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Biodiesel Production Publications

This page lists all biodiesel production journal publications from University of Idaho. Please provide us a feedback feedback if you see any error in this listing or you would like to report and articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. Phospholipid transesterification in sub-/super-critical methanol with the presence of free fatty acids
    Abstract

    Bi, Zheting B.; He, Brian 2015. Phospholipid transesterification in sub-/super-critical methanol with the presence of free fatty acids. .

    Phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFA), along with triglycerides, are naturally formed constituents in unrefined vegetable oils and other plant lipids. Presence of phospholipids and FFA in such oils can cause processing difficulties, such as saponification and decrease in catalytic efficiency, thus lead to an adverse process efficiency in the transesterification of such oils for biodiesel production. This phenomenon was also observed in our previous study on converting microalgal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) via in situ transesterification. This study aimed at further exploring the transesterification of phospholipids and investigating the effects of FFA presence and other processing conditions in biodiesel production from plant oils in sub-and/or super-critical methanol (SubCM/SCM). Experiements were carried out in a batch reactor in SubCM/SCM under various conditions without addition of catalysts. Pure chemicals of lecithin and stearic acid were used as the model compounds for phospholipids and FFA, respectively. The product yield (FAME in mol%) of the phospholipids after transesterification, as affected by the presecnce of FFA under different conditions, was selected as the respond factor to determine the process efficiency. Experimental results showed that phospholipids can be converted into FAME in such a process. Transesterification of phospholipids is largely affected by the interactive effect of operating temperature and reaction time. The maximum product yield of 68.1 mol% was achieved at 250 °C and 120 min without the presence of FFA. The product yield started to level off once the system reached the SCM state. When temperature was held at 290 °C for 30 min, the product yield dropped to 33.6 mol%. Another phenomenon observed is that the presence of FFA enhances considerably the lipid conversion. The study revealed that phospholipids can be converted to FAME with a highest product yield of 93.9 mol% at 250 °C for 120 min in SCM without catalysts and with the presence of FFA. However, the FFA enchancement became less significant when the system was operated for a longer period of time than 120 min.
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  2. Phospholipid transesterification in sub-/super-critical methanol with the presence of free fatty acids
    Abstract

    Bi, Zheting B.; He, Brian 2015. Phospholipid transesterification in sub-/super-critical methanol with the presence of free fatty acids. .

    Phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFA), along with triglycerides, are naturally formed constituents in unrefined vegetable oils and other plant lipids. Presence of phospholipids and FFA in such oils can cause processing difficulties, such as saponification and decrease in catalytic efficiency, thus lead to an adverse process efficiency in the transesterification of such oils for biodiesel production. This phenomenon was also observed in our previous study on converting microalgal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) via in situ transesterification. This study aimed at further exploring the transesterification of phospholipids and investigating the effects of FFA presence and other processing conditions in biodiesel production from plant oils in sub-and/or super-critical methanol (SubCM/SCM). Experiements were carried out in a batch reactor in SubCM/SCM under various conditions without addition of catalysts. Pure chemicals of lecithin and stearic acid were used as the model compounds for phospholipids and FFA, respectively. The product yield (FAME in mol%) of the phospholipids after transesterification, as affected by the presecnce of FFA under different conditions, was selected as the respond factor to determine the process efficiency. Experimental results showed that phospholipids can be converted into FAME in such a process. Transesterification of phospholipids is largely affected by the interactive effect of operating temperature and reaction time. The maximum product yield of 68.1 mol% was achieved at 250 °C and 120 min without the presence of FFA. The product yield started to level off once the system reached the SCM state. When temperature was held at 290 °C for 30 min, the product yield dropped to 33.6 mol%. Another phenomenon observed is that the presence of FFA enhances considerably the lipid conversion. The study revealed that phospholipids can be converted to FAME with a highest product yield of 93.9 mol% at 250 °C for 120 min in SCM without catalysts and with the presence of FFA. However, the FFA enchancement became less significant when the system was operated for a longer period of time than 120 min.
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  3. Characterization of Microalgae for the Purpose of Biofuel Production
    Abstract

    Bi, Z.; He, B. B. 2013. Characterization of Microalgae for the Purpose of Biofuel Production. Transactions of the Asabe. 56(4) 1529-1539

    It is now widely accepted that microalgae are promising candidate feedstocks for biofuel production, especially for biodiesel. Microalgae consist of a vast number of species that contain complex chemical constituents and physical structures. The purpose of this study is to understand the physical and chemical properties of selected microalgae, which is critical to the design of appropriate processes for commercial biofuel production. ASTM standard methods were implemented to examine the microalgae properties, including proximate and ultimate analyses. Among the microalgae studied, green microalgae have more volatile matter than brown microalgae, while the latter contain much higher ash content (as high as 43.4%wt +/- 0.20%wt dry basis). The lowest ash content was found in the samples of green microalgae (14.3%wt +/- 0.10%wt dry basis). Ultimate analysis showed that brown microalgae have less carbon content (approx. 25%wt dry basis) as compared to green microalgae (49%wt to 58%wt dry basis). All samples of microalgae were high in sulfur content (0.4%wt to 1.0%wt dry basis). Mineral contents of all microalgal samples were similar to those commonly present in other biomass. Brown microalgae contain significantly higher amounts of carbohydrates (72.9%wt to 75.5%wt dry basis) than green microalgae. On the other hand, green microalgae contain more crude fat (17.1%wt to 27.8%wt dry basis) than brown microalgae. The fatty acid profiles show that the primary fatty acids in microalgal lipids are similar to those of vegetable oils such as soybean oil. However, there are also many odd-numbered fatty acids, such as C15:0, C17:0, and C19:0, which are not typically seen in other seed oils.
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  4. Catalytic Thermochemical Conversion of Glycerol to Simple and Polyhydric Alcohols Using Raney Nickel Catalyst
    Abstract

    Maglinao, R. L.; He, B. B. 2011. Catalytic Thermochemical Conversion of Glycerol to Simple and Polyhydric Alcohols Using Raney Nickel Catalyst. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 50(10) 6028-6033

    The crude glycerol from biodiesel production possesses low economic values and alternative ways of converting it to valuable chemicals are needed to sustain the biodiesel industry. This study aimed to investigate the production of primary alcohols and propylene glycol from glycerol through a catalytic thermochemical process without an external supply of hydrogen. The effects of reaction time, water to glycerol ratio, and doses of catalyst on glycerol conversion and alcohol yields were investigated using a batch pressure reactor and Raney nickel catalyst. The presence of alcohols and gases in the products confirmed that hydrogen was produced and was utilized in the formation of propylene glycol through hydrogenolysis. Ethanol and propylene glycol yields of up to 10.4 +/- 0.2 and 33.2 +/- 1.4 mol %, respectively, were observed. It was also concluded that ethanol is formed through hydrogenolysis of propylene glycol and its yield improves at extended reaction time and increased initial water content of the feed.
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  5. Biodiesel from oilseed crops
    Abstract

    Shrestha, D.; VanGerpen, J. H. 2010. Biodiesel from oilseed crops. Industrial Crops and Uses. 1140-156

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  6. Biodiesel Production and Properties
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J. H.; He, B. 2010. Biodiesel Production and Properties. Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals. 382-415

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  7. Improving the Fuel Properties of Soy Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Wang, P. S.; Thompson, J.; Clemente, T. E.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 2010. Improving the Fuel Properties of Soy Biodiesel. Transactions of the Asabe. 53(6) 1853-1858

