. M.; Aranda, D. A. G. 2010. Biodiesel production from soybean oil and methanol using hydrotalcites as catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology. 91(2) 205-210

    Esters of fatty acids, derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, and known as biodiesel. are a promising alternative diesel fuel regarding the limited resources of fossil fuels and the environmental concerns. In this work, methanolysis of soybean oil was investigated using Mg-Al hydrotalcites as heterogeneous catalyst, evaluating the effect of Mg/Al ratio on the basicity and catalytic activity for biodiesel production. The catalysts were prepared with Al/(Mg + Al) molar ratios of 0.20, 0.25 and 0.33, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), textural analysis (BET method) and temperature-programmed desorption of CO(2) (CO(2)-TPD). When the reaction was carried out at 230 degrees C with a methanol: soybean oil molar ratio of 13:1, a reaction time of 1 h and a catalyst loading of 5 wt.%, the oil conversion was 90% for the sample with Al/(Mg + Al) ratio of 0.33. This sample was the only one to show basic sites of medium strength. We also investigated the reuse of this catalyst, the effect of calcination temperature and made a comparison between refined and acidic oil. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  137. Biodiesel Production from Subcritical Methanol Transesterification of Soybean Oil with Sodium Silicate
    Abstract

    Yin, J. Z.; Ma, Z.; Hu, D. P.; Xiu, Z. L.; Wang, T. H. 2010. Biodiesel Production from Subcritical Methanol Transesterification of Soybean Oil with Sodium Silicate. Energy & Fuels. 243179-3182

    Biodiesel from supercritical methanol reaction is a high-efficiency method of noncatalysis. Due to high temperature and pressure, this technology has been limited to practical applications. To improve the operation conditions, developing a mild method has become a new trend for biodiesel production. In this paper, the transesterification of soybean oil in subcritical methanol was studied with a small amount of catalyst of sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) to obtain biodiesel. Na(2)SiO(3) as a catalyst can improve the transesterification reaction of soybean oil in supercritical methanol. The variables affecting the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield during the transesterification reaction, such as the reaction temperature, catalyst content, reaction rate, and the molar ratio of soybean oil to methanol, were investigated and compared with those of noncatalyst experiments. The test results show that a FAME yield of 95.6% was achieved when the reaction was performed with a catalyst content of 0.5 wt % at 220 degrees C for 30 min.
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  138. Biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable energy and environmental recycled process
    Abstract

    Hossain, A. B. M. S.; Boyce, A. N.; Salleh, A.; Chandran, S. 2010. Biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable energy and environmental recycled process. African Journal of Biotechnology. 9(27) 4233-4240

    Alternative fuel is currently an important issue all over the world due to the efforts on reducing global warming which is contributed by the combustion of petroleum or petrol diesel. Biodiesel is non-toxic, biodegradable, produced from renewable sources and contributes a minimal amount of net green house gases, such as CO(2), SO(2) and NO emissions to the atmosphere. The study was carried out to produce biodiesel from waste/recycled oils to reduce the cost of biodiesel, waste and pollution. Some important variables such as volumetric ratio, types of reactants and catalytic activities were selected to obtain a high quality biodiesel fuel within the specifications of the American Standard for Biodiesel Testing Method (ASTM D 6751) and European Norm (EN 14214). The highest biodiesel yield was obtained (71.2%) under the conditions of 1:1 volumetric oil-to-methanol weight ratio, 0.5% NaOH catalyst at 50 degrees C reaction temperature and 320 rpm stirring speed. The results showed that biodiesel produced from different oil to methanol ratios, alcohol types and shaking time exhibited considerable differences. There was also a considerable difference of biodiesel yield produced by using methanol, ethanol and 1-butanol. The biodiesel yield increased in the order of 1-butanol < ethanol < methanol. There was a little difference in viscosity, acid value and chemical elements (Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, P etc.) at different parameters. The research showed that biodiesel obtained under optimum conditions from completely waste oil was of good quality and could be used as a diesel fuel which is considered as potential use of waste cooking oil. In addition, bioenergy could be renewed and environmental recycling process could be maintained potentially using waste soybean cooking oil.
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  139. Combination of two lipases more efficiently catalyzes methanolysis of soybean oil for biodiesel production in aqueous medium
    Abstract

    Guan, F. F.; Peng, P.; Wang, G. L.; Yin, T.; Peng, Q.; Huang, J. J.; Guan, G. H.; Li, Y. 2010. Combination of two lipases more efficiently catalyzes methanolysis of soybean oil for biodiesel production in aqueous medium. Process Biochemistry. 45(10) 1677-1682

    A combination of two lipases was employed to catalyze methanolysis of soybean oil in aqueous medium for biodiesel production. The two lipase genes were cloned from fungal strains Rhizomucor miehei and Penicillium cyclopium, and each expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris. Activities of the 1,3-specific lipase from R. miehei (termed RML) and the non-specific mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from P. cyclopium (termed MDL) were 550 U and 1545 U per ml respectively, and enzymatic properties of these supernatant of fermentation broth (liquid lipase) were stable at 4 degrees C for >3 months. Under optimized conditions, the ratio of biodiesel conversion after 12 h at 30 degrees C, using RML alone, was 68.5%. When RML was assisted by addition of MDL, biodiesel conversion ratio was increased to >95% under the same reaction conditions. The results suggested that combination of lipases with different specificity, for enzymatic conversion of more complex lipid substrates, is a potentially useful strategy for biodiesel production. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  140. Continuous Production of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil Using Supercritical Methanol in a Vertical Tubular Reactor: I. Phase Holdup and Distribution of Intermediate Product along the Axial Direction
    Abstract

    Zhou, C.; Wang, C. W.; Wang, W. G.; Wu, Y. X.; Yu, F. Q.; Chi, R. A.; Zhang, J. F. 2010. Continuous Production of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil Using Supercritical Methanol in a Vertical Tubular Reactor: I. Phase Holdup and Distribution of Intermediate Product along the Axial Direction. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 18(4) 626-629

    Production of biodiesel with supercritical methanol is a green synthesis process. A study was carried out in a vertical tubular reactor with a length of 3700 mm and a diameter of 20 mm at 275-375 degrees C, 15 MPa, and molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil of 40 : 1. The phase holdup, intermediate product, yield and axial distribution of methyl ester (ME) were investigated. Methanol and oil were mixed non-uniformly due to the formation of biodiesel and difference in their densities, even when the reaction system was in the supercritical state. From top to bottom, the phase holdup of methanol increased and that of oil decreased. As temperature increased, the concentrations of monoglyceride and diglyceride decreased gradually and the ME yield increased. When the temperature reached 300 degrees C, the critical temperature of the system, the ME yield was 50%. Further increase in temperature led to a sharp increase of ME yield. However, at 375 degrees C after 1200 s of reaction time, the decomposition rate of ME was greater than its formation rate, reducing the ME yield.
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  141. Continuous production of soybean biodiesel with compressed ethanol in a microtube reactor
    Abstract

    da Silva, C.; de Castilhos, F.; Oliveira, J. V.; Filho, L. C. 2010. Continuous production of soybean biodiesel with compressed ethanol in a microtube reactor. Fuel Processing Technology. 91(10) 1274-1281

    This work investigates the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process. Experiments were performed in a microtube reactor in the temperature range of 523 K to 598K, from 10 MPa to 20 MPa, varying the oil to ethanol molar ratio from 1:10 to 1:40, and evaluating the effects of addition of carbon dioxide as co-solvent. Results showed that ethyl esters yield obtained in the microtube reactor (inner diameter 0.76 mm) were higher than those obtained in a tubular reactor (inner diameter 3.2 mm) possibly due to improved mass-transfer conditions attained inside the microtube reactor. Non-negligible reaction yields (70 wt.%) were achieved along with low total decomposition of fatty acids (<5.0 wt.%). It is shown that the use of carbon dioxide as co-solvent in the proposed microtube reactor did not significantly affect the ethyl esters yield within the experimental variable ranges investigated. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  142. Effects of catalyst types and concentrations on biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable energy and environmental recycling process
    Abstract

