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Biodiesel produciton from palm or palm kernel oil

This page lists all articles published worldwide in journal, book, magazine or otherwise about biodiesel produciton from palm or palm kernel oil. Please provide us a feedback feedback if you see any error in this listing or you would like to report and articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. Biodiesel production from palm oil using sulfonated graphene catalyst
    Abstract

    Nongbe, M. C.; Ekou, T.; Ekou, L.; Yao, K. B.; Le Grognec, E.; Felpin, F. X. 2017. Biodiesel production from palm oil using sulfonated graphene catalyst. Renewable Energy. 106135-141

    In this study we report on sulfonated graphene, obtained by chemical exfoliation of inexpensive graphite and functionalization of the resulting graphene sheets with benzene sulfonic acid, as a new active catalyst for the transesterification of palm oil with methanol into biodiesel. The experimental conditions for obtaining fatty acid methyl esters were carefully optimized through the evaluation of several parameters including the catalyst loading, temperature, reaction time and methanol-to-oil molar ratio. Of particular relevance, we noticed that an excess of methanol was required to allow high transesterification yield, but an excessive dilution proved to be deleterious for the reaction yield due to lower interactions between the reactants and the catalyst. The heterogeneous catalyst showed a high thermal robustness and was successfully recycled without significant erosion of the reaction yield. Our catalytic system yields biodiesel with a high purity (>98%) after a single filtration and do not produce aqueous waste. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  2. Evaluating the environmental impacts of bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil and fatty acid methyl ester through life cycle assessment
    Abstract

    Boonrod, B.; Prapainainar, C.; Narataruksa, P.; Kantama, A.; Saibautrong, W.; Sudsakorn, K.; Mungcharoen, T.; Prapainainar, P. 2017. Evaluating the environmental impacts of bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil and fatty acid methyl ester through life cycle assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1421210-1221

    Bio-hydrogenated diesel (BHD) produced from two different raw materials palm oil fatty acid distillate and fatty acid methyl ester-was compared in terms of environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) technique with the SimaPro 7.3 software. The energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission, and environmental impacts reported in unit points (Pt.) were assessed using the Eco-indicator 95, IPCC 2007, and CML 2 Baseline 2000 methodologies, respectively. The functional unit was 1 kg of biofuel product. The system boundary defined included three main processes in the bio-hydrogenated diesel production phase catalytic hydroprocessing, separation, and upgrading. The results indicated that the energy consumption of bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil fatty acid distillate was 1.26 times (or 9.69 x 10(-3) MJ higher) that of the bio-hydrogenated diesel production from fatty acid methyl ester. On the other hand, the greenhouse gas emission from bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil fatty acid distillate was 2.29 times lower than that from fatty acid methyl ester due to the palm trees absorption of CO2 for photosynthesis being greater than the amount released into the atmosphere during the oil palm cultivation stage. The major contributor was crude palm oil as a feedstock to produce either palm oil fatty acid distillate (physical refining) or fatty acid methyl ester (transesterification), which were about 93% and 84% of the total energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission, respectively. The results of environmental impacts showed that the bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil fatty acid distillate was 1.37 times (2.05 x 10(-12) Pt) greater than that from fatty acid methyl ester. Consumption of palm oil fatty acid distillate and fatty acid methyl ester in both processes made the largest contribution to most environmental impacts (99% of the total impact score was from both processes). The main impacts of both bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil fatty acid distillate and fatty acid methyl ester were the terrestrial ecotoxicity potential, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity potential, and marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential. An essential factor which caused these impacts was the use of crude palm oil during the production of palm oil fatty acid distillate and fatty acid methyl ester. Therefore, fatty acid methyl ester was found to be a suitable raw material for biohydrogenated diesel production based on the economic evaluation and the lower environmental impacts during the production stage. This present work highlights the benefit of by-products as feedstock for alternative fuel production in order to increase the by-product marketing value. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  3. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand: Impacts from modelling choices, co-product utilisation, improvement technologies, and land use change
    Abstract

    Prapaspongsa, T.; Musikavong, C.; Gheewala, S. H. 2017. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand: Impacts from modelling choices, co-product utilisation, improvement technologies, and land use change. Journal of Cleaner Production. 153(1) 435-447

    The palm biodiesel industry has been promoted for climate change mitigation, energy security and sustainability strategies worldwide. International debates on land use change and unintended consequences from market-driven impacts of biofuel (i.e. biodiesel and bioethanol) production have highlighted the need for an assessment which considers multi-modelling approaches as well as up-to-date improvement technologies. This study assessed potential environmental life cycle consequences of palm based biodiesel production in comparison with conventional diesel production. Impacts from modelling choices (consequential and attributional life cycle assessment), co-product utilisation during the palm oil milling and biodiesel conversion stages, recent improvement technologies for treating palm oil mill effluent and oil palm breeding, and direct and indirect land use change were assessed using fifteen scenarios. It was found that the different modelling choices as well as the inclusion of direct and indirect land use change highly affected environmental gains and losses compared with the conventional diesel system. The most important contributor to the environmental benefits was utilisation of co-products. When excluding the use phase (because its value did not vary across the different scenarios; except for climate change), the most important contributor in environmental impacts for terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, was emissions from indirect land use change. Increased oil palm yields and improved palm oil mill effluent treatment technologies resulted in overall impact reduction; and should be promoted. Various co-product utilisation pathways have shown different impact reduction potentials. Co-products from palm oil mills should be fully utilised for electricity production, animal feed and oil substitution. Glycerol from biodiesel conversion was suggested to be used for animal nutrition. In conclusion, both modelling choices should be used for supporting policies in different contexts. Policy makers need to be aware of the differences in outcomes and risks of both modelling choices and later on select the specific approach which fits their specific decision context. Co-product utilisation should be optimised in order to increase the total impact reduction. Recommended co-product utilisation pathways, oil palm variety and wastewater treatment technologies can be used for further enhancing the sustainability of palm oil industry. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  4. Microbial biodiesel production from oil palm biomass hydrolysate using marine Rhodococcus sp YHY01
    Abstract

    Bhatia, S. K.; Kim, J.; Song, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Jeon, J. M.; Sathiyanarayanan, G.; Yoon, J. J.; Park, K.; Kim, Y. G.; Yang, Y. H. 2017. Microbial biodiesel production from oil palm biomass hydrolysate using marine Rhodococcus sp YHY01. Bioresource Technology. 23399-109

    The effect of various biomass derived inhibitors (i.e. furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, 4-hydroxy benzaldehyde (4-HB) and acetate) was investigated for fatty acid accumulation in Rhodococcus sp. YHY 01. Rhodococcus sp. YHY01 was able to utilize acetate, vanillin, and 4-HB for biomass production and fatty acid accumulation. The IC50 value for furfural (3.1 mM), HMF (3.2 mM), vanillin (2.0 mM), 4-HB (2.7 mM) and acetate (3.7 mM) was calculated. HMF and vanillin affect fatty acid composition and increase saturated fatty acid content. Rhodococcus sp. YHY 01 cultured with empty fruit bunch hydrolysate (EFBH) as the main carbon source resulted in enhanced biomass (20%) and fatty acid productivity (37%), in compression to glucose as a carbon source. Overall, this study showed the beneficial effects of inhibitory molecules on growth and fatty acid production, and support the idea of biomass hydrolysate utilization for biodiesel production by avoiding complex efforts to remove inhibitory compounds. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  5. Palm fatty acid distillate as a potential source for biodiesel production-a review
    Abstract

    Kapor, N. Z. A.; Maniam, G. P.; Ab Rahim, M. H.; Yusoff, M. M. 2017. Palm fatty acid distillate as a potential source for biodiesel production-a review. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1431-9

    Steady escalating of global CO2 concentration and the findings of 2015 as the warmest year ever recorded, demanding feasible yet urgent solutions to counter those undesirable consequences. One of such solutions is biodiesel, regarded as more environment-friendly fuel, that to be used in diesel engines. Biodiesel is produced at industrial scale mainly from edible feedstock and attempts are constantly being made to lower the feedstock cost by utilizing waste or low-cost feedstock. As to realize the effort, continuous exploration of low-cost yet viable feedstock for biodiesel production is one of the focuses of the researchers. Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is one of such potential feedstock to be utilized in biodiesel preparation. This review serves as a gauge for the use of PFAD as a source for biodiesel production. In addition, a wide range of catalysts and the corresponding optimal reaction conditions are presented. Reusability performance of the catalysts is presented too as to evaluate the overall capability of those catalysts in driving the reaction. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  6. Palm kernel cake obtained from biodiesel production in diets for goats: feeding behavior and physiological parameters
    Abstract

    de Oliveira, R. L.; de Carvalho, G. G. P.; Oliveira, R. L.; Tosto, M. S. L.; Santos, E. M.; Ribeiro, R. D. X.; Silva, T. M.; Correia, B. R.; de Rufino, L. M. A. 2017. Palm kernel cake obtained from biodiesel production in diets for goats: feeding behavior and physiological parameters. Trop Anim Health Prod.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis) cake in diets for goats on feeding behaviors, rectal temperature, and cardiac and respiratory frequencies. Forty crossbred Boer male, non-castrated goats (ten animals per treatment), with an average age of 90 days and an initial body weight of 15.01 +/- 1.76 kg, were used. The goats were fed Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) hay and palm kernel supplemented at the rates of 0, 7, 14, and 21% of dry matter (DM). The feeding behaviors (rumination, feeding, and idling times) were observed for three 24-h periods. DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake values were estimated as the difference between the total DM and NDF contents of the feed offered and the total DM and NDF contents of the orts. There was no effect of palm kernel cake inclusion in goat diets on DM intake (P > 0.05). However, palm kernel cake promoted a linear increase (P < 0.05) in NDF intake and time spent feeding and ruminating (min/day; %; period) and a linear decrease in time spent idling. Palm kernel cakes had no effects (P > 0.05) on the chewing, feeding, and rumination efficiency (DM and NDF) or on physiological variables. The use up to 21% palm kernel cake in the diet of crossbred Boer goats maintained the feeding behaviors and did not change the physiological parameters of goats; therefore, its use is recommended in the diet of these animals.
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  7. Response surface methodology for the optimization of the production of rubber seed/palm oil biodiesel, IDI diesel engine performance, and emissions
    Abstract

    Khalil, I.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Yusup, S.; Heikal, M.; El-Adawy, M. 2017. Response surface methodology for the optimization of the production of rubber seed/palm oil biodiesel, IDI diesel engine performance, and emissions. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 7(1) 37-49

    Emissions from diesel engines have been considered as major air pollution sources. The blending of feedstocks is motivated by the desire to enhance the properties and reduce the cost of biofuels. In this study, a rubber seed/palm oil mixture at equal blend ratios was used to produce biodiesel. The effects of irreverent parameters on transesterification were studied using the response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the maximum yield. Methyl ester at optimized conditions was produced, and its thermophysical properties were studied. Methyl ester effect on the emissions and performance of an unmodified indirect injection diesel engine (IDI) at partial and full load was examined. The results showed that the torque and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) were 1.1 and 1 % lower than diesel fuel, respectively. Compared to diesel fuel, power and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) were 1.1 and 1.3 % lower, respectively, and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was 1.4 % higher at full load. CO was also reduced by 2 % while CO2, NOx, and exhaust temperature increased on average by 1, 1.2, and 1.1 %, respectively.
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  8. Synthesis of MnO-NiO-SO4-2/ZrO2 solid acid catalyst for methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate
    Abstract

    Al-Jaberi, S. H. H.; Rashid, U.; Al-Doghachi, F. A. J.; Abdulkareem-Alsultan, G.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2017. Synthesis of MnO-NiO-SO4-2/ZrO2 solid acid catalyst for methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate. Energy Conversion and Management. 139166-174

    Biodiesel is a found promising alternative biofuel to popular fossil fuel because of to its renewable and biodegradable nature and thus is considered as environmentally benign. This paper reports on the synthesis of a novel heterogeneous manganese-nickel doped on sulfated zirconia catalyst (MnO-NiO-SO4-2/ZrO2) by using simple wet impregnation method for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). The synthesized catalyst was characterized through ammonia temperature programmed desorption (TPD-NH3), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), pyridine adsorption via FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The synthesized catalyst was tested for PFAD through esterification reaction where more than 97% of biodiesel yield was observed under the optimized reaction conditions of 15:1 methanol to PFAD ratio, 70 degrees C reaction temperature, 3 wt% catalyst loading and 3 h reaction time. The reusability of the catalyst was tested and found that it could be reused for at least five times without significant reduction in activity. Hence, the catalyst was found suitable for biodiesel production from low grade feedstock. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd.
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  9. The production of biodiesel using residual oil from palm oil mill effluent and crude lipase from oil palm fruit as an alternative substrate and catalyst
    Abstract

    Suwanno, S.; Rakkan, T.; Yunu, T.; Paichid, N.; Kimtun, P.; Prasertsan, P.; Sangkharak, K. 2017. The production of biodiesel using residual oil from palm oil mill effluent and crude lipase from oil palm fruit as an alternative substrate and catalyst. Fuel. 19582-87

    Biodiesel production using residual oil from palm oil mill effluent (POME) and crude lipase from oil palm fruit as the substrate and catalyst had a high biodiesel yield (92.07 +/- 1.04%) under optimal conditions. POME is considered as an alternative source for oil because it contained high oil and grease content (5569.82 mg/L). Oil was extracted from POME by the soxhlet method using a mixture of hexane, methanol and acetone. Eighty percent of residual oil (4455 mg/L) was recovered from POME. Biodiesel production from crude lipase catalyst is an alternative method that is simple to perform and can be done at a low investment cost. In addition, biodiesel from residual oil using crude lipase catalyst was characterized according to ASTM standards. Most properties of biodiesel from crude lipase are acceptable, according to Thai biodiesel and ASTM standards. Low free fatty acid (0.07%) content was observed in enzymatic biodiesel. A high cloud point (10-13 degrees C) and cetane number (59.0-60.0) were also illustrated since a high cetane number is an important property used to qualify high quality biodiesel, POME biodiesel may possibly be used as a sole biofuel or blended with fossil fuels. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  10. A comparative study between Modified Data Envelopment Analysis and Response Surface Methodology for optimisation of heterogeneous biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil
    Abstract

    Saeidi, S.; Jouybanpour, P.; Mirvakilli, A.; Iranshahi, D.; Klemes, J. J. 2016. A comparative study between Modified Data Envelopment Analysis and Response Surface Methodology for optimisation of heterogeneous biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil. Journal of Cleaner Production. 13623-30

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel which is an alternative source of diesel fuel in compression ignition engines without any modification. According to previous research, the importance of biodiesel production through heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking palm oil (WCPO) over Sr/ZrO2 catalyst has led to developing a new mathematical algorithm called Modified Data Envelopment Analysis (MDEA). MDEA, a hybrid of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) with Neural Network (NN), was proposed for experiment design of multi-response problems. It was validated with Response Surface Methodology (RSM), which is a statistical method. This method was developed to maximise Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) yield and five decision variables were considered. The optimum amount of methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature, reaction time on Ester yield, and free fatty acid (FFA) conversion were calculated via MDEA method. The obtained results showed that the derived optimal parameter-setting of the proposed method, MDEA, is more reliable and accurate than RSM. The errors of predicted Ester yields are 5% and 14% in MDEA and RSM. The calculated errors of conversions are 3% and 19% in MDEA and RSM. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  11. Application of -MnO2 nanorods as catalyst in single step production of biodiesel from palm oil
    Abstract

    Bala, V. S. S.; Kumar, P. S.; Varathachary, T. K.; Kirupha, S. D.; Sivanesan, S. 2016. Application of -MnO2 nanorods as catalyst in single step production of biodiesel from palm oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(14) 2104-2110

    Fatty acid methyl ester, which is known as biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils, has been considered as a promising remedy for fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. In the present research, fatty acid methyl ester is produced by transesterification of palm oil using -MnO2 nano rods. The catalyst was synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared, and scanning electron microscope analysis. Catalyst activity towards transesterification of palm oil was examined. The reaction parameters were optimized by the classical method and were found to be 60 degrees C, 0.5% catalyst, and methanol to oil molar ratio of 9:1. Kinetic and thermodynamic studies were also performed.
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  12. Binary metal-doped methoxide catalyst for biodiesel production from palm stearin
    Abstract

    Theam, K. L.; Islam, A.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Choo, Y. M.; Teo, S. H. 2016. Binary metal-doped methoxide catalyst for biodiesel production from palm stearin. Research on Chemical Intermediates. 42(3) 1943-1963

    Heterogeneous transesterification of vegetable oils offers an environmentally more attractive option for biodiesel production compared with the conventional homogeneous processes. Thus, double metallic methoxide catalyst was developed in the present study, aiming to improve the transesterification of low-cost palm stearin (PS) and reduce waste generation. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized catalyst were studied by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, temperature-programmed desorption-CO2 coupled with mass spectrometry, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analyses. The optimum parameters were obtained via the response surface methodology coupled with a central composite design. Transesterification with the highest biodiesel yield of 98 % was obtained using 3 % catalyst loading, methanol-to-PS ratio of 11:1, 125 min reaction time, and 70 A degrees C temperature. This catalyst appears to be a promising candidate to replace homogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production, as it required short reaction duration and offered high reusability.
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  13. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas Oil and Palm Oil by Using Undirect Ultrasonic Assisted
    Abstract

    Widayat; Satriadi, H.; Baharsyah, A.; Supriyandi 2016. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas Oil and Palm Oil by Using Undirect Ultrasonic Assisted. 2016 4th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (Icseea). 127-131

    The limitation of unrenewable energy required alternative renewable energy and environmental friendly. Biodiesel as one renewable energy that production from vegetable oil. The main reactions are on biodiesel production esterification and transesterification. Nevertheless, this reaction is slow, requires a lot of alcohol and a catalyst, the reaction has not been perfect. a mixing of vegetable that contain jatropha curcas oil and palm oil as feedstock. The objective of this research to optimumize of triglyceride conversion for three variable; include weight ratio jatropha curcas oil to palm oil catalyst concentration and molar ratio of methanol to oil. The experiments were carried out with ultrasonic undirect assisted.. The operation condition was included ultrasonic frequency of 40 kHz and temperature of 60 degrees C. The results showed that optimum condition was obtained in weight ratio jatropha and palm oil 2:1, 1.5 wt% catalyst, and mole ratio of 6:1 with a mixture of methanol-oil and conversion is 95.341%, where product are qualified SNI and ASTM.
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  14. Biodiesel production from palm oil using hydrated lime-derived CaO as a low-cost basic heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Roschat, W.; Siritanon, T.; Yoosuk, B.; Promarak, V. 2016. Biodiesel production from palm oil using hydrated lime-derived CaO as a low-cost basic heterogeneous catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 108459-467

    In this study, hydrated lime-derived calcium oxide (CaO) was used as a catalyst for the transesterification of palm oil. The catalysts were characterized by TG-DTA, XRD, XRF, FT-IR, SEM, Hammett indicator method, TPD-CO2 and BET by N-2 adsorption. Under the optimal conditions at catalyst loading of 6 wt. %, methanol/oil molar ratio of 15:1, reaction temperature 65 degrees C, and stirring rate of 200 rpm; 97% yield of biodiesel could be achieved in 2 h. Effects of water amount were investigated and the catalyst could tolerate high water content of 5 wt.%. The kinetic of the reaction followed pseudo-first order with the activation energy (Ea) of 121.12 kJ/mol and frequency factor (A) of 1.203 x 10(17) min(-1). After treatments, high quality biodiesel was obtained which indicated that the very cheap hydrated lime-derived CaO showed excellent catalytic activity and high potential for applications in biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  15. Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Using Micro tube Reactors: Effects of Catalyst Concentration and Residence Time
    Abstract

    Azam, N. A. M.; Uemura, Y.; Kusakabe, K.; Bustam, M. A. 2016. Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Using Micro tube Reactors: Effects of Catalyst Concentration and Residence Time. Proceeding of 4th International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials (Icpeam 2016). 148354-360

    Recognizing the widespread of negative impact from the usage of fossil fuels, biodiesel has been explored to ensure the sustainability of the environment. Recently, microtube reactor has been widely studied for continuous synthesis of biodiesel production. Therefore, this paper is intended to investigate the transesterification of palm oil using micro-and milli-channel reactors. The research was conducted to study the effects of catalyst concentration (0.5-5.0 wt%) and residence time (60-180 s) for two different tube internal diameters of 1.6 and 0.58 mm. The results showed that the oil conversion and FAME yield are greatly influenced by the tube internal diameter, catalyst concentration and residence time. The effect of tube internal diameter may be attributed to mass transfer effect between oil and methanol phases. The microtube reactor achieved more than 95% at 4.5 wt% of catalyst concentration and 180 s of residence time. Besides, the ester content determined by GC-FID analysis is a good estimation to the FAME yield determined by HPLC analysis. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  16. Biodiesel Production from Waste Palm Oil Catalyzed by Hierarchical ZSM-5 Supported Calcium Oxide
    Abstract

    Zein, Y. M.; Anal, A. K.; Prasetyoko, D.; Qoniah, I. 2016. Biodiesel Production from Waste Palm Oil Catalyzed by Hierarchical ZSM-5 Supported Calcium Oxide. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry. 16(1) 98-104

    Biodiesel production from waste palm oil catalyzed by hierarchical ZSM-5 supported calcium oxide was studied. The activity of CaO increased after supported on h-ZSM-5 resulting an increase in conversion from 93.17% to 95.40%. A maximum conversion of 95.40% was achieved at 6 h reaction time, 3 wt.% catalyst amount, 12: 1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 65 degrees C reaction temperature. The waste palm oil showed a high potential as a feedstock in biodiesel production in which there was no significant different in the conversion of fresh and waste palm oil. The properties of the obtained biodiesel required the limits of biodiesel specification according to ASTM D6751-08 and EN 14214 with the methyl ester content of 97.18%, the acid value of 0.24 mg KOH/g, the kinematic viscosity of 4.64 cSt and the density of 869.9 kg/m(3).
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  17. Biodiesel production in the presence of sulfonated mesoporous ZnAl2O4 catalyst via esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD)
    Abstract

    Soltani, S.; Rashid, U.; Yunus, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2016. Biodiesel production in the presence of sulfonated mesoporous ZnAl2O4 catalyst via esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). Fuel. 178253-262

    Methyl ester produced by esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is considered as a non-toxic alternative and biodegradable source of energy. In this work, a polymeric mixed metal oxide with different (Al/(Zn + Al) molar ratio was initially synthesized as a parent mesoporous ZnAl2O4 material. Then, a post-sulfonation treatment was established to prepare a polymeric solid acid SO3H-ZnAl2O4 catalyst with certain sulfonation degree. The physicochemical, structural, textural, thermal stability characteristics of the synthesized mesoporous catalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analysis (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller equation), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The optimized mesoporous SO3H-ZnAl2O4 catalyst possesses unique properties such as a surface area of 352.39 m(2) g(-1), the average pore diameter of 3.10 nm, a total pore volume of 0.13 cm(3) g(-1), and high acid density up to 1.95 mmol g(-1), simultaneously. The catalytic activity of the synthesized catalyst was further examined through the esterification of PFAD, containing high free fatty acid (FFA around 90%), resulted in PFAD methyl ester yield of 94.65%. The combination of unique textural properties allows the diffusion of reagents easily into inner acid sites. Moreover, the polymeric mesoporous SO3H-ZnAl2O4 catalyst was able to be reused for eight consecutive cycles without substantial losses of activity. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  18. Biorefinery for the Production of Biodiesel, Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas Integrated with CHP from Oil Palm in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Ayodele, B. V.; Cheng, C. K. 2016. Biorefinery for the Production of Biodiesel, Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas Integrated with CHP from Oil Palm in Malaysia. Chemical Product and Process Modeling. 11(4) 305-314

    Malaysia is presently the world's largest exporter of palm oil with total production of 19.22 million tonnes of crude palm oil (CPO) in 2013. Aside CPO, by-products such as empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm kernel shell (PKS), palm kernel oil (PKO), palm kernel cake (PKC) and pressed palm fibres (PPF) are produced from the palm oil mills. These biomasses can be used as potential feedstock for the production of biofuels, biogas and bioelectricity. One of the ways to fully harness the potentials of these biomasses is by employing the biorefinery concepts where all the products and by-products from oil palm are utilized for production of valuable bio-products. In this study, technological feasibility of biorefinery for the production of biodiesel, hydrogen, Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTLs) integrated with combined heat and power (CHP) generation was investigated. Flowsheet was designed for each of the processes using Aspen HYSYS (R) v 8.0. Material balance was performed on a palm oil mill processing 250 tonnes per year of fresh fruit palm (FFP). Results from the material balance shows that 45.1 tonnes of refined bleached deodorized palm oil (RDBPO) and 52.4 tonnes of EFB were available for the production of biodiesel, hydrogen, FTLs and the CHP generation. The annual plant capacity of the biodiesel production is estimated to be 26,331.912 tonnes. The overall energy consumption of the whole process was estimated to be 36.0GJ/h. This energy demand was met with power generated from the CHP which is 792GJ/h leaving a surplus of 756GJ/h that can be sold to the grid. The process modelling and simulation of the biorefinery process shows technological feasibility of producing valuable products from oil palm.
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  19. Cleaner production of methyl ester using waste cooking oil derived from palm olein using a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor
    Abstract

    Chuah, L. F.; Yusup, S.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Bokhari, A.; Abdullah, M. Z. 2016. Cleaner production of methyl ester using waste cooking oil derived from palm olein using a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1124505-4514