    Certain undesirable characteristics are associated with the use of soy methyl esters as a direct replacement for petroleum diesel fuel. When compared to petroleum diesel, soy methyl esters have higher NOx emissions, poorer cold flow, and a shorter shelf life. This article investigates whether the careful choice of alcohol and triglyceride feedstocks can improve these fuel properties. Three different triglyceride feedstocks with three different levels of oleic acid were examined. It was determined that a high amount of oleic acid in the triglyceride feedstock eliminates the tradeoff between cold flow and oxidative stability. The study also examined the role of three different alkyl groups (methyl, ethyl, and isopropyl) on the high-oleic feedstock. In NOx emissions testing, no significant difference was found between the alkyl groups. Isopropyl esters had the best cold flow properties, while methyl esters had the poorest cold flow properties for the three different alkyl groups. The induction periods for the methyl and ethyl esters from the high-oleic feedstock were 14 and 26 h, respectively, according to the Rancimat method. These numbers are in close agreement with the oxidative stability index. Isopropyl esters from the high-oleic feedstock had an induction period of less than an how; which was unexpected. Further investigation revealed that the high-oleic isopropyl esters had no vitamin E in the form of alpha-tocopherol, and it was speculated that the washing step in the manufacture of the fuel removed all vitamin E content.
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  8. Purification and characterization of an organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa LX1 and its application for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ji, Q. C.; Xiao, S. J.; He, B. F.; Liu, X. N. 2010. Purification and characterization of an organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa LX1 and its application for biodiesel production. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 66(3-4) 264-269

    An organic solvent-tolerant lipase from newly isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa LX1 has been purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography leading to 4.3-fold purification and 41.1% recovery. The purified lipase from P. aeruginosa LX1 was homogeneous as determined by SDS-PAGE, and the molecular mass was estimated to be 56 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for lipase activity were found to be 7.0 and 40 degrees C, respectively. The lipase was stable in the pH range 4.5-12.0 and at temperatures below 50 degrees C. Its hydrolytic activity was found to be highest towards p-nitrophenyl palmitate (C16) among the various p-nitrophenol esters investigated. The lipase displayed higher stability in the presence of various organic solvents, such as n-hexadecane, isooctane, n-hexane, DMSO, and DMF, than in the absence of an organic solvent. The immobilized lipase was more stable in the presence of n-hexadecane, tert-butanol, and acetonitrile. The transesterification activity of the lipase from P. aeruginosa LX1 indicated that it is a potential biocatalyst for biodiesel production. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  9. Biodiesel: Small Scale Production and Quality Requirements
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J. 2009. Biodiesel: Small Scale Production and Quality Requirements. Biofuels: Methods and Protocols. 581281-290

    Biodiesel is produced by reacting vegetable oils or animal fats with alcohol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The resulting methyl esters, which arc the biodiesel fuel, arc separated from the by-product glycerin, and then washed with water and dehydrated to produce fuel that must meet standardized specifications. Degraded oils containing high levels of free fatty acids can also be converted to biodiesel, but pretreatment with acid-catalyzed esterification is required. The resulting fuel is suitable for use as a neat fuel in diesel engines or blended with conventional diesel fuel.
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  10. Biodiesel production technology, a workshop for the 2008 biodiesel conference and expo
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J. 2008. Biodiesel production technology, a workshop for the 2008 biodiesel conference and expo. .

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  11. Convergence of Agriculture and Energy: III. Considerations in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, Jon; Gray, Allan; Shanks, Brent H.; Calabotta, Beth; Kershen, Drew; Weber, Alan; Joost, Richard; Peterson, Todd A. 2008. Convergence of Agriculture and Energy: III. Considerations in Biodiesel Production. .

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  12. Convergence of Agriculture and Energy: III. Considerations in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, Jon; Gray, Allan; Shanks, Brent H.; Calabotta, Beth; Kershen, Drew; Weber, Alan; Joost, Richard; Peterson, Todd A. 2008. Convergence of Agriculture and Energy: III. Considerations in Biodiesel Production. .

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  13. Biodiesel production using static mixers
    Abstract

    Thompson, J. C.; He, B. B. 2007. Biodiesel production using static mixers. Transactions of the Asabe. 50(1) 161-165

    Static mixers, devices used for mixing immiscible liquids in a compact configuration, were found to be effective in carrying out initial transesterification reactions of canola oil and methanol. The objective of this study was to explore the possibilities of using static mixers as a continuous-flow reactor for biodiesel production. Biodiesel (canola methyl ester) was produced under varying conditions using a closed-loop static mixer system. Sodium methoxide was used as the catalyst. Process parameters of flow rate or mixing intensity, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time were studied. A full-factorial experimental design was employed, and samples were analyzed for unreacted glycerides as an indicator for biodiesel quality control. It was found that static mixers can be used for biodiesel production. In fact, given enough residence time, appropriate temperature, and high mixing rate, a reactor could consist solely of static mixers and pumps in a continuous-flow design. Temperature and catalyst concentration had the most influence on the transesterification reaction. The data clearly indicates separate inverse linear relationships between temperature and catalyst concentration verses total glycerin. The ASTM D6584 specification for total glycerin (0.24% wt, max.) was met at three of the four temperatures tested, utilizing two of the four catalyst concentrations. The most favorable conditions for completeness of reaction were at 60 degrees C and 1.5% catalyst for 30 min.
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  14. Function and performance of a pre-reactor to a reactive distillation column for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    He, B. B.; Singh, A. P.; Thompson, J. C. 2007. Function and performance of a pre-reactor to a reactive distillation column for biodiesel production. Transactions of the Asabe. 50(1) 123-128

    This article describes an in-depth follow-up to previous studies showing that an oil-methanol mixer prior to an RD reactor played an important role in enhancing the overall performance of the RD reactor system. An in-line static mixer was used for the purpose of providing initial mixing of the reactants, heating the mixture up to the desired operating temperature, and carrying out a substantial part of the transesterification reaction in the early stage. It performed three functions: a reactant mixer, a heat exchanger, and a pre-reactor. This article reports the systematic investigations of the pre-reactor performance by examining the effects of process variables on the process evaluating parameters, and the operating conditions for optimum operation. A wide range of results was observed under different operating conditions. The product yield was as high as 84.60% and as low as 1.63%. The soap formation was in the range of 2.80% to 10.37%. The feed molar ratio, reaction time, and catalyst concentration all contributed positively to the product yield and soap formation. Although an optimum condition produced a product yield of 80.46% and soap formation of 5.18% with a 1.33 min reaction time, the optimization should be based on the integration of the whole RD reactor system rather than a collection of individually optimized components. This study of the pre-reactor serves as an analysis tool for part of the RD reactor system.
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  15. A novel continuous-flow reactor using reactive distillation for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    He, B. B.; Singh, A. P.; Thompson, J. C. 2006. A novel continuous-flow reactor using reactive distillation for biodiesel production. Transactions of the Asabe. 49(1) 107-112