    Hossain, A. B. M. S.; Mazen, M. A. 2010. Effects of catalyst types and concentrations on biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable energy and environmental recycling process. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 4(7) 550-555

    Biomass and agricultural derived materials have been suggested as alternative energy sources and the use of biodiesel as fuel presently a promising potential that grows rapidly due to its great contribution to the environment and to its role as a strategically source of renewable energy in substitution to diesel oil and other petroleum-based fuels. It is non-toxic, biodegradable and contributes a minimal amount of net greenhouse gases. A study was conducted to produce biodiesel from waste oils to reduce the waste and pollutions. Several important variables such as volumetric ratio, catalyst types and concentration were selected to obtain a high quality biodiesel fuel with the specification of American Standard for Biodiesel Testing Materials (ASTM D 6751) and European Norm (EN 14214). The highest biodiesel yield was obtained (68.5%) under conditions of 3: 1 oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 0.5% NaOH catalyst at 55 degrees C reaction temperature and 250 rpm stirring speed. The results showed that biodiesel production from different oil to methanol molar ratio, catalyst types and concentrations exhibited considerable differences. Biodiesel yield was higher in NaOH than in KOH while used 0.5% as catalyst and the highest yield was obtained having 1% NaOH compared to 0.5 and 1.5% NaOH.. There was a little difference in viscosity, acid value and chemical elements (Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, P etc.) at different parameters. The research investigated that biodiesel obtained under optimum conditions and catalyst concentrations from completely waste oil which considered as recycled of waste cooking oil.
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  143. Effects of Environmental Conditions and Methanol Feeding Strategy on Lipase-mediated Biodiesel Production Using Soybean Oil
    Abstract

    Jung, S. M.; Park, Y. C.; Park, K. 2010. Effects of Environmental Conditions and Methanol Feeding Strategy on Lipase-mediated Biodiesel Production Using Soybean Oil. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 15(4) 614-619

    Methanol is a commonly used acyl acceptor for lipase-driven biodiesel production, but a high concentration of methanol is detrimental for lipase activity. To overcome this drawback, a simple fed-batch process was developed by optimization of the methanol feeding strategy and reaction conditions. For the feeding strategy, an equal volume of pure methanol was fed twice with specified time intervals into a reactor initially containing a 1:1 molar ratio of soybean oil to methanol in order to adjust the net molar ratio of the oil to methanol to 1:3. In contrast with the batch reaction, a higher agitation speed in the fed-batch process elevated the conversion yield of soybean oil to biodiesel. An agitation speed of 600 rpm and a reaction temperature of 70 degrees C were chosen as the optimal environmental conditions. Residual lipase activities for the fed-batch operation at 40 similar to 70 degrees C and 600 rpm were 7.1 +/- 1.4 times higher than that of the batch method at 40 degrees C with the same agitation speed, indicating that methanol feeding can prevent significant deactivation of lipase. Finally, two times feeding methanol at 2 and 6 hr resulted in a biodiesel productivity of 10.7%/h and 94.9% final conversion yield under the optimal conditions.
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  144. Enhancing Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil Using Ultrasonics
    Abstract

    Chand, P.; Chintareddy, V. R.; Verkade, J. G.; Grewell, D. 2010. Enhancing Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil Using Ultrasonics. Energy & Fuels. 242010-2015

    Our objective was to determine the effect of ultrasonics on biodiesel production from soybean oil. In this study, ultrasonic energy was applied in two different modes: pulse and continuous sonication. Soybean oil was mixed with methanol and a catalytic amount of sodium hydroxide, and the mixture was sonicated at three levels of amplitude (60, 120, and 180 mu m(pp)) in pulse mode (5s on/25 soft). In the continuous mode, the same reaction mixture was sonicated at 120 mu m(pp), for 15s. The reaction was monitored for biodiesel yield by stopping the reaction at selected time intervals and analyzing the biodiesel content by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results were compared to a control group, in which the same reactant composition was allowed to react at 60 degrees C for intervals ranging from 5 min to 1 h without ultrasonic treatment. It was observed that ultrasonic treatment resulted in a 96% by weight isolated yield of biodiesel in less than 90s using the pulse mode, compared to 30-45 min for the unsonicated control sample with comparable yields (83-86%). In the pulse mode, the highest yield (96%) was obtained by sonicating the mixture at 120 mu m(pp) amplitude. In the continuous sonication mode, the highest biodiesel yield was 86% by weight, which was obtained in 15 s.
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  145. Forage turnip, sunflower, and soybean biodiesel obtained by ethanol synthesis: Production protocols and thermal behavior
    Abstract

    Soares, C. M.; Itavo, L. C. V.; Dias, A. M.; Arruda, E. J.; Delben, A. A. S. T.; Oliveira, S. L.; de Oliveira, L. C. S. 2010. Forage turnip, sunflower, and soybean biodiesel obtained by ethanol synthesis: Production protocols and thermal behavior. Fuel. 89(12) 3725-3729

    In this work it is reported a detailed investigation of the effect of different production protocols based on alkaline ethanolysis on conversion yield of forage turnip, soybean, sunflower, and castor oil into the respective biodiesel. Parameters such as catalyst contents, reaction times and temperatures were evaluated. Additionally, it was also investigated the relationship between the conversion yield and the chemical composition of the fatty acids in the feedstock. Conversion yields ranging between 70% and 100% point out the viability of the production of biodiesel using ethanol. Based on thermal analysis, sequential steps of weight loss were observed indicating that biodiesel undergoes oxidative thermal decomposition with the elimination of different portions of the molecules in each step. Besides, the energies released by the samples during thermal decomposition were determined. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  146. Integrated environmental assessment of biodiesel production from soybean in Brazil
    Abstract

    Cavalett, O.; Ortega, E. 2010. Integrated environmental assessment of biodiesel production from soybean in Brazil. Journal of Cleaner Production. 18(1) 55-70

    This paper presents the results of an environmental impact assessment of biodiesel production from soybean in Brazil. In order to achieve this objective, environmental impact indicators provided by Emergy Accounting (EA), Embodied Energy Analysis (EEA) and Material Flow Accounting (MFA) were used. The results showed that for one liter of biodiesel 8.8 kg of topsoil are lost in erosion, besides the cost of 0.2 kg of fertilizers, about 5.2 m(2) of crop area, 7.33 kg of abiotic materials, 9.0 tons of water and 0.66 kg of air and about 0.86 kg Of CO(2) were released. About 0.27 kg of crude oil equivalent is required as inputs to produce one liter of biodiesel, which means an energy return of 2.48 J of biodiesel per joule of fossil fuel invested. The transformity of biodiesel (3.90E + 05 seJ J(-1)) is higher than those calculated for fossil fuels as other biofuels, indicating a higher demand for direct and indirect environmental support. Similarly, the biodiesel emergy yield ratio (1.62) indicates that a very low net emergy is delivered to consumers, compared to alternatives. Obtained results show that when crop production and industrial conversion to fuel are supported by fossil fuels in the form of chemicals, goods, and process energy, the fraction of fuel that can actually be considered renewable is very low (around 31%). (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  147. Microwave-assisted fatty acid methyl ester production from soybean oil by Novozym 435
    Abstract

    Yu, D. H.; Tian, L.; Ma, D. X.; Wu, H.; Wang, Z.; Wang, L.; Fang, X. X. 2010. Microwave-assisted fatty acid methyl ester production from soybean oil by Novozym 435. Green Chemistry. 12(5) 844-850