    Methyl ester contributes to environmental protection as it is biodegradable, renewable, non-toxic, produces less sulphur oxides emissions and greenhouse gases. The present work highlights the potential of hydrodynamic cavitation for the methyl ester production from waste cooking oil. The transesterification process was conducted under optimised conditions, such as oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:6 in the presence of 1 wt.% potassium hydroxide as alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C. Four newly designed orifice plate geometries induced cavities assisted by a double diaphragm pump in a pilot hydrodynamic cavitation reactor were investigated. It is shown that the high turbulence generated by the cavitating bubbles were effective in reducing the mass transfer resistance between immiscible reactants during the transesterification reaction due to increased interfacial area. At 2 bar inlet pressure, orifice plate with 21 holes of 1 mm diameter resulted in 8 fold higher yield efficiency and 6 fold lower reaction time compared to mechanical stirring. This makes the process more environmental friendly by using hydrodynamic cavitation. In conclusion, waste cooking oil methyl ester produced via hydrodynamic cavitation proved to be energy efficiency and time saving. The properties of the produced methyl ester met both EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from land use change due to oil palm expansion in Thailand for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Permpool, N.; Bonnet, S.; Gheewala, S. H. 2016. Greenhouse gas emissions from land use change due to oil palm expansion in Thailand for biodiesel production. Journal of Cleaner Production. 134532-538

    Thailand depends heavily on importation of fossil oil to satisfy its energy demand. The transportation sector is an important contributor to energy demand; biofuels are therefore strongly promoted in Thailand, notably biodiesel from oil palm. According to the Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2012-2021) a biodiesel target of 5.97 million litres per day is to be achieved by 2021. This research focuses on assessing the implication of this on oil palm plantation area requirement, regions most suitable for its expansion and related greenhouse gas (GHG) implications as well as feedstock security. The investigations revealed that about 91,200 ha of land would be required for oil palm expansion to achieve the biodiesel target while also meeting other requirements for palm oil including domestic consumption, export, stock and surplus. The Eastern and Southern regions were identified as the two most suitable for oil palm cultivation with respectively 29,772 ha and 61,427 ha of mainly grassland and abandoned land. Oil palm expansion in the East would lead to overall land use change related GHG savings amounting to 47,214 tonnes CO2-eq per year. Oil palm expansion in the South would also bring GHG savings, 2.5 times higher than for the East. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  21. Production of Biodiesel from Palm Oil Using Egg Shell Waste as Heterogeneous Catalyst
    Abstract

    Ngadi, N.; Hamdan, N. F.; Hassan, O.; Jaya, R. P. 2016. Production of Biodiesel from Palm Oil Using Egg Shell Waste as Heterogeneous Catalyst. Jurnal Teknologi. 78(9) 59-63

    Egg shell waste was investigated in a triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a solid catalyst for the biodiesel production. The utilization of egg shell as a catalyst not only reduces its environmental effects, but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make it competitive with petroleum diesel. In this study, egg shell waste was ground and the powder produced was calcined at 900 degrees C for 4 hours in a furnace. The physical properties of the catalyst were characterized by using the Fourier Transforminfrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and the biodiesel conversion was determined by the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). 4wt% of catalyst dosage was fixed throughout the experiment. The results obtained indicated that CaO derived from egg shell waste was comparable with the commercial CaO. The maximum percentage yield of biodiesel by using derived CaO is 75.85% under optimum conditions of 6: 1 methanol to oil ratio after 3 hours at 65 degrees C, while for commercial CaO, 74.97% yield of biodiesel with 3:1 methanol to oil ratio after 3 hours at 60 degrees C.
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  22. Removal of free fatty acid in Palm Fatty Acid Distillate using sulfonated carbon catalyst derived from biomass wastefor biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Hidayat, A.; Rochmadi; Wijaya, K.; Budiman, A. 2016. Removal of free fatty acid in Palm Fatty Acid Distillate using sulfonated carbon catalyst derived from biomass wastefor biodiesel production. International Conference on Engineering and Technology for Sustainable Development (Icet4sd) 2015. 105

    In this research, the esterification of PFAD using the sulfonatedcoconut shell biochar catalyst was studied. Carbon solid catalysts were prepared by a sulfonation of carbonized coconut shells. The performances of the catalysts were evaluated in terms of the reaction temperatures, the molar ratios of methanol to PFAD, the catalyst loading and the reaction times. The reusability of the solid acid carbon catalysts was also studied in this work. The results indicated that the FFA conversion was significantly increased with increasing catalyst loading and reaction times. It can be concluded that the optimal conditions were an PFAD to methanol molar ratio of 1:12, the amount of catalyst of 10%w, and reaction temperature of 60 degrees C. At this optimum condition, the conversion to biodieselreached 88%.
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  23. Solid acid as catalyst for biodiesel production via simultaneous esterification and transesterification of macaw palm oil
    Abstract

    da Conceicao, L. R. V.; Carneiro, L. M.; Rivaldi, J. D.; de Castro, H. F. 2016. Solid acid as catalyst for biodiesel production via simultaneous esterification and transesterification of macaw palm oil. Industrial Crops and Products. 89416-424

    Heterogeneous catalysis applied to esterification and transesterification of non-edible oil offers a strategy to the clean synthesis of the biodiesel and is driving research interested into the development of acid catalysts for efficient conversion of low quality vegetable oils into fuels to meet future societal demands. Thus, sulfated niobium oxide catalyst was synthesized by the impregnation method and used as a heterogeneous catalyst aimed at biodiesel production via macaw palm oil through high free fatty acid content transesterification with ethanol. The effect of two reaction parameters, molar ratio of ethanol to macaw palm oil and reaction temperature, on" ester content and viscosity was studied by the response surface methodology (RSM). The ester content was determined by GC. The catalyst shows excellent activity (99.2% ester content and 4.5 mm(2)/s viscosity) towards biodiesel production. Its optimum reaction conditions were: 120:1 molar ratio of ethanol to macaw palm oil at 250 degrees C reaction temperature. The catalysts characterization was carried out by using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and N-2 Adsorption-desorption and Surface Acidity Analyses. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  24. Statistical Optimization of Ethanol-Based Biodiesel Production from Sludge Palm Oil Using Locally Produced Candida cylindracea Lipase
    Abstract

    Nasaruddin, R. R.; Alam, M. Z.; Jami, M. S.; Salihu, A. 2016. Statistical Optimization of Ethanol-Based Biodiesel Production from Sludge Palm Oil Using Locally Produced Candida cylindracea Lipase. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 7(1) 87-95

    Face centered central composite design was used to optimize the enzyme loading, reaction temperature and mixing speed of sludge palm oil (SPO) transesterification reaction using locally produced Candida cylindracea lipase. The developed quadratic model was found to be significant at p < 0.05. The highest biodiesel yield of 57.5 % (w/w SPO) and 15.22 % free fatty acids (FFA) conversion to biodiesel with coefficient of determination R-2 of 0.91 and 0.93, respectively were obtained at enzyme loading of 0.4 U/g SPO, 41 degrees C and 250 rpm mixing speed. Enzyme loading (U/g) gave little effect on the % FFA conversion to biodiesel and total biodiesel yield compared to temperature and mixing speed due to high FFA and water content, thus further studies are required for improvement. The study shows the low cost SPO and locally produced lipase have a promising potential in the utilization of waste for low cost biodiesel production.
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  25. Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent into Lipid and Cell-Bound Lipase by Marine Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica and Their Application in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Louhasakul, Y.; Cheirsilp, B.; Prasertsan, P. 2016. Valorization of Palm Oil Mill Effluent into Lipid and Cell-Bound Lipase by Marine Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica and Their Application in Biodiesel Production. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 7(3) 417-426

    Purpose This study aimed to valorize palm oil mill effluent (POME) into lipid and lipase by marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica and to evaluate their application in biodiesel production.
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  26. A calcium oxide-based catalyst derived from palm kernel shell gasification residues for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bazargan, A.; Kostic, M. D.; Stamenkovic, O. S.; Veljkovic, V. B.; McKay, G. 2015. A calcium oxide-based catalyst derived from palm kernel shell gasification residues for biodiesel production. Fuel. 150519-525

    The fruit of oil-palm trees is used to extract millions of tons of palm oil annually across the globe. The extraction of palm oil leaves behind various residues such as empty fruit bunches, mill sludge and fibers, shells, and palm kernel cake. Considering the large amounts of solid organic wastes that are produced in oil palm mills, there is a need for their recovery and utilization. Palm kernel shells (PKS) are the most difficult fraction of the solid waste to decompose. In this work, PKS solid residues which had been subjected to thermal treatment in a gasifier were used as raw materials for the production of a calcium oxide (quicklime/burnt lime) catalyst. The produced catalyst was fully characterized by SEM-EDX, XRF, XRD, CHNS, TGA, and BET analyses. In addition, the basic strength and basicity of the catalyst were determined. The catalytic activity of the CaO-based catalyst was verified in transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol. The effect of the catalyst loading on the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) formation at a methanol-to-sunflower oil ratio (9: 1) at 60 degrees C was studied. The results show that the calcium carbonate contained in the palm kernel shell biochars is a promising source for calcium oxide catalyst production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  27. A choice between RBD (refined, bleached, and deodorized) palm olein and palm methyl ester productions from carbon movement categorization
    Abstract

    Polprasert, C.; Patthanaissaranukool, W.; Englande, A. J. 2015. A choice between RBD (refined, bleached, and deodorized) palm olein and palm methyl ester productions from carbon movement categorization. Energy. 88610-620

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the full-chain carbon cycle of oil palm to determine the CE (carbon equivalences), starting from plantation until production of end-user products including RBD (refined, bleached, and deodorized) Palm Olein as a cooking oil and PME (palm methyl ester) as biodiesel fuel. Based on the carbon categorization, the equivalent carbon emissions from RBD Palm Olein and PME productions were found to be 159 and 153 kg CE/ton product, respectively. The major emissions in the RBD Palm Olein production chain are attributed to the use of natural gas for energy spent in the industrial process and Poly Ethylene Terephthalate for product containers; whereas, those in the PME production are from methanol used in the transesterification. After identification of the carbon pathway, RBD Palm Olein exhibited a net emission of 116 kg CE/ha-y, but PME shows a net reduction of 2328 kg CE/ha-y. From energy balances and economic performances, PME is found to have higher net energy ratio, with 40% lower production cost per kg CE, than does RBD Palm Olein. Therefore, increasing the use of palm oil for biodiesel production rather than as use for cooking oil is justified as a useful tool for climate change mitigation. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  28. A Comparison of Life Cycle Assessment on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and Physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Indonesia
    Abstract

    Siregar, K.; Tambunan, A. H.; Irwanto, A. K.; Wirawan, S. S.; Araki, T. 2015. A Comparison of Life Cycle Assessment on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and Physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Indonesia. New and Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation, the 3rd Indo Ebtke-Conex 2014, Conference and Exhibition Indonesia. 65170-179

    The objective of this study was to perform and compare LCA of biodiesel production from crude palm oil and crude Jatropha curcas oil. The system boundary for LCA study from cradle to gate. The produced palm oil biodiesel has higher GWP value than Jatropha curcas biodiesel. Utilization of agrochemical, in form of fertilizer and plant protection, generate significant contribution to environmental impact of biodiesel production i.e. 50.46 % and 33.51 % for palm oil and Jatropha curcas oil, respectively. GWP emission up to five years of plantation is 1 695.36 kg-CO(2)eq./t-BDF and 740.90 kg-CO(2)eq./t-BDF for palm oil and Jatropha curcas, respectively. After production stabilised, CO2 emission of diesel fuel decreases up to 37.83 % and 63.61 % for BDF-CPO and BDF-CJCO, respectively. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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  29. A novel feedstock for biodiesel production: The application of palmitic acid from Schizochytrium
    Abstract

    Chen, W.; Ma, L.; Zhou, P. P.; Zhu, Y. M.; Wang, X. P.; Luo, X. A.; Bao, Z. D.; Yu, L. J. 2015. A novel feedstock for biodiesel production: The application of palmitic acid from Schizochytrium. Energy. 86128-138

    With the growing energy crisis and environmental pollution worldwide, the environmental benefits of biodiesel have made it a more attractive product. However, the production of biodiesel feedstock can only satisfy a small fraction of the demand for transportation fuels, and the cost of this feedstock is the main obstacle to the commercialization of biodiesel. The marine microalgae Schizochytrium is a promising producer of biodiesel feedstock because of its short life cycle, high cell density, high lipid content and high palmitic acid (PA) content, all of which can improve the quality of biodiesel. In this study, a sequential optimization of the culture medium, based on response surface methodology (RSM), was employed to increase the PA production in Schizochytrium and lower the process cost. As a result, the PA production by Schizochytrium sp. S056 increased from 14.69 +/- 0.62 g/L to 25.95 +/- 0.11 g/L using the optimal conditions. In addition, the quality analysis of the crude lipid showed that the lipid produced by the microbial process is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  30. Application of a Novel Catalyst in the Esterification of Mixed Industrial Palm Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M. 2015. Application of a Novel Catalyst in the Esterification of Mixed Industrial Palm Oil for Biodiesel Production. Bioenergy Research. 8(1) 459-463

    Mixed industrial palm oil (MIPO) is proposed in this study as a renewable and agro-industrial raw material to produce biodiesel fuel. MIPO was obtained by mixing of acidic crude palm oil with sludge palm oil. Due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) in MIPO (8.5 %), esterification is needed to remove the acidity to the minimum level before biodiesel production. This is the first time 1-propanesulphonic acid (1-PSA) has been introduced as a catalyst for the pretreatment of MIPO. Using optimum conditions, the FFA content was successfully reduced from 8.5 % to less than 1 %. The biodiesel produced meets the international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214). 1-PSA is therefore a promising catalyst that can be used to treat various types of acidic oils.
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  31. Biodiesel production from mixtures of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil: Optimization of fuel properties
    Abstract

    de Almeida, V. F.; Garcia-Moreno, P. J.; Guadix, A.; Guadix, E. M. 2015. Biodiesel production from mixtures of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil: Optimization of fuel properties. Fuel Processing Technology. 133152-160

    The present work studies the influence of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil as raw material on biodiesel properties. The experimental planning was executed through acid esterification (6:1 methanol to oil ratio, 1 wt.% sulfuric acid, at 60 degrees C, 1 h) followed by transesterification (9:1 methanol to oil ratio, 0.5 wt.% sodium hydroxide, at 60 degrees C for I h). Biodiesel samples showed yield higher than 82%, reaching 90% for palm oil (33.3 wt.%) and waste frying oil (66.7 wt.%) biodiesel. FAME content was higher than 92.3% and had a maximum of 98.5% for waste fish oil (333 wt.%) and palm oil (66.7 wt.%) biodiesel. Special cubic models were used to fit experimental data, and were optimized by response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization. Viscosity (4.3 mm(2)/s) and COM (2.5 degrees C) were minimized when pure fish oil was used as raw material, whereas IP maximum (22.0 h) was found for palm oil biodiesel. Multi-objective optimization evidenced that although the use of the pure oils as feedstock presented more advantages to biodiesel properties, the waste fish oil (42.1 wt.%) and waste flying oil (57.9 wt.%) mix is beneficial, if the aim is IP (20%) and COM (80%) improvement. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  32. Biodiesel production from palm oil over monolithic KF/gamma-Al2O3/honeycomb ceramic catalyst
    Abstract

    Gao, L. J.; Wang, S. C.; Xu, W.; Xiao, G. M. 2015. Biodiesel production from palm oil over monolithic KF/gamma-Al2O3/honeycomb ceramic catalyst. Applied Energy. 146196-201

    During transesterification process in the fixed-bed reactor, traditional heterogeneous catalyst cannot stand the high pressure drop and would easily breaks at the reactor bottom thus blocking the outlets. KF/gamma-Al2O3/honeycomb ceramic (HC) monolithic catalyst which was prepared in this research can be utilized because of its thermal and mechanical stability. gamma-Al2O3 was deposited on the inert HC surface as a second carrier and KF acted as an active component. Loading ratio and loading intensity were both examined in order to select for catalyst with best catalytic performance. Optima reaction condition in the fixed-bed reactor was studied by investigating the effect of residence time, methanol/oil molar ratio and reaction temperature on oil conversion. Experiment results indicated that when the residence time was 33 min, the methanol/oil molar ratio was 18:1, the reaction temperature was 140 degrees C and with saturated vapor pressure, oil conversion could exceed 96%. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that the KF/gamma-Al2O3/HC monolithic catalyst shared the same alkaline catalytic centers identical to KF/gamma-Al2O3. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  33. Biodiesel production from palm oil using a non-catalyzed supercritical process
    Abstract

    Park, S. H.; Park, J. H.; Gobikrishnan, S.; Jeong, G. T.; Park, D. H. 2015. Biodiesel production from palm oil using a non-catalyzed supercritical process. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 32(11) 2290-2294

    The effects of free fatty acid (FFA) and moisture contents in palm oil, as well as working volume ratio on the production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters; FAMEs), were investigated using palm oil and a non-catalytic supercritical process. FAME content obtained using anhydrous palm oil was 95.8% during the non-catalytic supercritical process. FAME content produced with 15% moisture content and 15% FFA content was 94.4% and 95.1% respectively, which was similar to that of anhydrous palm oil with no FFA. The non-catalytic supercritical process was not affected by FFA or moisture content in oil. By increasing working volume ratio, reaction temperature decreased from 340 A degrees C to 260 A degrees C at the same pressure, whereas FAME content increased from 69.9% to 95.5%.
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  34. Biodiesel production from palm oil using active and stable K doped hydroxyapatite catalysts
    Abstract

    Chen, G. Y.; Shan, R.; Shi, J. F.; Liu, C. Y.; Yan, B. B. 2015. Biodiesel production from palm oil using active and stable K doped hydroxyapatite catalysts. Energy Conversion and Management. 98463-469

    In the present study, calcined waste pig bone (CB, a solid waste from animal) derived hydroxyapatite (HAP) was served as the support for K2CO3 to prepare a cost-effective solid base catalyst for biodiesel production. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDS, N-2 adsorption-desorption and the Hammett indicator method. The effects of catalyst preparation conditions (such as the loading of K2CO3 on the CB and the calcination temperature), reaction conditions (such as reaction time, methanol/oil molar ratio and catalyst loading) and the catalyst reusability were studied in detail. The experimental results revealed that the highest biodiesel yield of 96.4% was obtained using the 30K/HAP-600 catalyst under the optimum reaction condition (reaction time of 1.5 h, catalyst loading of 8 wt.% and methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1) due to its highest total basicity. Moreover, after reused for more than 8 cycles, the catalyst can still possess a rather high biodiesel yield (above 90%). A little deactivation was found due to le ions leaching to the product. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  35. Biodiesel Production from Refined Palm Oil using Supercritical Ethyl Acetate in A Microreactor
    Abstract

    Sootchiewcharn, N.; Attanatho, L.; Reubroycharoen, P. 2015. Biodiesel Production from Refined Palm Oil using Supercritical Ethyl Acetate in A Microreactor. 2015 International Conference on Alternative Energy in Developing Countries and Emerging Economies. 79697-703

    This research investigated the production of Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester (FAEE) from refined palm oil with ethyl acetate at supercritical conditions in a microreactor, which produced triacetin as the by-product instead of glycerol. The experiments were carried out in a microreactor at the reaction temperature in the range of 330 degrees C to 370 degrees C, with a pressure of 200 bar and an oil to ethyl acetate molar ratio of 1:50. Results showed that the residence time and temperature had a positive effect on FAEE and biodiesel yield, with the high FAEE yield of 63.6% and biodiesel yield of 78.3%. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  36. Biodiesel Production From Soapstock of Palm Oil Refining
    Abstract

    Alhassani, N. A.; Esam, A. S. B.; Abdalwaheed, A. 2015. Biodiesel Production From Soapstock of Palm Oil Refining. 2015 6th International Renewable Energy Congress (IREC).

    The production of fatty acid ethyl esters from palm oil soapstock, a by-product of vegetable oil refining, was conducted. The process involved alkaline hydrolysis of all lipid-linked fatty acid ester bonds with sodium hydroxide solution (50 %) concentration followed by drying to about 8.5 wt% of water content. The resulting fatty acid sodium salts was pulverized, screened to 0.5 mm mesh and then esterified by acid catalyzed esterification process in the presence of sulfuric acid. The reaction parameters effects on the esterification reaction were studied in terms of temperature and ethanol to soapstock molar ratio. Three temperatures were investigated 55 degrees C, 65 degrees C and 75 degrees C and three molar ratios of 10: 1, 25: 1 and 35: 1 under incubation time varied from 30-120 min. The results revealed that maximum biodiesel yield can be achieved under 75 degrees C of reaction temperature, 35: 1 of molar ratio and 120 min of reaction time. GC-MS results revealed that fatty acids ethyl esters content is 98.69 wt% dominated by ethyl palmitate with weight content above 88 %.
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  37. Biodiesel Production using Lipase from Oil Palm Fruit as A Catalyst
    Abstract

    Kimtun, P.; Choonut, O.; Yunu, T.; Paichid, N.; Klomkloa, S.; Sangkharak, K. 2015. Biodiesel Production using Lipase from Oil Palm Fruit as A Catalyst. 2015 International Conference on Alternative Energy in Developing Countries and Emerging Economies. 79822-826

    This study aimed to extract and characterize lipase from oil palm after 0-240 h of harvesting. In addition, the application of lipase as catalyst for biodiesel production was also evaluated. Lipase was extracted and purified by Tris-base buffer (pH 8.0) and the aqueous two phase system (ATPS), respectively. The highest protein at 1.96 mg/gat was obtained from oil palm fruit at 0 h of harvesting. However, the highest lipase activity at 0.98 Units (1.38 Unit/mg protein) was achieved from palm oil after 120 h of harvesting. Afterwards, lipase was collected and purified by ATPS using PEG 1000 under the variation of salts. After purification, lipase activity was increased significantly to 4.76 Unit/mg protein using PEG and NaH2PO4. Therefore, purified lipase was utilized as catalyst for biodiesel production using the transesterification method and the partial properties of biodiesel from lipase were also determined. The biodiesel from lipase had an acid value and free fatty acid content at 0.45 mg/g KOH and 0.21%, respectively. The properties of biodiesel were also compared with commercial biodiesel. Interestingly, the acid value and free fatty acid content of biodiesel from lipase were not significantly different from commercial biodiesel and it also passed Thailand's fuel standards. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  38. Biodiesel Production via Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Sulphonated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Solid Acid Catalyst: Process Study, Catalyst Reusability and Kinetic Study
    Abstract

    Shuit, S. H.; Tan, S. H. 2015. Biodiesel Production via Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Sulphonated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Solid Acid Catalyst: Process Study, Catalyst Reusability and Kinetic Study. Bioenergy Research. 8(2) 605-617

    This study reports on biodiesel production via the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) using sulphonated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (s-MWCNTs) as a catalyst. The process parameters studied included the methanol-to-PFAD ratio (8-30), catalyst loading (1-3 wt%), reaction temperature (80-200 A degrees C) and reaction time (1-5 h). A fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield of 93.5 % was obtained at a methanol-to-PFAD ratio of 20, catalyst loading of 3 wt%, reaction temperature of 170 A degrees C and reaction time of 2 h. The s-MWCNTs exhibited good catalytic activity, with a FAME yield higher than 75 % even after five repeated runs. Moreover, the regeneration of the spent s-MWCNTs (after five runs) with sulphuric acid was able to restore the catalytic activity to its original level. The catalyst stability and activity were enhanced by acid regeneration to achieve a FAME yield of 86.2 %, even at the fifth cycle of reaction after acid regeneration. A pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model for the esterification of PFAD with methanol using s-MWCNTs as a catalyst was then developed based on the experimental results. The pre-exponential factor, molar heat and activation energy for the esterification were found to be 1.9 x 10(2) L mol(-1) min(-1), 84.1 kJ mol(-1) and 45.8 kJ mol(-1), respectively.
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  39. Biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil by using CaO-CeO2 mixed oxide catalysts
    Abstract

    Wong, Y. C.; Tan, Y. P.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Ramli, I.; Tee, H. S. 2015. Biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil by using CaO-CeO2 mixed oxide catalysts. Fuel. 162288-293

    Solid base CaO-CeO2 mixed oxide catalysts have been synthesized via wet impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis, temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 (TPD-CO2) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity was determined by transesterification of palm oil. Optimum biodiesel yield, 95%, was achieved by 50Ca-Ce catalyst under the reaction conditions of 5 wt.% of catalyst, methanol to oil molar ratio of 12: 1, reaction temperature of 65 degrees C and reaction time of 4 h. The high catalytic activity (95%) of 50Ca-Ce catalyst may be due to strong basicity and high BET surface area, which indicate more number of active sites on the catalyst surface for transesterification process. Besides, 50Ca-Ce catalyst showed better reusability than the bulk CaO where it can be reused up to 6 times without a significant loss of catalytic activity (>80%). The lixiviation of CaO active phase was greatly reduced with the presence of strong synergic interaction between CaO and CeO2. Deactivation of the catalyst was mainly due to the leaching of CaO active phase into the methanolic solution and pore-filling by fatty acid or glycerol. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  40. Biomass gasification bottom ash as a source of CaO catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil
    Abstract

    Maneerung, T.; Kawi, S.; Wang, C. H. 2015. Biomass gasification bottom ash as a source of CaO catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil. Energy Conversion and Management. 92234-243