    The production of biodiesel through batch and existing continuous flow processes requires the use of a much higher excess alcohol, typically 100%, than the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the transesterification reaction to completion. This excess alcohol must be recovered in a separate process, which involves additional capital and operating costs. In this study, a novel reactor system using reactive distillation (RD) was developed and investigated for biodiesel preparation from canola oil and methanol. The goal was to significantly reduce the use of excess methanol while maintaining a high methanol: glyceride molar ratio inside the RD reactor by recycling a small amount of methanol within the system. Reactant conversion rate and product yield were used as the criteria for the reactor evaluation. The effect of the methanol: glyceride ratio was studied on a laboratory-scale perforated-tray RD reactor system. Product parameters such as methyl ester content, glycerides, and methanol content were analyzed. Preliminary results showed that the RD reactor with a methanol: glyceride ratio of 4:1 (molar), in which the use of methanol was cut down by 66%, gave a satisfactory biodiesel yield and oil conversion rate at a column temperature of 65 degrees C. Total reaction time in the pre-reactor and RD column was about 3 min, which is 20 to 30 times shorter than in typical batch processes. The productivity of the RD reactor system was about 6.6 m(3) biodiesel per m(3) reactor volume per hour, which is 6 to 10 times higher than that of batch and existing continuous flow processes.
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  16. Building a successful biodiesel business: Technology considerations, developing the business, analytical methodologies
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J.; Pruszko, R.; Celments, D.; Shanks, B.; Knothe, G. 2006. Building a successful biodiesel business: Technology considerations, developing the business, analytical methodologies. . 2nd

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  17. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production from multiple feedstocks
    Abstract

    Thompson, J. C.; He, B. B. 2006. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production from multiple feedstocks. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 22(2) 261-265

    Glycerol is the principal by-product of biodiesel production. For each gallon of biodiesel produced, approximately 0.3 kg of crude glycerol accompanies. Such crude glycerol possesses very low value because of the impurities contained. As the demand and production of biodiesel grow exponentially, the utilization of the glycerol becomes an urgent topic. The make-up of crude glycerol varies depending on the parent feedstock and the biodiesel production process. Before the crude glycerol could be considered for possible value-added utilizations, it is necessary to characterize it on its physical, chemical, and nutritional properties. This article reports the characterization of crude glycerol obtained from different seed oil feedstocks of mustard, rapeseed, canola, crambe, soybean, and waste cooking oils. Batch processes of biodiesel production were used as the means of crude, glycerol preparation using unrefined vegetable oils, methanol, and sodium methylate as the catalyst. After separation from biodiesel, the crude glycerol from each of the oils was analyzed using ASTM and other standard test methods. Elemental impurities, nutritional value, and other chemical properties were tested.
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  18. Feasibility study for the commercial production of biodiesel in the treasure valley of Idaho
    Abstract

    Crockett, John; Peterson, C.; Mann, Paul 2006. Feasibility study for the commercial production of biodiesel in the treasure valley of Idaho. .

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  19. Process optimization of biodiesel production using alkaline catalysts
    Abstract

    Singh, A.; He, B.; Thompson, J.; Van Gerpen, J. 2006. Process optimization of biodiesel production using alkaline catalysts. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 22(4) 597-600

    The most commonly used method for biodiesel preparation is via transesterfication of vegetable oil using alkaline catalysts. Biodiesel yield and oil conversion are affected by operating conditions including the catalyst formulation and concentration. Application of alkaline catalysts can also lead to undesired soap formation. This study evaluated the alkaline catalyst effects on biodiesel yield and soap formation in transesterifying methanol and canola oil at different catalyst concentrations, reaction temperatures, and methanol-to-oil molar ratios. Four different alkaline catalysts, i.e., potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium methoxide, and sodium methoxide, were studied and compared on molar basis through a 4-factor 3-level experimental design. It was observed that methoxide catalysts led to better biodiesel yields than hydroxide catalysts. The methoxide catalysts not only accelerated the reaction but also elevated the conversion equilibrium. Based on statistical optimization, the operating conditions for maximizing biodiesel yield and minimizing soap formation were potassium methoxide as catalyst at 0.2 mol/mol (1.59% wt), reaction temperature of 50 degrees C, and methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 4.5: 1. Experimental verification gave 95.8% biodiesel yield and 0.75%wt soap.
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  20. Biodiesel processing and production
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J. 2005. Biodiesel processing and production. Fuel Processing Technology. 86(10) 1097-1107

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats. It consists of the monoalkyl esters formed by a catalyzed reaction of the triglycerides in the oil or fat with a simple monohydric alcohol. The reaction conditions generally involve a trade-off between reaction time and temperature as reaction completeness is the most critical fuel quality parameter. Much of the process complexity originates from contaminants in the feedstock, such as water and free fatty acids, or impurities in the final product, such as methanol, free glycerol, and soap. Processes have been developed to produce biodiesel from high free fatty acid feedstocks, such as recycled restaurant grease, animal fats, and soapstock. (c) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
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  21. Enzymatic Isolation and Enrichment of Erucic Acid from HEA Seed Oils: Current Status
    Abstract

    Tao, C.; He, B. B. 2005. Enzymatic Isolation and Enrichment of Erucic Acid from HEA Seed Oils: Current Status. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 48(4)

    Erucic acid (EA), a fatty acid of 22-carbon chain with one isolated double bond, has broad industrial applications. Currently, erucic acid is isolated from Crucifereae plant oils through steam splitting, namely the Colgate-Emery process, followed by fractional distillation. This two-step process involves drastic conditions, low energy efficiency, and extensive product degradation. Enzymatic approaches, on the other hand, have many advantages including mild operating conditions and high selectivities. To develop a more efficient alternative process, researchers have studied enzymatic approaches for EA isolation and enrichment for about two decades. Lipases have shown three types of specificities in catalyzing high-erucic-acid (HEA) oils, namely fatty-acid-specific, region-specific, and non-specific. With lipases of certain specificities, various processes of hydrolysis, esterification, interesterification, and transesterification have been studied. Research has also been conducted on investigating the effects of process parameters, including operating temperature, lipase content, and water content, on the process efficiency. The enzymatic approach has shown its potential in isolating and enriching EA from different Crucifereae seed oils. This article reviews the current status of the studies, especially the performance of different lipases and corresponding enzymatic reactions, for EA enrichment from Crucifereae plant oils.
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  22. Enzymatic Isolation and Enrichment of Erucic Acid from HEA Seed Oils: Current Status
    Abstract

    Tao, C.; He, B. B. 2005. Enzymatic Isolation and Enrichment of Erucic Acid from HEA Seed Oils: Current Status. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 48(4)

    Erucic acid (EA), a fatty acid of 22-carbon chain with one isolated double bond, has broad industrial applications. Currently, erucic acid is isolated from Crucifereae plant oils through steam splitting, namely the Colgate-Emery process, followed by fractional distillation. This two-step process involves drastic conditions, low energy efficiency, and extensive product degradation. Enzymatic approaches, on the other hand, have many advantages including mild operating conditions and high selectivities. To develop a more efficient alternative process, researchers have studied enzymatic approaches for EA isolation and enrichment for about two decades. Lipases have shown three types of specificities in catalyzing high-erucic-acid (HEA) oils, namely fatty-acid-specific, region-specific, and non-specific. With lipases of certain specificities, various processes of hydrolysis, esterification, interesterification, and transesterification have been studied. Research has also been conducted on investigating the effects of process parameters, including operating temperature, lipase content, and water content, on the process efficiency. The enzymatic approach has shown its potential in isolating and enriching EA from different Crucifereae seed oils. This article reviews the current status of the studies, especially the performance of different lipases and corresponding enzymatic reactions, for EA enrichment from Crucifereae plant oils.
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  23. Experimental optimization of a continuous-flow reactive distillation reactor for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    He, B. B.; Singh, A. P.; Thompson, J. C. 2005. Experimental optimization of a continuous-flow reactive distillation reactor for biodiesel production. Transactions of the Asae. 48(6) 2237-2243