    The production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from soybean oil and methanol through transesterification by Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica lipase B immobilized on polyacrylic resin) was conducted under two different conditions-microwave irradiation and conventional heating-to compare their overall effects. It was found that, compared to conventional heating, microwave irradiation significantly increased the reaction rate by enhancing the activity of Novozym 435. The effect of the reaction conditions, such as water activity (a(w)), organic solvents, the ratio of solvent/oil, the ratio of methanol/oil, the pre-treatment method, methanol deactivation kinetics, enzyme dosage and temperature, on the activity of Novozym 435 were also investigated. Under the optimum conditions (a(w) of 0.53, tert-amyl alcohol/oil volume ratio of 1 : 1, methanol/oil molar ratio of 6 : 1, 3% Novozym 435 and 40 degrees C), a 94% yield of FAME could be achieved in 12 h under microwave irradiation, compared to 24 h under conventional heating. Furthermore, the repeated use of Novozym 435 for five cycles under microwave irradiation resulted no obvious loss of enzyme activity, suggesting that this enzyme is stable under microwave irradiation conditions. These results show that microwave irradiation is a fast and efficient method for FAME production.
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  148. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean oil catalyzed by fungus whole-cell biocatalysts in ionic liquids
    Abstract

    Arai, S.; Nakashima, K.; Tanino, T.; Ogino, C.; Kondo, A.; Fukuda, H. 2010. Production of biodiesel fuel from soybean oil catalyzed by fungus whole-cell biocatalysts in ionic liquids. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 46(1) 51-55

    The methanolysis of soybean oil to produce a fatty acid methyl ester (ME, i.e., biodiesel fuel) was catalyzed by lipase-producing filamentous fungi immobilized on biomass support particles (BSPs) as a whole-cell biocatalyst in the presence of ionic liquids. We used four types of whole-cell biocatalysts: wildtype Rhizopus oryzae producing triacylglycerol lipase (w-ROL), recombinant Aspergillus oryzae expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase (r-FHL), Candida antarctica lipase B (r-CALB), and mono- and diacylglycerol lipase from A. oryzae (r-mdlB). w-ROL gave the high yield of fatty acid methyl ester (ME) in ionic liquid [Emim][BF(4)] or [Bmim][BF(4)] biphasic systems following a 24h reaction. While lipases are known to be severely deactivated by an excess amount of methanol (e.g. 1.5 Mequiv. of methanol against oil) in a conventional system, methanolysis successfully proceeded even with a methanol/oil ratio of 4 in the ionic liquid biphasic system, where the ionic liquids would work as a reservoir of methanol to suppress the enzyme deactivation. When only w-ROL was used as a biocatalyst for methanolysis, unreacted monoglyceride remained due to the 1,3-positional specificity of R. oryzae lipase. High ME conversion was attained by the combined use of two types of whole-cell biocatalysts, w-ROL and r-mdlB. In a stability test, the activity of w-ROL was reduced to one-third of its original value after incubation in [Bmim][BF(4)] for 72 h. The stability of w-ROL in [Bmim][BF(4)] was greatly enhanced by cross-linking the biocatalyst with glutaraldehyde. The present Study demonstrated that ionic liquids are promising candidates for use as the second solvent in biodiesel fuel production by whole-cell biocatalysts. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  149. Production of Biodiesel via Enzymatic Ethanolysis of the Sunflower and Soybean Oils: Modeling
    Abstract

    Pessoa, F. L. P.; Magalhes, S. P.; Falcao, P. W. D. 2010. Production of Biodiesel via Enzymatic Ethanolysis of the Sunflower and Soybean Oils: Modeling. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 161(1-8) 238-244

    Biodiesel has become attractive due to its environmental benefits compared with conventional diesel. Although the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel requires low thermal energy, low conversions of enzymatic transesterification with ethanol (ethanolysis) of oils to produce biodiesel are reported as a result of deactivation of the enzyme depending on the reaction conditions. The synthesis of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of sunflower and soybean oils was investigated. Kinetic parameters for the overall reactions were fitted to experimental data available in the literature with the Ping Pong Bi-Bi mechanism including the inhibition effect of the ethanol on the activity of lipase NovozymeA (R) 435. The model was applied to a batch reactor and the experimental conversions were successfully reproduced. The modeling of a semibatch reactor with continuous addition of ethanol was also performed and the results showed a reduction of roughly 3 h in the reaction time in comparison with the batch-wise operation.
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  150. Production of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of the sunflower and soybean oils: modeling
    Abstract

    Pessoa, F. L.; Magalhaes, S. P.; Falcao, P. W. 2010. Production of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of the sunflower and soybean oils: modeling. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 161(1-8) 238-44

    Biodiesel has become attractive due to its environmental benefits compared with conventional diesel. Although the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel requires low thermal energy, low conversions of enzymatic transesterification with ethanol (ethanolysis) of oils to produce biodiesel are reported as a result of deactivation of the enzyme depending on the reaction conditions. The synthesis of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of sunflower and soybean oils was investigated. Kinetic parameters for the overall reactions were fitted to experimental data available in the literature with the Ping Pong Bi-Bi mechanism including the inhibition effect of the ethanol on the activity of lipase Novozyme 435. The model was applied to a batch reactor and the experimental conversions were successfully reproduced. The modeling of a semibatch reactor with continuous addition of ethanol was also performed and the results showed a reduction of roughly 3 h in the reaction time in comparison with the batch-wise operation.
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  151. Simulation and Optimization of Biodiesel Production by Soybean Oil Transesterification in Non-Ideal Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor
    Abstract

    Silva, G. F.; Castro, M. S.; Silva, J. S.; Mendes, J. S.; Ferreira, A. L. O. 2010. Simulation and Optimization of Biodiesel Production by Soybean Oil Transesterification in Non-Ideal Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. 8

    This research examines the transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol in order to model and simulate a non-ideal continuous stirred-tank reactor. A mathematical model has been developed for the reactor. The biodiesel production process was optimized by application of factorial design 25 and response surface methodology. Factorial design and response surface analysis were combined with modeling and simulation to determine the operating conditions that maximize biodiesel production and minimize reactor volume. The optimum results obtained were conversion (0.95), molar ratio alcohol/oil (6:1), temperature (60.5 degrees C), alpha (0.75), bypass (0.10) and reactor volume (1,500 L).
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  152. Soy production and certification: the case of Argentinean soy-based biodiesel
    Abstract

    Tomei, J.; Semino, S.; Paul, H.; Joensen, L.; Monti, M.; Jelsoe, E. 2010. Soy production and certification: the case of Argentinean soy-based biodiesel. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 15(4) 371-394

    With the rising emphasis on biofuels as a potential solution to climate change, this paper asks whether certification schemes, developed to promote sustainable feedstock production, are able to deliver genuine sustainability benefits. The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a certification scheme that aims to promote responsible soy production through the development of principles and criteria. However, can and does this initiative address the negative impacts associated with the intensive production of soy? Taking the example of soy biodiesel produced in Argentina, this paper asks whether the social and environmental impacts of soybean production can be mitigated by the RTRS. It concludes that at present certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address either the institutional challenges associated with their implementation or the detrimental impacts of the additional demand generated by biofuels.
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  153. Soya and the Production of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Hirakuri, M. H.; Lazzarotto, J. J.; de Avila, M. T. 2010. Soya and the Production of Biodiesel. Xxxi Reuniao De Pesquisa De Soja Da Regiao Central Do Brasil. 36-38

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  154. Study of Soybean Oil Hydrolysis Catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase and Its Application to Biodiesel Production via Hydroesterification
    Abstract

    Cavalcanti-Oliveira, Ed; da Silva, P. R.; Ramos, A. P.; Aranda, D. A.; Freire, D. M. 2010. Study of Soybean Oil Hydrolysis Catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase and Its Application to Biodiesel Production via Hydroesterification. Enzyme Res. 2011618692