    The main aim of this research is to develop environmentally and economically benign heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil. For this propos, calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst has been developed from bottom ash waste arising from woody biomass gasification. Calcium carbonate was found to be the main component in bottom ash and can be transformed into the active CaO catalyst by simple calcination at 800 degrees C without any chemical treatment. The obtained CaO catalysts exhibit high biodiesel production activity, over 90% yield of methyl ester can be achieved at the optimized reaction condition. Experimental kinetic data fit well the pseudo-first order kinetic model. The activation energy (Ea) of the transesterification reaction was calculated to be 83.9 kJ mol(-1). Moreover, the CaO catalysts derived from woody biomass gasification bottom ash can be reutilized up to four times, offering the efficient and low-cost CaO catalysts which could make biodiesel production process more economic and environmental friendly. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  41. Comparison between Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil with Ethanol: Design and Economic Evaluation
    Abstract

    Young, A. F.; Pessoa, F. L. P.; Queiroz, E. M. 2015. Comparison between Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil with Ethanol: Design and Economic Evaluation. Icheap12: 12th International Conference on Chemical & Process Engineering. 43325-330

    Biodiesel production by homogeneous alkali catalysis was simulated in PRO/II (R) from crude soybean oil and crude palm oil at industrial level, with ethanol. Actual compositions were assumed for both vegetable oils from the literature and thermodynamic properties were estimated by a group contribution method. Because of the higher content of free fatty acids in crude palm oil, it was demonstrated that some changes in the ethanol content and in the equipment specifications are needed to reach a fuel in agreement with the international quality laws, if compared to biodiesel from soybean oil. A same plant could process both raw materials, because the main structural differences are in vessel volumes and temperatures and not in distillation columns or heat exchangers specifications. An economic evaluation was performed to compare the relative potential of both the oilseeds. In the case of Brazil in the mid-2014, it was not profitable to produce biodiesel from these oilseeds and ethanol. Palm oil had the highest manufacturing cost in that scenario, mainly because of the higher demand for ethanol in the pre-treatment step. However, due to the big contribution of raw materials costs in the total manufacturing cost, this scenario could easily change with tax reductions, subsidy or the simple expansion of palm production in the country. The authors expect that the same methodology could be applied to other technologies and/or other raw materials to update the available information about biodiesel production alternatives in Brazil and elsewhere.
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  42. Design and Economic Evaluation of Alternatives to Effluents Treatment on Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil
    Abstract

    Young, A. F.; Pessoa, F. L. P.; Queiroz, E. M. 2015. Design and Economic Evaluation of Alternatives to Effluents Treatment on Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil. 12th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering (Pse) and 25th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (Escape), Pt B. 371067-1072

    Biodiesel production by homogeneous alkali catalysis was simulated in PRO/II (R) from crude soybean oil and crude palm oil at industrial level, with ethanol. Actual compositions were assumed and thermodynamic properties were estimated by a group contribution method. The main effluents from biodiesel production are streams rich in unreacted oil, water, ethanol and glycerine. Some alternatives to the treatment of these effluents were proposed, including hydrous or anhydrous ethanol production, production and recycle of pure glycerol and unreacted oil recycle. An economic evaluation was done to find out the potential of each treatment possibility. It was demonstrated that, in the case of Brazil in mid-2014, it was not profitable to produce biodiesel from these oilseeds and ethanol without tax reductions or subsidy, but it is possible to reduce production costs and biodiesel prices with effluents treatment, generating more economical and sustainable plants.
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  43. Esterification of sludge palm oil as a pretreatment step for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Skrbic, B.; Predojevic, Z.; Durisic-Mladenovic, N. 2015. Esterification of sludge palm oil as a pretreatment step for biodiesel production. Waste Management & Research. 33(8) 723-729

    Acid esterification of sludge palm oil, having 50mas.% free fatty acids, i.e. 50g of dominant free fatty acid per 100g of oil, was investigated with the objective of determining conditions for the efficient reduction of free fatty acids. The influences of sulphuric acid dosage and molar ratio of methanol to oil were studied, with the final intention to obtain feedstock with a free fatty acids content acceptable for biodiesel production by alkali-transesterification. Esterification was performed using different molar ratios of methanol to oil (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1) and varying the amount of H2SO4 catalyst (0.92mas.%, 1.84mas.% and 4.60mas.%). Under the applied conditions, the sulphuric acid dosage of 4.60mas.% resulted in the satisfactory decrease of the feedstock's free fatty acids for 6:1 and 9:1 molar ratios of methanol to oil. Thus, taking into account the economic reasoning, it can be concluded that approximately 5mas.% of H2SO4 with 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oily feedstock, might be regarded as the dosage necessary for satisfactory pretreatment of the feedstock to be further subjected to the alkaline transesterification. Finally, the effort to consolidate the information on acid esterification available in literature was made, contributing to knowledge on sustainable biodiesel production using the low-grade and low-cost sources.
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  44. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production Process from Palm Oil (Eleais Guineensis) using Exergy Analysis Methodology
    Abstract

    Figueroa-Jimenez, S.; Gamarra-Torres, J.; Bonilla-Correa, D.; Peralta-Ruiz, Y. 2015. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production Process from Palm Oil (Eleais Guineensis) using Exergy Analysis Methodology. Icheap12: 12th International Conference on Chemical & Process Engineering. 43529-534

    The search for cleaner energy sources has motivated the development of fuels from oil crops such as soybeans, sunflowers, rapeseeds, palms, tartago, and others. One of the most important processes being developed in large-scale is biodiesel production from African Palm. However, one of the most critical disadvantages of biodiesel is a lower production of combustion energy output compared to fossil fuels and consequently, higher energy requirements for obtaining an energy unit.
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  45. Methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Lokman, I. M.; Rashid, U.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Yunus, R. 2015. Methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst. Renewable Energy. 81347-354

    A highly potential heterogeneous solid acid catalyst derived from a carbohydrate precursor was successfully developed and applied for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). The catalyst was synthesized by sulfonating the incomplete carbonized D-glucose using concentrated sulfuric acid to produce a sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst. The catalyst underwent a detailed characterization analysis in terms of its functional groups of active sites, morphological structure, thermal stability, surface area and density of acid sites. For the catalytic activity test, the sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst was used to esterify PFAD which contained around 85 wt.% free fatty acids (FFA). Furthermore, it demonstrated a 95.4% conversion of FFA to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with 92.3% of FAME yield under the following optimum condition: catalyst loading of 2.5 wt.%, methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio of 10:1, reaction temperature of 75 degrees C and the reaction time was 2 h. It can be deduced from the results that a sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst has a high potential to esterify high FFA feedstocks, especially PFAD, to produce low cost biodiesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  46. Microwave-Assisted Methyl Ester Production from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate over a Heterogeneous Carbon-Based Solid Acid Catalyst
    Abstract

    Lokman, I. M.; Rashid, U.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2015. Microwave-Assisted Methyl Ester Production from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate over a Heterogeneous Carbon-Based Solid Acid Catalyst. Chemical Engineering & Technology. 38(10) 1837-1844

    An efficient microwave-pulse width modulation (microwave-PWM) batch reactor with controlled temperature and power was fabricated for biodiesel production. Microwave-assisted acceleration of the esterification rate of palm fatty acid distillate using a sulfonated-glucose solid acid catalyst (glucose-SO3H) is described. Glucose-SO3H was prepared by simple sulfonation of incomplete carbonized glucose. Parametric studies were performed in order to determine the optimum operating conditions of the reaction process. The radio frequency microwave energy could enhance the reaction rate by eight times compared to the conventional heating techniques under mild conditions. The results reveal the potential of microwave irradiation, which offers a faster esterification rate, improves the yield of fatty acid methyl esters, and reduces the production cost.
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  47. Modification of magnetic nanoparticle lipase designs for biodiesel production from palm oil
    Abstract

    Raita, M.; Arnthong, J.; Champreda, V.; Laosiripojana, N. 2015. Modification of magnetic nanoparticle lipase designs for biodiesel production from palm oil. Fuel Processing Technology. 134189-197

    Biocatalytic conversion of vegetable oils by immobilized lipase to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) is an efficient eco-friendly alternative to the conventional alkaline-catalyzed biodiesel production process. In this work, immobilization of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase on Fe3O4 was studied using different covalent linkage designs. Immobilization of lipase on magnetic supports was shown by Fourier-Transformed infrared microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Immobilized lipase prepared on Fe3O4 carrier modified by 3-aminopropyl triethyoxysilane and covalently linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide (Fe3O4-AP-EN-LIP) showed the highest catalytic activity on hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl palmitate and transesterification of refined palm oil. Reaction variables were optimized by Central Composite Design, which identified 232% w/w enzyme loading and 4.7:1 methanol to FFAs molar ratio with 3.4% water content in the presence of 1:1 (v/v) tert-butanol to oil as optimal conditions, leading to 97.2% FAME yield after incubation at 50 degrees C for 24 h. The biocatalyst showed high operational stability and could be simply separated by magnetization and recycled for at least 5 consecutive batches with >80% activity remaining, suggesting its potential for application in biocatalytic biodiesel synthesis. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  48. Palm Frond and Spikelet as Environmentally Benign Alternative Solid Acid Catalysts for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Sani, Y. M.; Raji, A. O.; Alaba, P. A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Daud, W. M. A. W. 2015. Palm Frond and Spikelet as Environmentally Benign Alternative Solid Acid Catalysts for Biodiesel Production. Bioresources. 10(2) 3393-3408

    A carbonization-sulfonation method was utilized in synthesizing sulfonated mesoporous catalysts from palm tree biomass. Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and field emission scanning emission microscopy (FE-SEM) analyses were used to evaluate the structural and textural properties of the catalysts. Further, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and titrimetric analyses measured the strong acid value and acidity distribution of the materials. These analyses indicated that the catalysts had large mesopore volume, large surface area, uniform pore size, and high acid density. The catalytic activity exhibited by esterifying used frying oil (UFO) containing high (48%) free fatty acid (FFA) content further indicated these properties. All catalysts exhibited high activity, with sPTS/400 converting more than 98% FFA into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The catalyst exhibited the highest acid density, 1.2974 mmol/g, determined by NaOH titration. This is outstanding considering the lower reaction parameters of 5 h, 5:1 methanol-to-oil ratio, and a moderate temperature range between 100 and 200 degrees C. The study further illustrates the prospect of converting wastes into highly efficient, benign, and recyclable solid acid catalysts.
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  49. Pillared HMCM-36 zeolite catalyst for biodiesel production by esterification of palmitic acid
    Abstract

    Purova, R.; Narasimharao, K.; Ahmed, N. S. I.; Al-Thabaiti, S.; Al-Shehri, A.; Mokhtar, M.; Schwieger, W. 2015. Pillared HMCM-36 zeolite catalyst for biodiesel production by esterification of palmitic acid. Journal of Molecular Catalysis a-Chemical. 406159-167

    Layered MWW zeolite has been studied for swelling/pillaring using CTAB and silica as swelling and pillaring reagents, respectively to synthesize pillared MCM-36 material. The swelling/pillaring efficiency was evaluated based on their X-ray diffraction, N-2-physisorption, scanning electron microscopy and FTIR spectra after pyridine adsorption as indicator for acidity measurements and catalytic potential. There was an overall decrease in acid site concentration due to incorporation of inert silica pillars. However, after ion exchange, mesoporous HMCM-36 zeolite with the highest BET surface area showed increased Bronsted and Lewis acid sites compared to the MCM-22, suggesting enhanced accessibility of acid sites for bulky reacting molecules. MCM-22 and MCM-36, as well as the ion exchanged HMCM-22 and HMCM36 samples were tested for esterification of palmitic acid with methanol. The HMCM-36 catalyst showed high activity in palmitic acid esterification with methanol. This catalyst can be readily separated from the reaction system for re-use for at least four cycles without losing any activity suggesting potential industrial applications in biodiesel synthesis. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  50. Potential of biodiesel production from palm oil at Brazilian Amazon
    Abstract

    Kuss, V. V.; Kuss, A. V.; da Rosa, R. G.; Aranda, D. A. G.; Cruz, Y. R. 2015. Potential of biodiesel production from palm oil at Brazilian Amazon. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 501013-1020

    The search for alternative fuel sources is indispensable to reduce the dependence from petroleum fuels. Biodiesel which is produced from oils and fats is an excellent substitute for diesel. In terms of feedstock, palm oil is highlighted as the traditional culture with best income in oil per hectare and it is one of the most consumed oils in the world. Brazil has great amount of illegally deforested areas in Amazon and these places are able to cultivate palm oil. These areas may be recovered through the palm sustainable planting, developing familiar agriculture and the region's economy, besides placing Brazil as one country with highest potential of biodiesel and palm oil production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  51. Pre-Blended Methyl Esters Production from Crude Palm and Rubber Seed Oil Via Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor
    Abstract

    Yusup, S.; Bokhari, A.; Chuah, L. F.; Ahmad, J. 2015. Pre-Blended Methyl Esters Production from Crude Palm and Rubber Seed Oil Via Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor. Icheap12: 12th International Conference on Chemical & Process Engineering. 43517-522

    Variety of transesterification processes was widely investigated for biodiesel production to enhance the fuel quality. Energy and reaction time are the major constraints to develop a more economically process with better product quality. Hydrodynamic cavitation possesses lessen the reaction time based on conversion of feedstock to biodiesel. Current study utilized pre-blended equi-volume mixture of crude palm and rubber seed oil as the feedstock. Rubber seed oil as a non-edible feedstock for biodiesel helps to reduce the dependency on crude palm oil. The esterification and transesterification process were carried out at mini scale pilot plant with hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. The cavities were produced in the reactor by passing the fluid (methanol, oil and catalyst) under reduced pressure through constriction (orifice) at higher velocity and these cavities will collapse due to recovered pressure. The sudden collapse of cavities under pressure increased the mass transfer between oil, methanol and catalyst. This mass transfer limitation in conventional transesterification processes was overcome by hydrodynamic cavitation and hence lesser reaction time achieved. In this research the conversion of fatty acid methyl esters up to 90% was observed in 20 minutes. The produced methyl esters were analyzed for its low temperature fuel properties and it meets the international standards of EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751.
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  52. Production of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated-glucose solid acid catalyst: Characterization and optimization
    Abstract

    Lokman, I. M.; Rashid, U.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2015. Production of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated-glucose solid acid catalyst: Characterization and optimization. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 23(11) 1857-1864

    A palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has been used for biodiesel production. An efficient sulfonated-glucose acid catalyst (SGAC) was prepared by sulfonation to catalyze the esterification reaction. The effect of three variables i.e. methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio, catalyst amount and reaction time, on the yield of PFAD esters was studied by the response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum reaction conditions were: 12.2:1 methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio, 2.9% catalyst concentration and 134 min of time as predicted by the RSM. The reaction under the optimum conditions resulted in 94.5% of the free fatty acid (FFA) conversion with 92.4% of the FAME yield. The properties of the PFAD esters were determined according to biodiesel standards. (C) 2015 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. All rights reserved.
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  53. Production of biodiesel through esterification of palmitic acid using 12-tungestoposphoric acid supported on nanocavity of aluminium incorporated mesoporous SBA-15
    Abstract

    Fazaeli, R.; Aliyan, H. 2015. Production of biodiesel through esterification of palmitic acid using 12-tungestoposphoric acid supported on nanocavity of aluminium incorporated mesoporous SBA-15. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 88(4) 676-681

    The main aim of this research is to develop efficient and environmentally benign heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production. For this purpose, H3PW12O40 (PW12) supported on Al-functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous molecular sieve featuring a well-defined three-dimensional (3D) mesoporosity were studied, and the prepared catalyst (PW12/Al-SBA-15) was tested for the esterification process of palmitic acid to produce methyl palmitate as a kind of biodiesel. The effects of the methanol/oil ratio, catalyst amounts, reaction time, and reaction temperature on the conversion are also reported in this paper. More importantly, by using a 35 wt % of PW12/Al-SBA-15 with methanol/oil molar ratio of 20: 1 at reflux of methanol, the oil conversion of 98% after 8 h of reaction, could be achieved over the solid catalyst for at least 6 cycles under mild conditions.
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  54. Production of Biodiesel via Enzymatic Palm Oil Ethanolysis: Kinetic Study
    Abstract

    Magalhaes, S. P.; Pessoa, F. L. P.; Alves, T. L. M. 2015. Production of Biodiesel via Enzymatic Palm Oil Ethanolysis: Kinetic Study. 12th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering (Pse) and 25th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (Escape), Pt A. 37539-544

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that has become attractive due to its environmental benefits compared to conventional diesel. Over the years an initial reaction rate based on the Ping Pong Bi Bi enzyme mechanism has been adopted to represent the kinetics of the enzymatic transesterification in several references in the open literature. However, in this work, a two parameters model taking into account the inhibitory effects due to the concentration of both product species was proposed and the experimental oil conversion data were fitted to the model. The kinetic study of the palm oil ethanolysis reaction catalyzed by immobilized lipase Novozyme 435 (from Candida antarctica) has been made in a temperature of 42 degrees C at atmospheric pressure. A maximum conversion of 70% of oil was obtained after 7 hours of reaction. The model proposed was successful in predicting the experimental data behavior (mean absolute deviation < 5%) with the reactor operating in batch. The confidence interval of the parameters was small, and the parameters did not show a high dependency between each other with a correlation coefficient between them equal to 0.855, ratifying the excellent fit of the rate equation proposed.
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  55. Production Technology of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Mild Acid Catalyst
    Abstract

    Abd Wafti, N. S.; Lau, H. L. N.; Choo, Y. M. 2015. Production Technology of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Mild Acid Catalyst. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 27(4) 352-359

    A two-stage esterification system for the production of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has been developed using acid catalysts, i.e. sulphonic acids. The sulphonic acid catalysts have an excellent solubility property in water phase rendering easy phase separations and also can prevent the formation of undesirable by-products. The optimum reaction conditions for the first stage esterification process was achieved with 2:1 molar ratio of methanol to PFAD with 1.5 wt.% of acid catalyst, reacted for 90 min at temperature of 65 degrees C. The optimum conditions for second stage esterification process enable the reduction of remaining free fatty acids (FFA) in PFAD to less than 2% with catalyst dosage of 1.0 wt.% under similar reaction conditions. The reaction product was then purified and subjected to transesterification process; 0.5 wt. % sodium hydroxide was used as catalyst at 65 degrees C for 90 min. The fuel properties of PFAD biodiesel were found to comply with the European Biodiesel Standard, EN 14214:2008. Therefore, the developed process for production of biodiesel from low-priced feedstock PFAD is really applicable to actual biodiesel production with most competitive process due to its simplicity and excellent reaction yield.
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  56. Role of Biogas and Biochar Palm Oil Residues for Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Harsono, S. S.; Grundmann, P.; Siahaan, D. 2015. Role of Biogas and Biochar Palm Oil Residues for Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Biodiesel Production. New and Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation, the 3rd Indo Ebtke-Conex 2014, Conference and Exhibition Indonesia. 65344-351

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which related to palm oil production are tend to increase due to the increasing of palm oil demand and the expansion process of oil palm production worldwide. The specific objective of the study was to assess the contribution of innovative biomass processes as effort to improve the energy balance and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with biodiesel made from palm oil. The GHG was calculated that GHG emission savings up to 63.14 % in total. GHG emissions from biochar using empty fruit bunches (EFB) resulted to 2.95 % from total GHG emissions, and biogas from palm oil mill effluent (POME) produced 74.22 % of the total GHG emissions from palm oil based biodiesel production. Innovative technologies and processes for the treatment of by-products can contribute significantly for meeting the emission targets. Build upon the research, resulted to the recommendation to use biochar and capturing methane from POME. The research result was also concerned that emission savings are annulled in the case of land use change (LUC) and oil palm production on peatland. Based on this research resulted to recommended that the utilization of waste from oil palm cultivation on peatland which was disuse and the capturing of methane from POME (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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  57. Super phosphoric acid catalyzed esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate for biodiesel production: physicochemical parameters and kinetics
    Abstract

    Metre, A. V.; Nath, K. 2015. Super phosphoric acid catalyzed esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate for biodiesel production: physicochemical parameters and kinetics. Polish Journal of Chemical Technology. 17(1) 88-96

    In the present study the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), a by-product from palm oil industry, in the presence of super phosphoric acid (SPA) catalyst was studied. The effects of various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, PFAD to methanol molar ratio and amount of catalyst on the conversion of biodiesel were investigated. The percent conversion of FFA and properties of the biodiesel were determined following standard methodologies. Percent conversion of biodiesel was found to increase with the increase in PFAD to methanol molar ratio and at 1: 12 molar ratio and 70 degrees C temperature 95% conversion was achieved. Thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated in terms of Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy at different molar ratio and temperatures. Both pseudo first and second order irreversible kinetics were applied to a wide range of experimental data. However, according to regression coefficient (R-2) the second order described better experimental behavior of kinetic data.
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  58. The Effect of Different Phosphate Concentration on Growth, Lipid Productivity and Methyl Palmitate Methyl Ester Production by Nannochloropsis Oculata
    Abstract

    Mahat, K.; Jamaluddin, H.; Zain, N. A. M. 2015. The Effect of Different Phosphate Concentration on Growth, Lipid Productivity and Methyl Palmitate Methyl Ester Production by Nannochloropsis Oculata. Jurnal Teknologi. 77(31) 79-83

    This study reports the effect of different phosphate concentration ranging from 0 g/L, 0.1 g/L, 0.2 g/L, 0.5 g/L, 1.0 g/L and 2.0 g/L on the growth and lipid productivity of the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata. Based on the result, it shows that, the microalgae growth increased as the concentration of phosphate added into the medium increased while the percentage of lipid produced was inversely proportional to increasing concentrations of phosphate. The highest amount of lipid produced was when the microalgae were cultured under 0.1 g/L phosphate which was 5.7%. Based on the standard analyzed using gas chromatography, the percentage of methyl palmitate methyl ester produced increased along with increasing concentration of phosphate until 0.5 g/L which was 11%, however further increase in phosphate concentration caused the lipid productivity to drop.
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  59. A Solid Organic Acid Catalyst for the Pretreatment of Low-Grade Crude Palm Oil and Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Mjalli, F. S.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M.; AlNashef, I. M.; Al-Wahaibi, T.; Al-Wahaibi, Y. M. 2014. A Solid Organic Acid Catalyst for the Pretreatment of Low-Grade Crude Palm Oil and Biodiesel Production. International Journal of Green Energy. 11(2) 129-140

    Industrial low-grade crude palm oil (LGCPO) generated from industrial palm oil mills must be pretreated before utilizing it as a biodiesel raw material. The pretreatment of LGCPO was conducted using benzenesulfonic acid (BZSA) as solid organic acid catalyst. Batch pretreatment of LGCPO was carried out to study the influence of BZSA dosage (0.25--3.5% wt/wt), methanol molar ratio to LGCPO (4:1--20:1), temperature (40--80 degrees C), and reaction time (3--150 min). The effects of those parameters on the free fatty acid content, and the yield of pretreated LGCPO were reported. This study illustrated the feasibility of using LGCPO from palm oil mills to produce biodiesel. The biodiesel produced from LGCPO meets the international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214). Three times recycling of BZSA was achieved without appreciable degradation in its activity. This study introduces a possible batch esterification process using BZSA followed by an alkaline transesterification reaction for a possible future industrial application.
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  60. A Solid Organic Acid Catalyst for the Pretreatment of Low-Grade Crude Palm Oil and Biodiesel Production (vol 11, pg 129, 2014)
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A. 2014. A Solid Organic Acid Catalyst for the Pretreatment of Low-Grade Crude Palm Oil and Biodiesel Production (vol 11, pg 129, 2014). International Journal of Green Energy. 11(4) 440-440

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  61. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluents: potential contribution to net energy yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Harsono, S. S.; Grundmann, P.; Soebronto, S. 2014. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluents: potential contribution to net energy yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from biodiesel production. Journal of Cleaner Production. 64619-627

    The effluents from palm oil mills for biodiesel production are generally treated in open ponds, causing large amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study assesses the use of palm oil mill effluents (POME) as feedstock to produce biogas via anaerobic digestion. Biogas from POME can be converted into electricity and heat to eventually reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biodiesel production from palm oil. This study is using two system boundaries, firstly, system a "gate-to-gate" concerning the POME treatments, and secondly a "cradle-to-gate/total combustion" when we assess the impact of varying POME treatments within the biodiesel chain.
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  62. Biodiesel production and performance evaluation of coconut, palm and their combined blend with diesel in a single-cylinder diesel engine
    Abstract

    Habibullah, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Fattah, I. M. R.; Ashraful, A. M.; Mobarak, H. M. 2014. Biodiesel production and performance evaluation of coconut, palm and their combined blend with diesel in a single-cylinder diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management. 87250-257

    Biodiesel is a renewable and sustainable alternative fossil fuel that is derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. This study investigates the production, characterization, and effect of biodiesel blends from two prominent feedstocks, namely, palm and coconut (PB30 and CB30), on engines. To aggregate the advantages of high ignition quality of palm and high oxygen content of coconut, combined blend of this two biodiesels (PB15CB15) is examined to evaluate its effect on engine performance and emission characteristics. Biodiesels are produced using the alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Various physicochemical properties are measured and compared with the ASTM D6751 standard. A 10 kW, horizontal, single-cylinder, four-stroke, and direct-injection diesel engine is employed under a full load and varying speed conditions. Biodiesel blends produce a low brake torque and high brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC). However, all emissions, except for NOx, are significantly reduced. PB15CB15 improves brake torque and power output while reducing BSFC and NOx emissions when compared with CB30. Meanwhile, compared with PB30, PB15CB15 reduces CO and HC emissions while improving brake thermal efficiency. The experimental analysis reveals that the combined blend of palm and coconut oil shows superior performance and emission over individual coconut and palm biodiesel blends. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  63. Biodiesel Production from Acidic Crude Palm Oil Using Perchloric Acid
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M.; Qing, K. G. 2014. Biodiesel Production from Acidic Crude Palm Oil Using Perchloric Acid. International Conference on Applied Energy, Icae2014. 612745-2749