    A comprehensive study of biodiesel preparation from canola oil was performed on a continuous-flow reactive distillation (RD) reactor system. Optimization of six process variables was studied experimentally and analyzed statistically on the overall performance of the RD reactor system. These variables include the feed methanol to triglycerides molar ratio, reaction time, reboiler temperature, catalyst concentration, methanol circulation mode, and catalyst formulation. An experimental design was used in the experiments, and statistical multiple response regression models were employed for process optimization. Under the operating conditions explored, product yields ranged from 41.5% to 94.9%, productivity ranged from 16 to 55.8 kmol/m(3.)h (5.6 to 19.5 m(3/)m(3.)h), and soap formation varied from 4.44 to 29.1 mol/100 mol (0.19 to 1.27%wt.). For different optimization criteria, the following optimum variable ranges were found: feed molar ratio from 3.65:1 to 4.50:1, reaction time from 3.76 to 5.56 min, reboiler temperature from 100 degrees C to 130 degrees C, and catalyst concentration from 0.13 to 0.24 mol/mol. Although the process variables individually affected the system performance to a certain extent, the interactive effect of the process variable combinations affected the system efficiency more significantly. When maximized, the product yields and productivity were 98.8% and 55.6 kmol/m(3.)h (18.5 m(3)/m(3.)h), respectively. However when soap formation was minimized, the yield and productivity were 72% and 9.3 kmol/m(3.)h (3.1 m(3)/m(3.)h), respectively. It is recommended that the optimization of the RD reactor system be based on the maximization of product yield and reactor productivity.
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  24. Biodiesel analytical methods
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J.; Shanks, B.; Pruszko, R.; Clements, D.; Knothe, G. 2004. Biodiesel analytical methods. . NREL/SR-510-36240

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  25. Colorimetry of biodiesel blends for possible quick concentration detection
    Abstract

    He, B.; Thompson, J. C. 2004. Colorimetry of biodiesel blends for possible quick concentration detection. .

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  26. A pilot plant to produce biodiesel from high free fatty acid feedstocks
    Abstract

    Canakci, M.; Van Gerpen, J. 2003. A pilot plant to produce biodiesel from high free fatty acid feedstocks. Transactions of the ASAE. 46(4) 945-954

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel consisting of the alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. Currently, most biodiesel is made from soybean oil, methanol, and an alkaline catalyst. However, there are large amounts of fats and oils that are unsuitable for human consumption that could be converted to biodiesel at lower cost. The problem with processing these waste oils is that they often contain large amounts of free fatty acids that cannot be converted to biodiesel using an alkaline catalyst. These free fatty acids react with the alkaline catalyst to produce soaps that inhibit the separation of the biodiesel, glycerin, and wash water. Previous research has developed a process for pretreating these high free fatty acid feedstocks using acid catalysts, which do not form soaps. The objective of this study was to construct a pilot plant to produce biodiesel from a wide variety of feedstocks including those with high free fatty acids. A 190 L batch pilot plant has been built that can process high free fatty acid feedstocks using an acid-catalyzed pretreatment followed by an alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. Case studies of pilot plant-scale production of biodiesel from soybean oil, yellow grease with 9% free fatty acids, and brown grease with 40% free fatty acids are presented. The effect of varying the reaction parameters is discussed, and the separation and washing processes are described. Estimates of the fuel cost using different feedstocks are also provided
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  27. A Survey to Understand the Attitudes towards Biodiesel in Southwestern Idaho
    Abstract

    Kinsey, K.; Haines, D.; Peterson, C. L. 2003. A Survey to Understand the Attitudes towards Biodiesel in Southwestern Idaho. PNW-ASAE Annual Meeting.

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  28. Continuous Flow Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Cook, J.; Thompson, J. C.; Taberski, J. S. 2002. Continuous Flow Biodiesel Production. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 18(1) 7

    Biodiesel, which consists of the fatty acid esters of simple alcohols, is a potential replacement for a portion of the diesel fuel used in transportation. It is produced from both used (oil that has been utlilized for frying and discarded) and new vegetable and animal fats and oils. It has several advantages. Among these advantages are its classification as a renewable resource, its ability to reduce HC, CO, and CO2 exhaust emissions, its non-toxic character, and its biodegradability. One of the keys to making biodiesel a viable and profitable energy source is the use of a continuous flow transesterification process to reduce time and cost, thereby increasing production and profit.
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  29. Continuous Flow Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Cook, J.; Thompson, J. C.; Taberski, J. S. 2002. Continuous Flow Biodiesel Production. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 18(1) 7

    Biodiesel, which consists of the fatty acid esters of simple alcohols, is a potential replacement for a portion of the diesel fuel used in transportation. It is produced from both used (oil that has been utlilized for frying and discarded) and new vegetable and animal fats and oils. It has several advantages. Among these advantages are its classification as a renewable resource, its ability to reduce HC, CO, and CO2 exhaust emissions, its non-toxic character, and its biodegradability. One of the keys to making biodiesel a viable and profitable energy source is the use of a continuous flow transesterification process to reduce time and cost, thereby increasing production and profit.
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  30. Continuous flow biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Cook, J. L.; Thompson, J. C.; Taberski, J. S. 2002. Continuous flow biodiesel production. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 18(1) 5-11

    Biodiesel, which consists of the fatty acid esters of simple alcohols, is a potential replacement for a portion of the diesel fuel used in transportation. It is produced from both used (oil that has been utilized for frying and discarded) and new vegetable and animal fats and oils. It has several advantages. Among these advantages are its classification as a renewable resource, its ability to reduce HC, CO, and CO2 exhaust emissions, its non-toxic character, and its biodegradability. One of the keys to making biodiesel a viable and profitable energy source is the use of a continuous flow transesterification process to reduce time and cost, thereby increasing production and profit. A continuous flow esterification process for producing biodiesel from rapeseed oil and ethanol was investigated. The equipment consisted of an oil metering pump, centrifugal mixing pump, ethanol and catalyst metering pump, static mixers, "ladder" type retention reactor, water injection system, and continuous flow centrifugal separating system. The oil feed rate was 0.38 L/min that yields about three times the weekly production of the existing batch type transesterification system that produces 945 L (250 gal) per batch. It was anticipated that if methanol were used instead of ethanol that the flow, rate could be considerably increased. The system in its present configuration has met ASTM PS121-99 standard for free and total glycerol. The centrifugal separation resulted in release of excessive alcohol vapors. A vapor recovery and condensing system should be installed. This latter system could help further reduce costs of the biodiesel produced by recycling some of the alcohol used
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  31. Biodiesel production from oils and fats with high free fatty acids
    Abstract

    Canakci, M.; Van Gerpen, J. 2001. Biodiesel production from oils and fats with high free fatty acids. Transactions of the ASAE. 44(6) 1429-1436