    The process of biodiesel production by the hydroesterification route that is proposed here involves a first step consisting of triacylglyceride hydrolysis catalyzed by lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL 100L) to generate free fatty acids (FFAs). This step is followed by esterification of the FFAs with alcohol, catalyzed by niobic acid in pellets or without a catalyst. The best result for the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis was obtained under reaction conditions of 50% (v/v) soybean oil and 2.3% (v/v) lipase (25 U/mL of reaction medium) in distilled water and at 60 degrees C; an 89% conversion rate to FFAs was obtained after 48 hours of reaction. For the esterification reaction, the best result was with an FFA/methanol molar ratio of 1:3, niobic acid catalyst at a concentration of 20% (w/w FFA), and 200 degrees C, which yielded 92% conversion of FFAs to soy methyl esters after 1 hour of reaction. This study is exceptional because both the hydrolysis and the esterification use a simple reaction medium with high substrate concentrations.
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  155. Ultrasonic irradiation with vibration for biodiesel production from soybean oil by Novozym 435
    Abstract

    Yu, D. H.; Tian, L.; Wu, H.; Wang, S.; Wang, Y.; Ma, D. X.; Fang, X. X. 2010. Ultrasonic irradiation with vibration for biodiesel production from soybean oil by Novozym 435. Process Biochemistry. 45(4) 519-525

    The production of biodiesel with soybean oil and methanol through transesterification by Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica lipase B immobilized on polyacrylic resin) were conducted under two different conditions ultrasonic irradiation and vibration to compare their overall effects. Compared with vibration, ultrasonic irradiation significantly enhanced the activity of Novozym 435. The reaction rate was further increased under the condition of ultrasonic irradiation with vibration (UIV). Effects of reaction conditions, such as ultrasonic power, water content, organic solvents, ratio of solvent/oil, ratio of methanol/oil, enzyme dosage and temperature on the activity of Novozym 435 were investigated under UIV. Under the optimum conditions (50% of ultrasonic power, 50 rpm vibration, water content of 0.5%, tert-amyl alcohol/oil volume ratio of 1:1, methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, 6% Novozym 435 and 40 degrees C), 96% yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could be achieved in 4 h. Furthermore, repeated use of Novozym 435 after five cycles showed no obvious loss in enzyme activity, which suggested this enzyme was stable under the UIV condition. These results indicated that UIV was a fast and efficient method for biodiesel production. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  156. Application of Sodium Aluminate As a Heterogeneous Base Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil
    Abstract

    Wan, T.; Yu, P.; Wang, S. G.; Luo, Y. B. 2009. Application of Sodium Aluminate As a Heterogeneous Base Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil. Energy & Fuels. 23(1) 1089-1092

    In this study, the production of biodiesel from soybean oil by transesterification was carried out over sodium aluminate as a heterogeneous catalyst. The solid base showed high catalytic activity for methanolysis reaching a 93.9% yield under optimal reaction conditions (reflux temperature, 1.5 wt% of catalyst, 12:1 molar ratio of methanol/oil, and 50 min). The catalyst treated at different temperatures was characterized by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry/differential thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The reaction contained homogeneous and heterogeneous contributions at the same time. Removing water and carbon dioxide was an effective way to elevate the catalyst stability in methanol.
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  157. Argentinean soy-based biodiesel: An introduction to production and impacts
    Abstract

    Tomei, J.; Upham, P. 2009. Argentinean soy-based biodiesel: An introduction to production and impacts. Energy Policy. 37(10) 3890-3898

    This paper explores the economic, social and environmental context, drivers and impacts of increased demand for Argentine soy-based biodiesel. It is based on extensive stakeholder interviews in Argentina, including those in government, academia and the third sector; as well as participant observation with communities in soy cultivation areas: and review of relevant academic and grey literatures. Given Argentina's history of political instability and relatively weak levels of environmental protection, there is reason to be sceptical of the likely effectiveness of biofuel sustainability certification as applied to Argentine soy. Direct contracts between feedstock producers and biodiesel retailers may be a more reliable approach to minimise adverse environmental and social impacts than certification alone. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  158. Biodiesel production from soybean oil catalyzed by multifunctionalized Ta2O5/SiO2-[ H3PW12O40/R] (R = Me or Ph) hybrid catalyst
    Abstract

    Xu, L. L.; Li, W.; Hu, J. L.; Yang, X.; Guo, Y. H. 2009. Biodiesel production from soybean oil catalyzed by multifunctionalized Ta2O5/SiO2-[ H3PW12O40/R] (R = Me or Ph) hybrid catalyst. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 90(3-4) 587-594

    Mesoporous Ta2O5 materials functionalized with both alkyl group and a Keggin-type heteropoly acid. Ta2O5/SiO2-[H3PW12O40/R] (R = Me or Ph), was prepared by a single step sol-gel co-condensation method followed by a hydrothermal treatment in the presence of a triblock copolymer surfactant. The catalytic performance of the resulting multifunctionalized organic-inorganic hybrid materials was evaluated by a direct use of soybean oil for biodiesel production in the presence of 20 wt% myristic acid under atmosphere refluxing, and the influences of the catalyst preparation approaches, functional component loadings, and molar ratios of oil to methanol on the catalytic activity of the Ta2O5/SiO2[H3PW12O40/R] were studied. In addition, the recyclability of the hybrid materials was evaluated via four catalytic runs. Finally, the network structures of the hybrid materials and the functions of the incorporated alkyl groups on the catalytic activity of the materials were put forward. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  159. Biodiesel production from sunflower, soybean, and waste cooking oils by transesterification using lipase immobilized onto a novel microporous polymer
    Abstract

    Dizge, N.; Aydiner, C.; Imer, D. Y.; Bayramoglu, M.; Tanriseven, A.; Keskinlera, B. 2009. Biodiesel production from sunflower, soybean, and waste cooking oils by transesterification using lipase immobilized onto a novel microporous polymer. Bioresource Technology. 100(6) 1983-1991

    This study aims at carrying out lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) from various vegetable oils using lipase immobilized onto a novel microporous polymeric matrix (MPPM) as a low-cost biocatalyst. The research is focused on three aspects of the process: (a) MPPM synthesis (monolithic, bead, and powder forms), (b) microporous polymeric biocatalyst (MPPB) preparation by immobilization of lipase onto MPPM, and (c) biodiesel production by MPPB. Experimental planning of each step of the study was separately carried out in accordance with design of experiment (DoE) based on Taguchi methodology.
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  160. Continuous Production of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil in Supercritical Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide as Cosolvent
    Abstract

    Bertoldi, C.; da Silva, C.; Bernardon, J. P.; Corazza, M. L.; Cardozo, L.; Oliveira, J. V.; Corazza, F. C. 2009. Continuous Production of Biodiesel from Soybean Oil in Supercritical Ethanol and Carbon Dioxide as Cosolvent. Energy & Fuels. 235165-5172

    This work investigates the effect of carbon dioxide as cosolvent on the production of fatty acid ethyl esters from soybean oil transesterification in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process. The experiments were performed in a tubular reactor in the temperature range of 573-623 K, from 7.5 to 20 MPa, with an oil to ethanol molar ratio ranging from 1: 10 to 1:40 and cosolvent to substrates mass ratio from 0: 1 to 0.5: 1. Results showed that the yield of ethyl esters decreased with increasing addition of carbon dioxide to the system. The reaction conversion was noticed to decrease at lower substrates flow-rates due to products decomposition. Considerable reaction yields were achieved at 623 K, 10 MPa, oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:40 and using a CO(2) to substrate mass ratio of 0.05: 1. It is shown that the use of a tubular reactor with smaller inner diameter can provide high reaction conversions in short residence times, thus offering a promising route for the investigation of biodiesel production.
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  161. Different reactional systems to enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean oil as preliminary phase to biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Maldonado, R. R.; Fogaca, F. M.; Ramos, G. G.; Macedo, G. A.; Rodrigues, M. I. 2009. Different reactional systems to enzymatic hydrolysis of soybean oil as preliminary phase to biodiesel production. New Biotechnology. 25S251-S251