    Perchloric acid was used as a catalyst for the treatment of free fatty acid (FFA) in acidic crude palm oil (ACPO). Perchloric acid shows reduced the FFA content from 8.8% to 1% using 1% of acid to ACPO and the conversion of FFA to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was 88%. The produced biodiesel from treated ACPO meets international biodiesel standards such as EN 14214 and ASTM D6751. Perchloric acid shows high catalytic activity for the conversion of FFA to FAME and can be used to treat a wide range of acidic oils and fats. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).
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  64. Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil in a Millichannel Reactor
    Abstract

    Ab Rashid, W. N. W.; Uemura, Y.; Kusakabe, K.; Osman, N.; Abdullah, B. 2014. Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil in a Millichannel Reactor. 4th Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Pts 1 and 2. 465-466232-+

    Transesterification of palm oil with methanol using a potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalyst to form fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) commercially known as biodiesel was performed in a millichannel reactor. In this study, a transparent Teflon tubular reactor with the inner diameter of 1.59 mm at 60 degrees C was carried out to produce FAME. Residence time was changed by changing the tube length and flow rate. The residence time of 69 s is required to achieve more than 88% of ester content. The relationship between ester content and flow pattern was also investigated.
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  65. Biodiesel production from palm oil using combined mechanical stirred and ultrasonic reactor
    Abstract

    Choedkiatsakul, I.; Ngaosuwan, K.; Cravotto, G.; Assabumrungrat, S. 2014. Biodiesel production from palm oil using combined mechanical stirred and ultrasonic reactor. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 21(4) 1585-1591

    This paper investigates the production of biodiesel from palm oil using a combined mechanical stirred and ultrasonic reactor (MS-US). The incorporation of mechanical stirring into the ultrasonic reactor explored the further improvement the transesterification of palm oil. Initial reaction rate values were 54.1, 142.9 and 164.2 mmol/L min for the mechanical-stirred (MS), ultrasonic (US) and MS-US reactors, respectively. Suitable methanol to oil molar ratio and the catalyst loading values were found to be 6 and 1 of oil, respectively. The effect of ultrasonic operating parameters; i.e. frequency, location, and number of transducer, has been investigated. Based on the conversion yield at the reactor outlet after 1 h, the number of transducers showed a relevant role in the reaction rate. Frequency and transducer location would appear to have no significant effect. The properties of the obtained biodiesel (density, viscosity, pour point, and flash point) satisfy the ASTM standard. The combined MS-US reactors improved the reaction rate affording the methyl esters in higher yield. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  66. Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Using Potassium Hydroxide Loaded on ZrO2 Catalyst in a Batch Reactor
    Abstract

    Intarapong, P.; Iangthanarat, S.; Luengnaruemitchai, A.; Jai-In, S. 2014. Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Using Potassium Hydroxide Loaded on ZrO2 Catalyst in a Batch Reactor. Chiang Mai Journal of Science. 41(1) 128-137

    A KOH/ZrO2 catalyst was used as a solid base catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of palm oil with methanol using a batch reactor. The catalytic activity of KOH/ZrO2 is associated with the active phase (K2O) and basic properties. The catalysts were characterized by using BET, XRD, SEM, CO2 -TPD, and Hammett indicators. The highest methyl ester content of 99% was obtained when the highest basic strength (15< H_ < 18.4) and basicity (0.066mmol/g of catalyst) were achieved at 20 wt% K loading on ZrO2. Some biodiesel properties were investigated in accordance with EN14214 specifications.
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  67. Biodiesel production from transesterification of palm oil with methanol over CaO supported on bimodal meso-macroporous silica catalyst
    Abstract

    Witoon, T.; Bumrungsalee, S.; Vathavanichkul, P.; Palitsakun, S.; Saisriyoot, M.; Faungnawakij, K. 2014. Biodiesel production from transesterification of palm oil with methanol over CaO supported on bimodal meso-macroporous silica catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 156329-334

    Calcium oxide-loaded porous materials have shown promise as catalysts in transesterification. However, the slow diffusion of bulky triglycerides through the pores limited the activity of calcium oxide (CaO). In this work, bimodal meso-macroporous silica was used as a support to enhance the accessibility of the CaO dispersed inside the pores. Unimodal porous silica having the identical mesopore diameter was employed for the purpose of comparison. Effects of CaO content and catalyst pellet size on the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were investigated. The basic strength was found to increase with increasing the CaO content. The CaO-loaded bimodal porous silica catalyst with the pellet size of 325 mu m achieved a high %FAME of 94.15 in the first cycle, and retained an excellent % FAME of 88.87 after five consecutive cycles. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  68. Biodiesel production via transesterification of palm olein using sodium phosphate as a heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Thinnakorn, K.; Tscheikuna, J. 2014. Biodiesel production via transesterification of palm olein using sodium phosphate as a heterogeneous catalyst. Applied Catalysis a-General. 47626-33

    The production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMES) via the transesterification reaction of palm olein and methanol using sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) as a heterogeneous catalyst has been investigated. This study determined the influence of various parameters, such as the methanol to oil molar ratio, the operating temperature, the amount of catalyst, and the presence of water and free fatty acid in the raw materials, on the rate of reaction. The study demonstrated that Na3PO4 can be used effectively as a heterogeneous catalyst in transesterification process. It was determined that increasing the methanol to oil molar ratio results in an increase in equilibrium conversion. A molar ratio of methanol to oil of 18:1 provides the fastest rates of reaction and the highest FAME content. The operating temperatures have a strong effect on FAME yield; increasing the reaction temperature tends to accelerate the rate of reaction but reduces the glycerol by-product quality. Under the study conditions, with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 18:1 and a reaction temperature of 210 degrees C 98.5% FAME yield was obtained within 30 min with only 1 wt.% of Na3PO4. When a large excess of methanol was used, the experimental results agreed with the irreversible 1st order kinetic model, while the activation energy was found to be 32.59 kJ/mol palm olein. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  69. Calcium Methoxide Synthesis from Quick Lime using as Solid Catalyst in Refined Palm Oil Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Suwanthai, W.; Punsuvon, V.; Vaithanomsat, P. 2014. Calcium Methoxide Synthesis from Quick Lime using as Solid Catalyst in Refined Palm Oil Biodiesel Production. Research in Materials and Manufacturing Technologies, Pts 1-3. 835-836550-+

    In this research, calcium methoxide was synthesized as solid base catalyst from quick lime for biodiesel production. The catalyst was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total reflection fourier transform (ATR-FTIR) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopies (EDX) to evaluate its performance. The transesterification of refined palm oil using calcium methoxide and the process parameters affecting the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content such as catalyst concentration, methanol:oil molar ratio and reaction time were investigated. Theresults showed that the FAME content at 97% was achieved within 3 h using 3 %wt catalyst loading, 12:1 methanol:oil molar ratio and 65 degrees C reaction temperature. The result of FAME suggestedcalcium methoxide was the promising solid catalyst for substitution of the conventional liquid catalyst.
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  70. Comparative Study on Two-Step Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Production from High FFA Crude Palm Oil Using Microwave Technique and Conventional Technique
    Abstract

    Abu Bakar, S.; Yusup, S.; Ahmad, M. M.; Quitain, A. T.; Sasaki, M.; Goto, M.; Uemura, Y.; Ahmad, J. 2014. Comparative Study on Two-Step Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Production from High FFA Crude Palm Oil Using Microwave Technique and Conventional Technique. Proceedings of the International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials 2012-Icpeam 2012. 91787-95

    The production of biodiesel from crude palm oil (CPO) using microwave technique is investigated and has been compared with conventional heating. Two-step biodiesel production process is applied to maximize the highest biodiesel yield in short reaction time using microwave method. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as acid catalysts is used in pre-treatment of feedstock by esterification process followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) as base catalyst for transesterification process with low methanol to oil ratio. The main purpose of the pre-treatment process is to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content of CPO from higher value of FFA content (> 6.8%) to a minimum level for biodiesel production (< 1%). Esterification and transesterification is carried out in fully instrumented and controlled microwave reactor system to get higher yield in shorter time. This two-step esterification and transesterification process showed that the maximum conversion of palm biodiesel obtained is 95.1% with the process conditions of methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 6:1, reaction temperature 65oC, reaction time 15min, and 2% (wt/wt) KOH amount using microwave method compared to conventional heating where the palm oil methyl ester (POME) yield obtained is 81% at the same conditions. The result showed that, the biodiesel production using microwave technique proved to be a fast and easy route to get high yields of biodiesel.
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  71. Continuous Production of Biodiesel in Supercritical Ethanol: A Comparative Study between Refined and Used Palm Olein Oils as Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Ngamprasertsith, S.; Laetoheem, C. E.; Sawangkeaw, R. 2014. Continuous Production of Biodiesel in Supercritical Ethanol: A Comparative Study between Refined and Used Palm Olein Oils as Feedstocks. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 25(9) 1746-1753

    Biodiesel production from refined palm olein (RPO) and used palm olein (UPO) oils in supercritical ethanol was comparatively investigated in a continuous reactor. After use of RPO for chicken frying, levels of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased by 10 and 5%, respectively. The optimal conditions for both oils were 300 degrees C, 30 MPa and 30:1 ethanol:oil molar ratio at 60 min of residence time. Although the UFAs are inactive and sensitive to thermal degradation, the FFA in UPO catalyzed the reactions in supercritical ethanol at the same time. Due to the antagonistic effect of UFAs and FFA, the maximum ester content of UPO biodiesel (73%) was slightly lower than for RPO biodiesel (80%). The other compounds in resultant biodiesel were unreacted glycerides, mainly mono- and di-glycerides. Furthermore, UPO reaction reached equilibrium faster than RPO reaction due to the catalytic effect of FFA.
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  72. Feasibility of Using High-Intensity Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Mixed Crude Palm Oil in Two-Step Process
    Abstract

    Somnuk, K.; Prateepchaikul, G. 2014. Feasibility of Using High-Intensity Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Mixed Crude Palm Oil in Two-Step Process. Materials Research and Applications, Pts 1-3. 875-8771687-1692

    Biodiesel from a high free fatty acid (FFA) mixed crude palm oil (MCPO) can be produced to high fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) conversion by a two-step process. The first process is an acid-catalyzed esterification to reduce FFA in oil followed by a base-catalyzed transesterification process to produce biodiesel from esterified oil. In this study, the transesterification of esterified oil with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) was performed in a 1,000 W ultrasonic homogenizer at a low frequency of 18 kHz. The use of high-intensity ultrasound to accelerate the reaction, the high surface power density of 1.62 W.mm(-2) and the volumetric acoustic energy of 20 W.mL(-1) were fixed. The objective of this study was to determine the various parameters (methanol concentration, KOH concentration, and initial temperature of oil) to produce the FAME conversion. The results showed that over 98 wt.% of FAME could be achieved with 5 g KOH/liter of oil, 15 vol.% of methanol, the total residence time of 20 seconds, and temperature of 30 degrees C. Moreover, the glycerides were rapidly converted to the FAME within reaction time of 10 seconds when the base-catalyst of 10 g KOH/liter of oil, and 20 vol.% of methanol were used. Consequently, the use of high-intensity ultrasonic irradiation can minimize the chemical cost, electricity cost, and reaction time.
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  73. GHG balance of crude palm oil for biodiesel production in the northern region of Brazil
    Abstract

    Rodrigues, T. O.; Caldeira-Pires, A.; Luz, S.; Frate, C. A. 2014. GHG balance of crude palm oil for biodiesel production in the northern region of Brazil. Renewable Energy. 62516-521

    Biomass has become important as an alternative to fossil fuels and as a means to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, particularly in tropical regions such as Brazil. Therefore, the demand for energy crops has increased strongly, and among such crops, palm oil is distinctive because of its productivity and well-developed production techniques. This paper intends to evaluate crude palm oil's GHG balance through a life-cycle assessment approach. This study is based on the average data of an ideal palm oil system in the northern region of Brazil. In the production of crude palm oil, a large amount of CO2 sequestration occurs during the growth of palm oil trees. In contrast, the greatest emissions are biotic CO2, which returns to the atmosphere and emissions from fertilizer production. The GHG balance of an oil palm plantation is approximately -208 kg CO2-equiv./1000 kg crude palm oil per year. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  74. Governance of Biodiesel Production Chain: An Analysis of Palm Oil Social Arrangements
    Abstract

    Cesar, A. D.; Batalha, M. O.; Paulillo, L. F. D. 2014. Governance of Biodiesel Production Chain: An Analysis of Palm Oil Social Arrangements. Liquid Biofuels: Emergence, Development and Prospects. 27117-133

    The national program for production and use of biodiesel (PNPB) intends to include family farming in this sector. Oil Palm cultivation was deemed as ideal for social inclusion in Brazil's Northern region, and the social projects linked to this production are pilot projects, with about 185 families. This study, which can be classified as multi-case, uses exploratory bibliographic and documental research techniques as well as interviews with the agents inserted in the chain. The study analyzes the governance structure of the biodiesel production chain in Brazil regarding the social link of palm oil. In light of the transaction cost economics (TCE) theory, this chapter analyzes three key transaction attributes between family farmers and industry, namely frequency, uncertainty, and asset specificity, all classified in this study as high ranking. The institutional environment is decisive for the inclusion of palm oil farmers included by means of formal contracts. However, the biodiesel plants located in Brazil's Northern region-as well as those planning to begin this business-show trends to verticalize their agricultural activities. Thus, the social fuel seal (SCF) assumes its influence in the operating dynamics of that chain's social pillar.
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  75. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Juan, J. C.; Abdullah, N. F. B.; Nizah, M. F. R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production. Chemistry Central Journal. 8

    Background: Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO).
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  76. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Juan, J. C.; Binti Abdullah, N. F.; Nizah Mf, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production. Chem Cent J. 830

    BACKGROUND: Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO). RESULTS: The chemical characteristic, textural properties, basicity profile and leaching test of synthesized catalysts were studied by using X-ray diffraction, BET measurement, TPD-CO2 and ICP-AES analysis, respectively. Transesterification activity of solid base catalysts showed that > 90% of palm biodiesel and > 80% of Jatropha biodiesel yield under 3 wt.% of catalyst, 3 h reaction time, methanol to oil ratio of 15:1 under 65 degrees C. This indicated that other than physicochemical characteristic of catalysts; different types of natural oil greatly influence the catalytic reaction due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs). CONCLUSIONS: Among the solid base catalysts, calcium based mixed metal oxides catalysts with binary metal system (CaMgO and CaZnO) showed capability to maintain the transesterification activity for 3 continuous runs at ~ 80% yield. These catalysts render high durability characteristic in transesterification with low active metal leaching for several cycles.
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  77. Hydrothermally sulfonated single-walled carbon nanohorns for use as solid catalysts in biodiesel production by esterification of palmitic acid
    Abstract

    Poonjarernsilp, C.; Sano, N.; Tamon, H. 2014. Hydrothermally sulfonated single-walled carbon nanohorns for use as solid catalysts in biodiesel production by esterification of palmitic acid. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 147726-732

    Four carbon-based solid acid catalysts were prepared from single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs), oxidized SWCNHs (ox-SWCNHs), activated carbon (AC), and carbon black (CB) by hydrothermal sulfonation at 200 degrees C in an autoclave reactor. N-2 adsorption analysis suggested that sulfonation treatment leads to a drastic reduction in the number of relatively large pores with diameters greater than 20 nm in the SWCNHs and ox-SWCNHs. In addition, the BET surface area of the SWCNH was doubled by this sulfonation. These structural changes were not observed in AC and CB. The acid functional group formed on these solid catalysts by sulfonation was speculated to be -SO3H, and this was analyzed by ion-exchange titration. From the results, it was found that sulfonated SWCNHs (SO3H-SWCNHs) had the highest acid density of the four sulfonated specimens, which is a desirable property for its use as a biodiesel production catalyst. Methyl palmitate, a kind of biodiesel, was produced by the esterification of palmitic acid using these four catalysts. SO3H-SWCNHs produced the highest yield and the catalytic activity was significantly higher than that using a homogeneous sulfuric acid catalyst. Repeated esterification experiments suggested that the acid sites on SO3H-SWCNHs and SO3H-ox-SWCNHs were more stable than those on SO3H-AC and SO3H-CB. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  78. Life Cycle Assessment of Palm Oil Biodiesel Production in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Ashnani, M. H. M.; Johari, A.; Hashim, H.; Hasani, E. 2014. Life Cycle Assessment of Palm Oil Biodiesel Production in Malaysia. 4th Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Pts 1 and 2. 465-4661080-1086

    Almost identical properties with petroleum-derived diesel make biodiesel one of the best options of renewable and sustainable fuel supply to the transportation sector. Thanks to plentiful sources of palm oil and reasonable cost, it can be a proper feedstock for biodiesel production in Malaysia. Still, there is a paucity of studies concerning the effects of palm biodiesel on the environment. This paper, therefore, deals with life cycle assessment (LCA) of palm biodiesel to find out and validate the common belief regarding suitability of palm biodiesel as a green and sustainable fuel. The LCA study was conducted through three main stages including agricultural activities, oil milling, and transesterification process of biodiesel production. Palm oil biodiesel production results in the production of 1627.748kgCO2-eq of GHG and energy consumption of 12449.48MJ per ton PME. The results indicate that the most relevant environmental impact of this biofuel system is depletion of fossil resources.
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  79. Microwave-assisted Biodiesel Production by Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate
    Abstract

    Lokman, I. M.; Rashid, U.; Zainal, Z.; Yunus, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Microwave-assisted Biodiesel Production by Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate. Journal of Oleo Science. 63(9) 849-855

    In the current research work, effect of microwave irradiation energy on the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to produce PFAD methyl ester / biodiesel was intensively appraised. The PFAD is a by-product from refinery of crude palm oil consisting >85% of free fatty acid (FFA). The esterification reaction process with acid catalyst is needed to convert the FFA into fatty acid methyl ester or known as biodiesel. In this work, fabricated microwave-pulse width modulation (MPWM) reactor with controlled temperature was designed to be capable to increase the PFAD biodiesel production rate. The classical optimization technique was used in order to study the relationship and the optimum condition of variables involved. Consequently, by using MPWM reactor, mixture of methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio of 9:1, 1 wt.% of sulfuric acid catalyst, at 55 degrees C reaction temperature within 15 min reaction time gave 99.5% of FFA conversion. The quality assessment and properties of the product were analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), European (EN) standard methods and all results were in agreement with the standard requirements. It revealed that the use of fabricated MPWM with controlled temperature was significantly affecting the rate of esterification reaction and also increased the production yield of PFAD methyl ester.
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  80. Oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse derived heterogeneous acid catalysts for production of fatty acid methyl esters
    Abstract

    Ezebor, F.; Khairuddean, M.; Abdullah, A. Z.; Boey, P. L. 2014. Oil palm trunk and sugarcane bagasse derived heterogeneous acid catalysts for production of fatty acid methyl esters. Energy. 70493-503

    In this study, new catalysts were prepared from oil palm trunk (OPT) and sugarcane bagasse (SCB), which are available in enormous quantities. Effect of carbonization time with statistical validation, effect of reaction variables such as catalyst loading, methanol molar ratio, reaction time, alcohol selectivity, effect of grafting Keggin anions onto the multifunctional catalyst and composition of the biomasses were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the OPT and SCB catalysts afforded 88.8% and 96% yield of methyl palmitate, respectively. From statistical analysis, P-value (prob. > F) for OPT indicates that difference between the means of different carbonizations is not significant, but it is significant for SCB 4 h and 8 h carbonizations. In synthesis of ethyl palmitate and butyl palmitate, OPT catalyst gave FAME yield of 86.7% and 88% respectively, while SCB catalyst gave 90.7% and 91.6%, respectively. Grafting of Keggin anions by incipient wetness impregnation resulted in 3.6% increase in FAME yield, which shows that very few active sites consisting of Keggin anions and lacunary Keggin anions have been introduced. The catalysts are recyclable, and showed only 10.5-12.5% loss in activity after six cycles of repeated use. The catalysts are highly suitable for biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  81. Precipitation above cloud point in palm oil based biodiesel during production and storage
    Abstract

    Na-Ranong, D.; Kitchaiya, P. 2014. Precipitation above cloud point in palm oil based biodiesel during production and storage. Fuel. 122287-293

    Precipitation of a white solid in palm oil based biodiesel (PO-B100) can be found even in PO-B100 that contains minor contaminants (i.e. mono-, di- and triglycerides) within the limitation according to EN-14214 and Thailand's regulation. To identify compounds causing this precipitation, the precipitates collected at the temperature near cloud point and at room temperature were characterized using a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector, gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry and fourier transform-infrared. The result indicated that the compounds causing the precipitation were steryl glucosides, not glycerides, regardless of temperature. Therefore, effect of steryl glucosides on precipitation time was further investigated using PO-B100s with different amounts of steryl glucosides, mono-, di- and triglycerides. The result revealed that precipitation time of the PO-B100 with high concentration of steryl glucosides was much less than the one without steryl glucosides and decreasing steryl glucosides concentration to 20 ppm significantly improved storage stability of PO-B100. In addition, the precipitation time was not influenced by concentration of mono-, di- and triglycerides. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  82. Production development of ethyl ester biodiesel from palm oil using a continuous deglycerolisation process
    Abstract

    Nikhom, R.; Tongurai, C. 2014. Production development of ethyl ester biodiesel from palm oil using a continuous deglycerolisation process. Fuel. 117926-931

    Production development of ethyl ester biodiesel from palm oil using continuous deglycerolisation (CD) process with atmospheric gravity separator of immiscible liquid was investigated. For reversible transesterification, removal of glycerol during reaction can drive the equilibrium to the product side in order to obtain high conversion. In this work, KOCH3 was selected as the catalyst in transesterification and the reaction temperature was maintained at 60 degrees C. The effects of the key variables involved in the process: molar ratio of oil to ethanol, KOCH3 concentration and retention time, were investigated. Results showed that ethyl ester production using CD process could obtain good purity and yield in a single step transesterification. The suitable conditions found in this study were: molar ratio of oil to ethanol of 1:5.5, KOCH3 concentration of 1.2 wt.% and retention time of 30 min. Under these conditions, ester content and yield were 98.0 wt.% and 93.1 wt.%, respectively. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  83. Production of biodiesel from palm oil using modified Malaysian natural dolomites
    Abstract

    Nur, Z. A. S.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Nizah, M. F. R.; Teo, S. H.; Syazwani, O. N.; Islam, A. 2014. Production of biodiesel from palm oil using modified Malaysian natural dolomites. Energy Conversion and Management. 78738-744

    Calcined dolomite (AD), produced by calcination of Malaysian dolomite (UD) promotes a potential natural catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil with the conversion of 99.98%. The catalysts were characterized by using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) of CO2. All catalysts were then employed for transesterification reaction under different conditions (time, methanol to oil molar ratio and amount of catalyst). SnO2 doped on activated dolomite (SD) shows an optimum conversion (99.98%) at conditions, i.e. 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio in 4 h compared to ZnO doped on activated dolomite (ZD) and AD. The catalytic activities of these catalysts were found to be depending on the basicity as well as the surface area of the catalyst used. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  84. Production of palm and jatropha based biodiesel and investigation of palm-jatropha combined blend properties, performance, exhaust emission and noise in an unmodified diesel engine
    Abstract

    Sanjid, A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Rahman, S. M. A.; Abedin, M. J.; Palash, S. M. 2014. Production of palm and jatropha based biodiesel and investigation of palm-jatropha combined blend properties, performance, exhaust emission and noise in an unmodified diesel engine. Journal of Cleaner Production. 65295-303

    An ever increasing drift of energy consumption, unequal geographical distribution of natural wealth and the quest for low carbon fuel for a cleaner environment are sparking off the production and use of biodiesels in many countries around the globe. In this work, palm biodiesel and jatropha biodiesel were produced from the respective crude vegetable oils through transesterification, and the different physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesels have been presented, and found to be acceptable according to the ASTM standard of biodiesel specification. This paper presents experimental results of the research carried out to evaluate the BSFC, engine power, exhaust and noise emission characteristics of a combined palm and jatropha blend in a single-cylinder diesel engine at different engine speeds ranging from 1400 to 2200 rpm. Though the PBJB5 and PBJB10 biodiesels showed a slightly higher BSFC than diesel fuel, all the measured emission parameters and noise emission were significantly reduced, except for NO emission. CO emissions for PBJB5 and PBJB10 were 9.53% and 20.49% lower than for diesel fuel. By contrast, HC emissions for PBJB5 and PBJB10 were 3.69% and 7.81% lower than for diesel fuel. The sound levels produced by PBJB5 and PBJB10 were also reduced by 2.5% and 5% compared with diesel fuel due to their lubricity and damping characteristics. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  85. Rapid palm-biodiesel production assisted by a microwave system and sodium methoxide catalyst
    Abstract

    Lin, Y. C.; Hsu, K. H.; Lin, J. F. 2014. Rapid palm-biodiesel production assisted by a microwave system and sodium methoxide catalyst. Fuel. 115306-311

    In this study, sodium methoxide (CH3ONa) catalyst with a microwave heating system was used to improve palm methyl ester yields, and reduce both reaction time and energy consumption. The experimental results indicate that the palm methyl ester yield first increased along with the amount of catalyst, reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, and reaction power, and then decreased as these parameters rose above certain levels. In conclusion, the best methyl ester yield was 99.5% with methyl ester content of 99.8% and biodiesel yield of 99.7% at 0.75 wt% CH3ONa catalyst, a methanol to oil molar ratio of 6, reaction time of 3 min, and microwave power of 750 W. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  86. RSM Based Optimization of Chemical and Enzymatic Transesterification of Palm Oil: Biodiesel Production and Assessment of Exhaust Emission Levels
    Abstract

    Mumtaz, M. W.; Mukhtar, H.; Anwar, F.; Saari, N. 2014. RSM Based Optimization of Chemical and Enzymatic Transesterification of Palm Oil: Biodiesel Production and Assessment of Exhaust Emission Levels. Scientific World Journal.