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines consisting of the alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. Most of the biodiesel that is currently made uses soybean oil, methanol, and an alkaline catalyst. The high value of soybean oil as a food product makes production of a cost-effective fuel very challenging. However there are large amounts of low-cost oils and fats such as restaurant waste and animal fats that could be converted to biodiesel. The problem with processing these low cost oils and fats is that they often contain large amounts of free fatty acids (FFA) that cannot be converted to biodiesel using an alkaline catalyst. In this study, a technique is described to reduce the free fatty acids content of these feedstocks using an acid-catalyzed pretreatment to esterify the free fatty acids before transesterifying the triglycerides with an alkaline catalyst to complete the reaction. Initial process development was performed with synthetic mixtures containing 20% and 40% free fatty acids, prepared using palmitic acid. Process parameters such as the molar ratio of alcohol, type of alcohol, acid catalyst amount, reaction time, and free fatty acids level were investigated to determine the best strategy for converting the free fatty acids to usable esters. The work showed that the acid level of the high free fatty acids feedstocks could be reduced to less than 1% with a 2-step pretreatment reaction. The reaction mixture was allowed to settle between steps so that the water-containing alcohol phase could be removed. The 2-step pretreatment reaction was demonstrated with actual feedstocks, including yellow grease with 12% free fatty acids and brown grease with 33% free fatty acids. After reducing the acid levels of these feedstocks to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with an alkaline catalyst to produce fuel-grade biodiesel
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  32. A 322,000 kilometer (200,000 mile) Over the Road Test with HySee Biodiesel in a Heavy Duty Truck.
    Abstract

    Chase, C. L.; Peterson, C. L.; Lowe, G. A.; Mann, P.; Smith, J. A.; Kado, N. Y. 2000. A 322,000 kilometer (200,000 mile) Over the Road Test with HySee Biodiesel in a Heavy Duty Truck. . .

    In July 1997, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, in cooperation with several industrial and institutional partners initiated a long-haul 322,00 km (200,000 mile) operational demonstration using a biodiesel and diesel fuel blend in a 324 kW (435 HP), Caterpillar 3406E Engine, and a Kenworth Class 8 heavy duty truck. This project was designed to: develop definitive biodiesel performance information, collect emissions data for both regulated and non-regulated compounds including mutagenic activity, and collect heavy-duty operational engine performance and durability information. To assess long-term engine durability and wear, including injector, valve, and port deposit formations; the engine was dismantled for inspection and evaluation at the conclusion of the demonstration. The fuel used was a 50% blend of biodiesel produced from used cooking oil (hydrogenated soy ethyl etser) and 50% 2-D petroleum diesel. The demonstration vehicle traveled 326, 235 km (202, 160 miles) in actual commerical operation averaging 5.27 miles per gallon.
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  33. A 322,000 kilometer (200,000 mile) Over the Road Test with HySee Biodiesel in a Heavy Duty Truck.
    Abstract

    Chase, C. L.; Peterson, C. L.; Lowe, G. A.; Mann, P.; Smith, J. A.; Kado, N. Y. 2000. A 322,000 kilometer (200,000 mile) Over the Road Test with HySee Biodiesel in a Heavy Duty Truck. . .

    In July 1997, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, in cooperation with several industrial and institutional partners initiated a long-haul 322,00 km (200,000 mile) operational demonstration using a biodiesel and diesel fuel blend in a 324 kW (435 HP), Caterpillar 3406E Engine, and a Kenworth Class 8 heavy duty truck. This project was designed to: develop definitive biodiesel performance information, collect emissions data for both regulated and non-regulated compounds including mutagenic activity, and collect heavy-duty operational engine performance and durability information. To assess long-term engine durability and wear, including injector, valve, and port deposit formations; the engine was dismantled for inspection and evaluation at the conclusion of the demonstration. The fuel used was a 50% blend of biodiesel produced from used cooking oil (hydrogenated soy ethyl etser) and 50% 2-D petroleum diesel. The demonstration vehicle traveled 326, 235 km (202, 160 miles) in actual commerical operation averaging 5.27 miles per gallon.
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  34. Investigation of biodiesel thermal stability under simulated in-use conditions
    Abstract

    Monyem, A.; Canakci, M.; Van Gerpen, J. H. 2000. Investigation of biodiesel thermal stability under simulated in-use conditions. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 16(4) 373-378

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats. While biodiesel products numerous environmental benefits such as reduced exhaust emissions, it is more prone to oxidation than petroleum-based diesel fuel and this can alter its properties. When oxidation occurs at ordinary temperatures, the initial products are hydroperoxides. As the oxidation continues, the peroxides may split and form aldehydes, ketones, and short chain acids that produce unpleasant odors. Sediment and gums are formed through polymerization of the peroxides and can cause fuel filter plugging. The objective of this study was to relate the chemical and physical processes associated with biodiesel oxidation to the conditions that affect diesel fuel system performance. A relationship was sought between the test that is used by the engine industry to define engine fuel stability requirements (ASTM D2274) and the tests used by the fats and oils industry to characterize oxidation (Peroxide Value and Acid Value). It was found during the course of this study that the ASTM fuel stability method is not suitable for biodiesel. While oxidation causes the fuel viscosity to increase, fuel filter plugging was not necessarily a natural consequence of biodiesel oxidation even when the fuel was oxidized to a level beyond what would be observed in practice. The effect of fuel temperature and blending with diesel fuel on the oxidation was investigated and the interrelationship between the fuel's acid value and viscosity is shown.
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  35. Biodiesel production via acid catalysis
    Abstract

    Canakci, M.; Van Gerpen, J. 1999. Biodiesel production via acid catalysis. Transactions of the ASAE. 42(5) 1203-1210

    Vegetable oils and animal fats can be transesterified to biodiesel for use as an alternative diesel fuel. Conversion of low cost feedstocks such as used frying oils is complicated if the oils contain large amounts of free fatty acids that will form soaps with alkaline catalysts. The soaps can prevent separation of the biodiesel from the glycerin fraction. Alternative processes are available that use an acid catalyst The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of process variables on acid-catalyzed transesterification. The molar ratio of alcohol, reaction temperature, catalyst amount, reaction time, water content, and free fatty acids were investigated to determine the best strategy for producing biodiesel. Food grade soybean oil was used to prepare esters using excess methanol and sulfuric acid as a catalyst. To compare the effect of different alcohol types on ester formation, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and n-butanol were compared. The American Oil Chemists' Society Method Ca 14-56 was used to measure the biodiesel's total glycerin amount as an indicator of the completeness of the reaction. It was found that acid catalysis can provide high conversion rates but much longer times are required than for alkaline catalysts. The acid catalyst also requires the concentration of water to be less than 0.5%, which is about the same as is required for alkaline catalysts. Water formed by the esterification of free fatty acids limited their presence in the oil to 5%
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  36. Continuous Flow Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Cook, J. L.; Thompson, J. C.; Taberski, J. S. 1999. Continuous Flow Biodiesel Production. .

    Biodiesel is a potential replacement for a portion of the diesel fuel used in transportation. It is produced from both waste and new vegetable oils. It has several advantages. Among these are its classification as a renewable resource, its ability to reduce HC, CO, and CO2 exhaust emissions, its non-toxic character, and its biodegradability. Plant oils grown around the world can be harvested and converted to biodiesel using current esterification processes. One of the keys to making biodiesel a viable and profitable energy source is the use of a continuous flow transesterification process to reduce time and cost, thereby increasing production and profit. Most biodiesel is produced in manual or automatic batch processes. Research and development into continuous flow processes is relatively unperfected in the United States, and therefore warrants further investigation.
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  37. Continuous Flow Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Cook, J. L.; Thompson, J. C.; Taberski, J. S. 1999. Continuous Flow Biodiesel Production. .