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  162. Diphenylammonium salt catalysts for microwave assisted triglyceride transesterification of corn and soybean oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Majewski, M. W.; Pollack, S. A.; Curtis-Palmer, V. A. 2009. Diphenylammonium salt catalysts for microwave assisted triglyceride transesterification of corn and soybean oil for biodiesel production. Tetrahedron Letters. 50(37) 5175-5177

    Diphenylammonium salts as catalysts for triglyceride transesterification have been investigated. Catalysts studied, such as diphenylammonium mesylate, were able to catalyze the transesterification process. Open atmosphere reactions and microwave-assisted reactions are considered and compared. Additionally, the study helps substantiate the advantage of microwave-assisted technology in organic synthesis. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  163. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production in tert-amyl alcohol
    Abstract

    Zheng, Y.; Quan, J.; Ning, X.; Zhu, L. M.; Jiang, B.; He, Z. Y. 2009. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production in tert-amyl alcohol. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology. 25(1) 41-46

    Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil and methanol for biodiesel production in tert-amyl alcohol was investigated. The effects of different organic medium, molar ratio of substrate, reaction temperature, agitation speed, lipase dosage and water content on the total conversion were systematically analyzed. Under the optimal conditions identified ( 6 mL tert-amyl alcohol, three molar ratio of methanol to oil, 2% Novozym 435 lipase based on the soybean oil weight, temperature 40 degrees C, 2% water content based on soybean oil weight, 150 rpm and 15 h), the highest biodiesel conversion yield of 97% was obtained. With tert-amyl alcohol as the reaction medium, the negative effects caused by excessive molar ratio of methanol to oil and the by-product glycerol could be reduced. Furthermore, there was no evident loss in the lipase activity even after being repeatedly used for more than 150 runs.
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  164. Nanosized and Reusable SiO2/ZrO2 Catalyst for Highly Efficient Biodiesel Production by Soybean Transesterification
    Abstract

    Faria, E. A.; Marques, J. S.; Dias, I. M.; Andrade, R. D. A.; Suarez, P. A. Z.; Prado, A. G. S. 2009. Nanosized and Reusable SiO2/ZrO2 Catalyst for Highly Efficient Biodiesel Production by Soybean Transesterification. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 20(9) 1732-1737

    Nanosized SiO2/ZrO2 catalyst with high surface area (131.50 +/- 14 m(2) g(-1)) was prepared by the sol-gel method. The material presented highly homogeneous particles with an average diameter of 250 nm according to SEM images. It was applied in the transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production. The biodiesel conversion reached a yield of 96.2 +/- 1.4 % after 3 h of transesterification reaction catalised by SiO2/ZrO2 (SiZr). The catalyst was recovered and reused six times, maintaining a catalytic efficiency of about 84.1%.
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  165. Optimization of the production of biodiesel from soybean oil by ultrasound assisted methanolysis
    Abstract

    Santos, F. F. P.; Rodrigues, S.; Fernandes, F. A. N. 2009. Optimization of the production of biodiesel from soybean oil by ultrasound assisted methanolysis. Fuel Processing Technology. 90(2) 312-316

    This paper evaluates and optimizes the production of biodiesel from soybean oil and methanol using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The study and optimization was carried out at low catalyst concentration (0.2 to 0.6 w/w). The reaction was carried out with application of low-frequency high-intensity ultrasound under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature in a batch reactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of methanol to oil ratio and catalyst concentration on soybean oil conversion into biodiesel. Analysis of the operating conditions by RSM showed that the most important operating condition affecting the reaction was the methanol to oil ratio, while catalyst amount showed little significance in the transesterification reaction. Total consumption of oil was obtained when alcohol to oil ratio of 9:1 and catalyst concentration of 0.2 w/w were applied. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  166. Optimization of the Production of Methyl Esters from Soybean Waste Oil Applying Ultrasound Technology
    Abstract

    Santos, F. F. P.; Matos, L. J. B. L.; Rodrigues, S.; Fernandes, F. A. N. 2009. Optimization of the Production of Methyl Esters from Soybean Waste Oil Applying Ultrasound Technology. Energy & Fuels. 23(8) 4116-4120

    This paper evaluates the production of methyl esters front soybean waste oil and methanol by the acid catalytic process. The reaction was carried out applying low-frequency high-intensity ultrasound (40 kHz) under atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the influence of the alcohol/oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration (sulfuric acid) oil the yield of soybean waste oil into methyl esters. Analysis of the operating conditions by RSM showed that the most important operating condition affecting the reaction was the alcohol/free fatty acids (FFAs) molar ratio. The highest yield observed was of 99.9% after 60 min of reaction. The optimal operating condition was obtained applying all alcohol/oil molar ratio of 9.0 and a catalyst concentration of 3.5% (w/w) H(2)SO(4).
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  167. Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Myint, L. L.; El-Halwagi, M. M. 2009. Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from soybean oil. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 11(3) 263-276

    The overall goal of this work is to design and optimize a biodiesel production process from soybean oil. To achieve this goal, several inter-connected activities were undertaken. First, an initial flowsheet for the process was synthesized. The performance of this flowsheet along with the key design and operating criteria were identified by conducting computer-aided simulation using ASPEN Plus. Various scenarios were simulated to provide sufficient understanding and insights and to select a base-case flowsheet. Next, mass and energy integration studies were performed to reduce the consumption of material and energy utilities, improve environmental impact, and enhance profitability. Capital cost estimation was carried out using the ICARUS Process Evaluator computer-aided tool linked to the results of the ASPEN Plus simulation. The operating cost of the process was estimated using the key information on process operation such as raw materials, utilities, and labor. A profitability analysis was carried out by examining the return on investment and the payback period. It was found that the cost of soybean oil is the largest contributor to the production cost. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the effect of soybean oil prices on the process profitability.
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  168. Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters via the In Situ Transesterification of Soybean Oil in Carbon Dioxide-Expanded Methanol
    Abstract

    Wyatt, V. T.; Haas, M. J. 2009. Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters via the In Situ Transesterification of Soybean Oil in Carbon Dioxide-Expanded Methanol. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 86(10) 1009-1016

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by direct alkali- and acid-catalyzed in situ transesterification of soybean flakes in CO(2)-expanded methanol was examined at various temperatures and pressures. Attempts to synthesize FAME from soy flakes via alkaline catalysis, using sodium methoxide as a catalyst, in gas-expanded methanol were unsuccessful. However, performing the reactions in 54 mL of a 1.2 N sulfuric acid-methanol mixture containing 50% mole fraction CO(2) resulted in an 88.3 (+/- 1.5)% conversion of the triacylglycerol (TAG) in 22.5 g soy flakes to FAME within 10 h. Decreasing the total volume of the liquid phase by one-third from 54 mL to 36 mL, while keeping the mmol of acid and all other variables constant, resulted in an 88.2(+/- 5.0)% conversion of triglyceride to FAME. Quantitative HPLC analysis showed that 99.8 and 92.3% of the total mass balance for FAME, TAG, and free fatty acid (FFA) could be accounted for in the reactions performed at the liquid-phase volumes of 54 and 36 mL, respectively. The overall results show that the introduction of CO(2) into the system increases the rate of reaction by as much as 2.5 fold in comparison to control reactions without CO(2). Additionally, we observed a direct correlation between FAME yield and the concentration of acid catalyst. We also determined by nitrogen analysis that at least 82.9% of protein is retained in the lipid-free soy flakes after acid-catalyzed in situ transesterification in CO(2)-expanded methanol.
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  169. An enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Ting, W. J.; Huang, C. M.; Giridhar, N.; Wu, W. T. 2008. An enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Chemical Engineers. 39(3) 203-210