    Current study presents RSM based optimized production of biodiesel from palm oil using chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The emission behavior of biodiesel and its blends, namely, POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 was examined using diesel engine (equipped with tube well). Optimized palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (POFAMEs) yields were depicted to be 47.6 +/- 1.5, 92.7 +/- 2.5, and 95.4 +/- 2.0% for chemical transesterification catalyzed by NaOH, KOH, and NaOCH3, respectively, whereas for enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by NOVOZYME-435 and A.n. lipase optimized biodiesel yields were 94.2 +/- 3.1 and 62.8 +/- 2.4%, respectively. Distinct decrease in particulate matter (PM) and carbon monoxide (CO) levels was experienced in exhaust emissions from engine operating on biodiesel blends POB-5, POB-20, POB-40, POB-50, POB-80, and POB-100 comparative to conventional petroleum diesel. Percentage change in CO and PM emissions for different biodiesel blends ranged from -2.1 to -68.7% and -6.2 to -58.4%, respectively, relative to conventional diesel, whereas an irregular trend was observed for NOx emissions. Only POB-5 and POB-20 showed notable reductions, whereas all other blends (POB-40 to POB-100) showed slight increase in NOx emission levels from 2.6 to 5.5% comparative to petroleum diesel.
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  87. Techno-Economic Analysis of an Alkali Catalyzed Biodiesel Production using Waste Palm Oil
    Abstract

    Patle, D. S.; Ahmad, Z. 2014. Techno-Economic Analysis of an Alkali Catalyzed Biodiesel Production using Waste Palm Oil. 4th Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Pts 1 and 2. 465-466120-124

    In this contribution, we present an in-depth analysis of an alkali catalyzed biodiesel production using waste palm oil. In view of the limited availability of non-renewable energy sources and the environmental concerns due to the high polluting nature of fossil fuels, biodiesel is seen as a future fuel alternative. We consider a waste palm oil with 6 % free fatty acids as a feedstock, which makes this process economically attractive.. A complete process including esterification and transesterification is simulated using the Aspen Plus process simulator. The quality of a produced biodiesel is compared against different standards. In the subsequent part, the effect free fatty acid in feed oil on the overall biodiesel production is tested. In the last section of this paper, a techno-economic analysis and the scale-up study is carried out to determine the dependence of the feasibility of process on production capacity. The results show that higher capacity is desirable.
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  88. Ultrasonic-assisted production of biodiesel from transesterification of palm oil over ostrich eggshell-derived CaO catalysts
    Abstract

    Chen, G. Y.; Shan, R.; Shi, J. F.; Yan, B. B. 2014. Ultrasonic-assisted production of biodiesel from transesterification of palm oil over ostrich eggshell-derived CaO catalysts. Bioresource Technology. 171428-432

    In this study, waste ostrich eggshell-derived calcium oxide (denoted as CaO(OE)) particles were synthesized and explored as cost-effective catalysts for the ultrasonic-assisted transesterification of palm oil. The physicochemical properties of the resultant catalysts were characterized by XRD, N-2 adsorption, XRF and Hammett indicator, while the catalytic activity was evaluated through transesterification of palm oil with methanol under ultrasonic conditions. More specifically, the CaO(OE) showed comparable catalytic activity to the one derived from commercial calcium carbonate (denoted as CaO(Lab)). Moreover, under ultrasonic conditions, the catalytic activity of CaO(OE) could be enhanced significantly. The maximum yield of fatty acid methyl esters could reach 92.7% under the optimal condition of reaction time of 60 min with ultrasonic power of 60% (120 W), methanol-to-oil ratio of 9:1, and catalyst loading of 8 wt.%. The results indicated that the CaO(OE) catalysts showed good catalytic performance and reusability, and may potentially reduce the cost of biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  89. A novel phosphonium-based deep eutectic catalyst for biodiesel production from industrial low grade crude palm oil
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Hashim, M. A.; Mjalli, F. S.; Hayyan, M.; AlNashef, I. M. 2013. A novel phosphonium-based deep eutectic catalyst for biodiesel production from industrial low grade crude palm oil. Chemical Engineering Science. 9281-88

    This study explores the possibility of producing low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO)-based biodiesel using a two-stage process in which a phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvent (P-DES) and an alkali are used as catalysts. The pre-treatment of LGCPO was conducted using a P-DES composed of a hydrogen bond donor (i.e. p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate) and a salt (i.e. allyltriphenylphosphonium bromide) as a novel recyclable catalyst. The P-DES was used in different dosages in the presence of methanol to reduce the level of free fatty acids (FFA) to the acceptable limit for alkaline transesterification reaction. Batch pre-treatment of LGCPO was carried out to study the influence of P-DES dosage (from 0.25 to 3.5% wt/wt). The effects of other operating parameters such as molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time on FFA content reduction, yield of treated LGCPO and FFA to FAME conversion were studied. The P-DES showed high catalytic activity in the pre-treatment of LGCPO. The lab scale investigation proved the viability of esterification and transesterification of oil using P-DES and alkaline catalysts. The biodiesel produced from LGCPO meets the international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214). Three to four times recycling runs of P-DES were achieved without losing its activity. This study introduces a new generation of catalysts for possible batch esterification reaction using P-DES followed by an alkaline transesterification reaction. This study will open a new field for utilizing this strong acid-based DES catalyst for many chemical reactions and industrial applications. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  90. Alkaline Earth Metal Oxide Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil: Elucidation of Process Behaviors and Modeling Using Response Surface Methodology
    Abstract

    Salamatinia, B.; Hashemizadeh, I.; Abdullah, A. Z. 2013. Alkaline Earth Metal Oxide Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil: Elucidation of Process Behaviors and Modeling Using Response Surface Methodology. Iranian Journal of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering-International English Edition. 32(1) 113-126

    Four different alkaline earth metal oxides i.e. MgO, CaO, SrO and BaO were used as heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from palm oil. Effects of critical process variables i.e. reaction time, methanol to oil ratio and temperature were investigated. The results were then fitted to a historical design to study the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), to characterize interactions between variables and to simulate the process. MgO did not show good catalytic activity while CaO produced undesired products at longer reaction time. BaO showed the best biodiesel result with a yield of up to 95 %, followed by SrO with a yield of 91 %. A methanol to oil ratio of 9: 1 and 60 degrees C were found to be the optimum conditions. The experimental data were satisfactorily predicted at 99 % confidence level under various conditions with R-2 values higher than 0.92. Characterizations of the catalysts before and after the transesterification process were also performed using a surface analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, Hammett indicator and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometeric (AAS) methods. The catalytic activity was in the order of BaO > SrO > CaO. However, due to lixiviation of BaO in the product, SrO was found to be the most potential catalyst
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  91. Analysis of Energy Consumption and GHG Emission in Biodiesel (B100) Production: A Case Study of Oil Palm Plantation,Crushing Mill and Biodiesel Plant in Thailand
    Abstract

    Sangsaard, A.; Vivanpatarakij, S. 2013. Analysis of Energy Consumption and GHG Emission in Biodiesel (B100) Production: A Case Study of Oil Palm Plantation,Crushing Mill and Biodiesel Plant in Thailand. Advances in Environmental Technologies, Pts 1-6. 726-7311431-+

    The biodiesel (B100) production starting from the plantation, crushing mill and biodiesel plant can generate high amount of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission which is harmful to the global environment. To reduce the GHG emission, an efficient managing strategy of the entire production process must be introduced. This paper presents a case study of the GHG emission analysis in Trang, Krabi and Chumporn province in 2013. The entire year data of each activity such as amount of energy, fertilizer and herbicides used, main product, residues produced in oil palm plantation, milling and biodiesel plant were analyzed and calculated by the basis of Gate to Gate. The result shows that the production process in the plantation generates the GHG emission of -0.54 ton CO2-eq /ton FFB while the GHG emitted from the crushing mill is at -2.89 ton CO2-eq /ton RPO and from the biodiesel plant is at -2.30 kg CO2-eq /liter B100.These calculated values show that the biodiesel production can alleviate the greenhouse effect. If the bio solid residues are used as a mixture for fertilizer and the wastewater is used to produce the biogas to generate electricity, the GHG emission can then be reduced.
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  92. Conversion of free fatty acids in low grade crude palm oil to methyl esters for biodiesel production using chromosulfuric acid
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Mjalli, F. S.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M.; AlNashef, I. M. 2013. Conversion of free fatty acids in low grade crude palm oil to methyl esters for biodiesel production using chromosulfuric acid. Bulgarian Chemical Communications. 45(3) 394-399

    In this study low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO) was proposed as a potential agro-industrial raw material for biodiesel production. Chromosulfuric acid was used as a new homogenous catalyst in the pre-treatment process to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content in LGCPO to the acceptable level for producing biodiesel via alkaline transesterification reaction. The results of esterification reaction showed that the FFA of LGCPO was reduced from 7.0 % to less than 1% using optimum operating conditions. The yield of the final product after the alkaline transesterification was 85% with 0.14 % FFA content and ester content 97.5% (mol mol(-1)) which meets the international standard quality specifications for biodiesel.
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  93. Development, optimization and scale-up of biodiesel production from crude palm oil and effective use in developing countries
    Abstract

    Cukalovic, A.; Monbaliu, J. C. M.; Eeckhout, Y.; Echim, C.; Verhe, R.; Heynderickx, G.; Stevens, C. V. 2013. Development, optimization and scale-up of biodiesel production from crude palm oil and effective use in developing countries. Biomass & Bioenergy. 5662-69

    An industrial project was developed to optimize the biodiesel production from crude palm oil. This process was developed for a one ton scale application on the palm oil production facility in equatorial Africa, to be used on the plantation to provide fuel for the fleet of the company. Because of the specific conditions (crude palm oil as starting material, application in technologically difficult conditions), it was essential for the developed procedure to be robust and simple, and to use minimum amounts of chemicals. The process was optimised on lab-scale in 2005 and 2006, scaled up in the following year, and is since then successfully applied as intended on the palm oil plantation. The produced biodiesel is used pure, without mixing with diesel fuel and without additives. After several years of continuous use, no negative effects were noticed on the engines. The process efficiency and durability are therefore confirmed. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  94. Improvement of cell-bound lipase from Rhodotorula mucilaginosa P11I89 for use as a methanol-tolerant, whole-cell biocatalyst for production of palm-oil biodiesel
    Abstract

    Nuylert, A.; Hongpattarakere, T. 2013. Improvement of cell-bound lipase from Rhodotorula mucilaginosa P11I89 for use as a methanol-tolerant, whole-cell biocatalyst for production of palm-oil biodiesel. Annals of Microbiology. 63(3) 929-939

    Rhodotorula mucilaginosa P11I89, isolated from oil-contaminated soil, was effectively used as the methanol-tolerant, whole-cell lipase for the synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) via transesterification reaction in the presence of palm oil and methanol substrates at a 1:6 mole ratio. A combination of Taguchi experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied to systemically enhance transesterification activity of the whole-cell lipase or cell-bound lipase (CBL) from R. mucilaginosa P11I89 in a solvent-free system. The significant impacts of four factors including carbon sources, nitrogen sources, surfactants and pH on hydrolysis activity of extracellular and cell-bound lipases, and on the transesterification activity of CBL were evaluated using Taguchi design. Gum Arabic was the most significant component for high transesterification activity, whereas soybean oil was the most influential factor for the hydrolysis activity. Maximal CBL production of 272.72 U/L was obtained in the cultivation medium containing 2.1 % palm oil, 0.2 % NH4NO3 , and 0.45 % Gum Arabic, with initial pH 5.0 under shaking speed of 200 rpm at a temperature of 30 +/- 2 A degrees C after 60 h incubation using Central Composite Design (CCD). Yeast cells grown under such conditions increased FAME yield from 84.0 to 92.98 % when the transesterification reaction was carried out, in comparison to those cultivated in the initial medium.
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  95. Kinetic study on lipase catalyzed trans-esterification of palm oil and dimethyl carbonate for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Sun, S. Z.; Zhang, L. P.; Meng, X.; Xin, Z. 2013. Kinetic study on lipase catalyzed trans-esterification of palm oil and dimethyl carbonate for biodiesel production. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 5(3)

    Kinetics of the trans-esterification of palm oil and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) for biodiesel production has been studied at the catalysis of immobilized lipase Novozyme 435. The relationship between initial reaction rate and temperature was established and the activation energy (Ea) was obtained first, based on the Arrhenius law. The value of Ea was 26.0 kJ/mol. The external diffusion limitation was neglected by raising the agitation speed to 200 rpm. And the influence of internal mass transfer limitations could also be neglected due to the linear relationship between the initial reaction rate and enzyme concentration. The effect of the concentration of palm oil was studied over the range of 30-700 mmol/l by keeping the catalyst amount constant. No substrate inhibition was observed under above experiment conditions. Therefore, the model based on a Ping-Pong bi-bi mechanism without substrate inhibition was proposed to describe the trans-esterification kinetics. The simulated values calculated by MATLAB could fit the experimental values quite well, indicating the trans-esterification kinetics of palm oil and DMC agrees with the ordered bi-bi mechanism. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
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  96. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances of a biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD)
    Abstract

    Cho, H. J.; Kim, J. K.; Ahmed, F.; Yeo, Y. K. 2013. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances of a biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). Applied Energy. 111479-488

    Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and net energy ratio (NER) have been evaluated for the production of palm biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) which is a by-product in the refining process. For the case that PFAD is regarded as a processing residue, GHG emissions associated with biodiesel production in the considered process is 86.5% less than that of fossil diesel, which surpasses even the threshold of year 2018 of the Renewable Energy Directive (RED) of the European Union (EU). In the present study, it is also shown that the value of the NER is 3.23, which means that the energy yield from palm methyl ester (PME) production from PFAD is around three times larger than the input of fossil energy in the production. In conclusion, the palm biodiesel from PFAD can be one of various alternatives to the 'conventional' palm biodiesel which is made of refined palm oil, and sustainability issues and ethical problems can be considerably minimized with the strategic utilization of palm biodiesel produced from PFAD. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  97. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production
    Abstract

    Fukui, K.; Maeda, K.; Kuramochi, H. 2013. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production. Journal of Crystal Growth. 373102-105

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1]. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  98. Optimization of biodiesel production from palm oil under supercritical ethanol conditions using hexane as co-solvent: A response surface methodology approach
    Abstract

    Muppaneni, T.; Reddy, H. K.; Ponnusamy, S.; Patil, P. D.; Sun, Y. Q.; Dailey, P.; Deng, S. G. 2013. Optimization of biodiesel production from palm oil under supercritical ethanol conditions using hexane as co-solvent: A response surface methodology approach. Fuel. 107633-640

    In the present work, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the biodiesel production from palm oil under supercritical ethanol conditions. Hexane was added as a co-solvent, which in turn accelerated the reaction rate and increased the biodiesel yield. This process enables simultaneous transesterification of triglycerides and ethyl esterification of fatty acids in a shorter reaction time and may reduce the energy consumption due to simplified separation and purification steps. Different process parameters including alcohol to oil molar ratio (25:1-50:1), reaction time (10-30 min), reaction temperature (260-300 degrees C) and co-solvent ratio (0.1-0.4% v/v) were optimized using response surface methodology. A mathematical model was developed for predicting the fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) yield. Fatty acid ethyl esters produced from palm oil were measured and analyzed using FT-IR, GC-MS and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) methods. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced were determined and compared to the American society for testing and materials (ASTMs) standards for biodiesel. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  99. Production of palm and Calophyllum inophyllum based biodiesel and investigation of blend performance and exhaust emission in an unmodified diesel engine at high idling conditions
    Abstract

    Rahman, S. M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Abedin, M. J.; Sanjid, A.; Sajjad, H. 2013. Production of palm and Calophyllum inophyllum based biodiesel and investigation of blend performance and exhaust emission in an unmodified diesel engine at high idling conditions. Energy Conversion and Management. 76362-367

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuels, increasing fossil-fuel price, carbon price, and the quest of low carbon fuel for cleaner environment - these are the reason researchers are looking for alternatives of fossil fuels. Renewable, non-flammable, biodegradable, and non-toxic are some reasons that are making biodiesel as a suitable candidate to replace fossil-fuel in near future. In recent years, in many countries of the world production and use of biodiesel has gained popularity. In this research, biodiesel from palm and Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been produced using the trans-esterification process. Properties of the produced biodiesels were compared with the ASTM D6751 standard: biodiesel standard and testing methods. Density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point, pour point and calorific value, these are the six main physicochemical properties that were investigated. Both palm biodiesel and Calophyllum biodiesel were within the standard limits, so they both can be used as the alternative of diesel fuel. Furthermore, engine performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine run by both palm biodiesel-diesel and Calophyllum biodiesel-diesel blends were evaluated at high idling conditions. Brake specific fuel consumption increased for both the biodiesel-diesel blends compared to pure diesel fuel; however, at highest idling condition, this increase was almost negligible. Exhaust gas temperatures decreased as blend percentages increased for both the biodiesel-diesel blends. For low blend percentages increase in NOx emission was negligible but as blend percentages increase, emission increased significantly. CO and HC emission for both biodiesel-diesel blends were lower compared to pure diesel fuel. 20% Calophyllum biodiesel-diesel blends emitted lowest HC and CO emission. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  100. Production of Palm fatty acid distillate biodiesel and effects of its blends on performance of single cylinder diesel engine
    Abstract

    Malvade, A. V.; Satpute, S. T. 2013. Production of Palm fatty acid distillate biodiesel and effects of its blends on performance of single cylinder diesel engine. International Conference on Design and Manufacturing (Icondm2013). 641485-1494

    Fossil fuels are commonly used fuel for automobiles. The reserve stock and exhaust gas emission of fossil fuel cause a serious problem. So there is a need of an alternative ecofriendly fuel. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel produced from plant and animal material by esterification. Esterification is an acid catalyzed reaction that converts free fatty acid (FFA) of oil into trialycerides. Transesterification is base catalyzed reaction they converts triglycerides into mono alkyl esters. The main problem of biodiesel is its high cost which could he reduced by use of less expensive feed stock. Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is a waste from extraction of palm oil. PEAL) is used for production of biodiesel. The calorific value of PEAD biodiesel is 38600 MJ/kg while density is 879 kg/m(3), flash point is 147 degrees C. viscosity is 3.96 mm(2)/s and cetane number is 49. A single cylinder, 4 stroke, water cooled diesel engine of Kirlosker Oil Engine is used for evaluating performance of PEAD biodiesel blends and diesel. The engine performance for various PFAD biodiesel blends at various loads are comparatively equal to that of diesel fuel. Brake power of various blends is comparatively equal to brake power of diesel. Brake Thermal Efficiency increases comparatively for 50% PFAD blends. Specific Fuel Consumption for PFAD blends is slightly higher than diesel. Indicated power of PFAD blends is less than indicated power of diesel. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the organizing and review committee of IConDM 2013
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  101. Single Effects of Reaction Parameters in Reactive Extraction of Palm Fruit for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Jairurob, P.; Phalakornkule, C.; Petiraksakul, A. 2013. Single Effects of Reaction Parameters in Reactive Extraction of Palm Fruit for Biodiesel Production. Chiang Mai Journal of Science. 40(3) 401-407

    Biodiesel from crude palm oil is conventionally produced via a two-step method: oil extraction and subsequent esterification/transesterification of oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In this study, a single-step in situ extraction and transesterification (collectively known as reactive extraction) of palm oil to biodiesel was investigated. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of operating parameters in reactive extraction of after-stripping sterilized palm fruit (A-sSPF) for biodiesel production. The process parameters studied include catalyst loading (1-4% w/v), reaction time (8-11 h) and molar ratio of methanol to oil (170:1-260:1). Results showed that a biodiesel yield of 96.13% (percentage weight of biodiesel per weight of palm oil in A-sSPF) can be obtained under the following reaction conditions: 3% w/v of KOH, reaction period of 10 h, methanol to oil molar ratio of 230:1 under a reaction temperature of 60 degrees C. The biodiesel yield based on palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB) was found to be 268.5 and 203.7 g biodiesel per kg FFB by the single-step reactive extraction and the conventional two-step extraction and transesterification, respectively. This single-step reactive extraction process is shown to be an alternative route for biodiesel production that not only reduces processing steps and capital investment but also increases the overall biodiesel yield.
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  102. Techno-Economic Study of a Biodiesel Production from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate
    Abstract

    Cho, H. J.; Kim, J. K.; Cho, H. J.; Yeo, Y. K. 2013. Techno-Economic Study of a Biodiesel Production from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 52(1) 462-468

    Techno-economic analysis has been carried out for a single-step noncatalytic esterification process which produces biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). A simulation model for this biodiesel production process has been developed, which provided the basis for the estimation of capital expenditure and operating cost. Although the process considered in this work has been observed as nonprofitable even at considerably large-plant capacity, the net cash flow becomes surplus at the capacity of 100 kt.y(-1). Effects of raw material cost and biodiesel product price on the economic feasibility of the process have also been evaluated. With techno-economic analysis, it was found that the current biodiesel process would be economically viable with favorable changes in the economic parameters, i.e. $50.t(-1) reduction for raw material purchase cost or $50.t(-1) increase for biodiesel sales price.
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  103. Ultrasonic-assisted Biodiesel Production from Palm oil using adsorption of homogeneous catalysts over solid sodium silicate
    Abstract

    Krongtanin, P.; Petiraksakul, A. 2013. Ultrasonic-assisted Biodiesel Production from Palm oil using adsorption of homogeneous catalysts over solid sodium silicate. Advances in Chemical Engineering Iii, Pts 1-4. 781-7842396-2399

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy resources, which produced from transesterification of oils and alcohols using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Ultrasonic was used as pre-mixer for KOH, Na2SiO3, palm oil and methanol before increasing the reaction temperature to 60 degrees C using a water bath. All experiments were conducted at a molar ratio of methanol:oil of 6:1, reaction time of 60 min, reaction temperature of 60 degrees C and well mixing. The suspension was filtered after the end of the reaction. Purified biodiesel was obtained by water washing processes after crude biodiesel was separated from glycerol by 2 hr standing in a separating funnel. Filter solid cake was instantly used as supporter in next batch of the reaction. Effects of four variables, namely, pre-mixing period in the range of 0-10 s, number of filter cake recycle (2-4 cycles), sonicator power (10-90% of max. power of 200 watt and 20 kHz) and amount of KOH addition (0.25-0.75 g) were investigated. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate and optimize the biodiesel production processes using Na2SiO3 adsorbed with KOH as catalyst. The design of experiment was carried out using the MINITAB RELEASE 16 and a result of 31 experiments was suggested to be made. The result showed the optimum condition of pre-mixing period of 14 s, the number of catalyst recycle to be 2 cycle, sonicator power of 36.3%and KOH addition of 0.3 g.
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  104. A single step non-catalytic esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Cho, H. J.; Kim, S. H.; Hong, S. W.; Yeo, Y. K. 2012. A single step non-catalytic esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) for biodiesel production. Fuel. 93(1) 373-380

    In this work, the single step method for non-catalytic esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), which is readily applicable to actual production of biodiesel, was investigated. In this method, the esterification reaction is accomplished in a single step by ensuring water-free reaction conditions and the acid value is reduced to below 0.5 (mg KOH/g) which has not been possible in previous methods. The reaction was completed (<0.5 mg KOH/g) within 180 min at relatively high temperature (>250 degrees C) enough to be above boiling point of water and at moderate pressure (0.85-1.20 MPa) without any catalyst. The effects of temperature, methanol feed rate and pressure on a semi-batch reaction were investigated and the optimal values of these variables were found (temperature: 290 degrees C, pressure: 0.85 MPa, feed rate: 2.4 g/min). The acid value was reduced from 191.4 to 0.36 (mg KOH/g) just in 180 min at these conditions. From the kinetic study on non-catalytic esterification of PFAD, it was found that the activation energy is 17.74 kJ/mol and the frequency factor is 2.12 min (1). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  105. Biodiesel production from Palm oil using calcined waste animal bone as catalyst
    Abstract

    Obadiah, A.; Swaroopa, G. A.; Kumar, S. V.; Jeganathan, K. R.; Ramasubbu, A. 2012. Biodiesel production from Palm oil using calcined waste animal bone as catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 116512-516

    Waste animal bones was employed as a cost effective catalyst for the transesterification of palm oil. The catalyst was calcined at different temperatures to transform the calcium phosphate in the bones to hydroxyapatite and 800 degrees C was found to give the best yield of biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). Under the optimal reaction conditions of 20 wt.% of catalyst, 1:18 oil to methanol molar ratio, 200 rpm of stirring of reactants and at a temperature of 65 degrees C, the methyl ester conversion was 96.78% and it was achieved in 4 h. The catalyst performed equally well as the laboratory-grade CaO. Animal bone is therefore a useful raw material for the production of a cheap catalyst for transesterification. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  106. Biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil using calcium oxide supported on activated carbon as catalyst in a fixed bed reactor
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Ksapabutr, B.; Panapoy, M.; Chaiyut, N. 2012. Biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil using calcium oxide supported on activated carbon as catalyst in a fixed bed reactor. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 29(12) 1708-1712