    Biodiesel is a potential replacement for a portion of the diesel fuel used in transportation. It is produced from both waste and new vegetable oils. It has several advantages. Among these are its classification as a renewable resource, its ability to reduce HC, CO, and CO2 exhaust emissions, its non-toxic character, and its biodegradability. Plant oils grown around the world can be harvested and converted to biodiesel using current esterification processes. One of the keys to making biodiesel a viable and profitable energy source is the use of a continuous flow transesterification process to reduce time and cost, thereby increasing production and profit. Most biodiesel is produced in manual or automatic batch processes. Research and development into continuous flow processes is relatively unperfected in the United States, and therefore warrants further investigation.
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  38. Producing HySEE Biodiesel From Used French Fry Oil and Ethanol for an Over-the-Road Truck
    Abstract

    Lowe, G.; Peterson, C.; Thompson, J.; Taberski, J.; Mann, P.; Chase, C. 1998. Producing HySEE Biodiesel From Used French Fry Oil and Ethanol for an Over-the-Road Truck. ASAE Meeting . 986081

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  39. Two Year Storage Test with RME and REE
    Abstract

    Thompson, Joe; Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Beck, S. M. 1998. Two Year Storage Test with RME and REE. .

    Methyl and ethyl esters preapred from various vegetable oils by the process of transesterification have shown much promise as fuels for all types of diesel engines. As part of a larger study entitled "Development of Rapeseed Biodiesel for Use in High-speed Diesel Engines", this activity was designed to determine the extent of deterioration of Rape Methyl Ester (RME) and Rape Ethyl Ester (REE) in storage. The study involved triplicate samples of RME and REE stored in glass and steel containers at room temperatures (inside) and at local ambient outdoor temperatures (outside). The study was conducted for two years.
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  40. Two Year Storage Test with RME and REE
    Abstract

    Thompson, Joe; Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Beck, S. M. 1998. Two Year Storage Test with RME and REE. .

    Methyl and ethyl esters preapred from various vegetable oils by the process of transesterification have shown much promise as fuels for all types of diesel engines. As part of a larger study entitled "Development of Rapeseed Biodiesel for Use in High-speed Diesel Engines", this activity was designed to determine the extent of deterioration of Rape Methyl Ester (RME) and Rape Ethyl Ester (REE) in storage. The study involved triplicate samples of RME and REE stored in glass and steel containers at room temperatures (inside) and at local ambient outdoor temperatures (outside). The study was conducted for two years.
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  41. Impacts of contaminations on biodiesel quality
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, J.; Monyem, A.; Canakci, M. 1997. Impacts of contaminations on biodiesel quality. Commercialization of Biodiesel: Producing a quality fuel. 1-13

    The methyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats, known as biodicsel, arc receiving increasing attention as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Although the production of biodiesel involves a relatively simple chemical process, there is potential for various contaminants to be present in the fuel. These contaminants include water, free glycerin, bound glycerin, alcohol, free fatty acids, soaps, catalyst, unsaponifiable matter and the products of oxidation. The objective of this paper is to present data showing the effect of contanrinants on biodiesel quality. Small amounts of these various contaminants were added to biodiesel and their impact on the properties and performance of the biodiescl was measured. Samples of biodicsel were also oxidized to varying degrees to study its effect on biodicsel. The study identifies water contamination, bound glycerin, and oxidation as three areas of concern. Biodiesel can absorb up to 40 times more water than conventional diesel fuel. High levels of bound glycerin can cause crystallization and increased viscosity. Oxidation can produce chemical compounds that improve cetanc number but also increase the acidity and viscosity of the fuel.
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  42. Processing, characterization, and performance of eight fuels from lipids
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Hammond, B. L.; Thompson, J. C.; Beck, Sidney M. 1997. Processing, characterization, and performance of eight fuels from lipids. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 13(1) 71-79

    Test quantities of ethyl and methyl esters of four renewable fuels were processed, characterized and performance tested. Canola, rapeseed, soybean oils, and beef tallow were the feedstocks for the methyl and ethyl esters. A complete set of fuel properties and a comparison of each fuel in engine performance tests are reported. The study examines short term engine tests with both methyl and ethyl ester fuels compared to number 2 diesel fuel (D2). Three engine performance tests were conducted including an engine mapping procedure, an injector coking screening test, and an engine power study. The gross heat contents of the biodiesel fuels, on a mass basis, were 9 to 13% lower than D2. The viscosities of biodiesel were twice that of diesel. The cloud and pour points of D2 were significantly lower than the biodiesel fuels. The biodiesel fuels produced slightly lower power and torque and higher fuel consumption than D2. In general, the physical and chemical properties and the performance of ethyl esters were comparable to those of the methyl esters. Ethyl and methyl esters have almost the same energy. The viscosity of the ethyl esters is slightly higher and the cloud and pour points are slightly lower than those of methyl esters. Engine tests demonstrated that methyl esters produced slightly higher power and torque than ethyl esters. Fuel consumption when using the methyl and ethyl esters is nearly identical. Some desirable attributes of the ethyl esters over methyl esters were: significantly lower smoke opacity, lower exhaust temperatures, and lower pour point. The ethyl esters tended to have more injector coking than the methyl esters, and the ethyl esters had a higher glycerol content than the methyl esters
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  43. Determining the Influence of Contaminants on Biodiesel Properties
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, Jon H.; Hammond, Earl G.; Johnson, Lawrence A.; Marley, Stephen J.; Yu, Liangping; Lee, Inmok; Monyem, Abdul 1996. Determining the Influence of Contaminants on Biodiesel Properties. .

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  44. Determining the Influence of Contaminants on Biodiesel Properties
    Abstract

    Van Gerpen, Jon H.; Hammond, Earl G.; Johnson, Lawrence A.; Marley, Stephen J.; Yu, Liangping; Lee, Inmok; Monyem, Abdul 1996. Determining the Influence of Contaminants on Biodiesel Properties. .

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  45. Development of Rapeseed Biodiesel for Use in High Speed Diesel Engines
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Thompson, J. L.; Zhang, Xiulin; Hammond, B. L.; Beck, Sid 1996. Development of Rapeseed Biodiesel for Use in High Speed Diesel Engines. .

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  46. Development of Rapeseed Biodiesel for Use in High Speed Diesel Engines
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Thompson, J. L.; Zhang, Xiulin; Hammond, B. L.; Beck, Sid 1996. Development of Rapeseed Biodiesel for Use in High Speed Diesel Engines. .

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  47. Emissions Testing with Blends of Esters of Rapeseed Oil Fuel With and Without a Catalytic Converter
    Abstract

    Peterson, Charles L. ; Reece, Daryl L. 1996. Emissions Testing with Blends of Esters of Rapeseed Oil Fuel With and Without a Catalytic Converter. .

    Two pickup trucks, both with 5.9 L, turbocharged and intercooled, direct injection diesel engines, were tested for regulated emissions at the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority Emissions Testing Facility, one in 1994 and the other in 1995. Emissions testing was conducted using the Dynamometer Driving Schedule for Heavy Duty Vehicles (Code of Federal Regulations 40, Part 86, Appendix 1, Cycle D). Emissions data generated included total hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). All tests were with a chassis dynamometer capable of transient testing.
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  48. Emissions Testing with Blends of Esters of Rapeseed Oil Fuel With and Without a Catalytic Converter
    Abstract

    Peterson, Charles L. ; Reece, Daryl L. 1996. Emissions Testing with Blends of Esters of Rapeseed Oil Fuel With and Without a Catalytic Converter. .