    The present study is aimed at developing an enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production using soybean oil as feedstock. In the enzymatic hydrolysis, 88% of the oil taken initially was hydrolyzed by binary immobilized lipase after 5 It under optimal conditions. The hydrolysate was further used in acid-catalyzed esterification for biodiesel production and the effects of temperature, catalyst concentration, feedstock to methanol molar ratio, and reaction time on biodiesel conversion were investigated. By using a feedstock to methanol molar ratio of 1: 15 and a sulfuric acid concentration of 2.5%, a biodiesel conversion of 99% was obtained after 12 h of reaction at 50 degrees C. The biodiesel produced by this process met the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard. This hybrid process may open a way for biodiesel production using unrefined and used oil as feedstock. (c) 2008 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  170. Calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and its application to biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kouzu, M.; Kasuno, T.; Tajika, M.; Sugimoto, Y.; Yamanaka, S.; Hidaka, J. 2008. Calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and its application to biodiesel production. Fuel. 87(12) 2798-2806

    In order to study solid base catalyst for biodiesel production with environmental benignity, transesterification of edible soybean oil with refluxing methanol was carried out in the presence of calcium oxide (CaO), -hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)), or -carbonate (CaCO3). At 1 h of reaction time, yield of FAME was 93% for CaO, 12% for Ca(OH)(2), and 0% for CaCO3. Under the same reacting condition, sodium hydroxide with the homogeneous catalysis brought about the complete conversion into FAME. Also, CaO was used for the further tests transesterifying waste cooking oil (WCO) with acid value of 5.1 mg-KOH/g. The yield of FAME was above 99% at 2 h of reaction time, but a portion of catalyst changed into calcium soap by reacting with free fatty acids included in WCO at initial stage of the transesterification. Owing to the neutralizing reaction of the catalyst, concentration of calcium in FAME increased from 187 ppm to 3065 ppm. By processing WCO at reflux of methanol in the presence of cation-exchange resin, only the free fatty acids could be converted into FAME. The transesterification of the processed WCO with acid value of 0.3 mg-KOH/g resulted in the production of FAME including calcium of 565 ppm. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  171. Continuous production of soybean biodiesel in supercritical ethanol-water mixtures
    Abstract

    Vieitez, I.; da Silva, C.; Borges, G. R.; Corazza, F. C.; Oliveira, J. V.; Grompone, M. A.; Jachmanian, I. 2008. Continuous production of soybean biodiesel in supercritical ethanol-water mixtures. Energy & Fuels. 22(4) 2805-2809

    The reaction efficiency of soybean oil transesterification in supercritical ethanol in a continuous catalyst-free process was investigated under different water concentrations. Experiments were performed at 350 degrees C and 20 MPa, with an oil/ethanol ratio of 1:40. A fatty acid ethyl ester content of 77.5% was obtained at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min in a water-free system, while the maximum concentration of ethyl esters reached for a water content of 10 wt % was 68.1% at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Decomposition and trans-isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids were significantly affected by the flow rate, with a pronounced reduction in the ratio of C18:2/C16:0 in the final product compared to the starting oil.
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  172. Economic cost analysis of biodiesel production: Case in soybean oil
    Abstract

    You, Y. D.; Shie, J. L.; Chang, C. Y.; Huang, S. H.; Pai, C. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Chang, C. F. H. 2008. Economic cost analysis of biodiesel production: Case in soybean oil. Energy & Fuels. 22(1) 182-189

    The economic costs of three biodiesel plants with capacities of 8000, 30 000, and 100 000 tons year(-1) were analyzed and assessed. The plants employ continuous processes using an alkali catalyst and the raw material of soybean oil. Six major economic cost factors were computed and examined. These include the fixed capital cost (FCC), total capital investment cost (TCC), total manufacturing cost (TMC), net annual profit after taxes (NNP), after-tax rate of return (ARR), and biodiesel break-even price (BBP). The NNP and ARR of plants with capacities of 8000, 30 000, and 100 000 tons year(-1) are -24 x 10(3), 1975 x 10(3), and 8879 x 10(3) U.S. dollars (USD), and - 10.44, 40.23, and 67.38%, respectively. The values of BBP of the three plants are 862, 724, and 678 USD ton(-1) (price in July 2007). The plant with a capacity of 100 000 tons year(-1) is economically feasible, providing a higher NNP and more attractive ARR with a lower BBP. Among the system variables of the plants examined, plant capacity, price of feedstock oil and diesel, and yields of glycerine and biodiesel were found to be the most significant variables affecting the economic viability of biodiesel manufacture. In summary, this study aims at the need to obtain useful information for economic cost analysis and assessment of the production process of biodiesel using soybean oil. It provides an appropriate indication for the promotion of biodiesel in the future, targeting the reduction of the cost of feedstock oil with the increase of the yields of valuable products with a reasonable plant capacity.
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  173. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from indirect land-use change in biofuels production: concepts and exploratory analysis for soybean-based biodiesel
    Abstract

    Panichelli, L.; Gnansounou, E. 2008. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions from indirect land-use change in biofuels production: concepts and exploratory analysis for soybean-based biodiesel. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research. 67(11) 1017-1030

    Due to changes in carbon stock of soil and biomass, indirect land-use change (ILUC) has consequences on green house gas (GHG) balance of a biofuel that are not presently considered in evaluation of environmental merits of biofuels. Significant changes in land-use are expected to occur in biofuel producing countries and their consequences may affect global markets. This paper aims to: 1) Review state-of-art of accounting for indirect effects in biofuels production and their influence on GHG balance of a biofuel pathway: 2) Present a model to estimate and optimize GHG emissions from LUC; and 3) Estimate potential GHG emissions for the case of soybean-based biodiesel production. ILUC concepts and a classification of ILUC sources are proposed. Then a methodological framework to quantify GHG emissions is discussed and applied to the case study. Different scenarios to achieve demand are proposed and their implications related to ILUC are determined. Using a system-wide approach and a non-linear programming (NLP) model, GHG emissions are evaluated in terms of carbon pay back time and optimized based on soybean supply strategy to produce biodiesel.
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  174. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor
    Abstract

    Cao, P. G.; Dube, M. A.; Tremblay, A. Y. 2008. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor. Biomass & Bioenergy. 32(11) 1028-1036

    High-purity fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was produced from different lipids, such as soybean oil, canola oil, a hydrogenated palm oil/palm oil blend, yellow grease, and brown grease, combined with methanol using a continuous membrane reactor. The membrane reactor combines reaction and separation in a single unit, provides continuous mixing of raw materials, and maintains a high molar ratio of methanol to lipid in the reaction loop while maintaining two phases during the reaction. It was demonstrated that the membrane reactor can be operated using a very broad range of feedstocks at highly similar operating conditions to produce FAME. The total glycerine and free glycerine contents of the FAME produced were below the ASTM D6751 standard after a single reaction step. Under essentially the same reaction conditions, a conventional batch reaction was not able to achieve the same degree of FAME purity. The effect of the fatty acid composition of the lipid feedstocks on the FAME purity was also shown. it was demonstrated that, due to the fatty acid composition, FAME from virgin soybean oil and virgin canola oil was produced in the membrane reactor within ASTM specifications even without a water washing step. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  175. Lipase-mediated methanolysis of soybean oils for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Chen, X.; Du, W.; Liu, D. H.; Ding, F. X. 2008. Lipase-mediated methanolysis of soybean oils for biodiesel production. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 83(1) 71-76

    BACKGROUND: Biodiesel is increasingly perceived as an important component of solutions to the important current issues of fossil fuel shortages and environmental pollution. Biocatalysis of soybean oils using soluble lipase offers an alternative approach to lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production using immobilized enzyme or whole-cell catalysis. The central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM) was used here to evaluate the effects of enzyme concentration, temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil and stirring rate on the yield of fatty methyl ester.
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  176. Parametric study of biodiesel production from used soybean oil
    Abstract