    A reactor has been developed to produce high quality fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from waste cooking palm oil (WCO). Continuous transesterification of free fatty acids (FFA) from acidified oil with methanol was carried out using a calcium oxide supported on activated carbon (CaO/AC) as a heterogeneous solid-base catalyst. CaO/AC was prepared according to the conventional incipient-wetness impregnation of aqueous solutions of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)(2)center dot 4H(2)O) precursors on an activated carbon support from palm shell in a fixed bed reactor with an external diameter of 60 mm and a height of 345 mm. Methanol/oil molar ratio, feed flow rate, catalyst bed height and reaction temperature were evaluated to obtain optimum reaction conditions. The results showed that the FFA conversion increased with increases in alcohol/oil molar ratio, catalyst bed height and temperature, whereas decreased with flow rate and initial water content in feedstock increase. The yield of FAME achieved 94% at the reaction temperature 60 A degrees C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 25: 1 and residence time of 8 h. The physical and chemical properties of the produced methyl ester were determined and compared with the standard specifications. The characteristics of the product under the optimum condition were within the ASTM standard. High quality waste cooking palm oil methyl ester was produced by combination of heterogeneous alkali transesterification and separation processes in a fixed bed reactor. In sum, activated carbon shows potential for transesterification of FFA.
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  107. Biodiesel production via alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Malaysian RBD palm oil - Characterization, kinetics model
    Abstract

    Shahbazi, M. R.; Khoshandam, B.; Nasiri, M.; Ghazvini, M. 2012. Biodiesel production via alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Malaysian RBD palm oil - Characterization, kinetics model. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 43(4) 504-510

    Biodiesel as an alternative fuel was produced by transesterification of Malaysian RBD (Refined, Bleached, and Deodorized) palm oil with alkaline catalysts. Potassium and sodium hydroxide were used as catalysts in this reaction at temperature of 60 degrees C in a stirred tank reactor with 600 rpm stirring. Gas chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) contents in the produced biodiesel. Yield of reaction which was carried out with KOH as a catalyst is a higher value than the reaction when NaOH was used as a catalyst. A second-order reaction mechanism which was purposed by Leevijit et al. (2004) was applied to calculate the product concentrations. There was a good agreement between the methyl ester concentrations measured experimentally and what was predicted from the kinetic model. Finally important fuel properties of produced biodiesels were obtained and compared with petro diesel and the ASTM standards which indicate that the biodiesel with acceptable quality was synthesized experimentally. Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  108. Comparative kinetics of transesterification for biodiesel production from palm oil and mustard oil
    Abstract

    Issariyakul, T.; Dalai, A. K. 2012. Comparative kinetics of transesterification for biodiesel production from palm oil and mustard oil. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 90(2) 342-350

    The kinetics of palm oil and mustard oil transesterification are compared. Transesterification of palm oil and mustard oil using KOH as a catalyst was performed at various reaction temperatures ranging from 40 to 60 degrees C. The reaction steps are reversible and transesterification is favoured at elevated temperatures. The reaction step of triglyceride to diglyceride is the rate determining step (RDS) that controls kinetics of overall transesterification with activation energies of 30.2 and 26.8?kJ/mol for palm oil and mustard oil transesterification, respectively. It is found that percentage of saturated compounds play a vital role on transesterification kinetics. (c) 2011 Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering
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  109. Comparison of technology alternative for palm oil biodiesel production using exergy analysis
    Abstract

    Jaimes, W.; Acevedo, P.; Kafarov, V. 2012. Comparison of technology alternative for palm oil biodiesel production using exergy analysis. 22 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering. 30207-211

    In the present paper, the exergy analysis was applied to comparison of two alternatives for palm oil biodiesel production, with the aim to identify the location and magnitude of the irreversibilities and the exergetic efficiency in each one of the equipments. The first case of study was a homogeneous transesterification, where the process was divided in three stages, the pre-treatment of the crude palm oil, triglycerides transesterification reaction with methanol and NaOH as catalyst, and finally the separation system; the other case was a heterogeneous esterification in three stage, the pre-treatment performed to hydrolyze triglycerides presented in palm oil, the esterification of fatty acid and separation and purification system. Each process were designed and simulated using the software Aspen Hysys 6.5. The exergy analysis methodology used in this paper was proposed by Dincer and Rosen, and the Reference Stable Environment (RSE) was defined at 25 degrees C and 1 atm, and each process equipments was taken as volume control system.
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  110. Computer aided estimation of sustainability of biodiesel production from palm oil.
    Abstract

    Martinez, D.; Kafarov, V. 2012. Computer aided estimation of sustainability of biodiesel production from palm oil.. 22 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering. 30222-226

    Biofuels competitiveness in the world market is not only measured by economics variables, but also by environmental ones, because their use should contribute to reducing greenhouse gases and climate change. To demonstrate the environmental sustainability of a product is possible by means of the applications of life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. In this paper LCA is applied to a biodiesel production process from African palm using lignocellulosic ethanol as a reactive in the transesterification reaction which is obtained from residues with high contents of cellulose resulting from the oil extraction stage. The LCA was evaluated along the biodiesel production chain starting with the land adaption stage, oil extraction, ethanol production from residual lignocellulosic biomass, transesterification of palm oil and ending with the distribution and use of the biofuel.
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  111. Development and characterisation of novel heterogeneous palm oil mill boiler ash-based catalysts for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ho, W. W. S.; Ng, H. K.; Gan, S. Y. 2012. Development and characterisation of novel heterogeneous palm oil mill boiler ash-based catalysts for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 125158-164

    Novel heterogeneous catalysts from calcium oxide (CaO)/calcined calcium carbonate (CaCO3) loaded onto different palm oil mill boiler ashes were synthesised and used in the transesterification of crude palm oil (CPO) with methanol to yield biodiesel. Catalyst preparation parameters including the type of ash support, the weight percentage of CaO and calcined CaCO3 loadings, as well as the calcination temperature of CaCO3 were optimised. The catalyst prepared by loading of 15 wt% calcined CaCO3 at a fixed temperature of 800 degrees C on fly ash exhibited a maximum oil conversion of 94.48%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the CaCO3 was transformed into CaO at 770 degrees C and interacted well with the ash support, whereas rich CaO, Al2O3 and SiO2 were identified in the composition using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The fine morphology size (<5 mu m) and high surface area (1.719 m(2)/g) of the fly ash-based catalyst rendered it the highest catalytic activity. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  112. Development of a novel process for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD)
    Abstract

    Cho, H. J.; Kim, J. K.; Hong, S. W.; Yeo, Y. K. 2012. Development of a novel process for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). Fuel Processing Technology. 104271-280

    A novel process for the non-catalytic esterification of PFAD (palm fatty acid distillate) has been developed through theoretical modeling and experimental studies. The detailed reaction kinetics and effect of reaction temperature on the performance of processes are fully analyzed. Distillation is employed to purify palm biodiesel product produced from the reactor, and it has been demonstrated that biodiesel product from the developed process meets European standard of EN 14214, while 91.2% of biodiesel product yield was obtained. Process modeling and simulation of the developed process with the production capacity of 8000 t . yr(-1), have been made, which allows to carry out rigorous techno-economic analysis for evaluating cost-effectiveness of the proposed process and comparing it with those of other processes. The estimated capital cost of a new process is $1.63 x 10(6) which requires 20.7% more than that of the alkali-catalyzed process, but 22.4% less than that of the supercritical process. For total manufacturing cost, a new process is estimated to be about 25% cheaper than the other two processes. Under the current market situations, the developed process has competitive relative payback years and break-even prices, against the other two processes, which clearly shows the competitiveness of the proposed process. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  113. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand
    Abstract

    Silalertruksa, T.; Gheewala, S. H. 2012. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand. Energy. 43(1) 306-314

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46-73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  114. LCA studies for alkaline and enzyme catalyzed biodiesel production from palm oil
    Abstract

    Ravindra, Pogaku; Saralan, Subash; Abdulla, Rahmath 2012. LCA studies for alkaline and enzyme catalyzed biodiesel production from palm oil. Advances in Biological Chemistry. Vol.02No.0412

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  115. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol and palm oil biodiesel joint production
    Abstract

    Souza, S. P.; de Avila, M. T.; Pacca, S. 2012. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol and palm oil biodiesel joint production. Biomass & Bioenergy. 4470-79

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and palm tree (Elaeis guianeensis) are crops with high biofuel yields, 7.6 m(3) ha (1) y(-)1 of ethanol and 4 Mg ha(-1) y(-1) of oil, respectively. The joint production of these crops enhances the sustainability of ethanol. The objective of this work was comparing a traditional sugarcane ethanol production system (TSES) with a joint production system (JSEB), in which ethanol and biodiesel are produced at the same biorefinery but only ethanol is traded. The comparison is based on ISO 14.040:2006 and ISO 14044:2006, and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado (typical savannah), Cerradao (woody savannah) and pastureland ecosystems were considered. Energy and carbon balances, and land use change impacts were evaluated. The joint system includes 100% substitution of biodiesel for diesel, which is all consumed in different cropping stages. Data were collected by direct field observation methods, and questionnaires applied to Brazilian facilities. Three sugarcane mills situated in Sao Paulo State and one palm oil refinery located in Para State were surveyed. The information was supplemented by secondary sources. Results demonstrated that fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions decreased, whereas energy efficiency increased when JSEB was compared to TSES. In comparison with TSES, the energy balance of JSEB was 1.7 greater. In addition, JSEB released 23% fewer GHG emissions than TSES. The ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradao, and Degraded Grassland of JSEB was respectively 4, 7.7 and -7.6 years. These are typical land use types of the Brazilian Cerrado region for which JSEB was conceived. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  116. Life cycle cost and sensitivity analysis of palm biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ong, H. C.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.; Honnery, D. 2012. Life cycle cost and sensitivity analysis of palm biodiesel production. Fuel. 98131-139

    Increased biodiesel production is being proposed as one solution to the need to ease the impact of increased demand for crude oil and to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Despite this, biodiesel has yet to reach its full commercial potential, especially in the developing countries. Besides technical barriers, there are several nontechnical limiting factors which impede the development of biodiesel such as feedstock price, production cost, fossil fuel price and taxation policy. This study assesses these by undertaking a techno-economic and sensitivity analysis of biodiesel production in Malaysia, the second largest producer of crude palm oil feedstock. It was found that the life cycle cost for a 50 ktons palm biodiesel production plant with an operating period of 20 years is $665 million, yielding a payback period of 3.52 years. The largest share is the feedstock cost which accounts for 79% of total production cost. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that the variation in feedstock price will significantly affect the life cycle cost for biodiesel production. One of the most important findings of this study is that biodiesel price is compatible with diesel fuel when a fiscal incentive and subsidy policy are implemented. For instance, biodiesel price with subsidies of $0.10/l and $0.18/l is compatible and lower than fossil diesel price at crude palm oil price of $1.05/kg or below. As a conclusion, further research on technical as well as nontechnical limitations for biodiesel production is needed before biodiesel can be fully utilized. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  117. Optimal design of biodiesel production process from waste cooking palm oil
    Abstract

    Simasatitkul, L.; Gani, R.; Arpornwichanop, A. 2012. Optimal design of biodiesel production process from waste cooking palm oil. Chisa 2012. 421292-1301

    A design methodology for biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil is proposed. The proposed method is flexible to the biodiesel process using various catalyst types: alkali and acid catalyst in homogenous and heterogeneous forms, and different process: enzyme process and supercritical process. A two-step approach of hydrolysis and esterification processes is also considered. Waste cooking palm oil consists of a mixture of triglyceride (e.g., trilaurin, tripalmitin, triolein, tristearin, trilinolein and trilinolenin) and free fatty acids (e.g., lauric acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic and linolenic acid). A driving force approach and thermodynamic insight are employed to design separation units (e.g., flash separator and distillation) minimizing the energy consumption. Steady-state simulations of the developed biodiesel processes are performed and economic analysis is used to find a suitable biodiesel process. The results show that based on a net present value, the heterogeneous acid catalyzed process is the best process for biodiesel production. With the design methodology, the proposed biodiesel process can save the energy requirement of 41.5 %, compared with a conventional process. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  118. Optimization of biodiesel production from crude palm oil using ultrasonic irradiation assistance and response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Worapun, I.; Pianthong, K.; Thaiyasuit, P. 2012. Optimization of biodiesel production from crude palm oil using ultrasonic irradiation assistance and response surface methodology. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 87(2) 189-197

    BACKGROUND: Production of biodiesel from crude palm oil (CPO) with 6 wt% of free fatty acid (FFA) using a low-frequency ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz) technique was investigated in the present work. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between various important parameters of the alkaline catalyzed transesterification process to obtain a high conversion to biodiesel. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to statistically analyze and optimize the operating parameters of the process. A central composite design (CCD) was adopted to study the effects of the methanol to oil molar ratio, the catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and irradiation time on conversion to biodiesel.
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  119. Potential of L-phenylalanine Production from Raw Glycerol of Palm Biodiesel Process by a Recombinant Escherichia coli
    Abstract

    Srinophakun, P.; Reakasame, S.; Khamduang, M.; Packdibamrung, K.; Thanapimmetha, A. 2012. Potential of L-phenylalanine Production from Raw Glycerol of Palm Biodiesel Process by a Recombinant Escherichia coli. Chiang Mai Journal of Science. 39(1) 59-68

    The possibility of using raw glycerol from biodiesel process for the bacteria growth and L-phenylalanine production using recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) was investigated. Raw glycerol with 75.50% (w/w) glycerol content was pretreated with concentrated sulfuric acid to reduce the impurities. Type A and type B glycerol containing 91.28% and 83.93% glycerol content were obtained after the acid pretreatment. Raw glycerol, type A and B glycerol and commercial grade glycerol (99.5%) at various concentrations (5, 10, 30 and 50 g/L) were used as a carbon source. The cell dry weight (CD W) and L-phenylalanine concentration obtained after 36 h of cultivation from raw glycerol were much higher than that from other types of glycerol. The highest CDW (3.47 g/L) and L-phenylalanine (55.2 mg/L) were obtained from the medium containing 30 g/L of raw glycerol. The results indicated that raw glycerol from biodiesel process was an interesting carbon source for L-phenylalanine production.
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  120. Treatment of acidic palm oil for fatty acid methyl esters production
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Mjalli, F. S.; Mirghani, M. E. S.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M.; AlNashef, I. M.; Al-Zahrani, S. M. 2012. Treatment of acidic palm oil for fatty acid methyl esters production. Chemical Papers. 66(1) 39-46

    Acidic crude palm oil (ACPO) produced from palm oil mills with an acid value of 18 mg g(-1) was considered to be a possible feedstock for biodiesel production. Due to its high acidity, conventional transesterification cannot be applied directly for biodiesel production. Methane sulphonic acid (MSA, CH(3)SO(3)H) is used to reduce the acidity prior to the alkaline transesterification reaction. The laboratory-scale experiments involved an MSA to ACPO dosage of 0.25-3.5 %, a molar ratio (methanol to ACPO) from 4 : 1 to 20 : 1, reaction temperature of 40-80 degrees C, reaction time of 3-150 min, and stirrer speed of 100-500 min(-1). The optimum esterification reaction conditions were 1 % of catalyst to ACPO, with a molar ratio of methanol to ACPO of 8 : 1, a stirring speed of 300 min(-1), for 30 min and at 60 degrees C. Under these conditions, the FFA content was reduced from 18 mg g(-1) to less than 1 mg g(-1) and with a yield of 96 %. The biodiesel produced met the EN14214 standard specifications. MSA was recycled for three times without losing its activity. The biodiesel produced in a two-stage process has a low acid value (0.14 mg g(-1)). (C) 2011 Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences
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  121. Utilization of palm empty fruit bunch for the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil
    Abstract

    Yaakob, Z.; Bin Sukarman, I. S.; Narayanan, B.; Abdullah, S. R. S.; Ismail, M. 2012. Utilization of palm empty fruit bunch for the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil. Bioresource Technology. 104695-700

    Transesterification reaction of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of ash generated from Palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a heterogeneous catalyzed process. The ash was doped with KOH by impregnation to achieve a potassium level of 20 wt.%. Under optimum conditions for the EFB-catalyzed (65 degrees C, oil/methanol ratio of 15, 90 min, 20 wt.% EFB ash catalyst) and the KOH-EFB-catalyzed reactions (65 degrees C, oil/methanol ratio of 15,45 min, 15 wt.% of KOH doped EFB ash), biodiesel (>98%) with specifications higher than those stipulated by European biodiesel quality standard EN 14214 was obtained. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  122. Biocatalytic esterification of palm oil fatty acids for biodiesel production using glycine-based cross-linked protein coated microcrystalline lipase
    Abstract

    Raita, M.; Laothanachareon, T.; Champreda, V.; Laosiripojana, N. 2011. Biocatalytic esterification of palm oil fatty acids for biodiesel production using glycine-based cross-linked protein coated microcrystalline lipase. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 73(1-4) 74-79

    Conversion of feedstocks containing high free fatty acid contents to alkyl esters is limited by the currently used alkali-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis process. In this study, esterification of palm fatty acids to ethyl esters was studied using heterogeneous cross-linked protein coated microcrystalline (CL-PCMC) lipase. Optimization of biocatalyst synthesis by variation of matrix components and organic solvents showed that highly active CL-PCMCs could be prepared from Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase with glycine as the core matrix in acetone. The optimized reaction contained 20% (w/w) glycine-based CL-PCMC-lipase, a 1:4 fatty acid molar equivalence to ethanol in the presence of an equimolar amount of tert-butanol which led to production of 87.2% and 81.4% (mol/mol) of ethyl ester from palmitic acid and industrial palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), respectively after incubation at 50 degrees C for 6h. CL-PCMC-lipase is more catalytically efficient than protein coated microcrystalline (PCMC) lipase, Novozyme (R) 435 and Lipolase 100T for both free fatty acids and palm fatty acid distillate. The CL-PCMC-lipase showed high operational stability with no significant loss in product yield after 8 consecutive batch cycles. The glycine-based microcrystalline lipase is thus a promising alternative economical biocatalyst for biodiesel production from inexpensive feedstocks with high free fatty acid contents. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  123. Biodiesel production from animal fat-palm oil blend and performance analysis of its effects on a single cylinder diesel engine
    Abstract

    Sugozu, I.; Eryilmaz, T.; Ors, I.; Solmaz, O. 2011. Biodiesel production from animal fat-palm oil blend and performance analysis of its effects on a single cylinder diesel engine. Energy Education Science and Technology Part a-Energy Science and Research. 28(1) 505-514

    Nowadays, the decrease in fossil based energy reserves and their negative impact on the environment have increased the interest in alternative energy sources. Vegetable oils and animal fats are used as alternatives of fuels that are used in diesel engines. High viscosity of vegetable oils and animal fats cause several problems in diesel engines. Methods such as dilution, pyrolysis, and transesterification are utilized to eliminate these problems. In this study, using transesterification method, biodiesel is produced from 30% animal fat 70% palm oil blend which has a substantial potential for being an alternative fuel for diesel engines. The impact of biodiesel on engine performance and exhaust emissions are investigated on a single cylinder, air cooled, pre-combustion chamber diesel engine. Engine performance values of biodiesel are obtained close to those values of diesel fuel. A decrease in CO emission and a slight increase in NO emission are observed. Following the experimental results, it is concluded that biodiesel produced from 30% animal fat and 70% palm oil could be used as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Moreover, the positive impacts of biodiesel on environment in terms of exhaust emissions also increase its potential of being an alternative fuel.
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  124. Biodiesel Production via Transesterification of Palm Oil Using NaOH/Al2O3 Catalysts
    Abstract

    Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Abdullah, N. F.; Basri, M. 2011. Biodiesel Production via Transesterification of Palm Oil Using NaOH/Al2O3 Catalysts. Sains Malaysiana. 40(6) 587-594

    Due to the increase in price of petroleum and environmental concerns, the search for alternative fuels has gained importance. In this work, biodiesel production by transesterification of palm oil with methanol has been studied in a heterogeneous system using sodium hydroxide loaded on alumina (NaOH/Al2O3). NaOH/Al2O3 catalyst was prepared by impregnation of alumina with different amount of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide followed by calcination in air for 3 h. The prepared catalysts were then characterized by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurement (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 (CO2-TPD). Moreover, the dependence of the conversion of palm oil on the reactions variables such as the molar ratio of methanol/oil, the amount of catalysts used, reaction temperatures and reaction times were performed. The conversion of 99% was achieved under the optimum reaction conditions. The biodiesel obtained was characterized by FT-IR and the pour point was measured.
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  125. Comparative Studies of Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil, Coconut Oil, and Palm Oil Including Thermogravimetric Analysis
    Abstract

    Satyanarayana, M.; Muraleedharan, C. 2011. Comparative Studies of Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil, Coconut Oil, and Palm Oil Including Thermogravimetric Analysis. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 33(10) 925-937

    High viscosity and low volatility of vegetable oils compared to diesel lead to injector fouling and carbon deposits in engine cylinders while using them directly in engines. Biodiesel from the vegetable oils produced by a transesterification process could reduce viscosity considerably and improve the volatility. The properties of methyl esters produced from rubber seed oil, coconut oil, and palm kernel oil, which are locally available, especially in Kerala (India), are presented here. The viscosity of methyl esters of these oils is found to be comparable with diesel fuel as per ASTM D6751-02. Biodiesel from rubber seed oil (with high FFA) was produced by employing a two-step pretreatment process (acid esterification) to reduce acid value from 48 to 1.72 mgKOH/g with 0.40 and 0.35 v/v methanol-oil ratio and 1.0% v/v H2SO4 as catalyst at a temperature of 63(+/- 2)degrees C with 1 h reaction time followed by transesterification using a methanol-oil ratio of 0.30 v/v, 0.5 w/v KOH as an alkaline catalyst at 55(+/- 2)degrees C with 40 min reaction time to yield 98-99% biodiesel. Coconut oil and palm oil, being edible oils and having similarities in fatty acid composition, transesterification with 0.25 v/v methanol-oil ratio, 0.50% w/v KOH as alkaline catalyst at 58(+/- 2)degrees C, 20 min reaction time for coconut oil and 0.25% v/v methanol-oil ratio, 0.50% w/v KOH as alkaline catalyst at 60(+/- 2)degrees C for palm kernel oil converted them to 98-99% biodiesel. The viscosity of coconut biodiesel was more comparable to diesel fuel than that of other biodiesels, such as rubber seed oil biodiesel and palm oil biodiesel. Furthermore, thermogravimeric analysis indicated that coconut oil biodiesel is more volatile than other biodiesels and the volatility is nearer to diesel fuel.
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  126. Conversion of waste produced by the deodorization of palm oil as feedstock for the production of biodiesel using a catalyst prepared from waste material
    Abstract

    do Nascimento, L. A. S.; Angelica, R. S.; da Costa, C. E. F.; Zamian, J. R.; da Rocha, G. N. 2011. Conversion of waste produced by the deodorization of palm oil as feedstock for the production of biodiesel using a catalyst prepared from waste material. Bioresource Technology. 102(17) 8314-8317

    The distillate produced by deodorization of palm oil (DDPO) is a waste that corresponds to 4% of the product formed in this process. DDPO is 83% free of fatty acids (FFA), making it a good material for biodiesel production. In this paper, a catalyst prepared from a waste material. Amazon flint kaolin, was used for the esterification of DDPO with methanol. Leached metakaolin treated at 950 degrees C and activated with 4 M sulfuric acid (labeled as MF9S4) offered maximum esterification activity (92.8%) at 160 degrees C with a DDPO:methanol molar ratio of 1:60 and a 4-h reaction time. The influences of reaction parameters, such as the molar ratio of the reactants, alcohol chain length, temperature, time and the presence of glycerides and unsaponifiable matter, have also been investigated. Based on the catalytic results, esterification of DDPO using MF9S4 can be a cheaper alternative for production of sustainable fuels. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  127. Efficient Concomitant Production of Lipids and Carotenoids by Oleaginous Red Yeast Rhodotorula glutinis Cultured in Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Application of Lipids for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Saenge, C.; Cheirsilp, B.; Suksaroge, T. T.; Bourtoom, T. 2011. Efficient Concomitant Production of Lipids and Carotenoids by Oleaginous Red Yeast Rhodotorula glutinis Cultured in Palm Oil Mill Effluent and Application of Lipids for Biodiesel Production. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 16(1) 23-33

    Rhodotorula glutinis TISTR 5159 is oleaginous red yeast that accumulates both lipids and carotenoids. It was cultured in palm oil mill effluent (POME) with only the addition of ammonium sulfate and Tween 20 as a suitable nitrogen source and surfactant, respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) in POME, C/N ratio, and Tween 20 concentration for concomitant production of lipids and carotenoids. Among three investigated factors, C/N ratio contributed a significant effect upon lipid and carotenoids production. Analysis of response surface plots revealed that the optimum C/N ratio for the biomass was 140, while that for lipid content and carotenoids were higher at 180 and 170, respectively. The high level of the nitrogen source (with a low C/N ratio) enhanced the biomass, making the accumulation of lipids and carotenoids less preferable. Hence, the two-stage process was attempted as an optimal way for cell growth in the first stage and product accumulation in the second stage. The lipid yield and carotenoid production obtained in the two-stage process were higher than those in the one-stageprocess. In the semi-continuous fermentation, R. glutinis TISTR 5159 accumulated high lipid content and produced a considerably high concentration of carotenoids during long-term cultivation. Additionally, efficient COD removal by R. glutinis TISTR 5159 was observed. The biodiesel produced from yeast lipids was composed mainly of oleic and palmitic acids, similar to those from plant oil.
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  128. Ethanesulfonic acid-based esterification of industrial acidic crude palm oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Mjalli, F. S.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M.; AlNashef, I. M.; Al-Zahrani, S. M.; Al-Saadi, M. A. 2011. Ethanesulfonic acid-based esterification of industrial acidic crude palm oil for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 102(20) 9564-9570