    Two pickup trucks, both with 5.9 L, turbocharged and intercooled, direct injection diesel engines, were tested for regulated emissions at the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority Emissions Testing Facility, one in 1994 and the other in 1995. Emissions testing was conducted using the Dynamometer Driving Schedule for Heavy Duty Vehicles (Code of Federal Regulations 40, Part 86, Appendix 1, Cycle D). Emissions data generated included total hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) carbon dioxide (CO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). All tests were with a chassis dynamometer capable of transient testing.
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  49. Biodiesel Testing in Two On-Road Pickups
    Abstract

    Reece, Daryl L.; Peterson, Charles L. 1995. Biodiesel Testing in Two On-Road Pickups. Society of Automotive Engineers. 9

    Two on-road diesel pickups were operated on a mixture of 20 percent Biodiesel and 80 percent diesel for 80,000 kilometers (km). The engines were unmodified, but modifications were made to the vehicles for the convenience of the test. Fuel mixing was done on-board to extend the driving range to over 5,000 km between Biodiesel fill ups.
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  50. Biodiesel Testing in Two On-Road Pickups
    Abstract

    Reece, Daryl L.; Peterson, Charles L. 1995. Biodiesel Testing in Two On-Road Pickups. Society of Automotive Engineers. 9

    Two on-road diesel pickups were operated on a mixture of 20 percent Biodiesel and 80 percent diesel for 80,000 kilometers (km). The engines were unmodified, but modifications were made to the vehicles for the convenience of the test. Fuel mixing was done on-board to extend the driving range to over 5,000 km between Biodiesel fill ups.
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  51. Making and Testing a Biodiesel Fuel Made from Waste French Fry Oil
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Hammond, B. J.; Thompson, J. C.; Beck, S. 1995. Making and Testing a Biodiesel Fuel Made from Waste French Fry Oil. .

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  52. Making and Testing a Biodiesel Fuel Made from Waste French Fry Oil
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Hammond, B. J.; Thompson, J. C.; Beck, S. 1995. Making and Testing a Biodiesel Fuel Made from Waste French Fry Oil. .

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  53. Processing, Characterization and Performance of Eight Fuels from Lipids
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Hammond, B. J.; Thompson, J. C. 1994. Processing, Characterization and Performance of Eight Fuels from Lipids. .

    Test quantities of ethyl and methyl esters of four renewable fuels were processed, characterized and performance tested. Canola, rapeseed, soybean oils, and beef tallow were the feedstocks for the methyl and ethyl esters. Previous results have shown methyl esters to be a suitable replacement for diesel fuel; however, much less has been known about the ethyl esters. A complete set of fuel properties and a comparison of each fuel in engine performance tests are reported. The study examines short term engine tests with both methyl and ethyl ester fuels compared to number 2 diesel fuel (D2). Three engine performance tests were conducted including an engine mapping procedure, an injector coking screening test, and an engine power study.
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  54. Processing, Characterization and Performance of Eight Fuels from Lipids
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Hammond, B. J.; Thompson, J. C. 1994. Processing, Characterization and Performance of Eight Fuels from Lipids. .

    Test quantities of ethyl and methyl esters of four renewable fuels were processed, characterized and performance tested. Canola, rapeseed, soybean oils, and beef tallow were the feedstocks for the methyl and ethyl esters. Previous results have shown methyl esters to be a suitable replacement for diesel fuel; however, much less has been known about the ethyl esters. A complete set of fuel properties and a comparison of each fuel in engine performance tests are reported. The study examines short term engine tests with both methyl and ethyl ester fuels compared to number 2 diesel fuel (D2). Three engine performance tests were conducted including an engine mapping procedure, an injector coking screening test, and an engine power study.
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  55. Rapeseed Oil as Diesel Fuel, an Overview
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Brown, J.; Guerra, D.; Drown, D. C.; Withers, R. V. 1993. Rapeseed Oil as Diesel Fuel, an Overview. .

    For more than a decade, Idaho researchers have been evaluating the potential of vegetable oil based fuels as a diesel substitute. The investigations began by using unmodified vegetable oils in diesel engines, then progressed to the use of modified vegetable oil through the transesterification process. The fuel production process was identified, developed, optimized, evaluated and improved. The oilseeds used for the process are from several cultivars of rapeseed developed by Idaho workers and grown locally.
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  56. Rapeseed Oil as Diesel Fuel, an Overview
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Brown, J.; Guerra, D.; Drown, D. C.; Withers, R. V. 1993. Rapeseed Oil as Diesel Fuel, an Overview. .

    For more than a decade, Idaho researchers have been evaluating the potential of vegetable oil based fuels as a diesel substitute. The investigations began by using unmodified vegetable oils in diesel engines, then progressed to the use of modified vegetable oil through the transesterification process. The fuel production process was identified, developed, optimized, evaluated and improved. The oilseeds used for the process are from several cultivars of rapeseed developed by Idaho workers and grown locally.
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  57. A Comparison of Ethyl and Methyl Esters of Vegetables Oil as Diesel Fuel Substitutes in Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Cruz, R.; Thompson, J. 1992. A Comparison of Ethyl and Methyl Esters of Vegetables Oil as Diesel Fuel Substitutes in Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources. .

    Rapeseed oil and ethanol are renewable, agriculturally produced products which give the ethyl ester of rapeseed oil a significant appeal as a diesel fuel. The methyl ester has been shown to be a suitable replacement for diesel fuel; however, much less has been known about the ethyl ester. This study examines processses which might be used to devlop a simple ethyl ester process similar to that used with methyl ester and reports on both short and long term engine tests with both fuels compared to No. 2 diesel fuel (D2). Ethyl esters form emulsions when washed with water at room temperature and thus both acid washing and unwashed fuels were evaluated. The gross heat contents of biodiesel were 9 to 13 percent lower than D2. The viscosities of biodiesel were twice that of diesel. The cloud and pour points of D2 were significantly lower than the biodiesel fuels. The biodiesel fuels produced slightly lower power and torque and higher fuel consumption than D2.
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  58. A Comparison of Ethyl and Methyl Esters of Vegetables Oil as Diesel Fuel Substitutes n Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Cruz, R.; Thompson, J. 1992. A Comparison of Ethyl and Methyl Esters of Vegetables Oil as Diesel Fuel Substitutes n Liquid Fuels from Renewable Resources. .

    Rapeseed oil and ethanol are renewable, agriculturally produced products which give the ethyl ester of rapeseed oil a significant appeal as a diesel fuel. The methyl ester has been shown to be a suitable replacement for diesel fuel; however, much less has been known about the ethyl ester. This study examines processses which might be used to devlop a simple ethyl ester process similar to that used with methyl ester and reports on both short and long term engine tests with both fuels compared to No. 2 diesel fuel (D2). Ethyl esters form emulsions when washed with water at room temperature and thus both acid washing and unwashed fuels were evaluated. The gross heat contents of biodiesel were 9 to 13 percent lower than D2. The viscosities of biodiesel were twice that of diesel. The cloud and pour points of D2 were significantly lower than the biodiesel fuels. The biodiesel fuels produced slightly lower power and torque and higher fuel consumption than D2.
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  59. Biodiesel Production at the Agricultural Engineering Department University of Idaho Modified Methyl Ester Process
    Abstract

    Department, Biological Engineering 1992. Biodiesel Production at the Agricultural Engineering Department University of Idaho Modified Methyl Ester Process. .