    Allawzi, M.; Kandah, M. I. 2008. Parametric study of biodiesel production from used soybean oil. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 110(8) 760-767

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel derived from vegetable oil, animal fat, or waste vegetable oil (WVO), is obtained by reacting the oil or fat with an alcohol (transesterification) in the presence of a basic catalyst to produce the corresponding mono-alkyl esters. In this work, the effect of the catalyst KOH-to-WVO ratio, ethanol concentration, and time of reaction on the biodiesel yield were investigated. The transesterification reaction was performed at a constant temperature (35 degrees C) in order to minimize the cost of heating and ethanol evaporation. A 2(3) complete factorial design on biodiesel yield (Y) was performed using low and high levels of operating variables: KOH concentration (9-14 g/L), ethanol concentration (30-40 vol-%) and time (30-40 min). The complete factorial model that can be used to fit the data was determined. The model shows that interactions exist among the parameters and that the parameters, or factors, do not operate independently on the response (biodiesel yield). The highest yield was obtained in the first 30 min of reaction time. The results indicate that the highest yield was 78.5 vol-% using a KOH-to-WVO ratio of 12 g/L and 30 vol-%, ethanol. The ASTM tests indicate that the biodiesel properties are within the biodiesel standard limits.
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  177. Processing soybean meal for biodiesel production; effect of a new processing method on growth performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss
    Abstract

    Barrows, F. T.; Gaylord, T. G.; Sealey, W. M.; Haas, M. J.; Stroup, R. L. 2008. Processing soybean meal for biodiesel production; effect of a new processing method on growth performance of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture. 283(1-4) 141-147

    A new method of soybean meal processing has been developed, which may simplify the process of biodiesel production. This method, 'in situ transesterification', eliminates hexane extraction to remove the oil, combining the extraction and transesterification steps so as to synthesize biodiesel via a single treatment conducted directly on a lipid-bearing solid material. If the resulting meal is comparable in nutritional value to commercially available hexane-extracted soybean meal (SE-SBM) the new process could become widely used in the bio-fuel industry. Two levels (17.5 and 35%) of each of three types of soybean meal were fed to triplicate lots of 30 (initial wt 22 g) rainbow trout for 9 weeks in flow-through 15 degrees C spring water. The three types of soybean meal included SE-SBM, an experimentally produced hexane-extracted SE-SBM (ESE-SBM), and a meal produced using in situ transesterification (IS-SBM) and each was fed at two levels for a total of 6 diets. Growth of fish fed the diets was good, averaging over 600% gain. There was no effect of source of soybean meal on weight gain of trout. The fish fed the meal processed by the new method, IS-SBM, gained as much weight as fish fed either of the two control meals, at each inclusion level. Fish fed the diets containing IS-SBM, however, did have higher feed intake (2.51% bw/d) compared to fish fed the ESE-SBM or SE-SBM, 2.38 and 2.46% bw/d, respectively. Since growth was equal, feed conversion ratios were higher for fish fed the IS-SBM diets. Protein and energy retention values were lower for fish fed the IS-SBM diets. There was no effect of soybean source on carcass composition. Apparent digestibility for protein was lower for the IS-SBM (85.9%) than for the ESE-SBM (89.3%). Feeding IS-SBM did not decrease weight gain in this study, but due to the increased feed intake and FCR, long term feeding trials should be conducted to further evaluate the meal. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  178. AGRO 10-Development of new recyclable technologies for the production of biodiesel from soybean oil at room-temperature
    Abstract

    Reddy, V. R. C.; Verkade, J. G. 2007. AGRO 10-Development of new recyclable technologies for the production of biodiesel from soybean oil at room-temperature. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 233295-295

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  179. Biodiesel fuel production by the transesterification reaction of soybean oil using immobilized lipase
    Abstract

    Bernardes, O. L.; Bevilaqua, J. V.; Leal, M. C. M. R.; Freire, D. M. G.; Langone, M. A. P. 2007. Biodiesel fuel production by the transesterification reaction of soybean oil using immobilized lipase. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 137105-114

    The enzymatic alcoholysis of soybean oil with methanol and ethanol was investigated using a commercial, immobilized lipase (Lipozyrne RM IM). The effect of alcohol (methanol or ethanol), enzyme concentration, molar ratio of alcohol to soybean oil, solvent, and temperature on biodiesel production was determined. The best conditions were obtained in a solvent-free system with ethanol/oil molar ratio of 3.0, temperature of 50 degrees C, and enzyme concentration of 7.0% (w/w). Three-step batch ethanolysis was most effective for the production of biodiesel. Ethyl esters yield was about 60% after 4 h of reaction.
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  180. Biodiesel production from soybean oil using calcined Li-Al layered double hydroxide catalysts
    Abstract

    Shumaker, J. L.; Crofcheck, C.; Tackett, S. A.; Santillan-Jimenez, E.; Crocker, M. 2007. Biodiesel production from soybean oil using calcined Li-Al layered double hydroxide catalysts. Catalysis Letters. 115(1-2) 56-61

    The transesterification of soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters was studied using a calcined Li-Al layered double hydroxide catalyst. The catalyst exhibited high activity, with near quantitative oil conversion being obtained under mild conditions (reflux temperature of methanol) and short reaction times (<= 4 h). The influence of relevant parameters (catalyst calcination temperature, methanol to oil mole ratio, catalyst charge and reaction duration) was examined.
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  181. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil mixtures: cottonseed, soybean, and castor oils
    Abstract

    Meneghetti, S. A. P.; Meneghetti, M. R.; Serra, T. A.; Barbosa, D. C.; Wolf, C. R. 2007. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil mixtures: cottonseed, soybean, and castor oils. Energy & Fuels. 21(6) 3746-3747

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  182. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from soybean oil in ionic liquids
    Abstract

    Ha, S. H.; Lan, M. N.; Lee, S. H.; Hwang, S. M.; Koo, Y. M. 2007. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from soybean oil in ionic liquids. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 41(4) 480-483

    Production of biodiesel in ionic liquids through immobilized Candida antarctica lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of soybean oil was demonstrated. Among tested 23 ionic liquids, the highest fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) production after 12h at 50 degrees C was achieved in [Emim][TfO]. The production yield of 80% was eight times higher compared to the conventional solvent-free system. It was around 15% higher than the FAMEs production system using tert-butanol as an additive. The optimum substrate molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil for FAMEs production in [Emim][TfO] was found to be 4:1. Our results of high production yield in ionic liquids show that ionic liquids are potential reaction media for biodiesel production. (c) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  183. Moisture removal substantially improves the efficiency of in situ biodiesel production from soybeans
    Abstract

    Haas, M. J.; Scott, K. M. 2007. Moisture removal substantially improves the efficiency of in situ biodiesel production from soybeans. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 84(2) 197-204

    In an effort to reduce the production cost of biodiesel, we previously described an approach termed "in situ transesterification" wherein the transesterification of a vegetable oil occurred directly in its raw agricultural material. In that method, substantial quantities of reagents were required to achieve high-efficiency transesterification. Here we report that by drying the substrate a marked reduction in the reagent requirements was achieved. Reaction conditions for maximum fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) production were identified using statistical experimental design methods. In 16-h reactions with 5 g of flakes (2.6% moisture) and 18 mL of 0.10 N NaOH in methanol, 97% theoretical maximum transesterification was achieved. For dry flakes, optimal transesterification was achieved in 10 h in reactions containing 5 g of flakes and 12 mL of 0.10 N NaOH in methanol. This represented a 60% reduction in methanol and a 56% reduction in NaOH use compared with the transesterification of full-moisture flakes. Under these conditions the degree of transesterification was 100% of the theoretical maximum. The transesterification of 20 kg of flakes with a moisture content of 0.8% was conducted under optimal reaction conditions. Both triacylglycerols (TAG) and phosphoacylglycerols (PL) were transesterified to high degrees, with an overall efficiency of 97.3% of the maximum theoretical efficiency. PL were not detected in the flakes following transesterification, and the amount of remaining unreacted TAG was only 1.0% of that input. Following washes with water, 0.5 M NaCl, and dilute NaOH, the recovered FAME met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel. The tocopherol levels of the FAME exceeded by 76% those of a representative commercial biodiesel. Soy flakes retained 97% of their protein following in situ transesterification.
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  184. Novel biodiesel production technology from soybean soapstock
    Abstract