    An industrial grade acidic crude palm oil (ACPO) pre-treatment process was carried out using ethanesulfonic acid (ESA) as a catalyst in the esterification reaction. ESA was used in different dosages to reduce free fatty acid (FFA) to a minimum level for the second stage of biodiesel production via alkaline transesterification reaction. Different process operating conditions were optimized such as ESA dosage (0.25-3.5% wt/wt), methanol to ACPO molar ratio (1:1-20:1), reaction temperature (40-70 degrees C), and reaction time (3-150 min). This study revealed the potential use of abundant quantities of ACP from oil palm mills for biodiesel production. The lab scale results showed the effectiveness of the pre-treatment process using ESA catalyst. Three consecutive catalyst recycling runs were achieved without significant degradation in its performance. Second and third reuse runs needed more reaction time to achieve the target level of FFA content. Esterification and transesterification using ESA and KOH respectively is proposed for biodiesel industrial scale production. The produced biodiesel meets the international standards specifications for biodiesel fuel (EN 14214 and ASTM D6751). (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  129. First karyotype, DNA C-value and AT/GC base composition of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata, Arecaceae) - a promising plant for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Abreu, I. S.; Carvalho, C. R.; Carvalho, G. M. A.; Motoike, S. Y. 2011. First karyotype, DNA C-value and AT/GC base composition of macaw palm (Acrocomia aculeata, Arecaceae) - a promising plant for biodiesel production. Australian Journal of Botany. 59(2) 149-155

    The oleaginous species Acrocomia aculeata produces high-quality oil and is considered a potential plant for sustainable production of food and biodiesel. In spite of its economical, social and environmental importance, few data concerning the genome size and chromosomal characterisation of this crop have been reported. In order to contribute to basic genetic knowledge on A. aculeata, this work aimed to assemble the first karyogram and to determine genome size and base composition of this species. Concerning the cytogenetic approach, we developed a protocol based on root tips treatment with an anti-mitotic agent, followed by enzymatic maceration and slide preparation by the air-drying technique. This method provided well resolved metaphasic chromosomes, which are important for an accurate and informative cytogenetical characterisation. Achromosome number of 2n = 30 was observed. Content of 2C DNA and base composition were estimated by flow cytometry of G(0)/G(1) nuclei stained with propidium iodide and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, respectively. The mean 2C-value and base composition corresponded to 2C = 5.81 pg and AT = 58.3%. These new data support basic genetic knowledge on A. aculeata, relevant for its conservation, diversity studies and consequent development of breeding programs, which may foment the biofuel production in the world.
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  130. Immobilized lipase from potential lipolytic microbes for catalyzing biodiesel production using palm oil as feedstock
    Abstract

    Winayanuwattikun, P.; Kaewpiboon, C.; Piriyakananon, K.; Chulalaksananukul, W.; Yongvanich, T.; Svasti, J. 2011. Immobilized lipase from potential lipolytic microbes for catalyzing biodiesel production using palm oil as feedstock. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10(9) 1666-1673

    Biodiesel has been regarded as a biodegradable and non-polluting fuel. Enzymatic transesterification reaction for manufacturing biodiesel from vegetable oils with alcohol is an attractive approach. However, the cost of enzyme remains a barrier for its industrial implementation. The aim of this research was the screening of lipase-producing microorganisms and the studies of potential lipase-mediated biodiesel production using palm oil as substrate. A total of 360 strains of bacteria, yeasts and fungi were isolated and screened from the samples of oil-contaminated soil and waste water. Among all the screened microbes, the potential lipolytic bacterium, Staphylococcus warneri, unicellular yeast, Candida rugosa and filamentous fungus, Fusarium solani were selected because of their high specific activities. The lipase-producing conditions were subsequently optimized by using palm oil as an inducer and lipase activities were compared for both hydrolytic and synthetic catalysis. C. rugosa lipase, which exhibited the highest potential for catalyzing the biodiesel production, was further purified and immobilized on various hydrophobic supports. The catalysis of transesterification between methanol and palm oil by the C. rugosa immobilized lipases revealed that immobilized lipase from C. rugosa on Sepabeads EC-OD was the most promising for further development as a biocatalyst for the application of enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis.
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  131. Implications of land use change on the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from palm biodiesel production in Thailand
    Abstract

    Siangjaeo, S.; Gheewala, S. H.; Unnanon, K.; Chidthaisong, A. 2011. Implications of land use change on the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from palm biodiesel production in Thailand. Energy for Sustainable Development. 15(1) 1-7

    The study evaluates the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of biodiesel production through three chosen land use change scenarios in Thailand: rubber plantation to oil palm plantation in Krabi, cassava plantation to oil palm plantation in Chonburi, and abandoned land to oil palm plantation in Pathumthani. The carbon stock changes were estimated based on the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and combined with the life cycle GHG emissions from palm oil and biodiesel production in Thailand. For 1 million liters of biodiesel production per day, the Krabi, Chonburi and Pathumthani cases resulted in -709 Mg CO(2)-eq/day, -748 Mg CO(2)-eq/day and -600 Mg CO(2)-eq/day, respectively. The Pathumthani case showed the lowest negative GHG balance even with least fertilization partly because of larger transportation distances while the Chonburi case was the highest despite low yield as it would require more land to grow oil palm for the same amount of biodiesel, resulting in more soil carbon being sequestered. However, the land use change scenarios chosen for this study all show a negative GHG balance which means that biodiesel helps reduce GHG in the atmosphere. (C) 2011 International Energy Initiative. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  132. Kinetics of methyl ester production from mixed crude palm oil by using acid-alkali catalyst
    Abstract

    Jansri, S.; Ratanawilai, S. B.; Allen, M. L.; Prateepchaikul, G. 2011. Kinetics of methyl ester production from mixed crude palm oil by using acid-alkali catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology. 92(8) 1543-1548

    The production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid mixed crude palm oil using a two-stage process was investigated. The kinetics of the reactions was determined in a batch reactor at various reaction temperatures. It was found that the optimum conditions for reducing high free fatty acid (FFA) in MCP (8-12 wt.%/wt oil) using esterification was a 10:1 molar ratio of methanol to FFA and using 10 wt%/wt of sulfuric acid (based on FFA) as catalyst. The subsequent transesterification reaction to convert triglycerides to the methyl ester was found to be optimal using 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to the triglyceride (TG) in MCPO and using 0.6 wt.%/ vole sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Both reactions were carried out in a stirred batch reactor over a period of 20 min at 55, 60 and 65 degrees C. The concentration of compounds in each sample was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography/Flame Ionization Detector (TLC/FID), Karl Fischer, and titration techniques. The results were used for calculating the rate coefficients by using the curve-fitting tool of MATLAB. Optimal reaction rate coefficients for the forward and reverse esterification reactions of FFA were 1.340 and 0.682 l mol(-1) min(-1), respectively. The corresponding optimal transesterification, rate coefficients for the forward reactions of TG, diglyceride (DG), and monoglyceride (MG) of transesterification were 2.600. 1.186, and 2.3031 mol(-1) and for the reverse reactions were 0.248, 0.227, and 0.022 l mol(-1) min(-1), respectively. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  133. Meat Quality of Lambs Fed on Palm Kernel Meal, a By-product of Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Ribeiro, R. D. X.; Oliveira, R. L.; Macome, F. M.; Bagaldo, A. R.; Silva, M. C. A.; Ribeiro, C. V. D. M.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Lanna, D. P. D. 2011. Meat Quality of Lambs Fed on Palm Kernel Meal, a By-product of Biodiesel Production. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences. 24(10) 1399-1406

    This study aimed to establish the optimum level of palm kernel meal in the diet of Santa Ines lambs based on the sensorial characteristics and fatty acid profile of the meat. We used 32 lambs with a starting age of 4 to 6 months and mean weight of 22 2.75 kg, kept in individual stalls. The animals were fed with Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0, 6.5, 13.0 or 19.5% of palm kernel meal based on the dry mass of the complete diet. These levels formed the treatments. Confinement lasted 80 days and on the last day the animals were fasted and slaughtered. After slaughter, carcasses were weighed and sectioned longitudinally, along the median line, into two antimeres. Half-carcasses were then sliced between the 12th and 13th ribs to collect the loin (longissimus dorsi), which was used to determine the sensorial characteristics and fatty acid profile of the meat. For sensorial evaluation, samples of meat were given to 54 judges who evaluated the tenderness, juiciness, appearance, aroma and flavor of the meat using a hedonic scale. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography. The addition of palm kernel meal to the diet had no effect on the sensorial characteristics of meat juiciness, appearance, aroma or flavor. However, tenderness showed a quadratic relationship with the addition of the meal to the diet. The concentration of fatty acids C12:0, C14:0 and C16:0 increased with the addition of palm kernel meal, as did the sum of medium-chain fatty acids and the atherogenicity index. Up to of 19.5% of the diet of Santa Ines lambs can be made up of palm kernel meal without causing significant changes in sensorial characteristics. However, the fatty acid profile of the meat was altered.
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  134. Morphometry of the ruminal mucosa of Santa Ines lambs fed with levels of palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis), from biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Sanders, D. D.; Oliveira, R. L.; Moreira, E. L. T.; Juca, A. D.; Silva, T. M.; Pinto, L. F. B.; Macome, F. M.; Bagaldo, A. R.; Estrela-Lima, A. 2011. Morphometry of the ruminal mucosa of Santa Ines lambs fed with levels of palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis), from biodiesel production. Semina-Ciencias Agrarias. 32(3) 1169-1177

    The work was carried out to determine the best level of inclusion of palm kernel cake in the concentrate-based morphometry evaluation of the ruminal mucosa in Santa Ines lambs. The experiment lasted 80 days, the Tifton-85 hay in a proportion 50 forage 50concentrado. The food was offered at 9:00 and 16:00. We used 32 sheep of Santa Ines, between 4 and 6 months and body weight of 22 +/- 2.75 kg. The experiment was a completely randomized design with four treatments and eight repetitions. The treatments consisted in the inclusion levels of palm kernel cake (0.0, 6.5, 13.0 and 19.5%) in the dry matter. Variables evaluated in the ruminal mucosa were: height, width, area, density and thickness of papillary muscular layer of the rumen in the regions of the dorsal and ventral sac. There were no significant differences in the region of the dorsal sac of the rumen for variables analyzed with the inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet. The ventral surface papillary bag quadratic effect, whereas the thickness of muscular layer decreasing linear effect. The inclusion of up to 19.5% palm kernel cake had no significant effect on the morphology of the papillae may be included in the diet of Santa Ines lambs.
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  135. Oil palm : cultivation, production and dietary components
    Abstract

    Penna, Susan A. 2011. Oil palm : cultivation, production and dietary components. . x, 238 p.

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  136. Optimization of heterogeneous biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil via response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Omar, W. N. N. W.; Amin, N. A. S. 2011. Optimization of heterogeneous biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil via response surface methodology. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(3) 1329-1338

    Heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking palm oil (WCPO) to biodiesel over Sr/ZrO(2) catalyst and the optimization of the process have been investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the relationships of methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction time, and reaction temperature on methyl ester yield and free fatty acid conversion. The experiments were designed using central composite by applying 2(4) full factorial designs with two centre points. Transesterification of WCPO produced 79.7% maximum methyl ester yield at the optimum methanol to oil molar ratio = 29:1, catalyst loading = 2.7 wt%, reaction time = 87 min and reaction temperature = 115.5 degrees C. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  137. Parallel production of biodiesel and bioethanol in palm-oil-based biorefineries: life cycle assessment on the energy and greenhouse gases emissions
    Abstract

    Lim, S.; Lee, K. T. 2011. Parallel production of biodiesel and bioethanol in palm-oil-based biorefineries: life cycle assessment on the energy and greenhouse gases emissions. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 5(2) 132-150

    The main objective of this life cycle assessment (LCA) study is to determine the environmental consequences of the inclusion of second-generation biofuels (bioethanol from palm oil biomass) toward current palm oil biodiesel production through a 'seed-to-wheel' LCA analysis. Their energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission indicators are evaluated with consequential approach for system delimitation. Although all scenarios provide positive environmental impact, it is found that the inclusion of bioethanol production in the current palm oil processing will decrease the net energy ratio (NER) and net carbon emission ratio (NCER) values by 27.5% and 66.6%, respectively. Moreover, carbon emission savings (CES) value is also found to decrease by a total of 21.9%. This indicates that a higher amount of energy input and GHG emissions is actually required for the bioethanol processing than the amount of energy it will produce and the GHG from fossil fuels it will displace. The sensitivity analysis performed on the yields of bioethanol shows that the minimum conversion threshold should be larger than 60% in order to have a higher energy and GHG emission ratio than current palm oil biodiesel processing. Sensitivity analysis on direct land use change and waste-water treatment is also carried out which discourages the expansion of palm oil plantation to primary forest (including peatland) and emphasizes the need for a biogas harvesting system. (C) 2011 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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  138. Potential of waste palm cooking oil for catalyst-free biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Tan, K. T.; Lee, K. T.; Mohamed, A. R. 2011. Potential of waste palm cooking oil for catalyst-free biodiesel production. Energy. 36(4) 2085-2088

    Disposal of waste palm cooking oil (WPCO) via an environmental-friendly route is of major importance in the quest for sustainable development. In this study. WPCO was utilized instead of refined vegetable oils as the source of triglycerides for biodiesel production. WPCO contains several impurities, such as water and free fatty acids, which limit its application in catalytic transesterification processes. Consequently, a catalyst-free process using supercritical methanol was employed to investigate the potential of WPCO as an economical feedstock for biodiesel production. The parameters that influence the reaction, including reaction time, temperature and the molar ratio of alcohol to oil, were investigated. For comparison purposes, refined palm oil (RPO) was also subjected to supercritical methanol reaction and it was found that both processes produced comparable optimum yields of 80% at their respective optimum conditions. Hence, it can be concluded that WPCO has high potential as an economical and practical future source of biodiesel. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  139. Preparing Activated Carbon from Palm Shell for Biodiesel Fuel Production
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Chaiyut, N.; Nakweang, C. 2011. Preparing Activated Carbon from Palm Shell for Biodiesel Fuel Production. Chiang Mai Journal of Science. 38(4) 572-578

    Palm shell is a Cheap and abundant agricultural by-product in many tropical countries, particularly Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. Several techniques including thermal activation (physical activation) and chemical activation have been successfully developed to convert palm shell into an activated carbon (AC). One technique is to use an activating agent such as Ca(NO(3))(2)center dot 4H(2)O. The objective of this work was to optimize the process for biodiesel fuel production from palm stearin using activated carbon supported calcium oxide. Transesterification of palm stearin with methanol was investigated under a heterogeneous catalysis system. The reaction was studied by various amount of metal loading in activated carbon. The supported alkali earth metal catalysts, Ca(NO(3))(2)/AC showed almost the same activity under the optimized reaction conditions compared to calcium oxide catalyst (CaO). The catalysts were characterized, using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface area analyzer. The results indicated that the Ca(NO(3))(2)/AC had relatively low surface area, compared to CaO. The suitable conditions for heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of Ca(NO(3))(2)/AC and CaO were the methanol/oil molar ratio of 20, temperature of 60 degrees C and reaction time of 4 h, with 10.5 and 6 % (w/w) catalyst to oil ratio for Ca(NO(3))(2)/AC and CaO, respectively.
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  140. Production of Biodiesel Using Palm Oil
    Abstract

    Lam, M. K.; Lee, K. T. 2011. Production of Biodiesel Using Palm Oil. Biofuels: Alternative Feedstocks and Conversion Processes. 353-374

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  141. Reduction of high content of free fatty acid in sludge palm oil via acid catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Alam, M. Z.; Mirghani, M. E. S.; Kabbashi, N. A.; Hakimi, N. I. N. M.; Siran, Y. M.; Tahiruddin, S. 2011. Reduction of high content of free fatty acid in sludge palm oil via acid catalyst for biodiesel production. Fuel Processing Technology. 92(5) 920-924

    In this study, sulphuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) was used in the pretreatment of sludge palm oil for biodiesel production by an esterification process, followed by the basic catalyzed transesterification process. The purpose of the pretreatment process was to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content from high content FFA (>23%) of sludge palm oil (SPO) to a minimum level for biodiesel production (>2%). An acid catalyzed esterification process was carried out to evaluate the low content of FFA in the treated SPO with the effects of other parameters such as molar ratio of methanol to SPO (6:1-14:1). temperature (40-80 degrees C), reaction time (30-120 min) and stirrer speed (200-800 rpm). The results showed that the FFA of SPO was reduced front 23.2% to less than 2% FFA using 0.75% wt/wt of sulphuric acid with the molar ratio of methanol to oil of 8:1 for 60 min reaction time at 60 degrees C. The results on the transesterification with esterified SPO showed that the yield (ester) of biodiesel was 83.72% with the process conditions of molar ratio of methanol to SPO 10:1, reaction temperature 60 degrees C, reaction time 60 min, stirrer speed 400 rpm and KOH 1% (wt/wt). The biodiesel produced from the SPO was favorable as compared to the EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standard. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  142. Study of immobilized candida rugosa lipase for biodiesel fuel production from palm oil by flow microcalorimetry
    Abstract

    Moreno-Pirajan, J. C.; Giraldo, L. 2011. Study of immobilized candida rugosa lipase for biodiesel fuel production from palm oil by flow microcalorimetry. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 4(1) 55-62

    Enzymatic transesterification of palm oil with methanol and ethanol was studied. Of the four lipases that were tested in the initial screening, lipase Candida Rugosa (CR) resulted in the highest yield of mono alkyl esters. Lipase CR was further investigated in immobilized form within an activated carbon as support. The activated carbon was prepared by activation physical. Using the immobilized lipase CR, the effects of water and alcohol concentration, enzyme loading and enzyme thermal stability in the transesterification reaction were investigated. The optimal conditions for processing 50 g of palm oil were: 37 degrees C, 1:14.5 oil/methanol molar ratio, 1.0 g water and 500 mg lipase for the reactions with methanol, 35 degrees C, 1:15.0 oil/ethanol molar ratio, 1.0 g water, 500 mg lipase for the reactions with ethanol, and 35 degrees C, 1:10.0 oil/n-butanol molar ratio, 1.0 g water, 500 mg lipase for the reactions with ethanol. Subject to the optimal conditions, methyl and ethyl esters formation of 70 and 85 mol% in 1 h of reaction were obtained for the immobilized enzyme reactions. The flow microcalorimetry is an important and novel techniques is used in evaluation of biodiesel production. (C) 2010 King Saud University. All rights reserved.
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  143. Utilization of waste cockle shell (Anadara granosa) in biodiesel production from palm olein: Optimization using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Boey, P. L.; Maniam, G. P.; Hamid, S. A.; Ali, D. M. H. 2011. Utilization of waste cockle shell (Anadara granosa) in biodiesel production from palm olein: Optimization using response surface methodology. Fuel. 90(7) 2353-2358

    The cockle shell, which is available in abundance, has no any eminent use and is commonly regarded as a waste, was utilized as a source of calcium oxide in catalyzing a transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel (methyl esters). A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the two major influential reaction variables: catalyst and methanol amount towards purity and yield of methyl esters. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the catalyst has a positive influence on purity but negative on the yield. Meanwhile, the methanol/oil mass ratio showed a positive effect on both purity and yield. Using CCD, the optimum reaction conditions were found to be 4.9 wt.% of catalyst and 0.54:1 methanol/oil mass ratio. The prepared catalyst was capable of being reused under the suggested optimal conditions. (c) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  144. A newly isolated fungal strain used as whole-cell biocatalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil
    Abstract

    Xiao, M.; Mathew, S.; Obbard, J. P. 2010. A newly isolated fungal strain used as whole-cell biocatalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil. Global Change Biology Bioenergy. 2(2) 45-51

    A strain of Aspergillus niger isolated from atmospherically exposed bread and Jatropha curcas seed was utilized as a whole-cell biocatalyst for palm oil methanolysis to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), or biodiesel. The A. niger strain had a lipase activity of 212.58 mU mL(-1) after 144 h incubation at 25 degrees C with an initial pH value of 6.5, using 7% polypeptone (w/w on basal medium) as the nitrogen source and 3% olive oil (w/w on basal medium) as a carbon source. The A. niger cells spontaneously immobilized within polyurethane biomass support particles (BSPs) during submerged fermentation. Thereafter, the methanolysis of palm oil was achieved via a three-step addition of methanol in the presence of BSPs-immobilized with A. niger cells. The influence of water content, reaction temperature and enzyme concentration on reaction rate was investigated. An 8% water content and a temperature of 40 degrees C in the presence of 30 immobilized BSPs, resulted in an 87% FAME yield after 72 h.
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  145. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics
    Abstract

    Yusup, S.; Khan, M. 2010. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics. Biomass & Bioenergy. 34(10) 1523-1526

    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  146. Biocatalytic ethanolysis of palm oil for biodiesel production using microcrystalline lipase in tert-butanol system
    Abstract

    Raita, M.; Champreda, V.; Laosiripojana, N. 2010. Biocatalytic ethanolysis of palm oil for biodiesel production using microcrystalline lipase in tert-butanol system. Process Biochemistry. 45(6) 829-834

    Biocatalytic synthesis is a promising environmentally friendly process for the production of biodiesel, a sustainable alternative fuel from renewable plant resources. In order to develop an economical heterogeneous biocatalyst, protein-coated microcrystals (PCMCs) were prepared from a commercial enzyme preparation from a recombinant Aspergillus strain expressing Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase and used for synthesis of biodiesel from palm olein by ethanolysis. Reaction parameters, including catalyst loading, temperature, and oil/alcohol molar ratio have been systematically optimized. Addition of tert-butanol was found to markedly increase the biocatalyst activity and stability resulting in improved product yield. Optimized reactions (20%, w/w PCMC-lipase to triacylglycerol and 1:4 fatty acid equivalence/ethanol molar ratio) led to the production of alkyl esters from palm olein at 89.9% yield on molar basis after incubation at 45 degrees C for 24 h in the presence of tert-butanol at a 1:1 molar ratio to triacylglycerol. Crude palm oil and palm fatty acid distillate were also efficiently converted to biodiesel with 82.1 and 75.5% yield, respectively, with continual dehydration by molecular sieving. Operational stability of PCMC-lipase could be improved by treatment with tert-butanol allowing recycling of the biocatalyst for at least 8 consecutive batches with only slight reduction in activity. This work thus shows a promising approach for biodiesel synthesis with microcrystalline lipase which could be further developed for cost-efficient industrial production of biodiesel. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  147. Biodiesel production from crude palm oil using sulfonic acid-modified mesostructured catalysts
    Abstract

    Melero, J. A.; Bautista, L. F.; Morales, G.; Iglesias, J.; Sanchez-Vazquez, R. 2010. Biodiesel production from crude palm oil using sulfonic acid-modified mesostructured catalysts. Chemical Engineering Journal. 161(3) 323-331

    Biodiesel production from crude palm oil containing high percentage of free fatty acids over sulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15 materials (propyl-SO(3)H, arene-SO(3)H, perfluoro-SO(3)H) has been studied. The catalytic results showed that sulfonic acid-modified mesostructured materials were more active than conventional ion-exchange sulfonic resins (Amberlyst-36 and SAC-13) in the simultaneous esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides with methanol. The reusability of the catalysts was also investigated showing high stability for propyl-SO(3)H and arene-SO(3)H-modified mesostructured materials. In contrast, ionic-exchange sulfonic acid resins displayed low-conversion rates, being stronger this decay of activity in the second consecutive catalytic run. Interestingly, perfluorosulfonic acid-functionalized SBA-15 sample yielded a dramatic loss of activity indicating that Si-O-C bonding is not stable under the reaction conditions as compared with Si-C bond present in propyl-SO(3)H and arene-SO(3)H catalysts. Further functionalization of arene-SO(3)H SBA-15 catalyst with hydrophobic trimethylsilyl groups enhanced its catalytic performance. This material was able to produce a yield to FAME of ca. 95% as determined by (1)H NMR in 4h of reaction with a moderate methanol to oil molar ratio (20:1), 140 degrees C and a catalyst concentration of 6 wt.% referred to starting oil. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  148. Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Via Heterogeneous Transesterification: Optimization Study
    Abstract

    Yee, K. F.; Kansedo, J.; Lee, K. T. 2010. Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil Via Heterogeneous Transesterification: Optimization Study. Chemical Engineering Communications. 197(12) 1597-1611

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) prepared by transesterification process using a heterogeneous catalyst has received a lot of interest lately as it could overcome the limitations of the current commercial homogeneous catalytic process. Apart from that, palm oil, being the cheapest edible oil in the world, will always remain the most economical source of FAME. Therefore, in this study, the use of sulfated zirconia alumina as a heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze the transesterification of palm oil with methanol to FAME was carried out using design of experiment (DOE), specifically response surface methodology (RSM) based on four-variable central composite design (CCD) with =2. The transesterification process variables are reaction temperature (60-180 degrees C), reaction period (1-5h), methanol-to-oil ratio (4-12mol mol-1), and amount of catalyst (2-10wt.%). In this study involving many multiple process variables, the design of experiment approach was found to be superior to the conventional one-variable-at-one-time approach. Interactions between variables were found to have significant effect on the yield of FAME. At the conditions of 3h of reaction period, 127 degrees C reaction temperature, methanol-to-palm oil ratio of 8, and 6wt.% of catalyst, an optimum FAME yield of 83.3% can be obtained, indicating that sulfated zirconia alumina has potential as a heterogeneous catalyst for the production of FAME from palm oil.
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  149. Exergy Analysis of Palm Oil Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Jaimes, W.; Acevedo, P.; Kafarov, V. 2010. Exergy Analysis of Palm Oil Biodiesel Production. Pres 2010: 13th International Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction. 211345-1350