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  60. Biodiesel Production at the Agricultural Engineering Department University of Idaho Modified Methyl Ester Process
    Abstract

    Department, Biological Engineering 1992. Biodiesel Production at the Agricultural Engineering Department University of Idaho Modified Methyl Ester Process. .

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  61. Batch Type Transesterification Process for Winter Rape Oil
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Feldman, M.; Korus, R.; Auld, D. L. 1991. Batch Type Transesterification Process for Winter Rape Oil. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7(6)

    The methyl etser of winter rape (MEWR) has been found to be a potentially useful substitute for diesel fuel. This article discusses the procedure used to produce MEWR for use as a diesel fuel substitute. Reaction variables, rates, equipment, and detailed procedures for making 756 L (200 gal) batches of MEWR are discussed. Systems for methanol and glycerol recovery are included. Zero profit economic data are also presented.
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  62. Batch Type Transesterification Process for Winter Rape Oil
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Feldman, M.; Korus, R.; Auld, D. L. 1991. Batch Type Transesterification Process for Winter Rape Oil. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. 7(6)

    The methyl etser of winter rape (MEWR) has been found to be a potentially useful substitute for diesel fuel. This article discusses the procedure used to produce MEWR for use as a diesel fuel substitute. Reaction variables, rates, equipment, and detailed procedures for making 756 L (200 gal) batches of MEWR are discussed. Systems for methanol and glycerol recovery are included. Zero profit economic data are also presented.
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  63. Soybeans: State level production costs, characteristics and input use
    Abstract

    Ali, M. B.; McBride, W. D. 1990. Soybeans: State level production costs, characteristics and input use. .

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  64. Transesterification of Vegetable Oil for Use as a Diesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Cruz, R.; Perkins, L.; Korus, R.; Auld, D. L. 1990. Transesterification of Vegetable Oil for Use as a Diesel Fuel. .

    The methyl ester or winter rape (MEWR) has been found to be a potentially useful substitute for diesel fuel. This paper discusses the procedure used to produce MEWR for use as a diesel fuel substitute. Reaction variables, rates, equipment and detailed procedures for making 756 1 (200 gal) batches of MEWR. Systems for methanol and glycerol recovery are discussed. Zero profit economic data are also presented.
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  65. Transesterification of Vegetable Oil for Use as a Diesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Cruz, R.; Perkins, L.; Korus, R.; Auld, D. L. 1990. Transesterification of Vegetable Oil for Use as a Diesel Fuel. .

    The methyl ester or winter rape (MEWR) has been found to be a potentially useful substitute for diesel fuel. This paper discusses the procedure used to produce MEWR for use as a diesel fuel substitute. Reaction variables, rates, equipment and detailed procedures for making 756 1 (200 gal) batches of MEWR. Systems for methanol and glycerol recovery are discussed. Zero profit economic data are also presented.
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  66. Experiments with vegetable oil expression
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Auld, D. L.; Thompson, J. C. 1983. Experiments with vegetable oil expression. Transactions of the ASAE. 26(5) 1298-1302

    University of Idaho seed processing research in centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 h or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The equipment has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78% . Winter rape, safflower, and sunflower have been the principle crops used in the study.
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  67. Vegetable Oil Substitutes for Diesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Wagner, G. L.; Auld, D. L. 1983. Vegetable Oil Substitutes for Diesel Fuel. ASAE. 26(2) 7

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  68. Vegetable Oil Substitutes for Diesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Wagner, G. L.; Auld, D. L. 1983. Vegetable Oil Substitutes for Diesel Fuel. ASAE. 26(2) 7

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  69. Winter Rape Oil Fuel for Diesel Engines: Recovery and Utilization
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Auld, D. L.; Korus, R. A. 1983. Winter Rape Oil Fuel for Diesel Engines: Recovery and Utilization. JAOCS. 60(8)

    Although vegetable oil cannot yet be recommended as a fuel for general use, considerable progress in recovery and use of rapeseed oil (Brassica napus L.) for diesel operation has been made. Operation of a small-scale screwpress plant (40 kg/hr) was demonstrated. Maintenance of screw and end rings was a major problem. The plant has operated with a recovery efficiency of 77% and has processed 10,100 kg of seed in 230 hr. High viscosity of the rapeseed oil and its tendency to polymeriz within the cylinder were major chemical and physical problems encountered. Attempts to reduce the viscosity of the vegetable oil by preheating the fuel were not successful in sufficiently increasing the temperature of the fuel at the injector to be of value. Short-term engine performance with vegetable oils as a fuel in any proportion show power output and fuel consumption to be equivalent to the diesel-fueled engines. Severe engine damage occurred in a very short time period in tests of maximum power with varying engine rpm. Additional torque tests with all blends need to be conducted. A blend of 70/30 winter rape and No. 1 diesel has been used successfully to power a small single-cylinder diesel engine for 850 hr. No adverse wear, effect on lubricating oil or effect on power output were noted.
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  70. Winter Rape Oil Fuel for Diesel Engines: Recovery and Utilization
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Auld, D. L.; Korus, R. A. 1983. Winter Rape Oil Fuel for Diesel Engines: Recovery and Utilization. JAOCS. 60(8)

    Although vegetable oil cannot yet be recommended as a fuel for general use, considerable progress in recovery and use of rapeseed oil (Brassica napus L.) for diesel operation has been made. Operation of a small-scale screwpress plant (40 kg/hr) was demonstrated. Maintenance of screw and end rings was a major problem. The plant has operated with a recovery efficiency of 77% and has processed 10,100 kg of seed in 230 hr. High viscosity of the rapeseed oil and its tendency to polymeriz within the cylinder were major chemical and physical problems encountered. Attempts to reduce the viscosity of the vegetable oil by preheating the fuel were not successful in sufficiently increasing the temperature of the fuel at the injector to be of value. Short-term engine performance with vegetable oils as a fuel in any proportion show power output and fuel consumption to be equivalent to the diesel-fueled engines. Severe engine damage occurred in a very short time period in tests of maximum power with varying engine rpm. Additional torque tests with all blends need to be conducted. A blend of 70/30 winter rape and No. 1 diesel has been used successfully to power a small single-cylinder diesel engine for 850 hr. No adverse wear, effect on lubricating oil or effect on power output were noted.
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  71. Vegetable Oils--Renewable Fuels for Diesel Engines
    Abstract

    Peterson, C.L. 1980. Vegetable Oils--Renewable Fuels for Diesel Engines. .

    Sundlower, safflower and winter rape have been evaluated for suitability as substitures for diesel fuel. Performace data taken frm a laboratory test stand is presented. Endurance testing is in progress.
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  72. Vegetable Oils--Renewable Fuels for Diesel Engines
    Abstract

    Peterson, C.L. 1980. Vegetable Oils--Renewable Fuels for Diesel Engines. .

    Sundlower, safflower and winter rape have been evaluated for suitability as substitures for diesel fuel. Performace data taken frm a laboratory test stand is presented. Endurance testing is in progress.
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  73. Vegetable Oils--Renewable Fuels for Diesel Engines
    Abstract

    Peterson, C.L. 1980. Vegetable Oils--Renewable Fuels for Diesel Engines. .

    Sunflower, safflower and winter rape have been evaluated for suitability as substitures for diesel fuel. Performace data taken frm a laboratory test stand is presented. Endurance testing is in progress.
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