    Wang, Z. M.; Lee, J. S.; Park, J. Y.; Wu, C. Z.; Yuan, Z. H. 2007. Novel biodiesel production technology from soybean soapstock. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 24(6) 1027-1030

    This paper describes an attractive method to make biodiesel from soybean soapstock (SS). A novel recovery technology of acid oil (AO) from SS has been developed with only sulfuric acid solution under the ambient temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C). After drying, AO contained 50.0% FFA, 15.5% TAG 6.9% DAG 3.1% MAG 0.8% water and other inert materials. The recovery yield of AO was about 97% (w/w) based on the total fatty acids of the SS. The acid oil could be directly converted into biodiesel at 95 degrees C in a pressurized reactor within 5 hours. Optimal esterification conditions were determined to be a weight ratio of 1 : 1.5 : 0.1 of AO/methanol/sulfuric acid. Higher reaction temperature helps to shorten the reaction time and requires less catalyst and methanol. Ester content of the biodiesel derived from AO through one-step acid catalyzed reaction is around 92%. After distillation, the purity of the biodiesel produced from AO is 97.6% which meets the Biodiesel Specification of Korea. The yield of purified biodiesel was 94% (w/w) based on the total fatty acids of the soapstock.
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  185. Opportunities ('costs) matter: A comment on Pimentel and Patzek "Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood; biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower"
    Abstract

    Wesseler, J. 2007. Opportunities ('costs) matter: A comment on Pimentel and Patzek "Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood; biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower". Energy Policy. 35(2) 1414-1416

    The energy balance for different crops reported by Pimentel and Patzek ignores opportunity costs. Including opportunity costs substantially changes the results and leads to different conclusions. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  186. Optimization of whole cell-catalyzed methanolysis of soybean oil for biodiesel production using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Li, W.; Du, W.; Liu, D. H. 2007. Optimization of whole cell-catalyzed methanolysis of soybean oil for biodiesel production using response surface methodology. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 45(3-4) 122-127

    Utilizing whole cell biocatalyst instead of free or immobilized enzyme is a potential way to reduce the cost of catalyst in lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production. Rhizopus oryzae (R. oryzae) IFO4697 whole cell immobilized within biomass support particles (BSPs) was used for the methanolysis of soybean oil for biodiesel production in this paper. tert-Butanol was demonstrated to be an ideal reaction medium, in which the negative effects caused by substrate methanol could be eliminated effectively. A central composite design was adopted to study the effect of tert-butanol quantity, methanol quantity, water content and dry biomass of the immobilized cell on biodiesel (methyl ester) yield. Each factor was studied in five levels. Using response surface methodology, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for methyl ester yield by multiple regression analysis. Biodiesel yield of 72% could be obtained under the optimal conditions and further verification experiments confirmed the validity of the predicted model. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  187. Transesterification kinetics of soybean oil for production of biodiesel in supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    He, H. Y.; Sun, S. Y.; Wang, T.; Zhu, S. L. 2007. Transesterification kinetics of soybean oil for production of biodiesel in supercritical methanol. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 84(4) 399-404

    A kinetic study on soybean oil transesterification without a catalyst in subcritical and supercritical methanol was made at pressures between 8.7 and 36 MPa. It was found that the conversion of soybean oil into the corresponding methyl esters was enhanced considerably in the supercritical methanol. The apparent activation energies of the transesterification are different with the subcritical and the supercritical states of methanol, which are 11.2 and 56.0 kJ/mol (molar ratio of methanol to oil: 42, pressure: 28 MPa), respectively. The reaction pressure considerably influenced the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in the pressure range from ambient pressure up to 25 MPa (280 degrees C, 42:1). The reaction activation volume of transesterification in supercritical methanol is approximately -206 cm(3)/mol. The P Delta V (not equal) term accounts for nearly 10% of the apparent activation energy, and can not be ignored (280 degrees C, 42:1).
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  188. Alumina-supported potassium iodide as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Xie, W. L.; Li, H. T. 2006. Alumina-supported potassium iodide as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Journal of Molecular Catalysis a-Chemical. 255(1-2) 1-9

    Biodiesel fuel, a promising alternative diesel fuel produced by a catalytic transesterification of vegetable oils, has become more attractive recently because of its environmental concerns and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. In this work, the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol has been studied in a heterogeneous system, using alumina loaded with potassium iodide as a solid base catalyst. After loading KI of 35 wt.% on alumina followed by calcination at 773 K for 3 h, the catalyst gave the highest basicity and the best catalytic activity for this reaction. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, IR, SEM and the Hammett indicator method. Moreover, the dependence of the conversion of soybean oil on the reaction variables such as the catalyst loading, the molar ratio of methanol to oil and the reaction time was studied. The conversion of 96% was achieved under the optimum reaction conditions. Besides, a correlation of the catalyst activity for the transesterification reaction with its basicity was proposed. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  189. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate with absorbent present in tert-butanol system
    Abstract

    Wang, L.; Du, W.; Liu, D. H.; Li, L. L.; Dai, N. M. 2006. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from soybean oil deodorizer distillate with absorbent present in tert-butanol system. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 43(1-4) 29-32

    Lipase-catalyzed alcoholysis of soybean oil deodorizer distillate (SODD) for biodiesel production was studied. During this system both free fatty acids and glycerides could be converted to biodiesel simultaneously. tert-Butanol has been adopted as the reaction medium, in which both the negative effects caused by excessive methanol and by-product glycerol could be eliminated completely. There was no obvious loss in lipase activity even after being repeatedly used for 120 cycles. Fine-pored silica gel and 3 angstrom molecular were found to be effective to control by-product water concentration and much higher biodiesel yield could be achieved with those adsorbents present in the reaction system. The highest biodiesel yield of 97% could be achieved with 3 angstrom molecular sieve as the adsorbent. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  190. Optimization of alkaline transesterification of soybean oil and castor oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    de Oliveira, D.; Di Luccio, M.; Faccio, C.; Dalla Rosa, C.; Bender, J. P.; Lipke, N.; Amroginski, C.; Dariva, C.; de Oliveira, J. V. 2005. Optimization of alkaline transesterification of soybean oil and castor oil for biodiesel production. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 121-124553-60

    This article reports experimental data on the production of fatty acid ethyl esters from refined and degummed soybean oil and castor oil using NaOH as catalyst. The variables investigated were temperature (30-70 degrees C), reaction time (1-3 h), catalyst concentration (0.5-1.5 w/wt%), and oil-to-ethanol molar ratio (1:3-1:9). The effects of process variables on the reaction conversion as well as the optimum experimental conditions are presented. The results show that conversions >95% were achieved for all systems investigated. In general, an increase in reaction temperature, reaction time, and in oil-to-ethanol molar ratio led to an enhancement in reaction conversion, whereas an opposite trend was verified with respect to catalyst concentration.
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  191. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation
    Abstract

    Du, W.; Xu, Y.; Liu, D. 2003. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 38(Pt 2) 103-6

    The effects of temperature, oil/alcohol molar ratio and by-product glycerol were studied during Lipozyme TL IM-catalysed continuous batch operation when short-chain alcohols were used as the acyl acceptor. In non-continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:4 and 40-50 degrees C; however, during the continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:1 and 30 degrees C; 95% of enzymic activity remained after 10 batches when isopropanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase.
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