    The global search for cleaner energy sources has motivated the development of fuels from oil crops (soybean, sunflower, rapeseed, castor, coconut, palm, etc.), with special importance of biodiesel from African Palm, due to its high yields (5900 l/ha) and decrease of emissions of vehicles (mainly carbon monoxide and volatile hydrocarbons). One of the most important disadvantages of biodiesel is a lower energy output than fossil fuels and consequently requires greater quantities of energy to be consumed in order to produce the same energy unit. To evaluate the efficiency of biodiesel production from palm oil in this work the methodology of exergy analysis was applied. In this case biodiesel production process includes tree steps: 1. the pre-treatment performed to hydrolyze triglycerides presented in palm oil, 2. the esterification to fatty acids using sulfuric acid as catalyst, 3 the separation and purification stage. To evaluate the energetic and exergetic efficiency at each stage of the process the thermodynamic analysis was applied, and was found that the largest exergy losses were occasioned by absence of energy flows integration. Additionally, the methodology developed in this work could be employed as a tool to achieve more efficient use of energy in the biofuel industry, also as an instrument for comparison to other biodiesel production processes from renewable resources (soybean, castor, etc.). This work was supported by the Ibero-American Program on Science and Technology for Development (CYTED) project 306RTO279 "New technologies for biofuels production" UNESCO codes 330303, 332205, 530603, 330999 and the Colombian Department of Science, Technology and Innovation COLCIENCIAS, projects CT 475-2007 and CT 272-2008.)
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  150. Feasibility Of Reactive Distillation Column For Biodiesel Production From Palm Oils
    Abstract

    Mueanmas, C.; Prasertsit, K.; Tongurai, C. 2010. Feasibility Of Reactive Distillation Column For Biodiesel Production From Palm Oils. Proceedings of 2010 International Conference on Chemical Engineering and Applications. 331-335

    The production of biodiesel in existing processes requires excess alcohol, typically 100%, over the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the chemical reaction to completion. This excess alcohol must be recovered and purified for reuse through rectification and distillation, which involves additional capital and operating costs. Therefore, combination of reactor with distillation column in only one unit called reactive distillation column (RD) may lead to an enormous capital-investment cost reduction. This research is proposed the feasibility study of biodiesel production from palm oil by reactive distillation. The hypothesis is to reduce the amount of alcohol in the feed stream closing to its stoichiometric ratio with oil. This dues to the less energy used in the methanol recovery for the processes. The effects of process parameters were conducted by RD packed column lab scale. The results indicated that process parameters of flow rate of 900 ml/hr at 8 hrs system reached to steady state and reboiler temperature 90 degrees C with 4.0:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil.
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  151. Hepatic condition of lambs fed diets with palmkernel cake from biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Nunes, A. S.; Oliveira, R. L.; Ayres, M. C. C.; Bagaldo, A. R.; Neto, A. F. G.; Barbosa, L. P. 2010. Hepatic condition of lambs fed diets with palmkernel cake from biodiesel production. Revista Brasileira De Zootecnia-Brazilian Journal of Animal Science. 39(8) 1825-1831

    This study was conducted in order to verify the best level of palm kernel cake in the diet for lambs through evaluation of hepatic condition. It was used 32 non-castrated Santa Ines lambs distributed into four diets with palm kernel cake levels of 0.0; 6.5; 13.0 and 19.5% in the dry matter (DM). Every 15 days, blood samples were collected, totalizing five collects for the whole experimental period. It was determined levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin and globulin, activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate-aminotrasferase, and gama-glutamiltransferase enzymes, and serum concentrations of total, direct and indirect bilirrubine. The increase of palm kernel cake percentage in the diet did not affect concentration of triglycerides whose mean value was 40.57 mg/dL. However, cholesterol levels increased as the palm kernel cake was increased in the diets. There was no difference in the total proteins either, but there was an increasing quadratic effect in the levels of albumine and urea and a decreasing linear effect in the levels of globuline. Statistical differences were not observed for activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate-aminotrasferase, and gama-glutamiltransferase enzymes, which showed mean values of 6.40; 37.59 and 62.38 UI/L respectively. Similarly, it was not detected influence on the total, direct, and indirect bilirrubine, whose mean values were 0.50; 0.11; and 0.38 mg/dL, respectively. The use of palm kernel cake at levels up to 19.5% does not cause metabolic disorders in lambs.
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  152. Kinetics of transesterification of palm oil and dimethyl carbonate for biodiesel production at the catalysis of heterogeneous base catalyst
    Abstract

    Zhang, L. P.; Sheng, B. Y.; Xin, Z.; Liu, Q.; Sun, S. Z. 2010. Kinetics of transesterification of palm oil and dimethyl carbonate for biodiesel production at the catalysis of heterogeneous base catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 101(21) 8144-8150

    The transesterification of palm oil with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) for preparing biodiesel has been studied in solvent-free system at the catalysis of potassium hydroxide (KOH) as heterogeneous catalyst. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMES) were analyzed by GC with internal standard method. The effects of reaction conditions (molar ratio of DMC and palm oil, catalyst amount and time) on FAMEs yield were investigated. The highest FAMEs yield could reach 96.2% at refluxing temperature for 8 h with molar ratio of DMC and oil 9:1 and 8.5% KOH (based on oil weight). Kinetics of the KOH-catalyzed transesterification of palm oil and DMC was researched over a temperature range of 65-75 degrees C. A pseudo first-order model was proposed. The activation energy (E(a)) was 79.1 kJ mol(-1) and the pre-exponential factor (k(o)) was 1.26 x 10(9) min(-1) from Arrhenius equation. Further, a plausible reaction mechanism for the catalytic process with DMC as acyl acceptor was proposed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  153. Life Cycle Assessment for Joint Production of Biodiesel and Bioethanol from African Palm
    Abstract

    Martinez, D.; Acevedo, P.; Kafarov, V. 2010. Life Cycle Assessment for Joint Production of Biodiesel and Bioethanol from African Palm. Pres 2010: 13th International Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction. 211309-1314

    In this paper LCA is applied to a biodiesel production process from African palm using lignocellulosic ethanol as a reagent in the transesterification reaction which is obtained from residues with high contents of cellulose resulting from the oil extraction stage. The LCA was evaluated through the biodiesel production chain starting with the land adaption stage, oil extraction, ethanol production from residual lignocellulosic biomass, transesterification of palm oil and ending with the distribution and use of the biofuel. This study was developed for Sabana de Torres (Santander - Colombia) region. The biodiesel plant was simulated by Aspen Hysys 2006.5; besides a parallel process was simulated to produce bioethanol from residual palm biomass. The last process is carried out in four steps: pretreatment of biomass, hydrolysis, fermentation and alcohol separation. The LCA was developed using SIMAPRO 7.1 software and database ECOINVENT with which the environmental profile of the system was elaborated evaluating different impact categories such as climate change (CCI), acidification (AI), eutrophication (EI), photochemical smog formation (POI), respiratory effects (REI) and non-renewable energy (NRE), among others. According to the environmental profiles obtained, the stage of distribution and use of the B10 blend (10% biodiesel) has the greatest influence in the output impact categories and the input impact category. The methodology was applied following the procedures established in the ISO 14040 and 14044 standards of 2006. This study was supported by the State Department of Science, Technology & Innovation (COLCIENCIAS), Projects CT 475-2007 and CT 272-2008. and the Ibero-American Program on Science and Technology for Development (CYTED) project 306RTO279 "New technologies for biofuels production" UNESCO codes 330303, 332205, 530603, 330999.
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  154. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF PALM BIODIESEL (Part 5)
    Abstract

    Wei, P. C.; May, C. Y.; Ngan, M. A. 2010. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF PALM BIODIESEL (Part 5). Journal of Oil Palm Research. 22927-933

    In Malaysia, the major consumers of energy are the industrial and transport sectors. The demand is expected to increase steadily in tandem with the growth of the economy. As such, alternative sources of energy need to be developed, in particular energy from renewable sources, to meet the energy requirements. Fatty acid methyl esters, commonly known as biodiesel, derived from oils and fats have long been known as a potential diesel substitute. Biodiesel is suitable to be used neat or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion in an unmodified diesel engine. However, the many concerns related to the emissions from the production and use of biodiesel have been discussed globally. Thus, this life cycle assessment study was conducted to investigate the environmental impacts from the production and use of palm biodiesel produced using MPOB's production technology. The results show that the environmental impact from the production of palm biodiesel is related to the use of methanol, while the use of palm biodiesel contributes to the impact categories of respiratory inorganics and acidification/eutrophication. In spite of these, the production and use of palm biodiesel is more environmental-friendly as compared to petroleum diesel.
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  155. Life Cycle Assessment of a Palm Oil System with Simultaneous Production of Biodiesel and Cooking Oil in Cameroon
    Abstract

    Achten, W. M. J.; Vandenbempt, P.; Almeida, J.; Mathijs, E.; Muys, B. 2010. Life Cycle Assessment of a Palm Oil System with Simultaneous Production of Biodiesel and Cooking Oil in Cameroon. Environmental Science & Technology. 44(12) 4809-4815

    The use of palm oil as a biofuel has been heavily debated for its land-use conflict with nature and its competition with food production, being the number one cooking oil worldwide. In that context, we present a life cycle assessment of a palm oil production process yielding both biodiesel and cooking oil, incorporating the land-use impact and evaluating the effect of treating the palm oil mill effluent (POME) prior to disposal. The results show that the nonrenewable energy requirement, global warming potential (GWP; exclusive land-use change), and acidification potential are lower than those of the fossil alternative. However, the system triggers an increase in eutrophication potential (EP) compared to the fossil fuel reference. This system shows less energy requirement, global warming and acidification reduction, and less eutrophication increase compared to the reference than the same system converting all palm oil into biodiesel (no cooking oil production). The land occupation of palm oil triggers ecosystem quality (Ea) loss of 30-45% compared to the potential natural vegetation. Furthermore, such land-use change triggers a carbon debt neutralizing the GWP reduction for 45-53 years. The POME treatment scenarios reveal a trade-off between GWP and EP.
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  156. Life cycle assessment of a palm oil system with simultaneous production of biodiesel and cooking oil in Cameroon
    Abstract

    Achten, W. M.; Vandenbempt, P.; Almeida, J.; Mathijs, E.; Muys, B. 2010. Life cycle assessment of a palm oil system with simultaneous production of biodiesel and cooking oil in Cameroon. Environ Sci Technol. 44(12) 4809-15

    The use of palm oil as a biofuel has been heavily debated for its land-use conflict with nature and its competition with food production, being the number one cooking oil worldwide. In that context, we present a life cycle assessment of a palm oil production process yielding both biodiesel and cooking oil, incorporating the land-use impact and evaluating the effect of treating the palm oil mill effluent (POME) prior to disposal. The results show that the nonrenewable energy requirement, global warming potential (GWP; exclusive land-use change), and acidification potential are lower than those of the fossil alternative. However, the system triggers an increase in eutrophication potential (EP) compared to the fossil fuel reference. This system shows less energy requirement, global warming and acidification reduction, and less eutrophication increase compared to the reference than the same system converting all palm oil into biodiesel (no cooking oil production). The land occupation of palm oil triggers ecosystem quality (EQ) loss of 30-45% compared to the potential natural vegetation. Furthermore, such land-use change triggers a carbon debt neutralizing the GWP reduction for 45-53 years. The POME treatment scenarios reveal a trade-off between GWP and EP.
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  157. Life cycle energy efficiency and potentials of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand
    Abstract

    Papong, S.; Chom-In, T.; Noksa-nga, S.; Malakul, P. 2010. Life cycle energy efficiency and potentials of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Energy Policy. 38(1) 226-233

    Biodiesel production from palm oil has been considered one of the most promising renewable resources for transportation fuel in Thailand. The objective of this study was to analyze the energy performance and potential of the palm oil methyl ester (PME) production in Thailand. The PME system was divided into four stages: the oil palm plantation, transportation, crude palm oil (CPO) production, and transesterification into biodiesel. The results showed that the highest fossil-based energy consumption was in the transesterification process, followed by the plantation, transportation, and CPO production.
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  158. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted heterogeneous biodiesel production from palm oil: A response surface methodology approach
    Abstract

    Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S.; Abdullah, A. Z. 2010. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted heterogeneous biodiesel production from palm oil: A response surface methodology approach. Fuel Processing Technology. 91(5) 441-448

    The use of ultrasonic processor in the heterogeneous transesterification of palm oil for biodiesel production has been investigated. Response surface methodology was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the biodiesel production process catalyzed by two alkaline earth metal oxide catalysts i.e. BaO and SrO. SEM, surface analysis, AAS analysis and the Hammett indicator methods were used for characterization of the catalysts. Four different variables including reaction time (10-60 min), alcohol to oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1), catalyst loading (0.5-3.0 wt.%) and ultrasonic amplitude (25-100%) were optimized. Mathematical models were developed and used to predict the behavior of the process. The models were able to accurately predict the biodiesel yield with less than 5% error for both catalysts. The basic strength of the catalysts was the main reason of their high activities. This study confirmed that the ultrasonic significantly improved the process by reducing the reaction time to less than 50 min and the catalyst loading to 2.8 wt.% to achieve biodiesel yields of above 95%. The optimum alcohol to oil ratio was found to be at 9:1 while the best amplitudes were similar to 70 and similar to 80% for the BaO and SrO catalysts, respectively. (C) 2009 Elsevier By. All rights reserved.
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  159. Production of Biodiesel from Palm Oil by Extractive Reaction
    Abstract

    Sanchez, O. J.; Gutierrez, L. F.; Cardona, C. A. 2010. Production of Biodiesel from Palm Oil by Extractive Reaction. Pres 2010: 13th International Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction. 211231-1236

    Process integration looks for the integration of all operations involved in the production of one specific product. This can be achieved through the development of integrated processes that combine different steps into one single unit. The reactive extraction is an integrated process simultaneously combining the chemical reaction and liquid-liquid extraction. The latter phenomenon allows the continuous removal of the reaction products favoring the direct conversion in the case of reversible reactions like the esterification of vegetable oils with methanol. The objective of this work is to evaluate the possibility of applying the integration principle to the biodiesel production by extractive reaction from palm oil. During the esterification of palm oil with methanol, the products formed (methyl esters and glycerin) generate two liquid immiscible phases. This fact makes possible the separate removal of two product streams: biodieselenriched (extract) and glycerin-enriched (raffinate) streams. In order to accomplish the assessment of the proposed simultaneous integrated process, the thermodynamic analysis of the liquid-liquid phase equilibrium was carried out based on the principles of the topological thermodynamics. Thus, the study of the interaction between the chemical transformation and the liquid equilibrium allowed determining that an extractive reaction process for biodiesel production is possible. Then, the set of operating conditions for the process was defined. Whit this information, the analysis of the integrated process was performed by using a process simulator. The outcomes obtained were compared to the conventional process where the reaction and the extraction are accomplished separately. The proposed methodology allowed clearly elucidating if an extractive-reaction process can be implemented. This analysis method makes possible the improvement of the rigorous simulation by delimiting the space of operating conditions and, consequently, achieving savings in the costly experimental runs. In this way, the energetic and economic advantages of the extractive reaction process for biodiesel production from palm oil are demonstrated.
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  160. Production of biodiesel from palm oil using liquid core lipase encapsulated in kappa-carrageenan
    Abstract

    Jegannathan, K. R.; Jun-Yee, L.; Chan, E. S.; Ravindra, P. 2010. Production of biodiesel from palm oil using liquid core lipase encapsulated in kappa-carrageenan. Fuel. 89(9) 2272-2277

    This work deals with the enzymatic transesterification of palm oil with methanol in a solvent-free system. Among the five lipases tested in the initial screening, lipase PS from Burkholderia cepacia resulted in the highest triglyceride conversion. Lipase PS was further investigated in a novel immobilized form by encapsulating within a biopolymer, kappa-carrageenan. Using the immobilized lipase the production parameters of biodiesel from palm oil were optimized. The optimal conditions for processing 10 g of palm oil was: 30 degrees C, 1:7 oil/methanol molar ratio, 1 g water, 5.25 g immobilized lipase, 72 h reaction time and 23.7g relative centrifugal force. At the optimal conditions, triglyceride conversion of up to 100% could be obtained. The immobilized lipase was stable and retained 82% relative transesterification activity after five cycles. Liquid core lipase encapsulated in kappa-carrageenan could be a potential immobilized catalyst for eco-friendly production of biodiesel. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  161. Production of crude palm oil biodiesel by heterogeneous catalysis
    Abstract

    Cardeno, F.; Rios, L.; Franco, A. 2010. Production of crude palm oil biodiesel by heterogeneous catalysis. Revista Facultad De Ingenieria-Universidad De Antioquia. (51) 81-86

    The production of crude palm oil biodiesel was studied by using acid and basic heterogeneous catalysts by pre-esterification and transesterification steps, respectively. Pre-esterification step is necessary for high free fatty acid content oils because problems associated with soap formation are avoided. In both reactions the variables analyzed were catalyst type, temperature and time. Conversion of oil to methyl ester was analyzed using gas chromatography and the stability of catalysts by means of reutilizaton. In the pre-esterification step it was found that acid catalysts type sulfonated polystyrene resin show high conversion and stability for the esterification of free fatty acids. Heterogeneous catalysts both free and supported in a polymeric matrix potassium carbonate were studied for transesterification. High conversions to biodiesel were obtained. Using the polymeric matrix decreased the potassium carbonate dissolution rate, allowing its reutilization.
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  162. Sludge palm oil as a renewable raw material for biodiesel production by two-step processes
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Alam, M. Z.; Mirghani, M. E. S.; Kabbashi, N. A.; Hakimi, N. I. N. M.; Siran, Y. M.; Tahiruddin, S. 2010. Sludge palm oil as a renewable raw material for biodiesel production by two-step processes. Bioresource Technology. 101(20) 7804-7811

    In this study, biodiesel was produced from sludge palm oil (SPO) using tolune-4-sulfonic monohydrate acid (PISA) as an acid catalyst in different dosages in the presence of methanol to convert free fatty acid (FFA) to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), followed by a transesterification process using an alkaline catalyst. In the first step, acid catalyzed esterification reduced the high FFA content of SPO to less than 2% with the different dosages of PTSA. The optimum conditions for pretreatment process by esterification were 0.75% (w/w) dosage of PTSA to SPO, 10:1 M ratio, 60 degrees C temperature, 60 min reaction time and 400 rpm stirrer speed. The highest yield of biodiesel after transesterification and purification processes was 76.62% with 0.07% FFA and 96% ester content. The biodiesel produced was favorable as compared to EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 standard. This study shows a potential exploitation of SPO as a new feed-stock for the production of biodiesel. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  163. Ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production process from palm oil using alkaline earth metal oxides as the heterogeneous catalysts
    Abstract

    Mootabadi, H.; Salamatinia, B.; Bhatia, S.; Abdullah, A. Z. 2010. Ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production process from palm oil using alkaline earth metal oxides as the heterogeneous catalysts. Fuel. 89(8) 1818-1825

    The ultrasonic-assisted transesterification of palm oil in the presence of alkaline earth metal oxide catalysts (CaO, SrO and BaO) was investigated. Batch process assisted by 20 kHz ultrasonic cavitation was carried out to study the effect of reaction time (10-60 min), alcohol to palm oil molar ratio (3: 1-15 :1), catalysts loading (0.5-3%) and varying of ultrasonic amplitudes (25-100%). The activities of the catalysts were mainly related to their basic strength. The catalytic activity was in the sequence of CaO < SrO < BaO. At optimum conditions, 60 min was required to achieve 95% yield compared to 2-4 h with conventional stirring. Also, the yields achieved in 60 min increased from 5.5% to 77.3% (CaO), 48.2% to 95.2% (SrO), and 67.3% to 95.2 (BaO). Fifty percentage amplitude of ultrasonic irradiation was deemed the most suitable value and physical changes on the catalysts after the ultrasonic-assisted reaction were successfully elucidated. BaO catalyst underwent relatively more severe activity drop in the catalyst reusability test. Catalysts dissolution was found to be mainly responsible for activity drop of the reused catalysts, especially with BaO catalyst. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  164. A comparative study of KOH/Al2O3 and KOH/NaY catalysts for biodiesel production via transesterification from palm oil
    Abstract

    Noiroj, K.; Intarapong, P.; Luengnaruemitchai, A.; Jai-In, S. 2009. A comparative study of KOH/Al2O3 and KOH/NaY catalysts for biodiesel production via transesterification from palm oil. Renewable Energy. 34(4) 1145-1150

    The transesterification of palm oil to methyl esters (biodiesel) was studied using KOH loaded on Al2O3 and NaY zeolite supports as heterogeneous Catalysts. Reaction parameters such as reaction time, wt% KOH loading, molar ratio of oil to methanol, and amount of catalyst were optimized for the production of biodiesel. The 25 wt% KOH/Al2O3 and 10 wt% KOH/NaY catalysts are Suggested here to be the best formula due to their biodiesel yield of 91.07% at temperatures below 70 degrees C within 2-3 h at a 1:15 molar ratio of palm oil to methanol and a catalyst amount of 3-6 wt%. The leaching of potassium species in both spent catalysts was observed. The amount of leached potassium species of the KOH/Al2O3 was somewhat higher compared to that of the KOH/NaY catalyst. The prepared catalysts were characterized by using several techniques Such as XRD, BET, TPD, and XRF. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  165. Biodiesel production from palm oil via heterogeneous transesterification
    Abstract

    Kansedo, J.; Lee, K. T.; Bhatia, S. 2009. Biodiesel production from palm oil via heterogeneous transesterification. Biomass & Bioenergy. 33(2) 271-276

    This paper presents the study of the transesterification of palm oil via heterogeneous process using montmorillonite KSF as heterogeneous catalyst. This study was carried out using a design of experiment (DOE), specifically response surface methodology (RSM) based on four-variable central composite design (CCD) with a (alpha) = 2. The transesterification process variables were reaction temperature, x(1) (50-190 degrees C), reaction period, x(2) (60-300 min), methanol/oil ratio, x(3) (4-12 mol mol(-1)) and amount of catalyst, x(4) (1-5 wt%). It was found that the yield of palm oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) could reach up to 79.6% using the following reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 190 degrees C, reaction period at 180 min, ratio of methanol/oil at 8:1 mol mol(-1) and amount of catalyst at 3%. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  166. Biodiesel production via transesterification of palm olein using waste mud crab (Scylla serrata) shell as a heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Boey, P. L.; Maniam, G. P.; Abd Hamid, S. 2009. Biodiesel production via transesterification of palm olein using waste mud crab (Scylla serrata) shell as a heterogeneous catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 100(24) 6362-6368

    A recent rise in crab aquaculture activities has intensified the generation of waste shells. In the present study, the waste shells were utilized as a source of calcium oxide to transesterify palm olein into methyl esters (biodiesel). Characterization results revealed that the main component of the shell is calcium carbonate which transformed into calcium oxide when activated above 700 degrees C for 2 h. Parametric studies have been investigated and optimal conditions were found to be methanol/oil mass ratio, 0.5:1; catalyst amount, 5 wt.%; reaction temperature, 65 degrees C; and a stirring rate of 500 rpm. The waste catalyst performs equally well as laboratory CaO, thus creating another low-cost catalyst source for producing biodiesel. Reusability results confirmed that the prepared catalyst is able to be reemployed up to 11 times. Statistical analysis has been performed using a Central Composite Design to evaluate the contribution and performance of the parameters on biodiesel purity. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  167. Comparative analysis of bacterial whole-cell biocatalysts with para-nitrophenyl palmitate assay using methanol, ethanol and no alcohol for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lopez, V. E.; Lopez, Y.; Lopez, M. D. C. C.; Giron, J. D. T. 2009. Comparative analysis of bacterial whole-cell biocatalysts with para-nitrophenyl palmitate assay using methanol, ethanol and no alcohol for biodiesel production. New Biotechnology. 25S146-S147

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  168. Comparative Study of Biodiesel Production from Pure Palm Oil and Waste Palm Oil
    Abstract

    Hosain, A. B. M. S.; Boyce, A. N. 2009. Comparative Study of Biodiesel Production from Pure Palm Oil and Waste Palm Oil. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research. 27(1-2) 33-38

    Comparison of the optimum conditions for biodiesel production from pure palm cooking oil (PPCO) and waste palm cooking oil (WPCO) through transesterification process using alkaline catalysts was studied. Some important variables such as volumetric ratio and types of reactants, catalytic activities were selected to obtain a high quality biodiesel fuel that comply with the specification of standard methods (ASTM D 6751 and EN 1.4214). The highest yield of approximately 99% was acquired under optimum conditions of 1:6 volumetric oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 1% KOH catalyst, 40 degrees C reaction temperature, and 320 rpm stirring speed. Results showed that the production of biodiesel from PPCO and WPCO was exhibited no considerable differences. The research demonstrated that biodiesel obtained under optimum conditions from PPCO and WPCO was of good quality and could be used as a diesel fuel. Waste cooking palm oil after frying could be used as recycled material for waste management to produce renewable energy.
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  169. Comparison of Novozym 435 and Amberlyst 15 as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate
    Abstract

    Talukder, M. M. R.; Wu, J. C.; Lau, S. K.; Cui, L. C.; Shimin, G.; Lim, A. 2009. Comparison of Novozym 435 and Amberlyst 15 as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate. Energy & Fuels. 23(1) 1-4

    Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), a byproduct from the palm oil refinery process, has recently been utilized as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel (BD) production via homogeneous acid-catalyzed esterification. This process suffers from catalyst recovery, wastewater treatment, and BD purification. To minimize the problem, heterogeneous catalysts, Novozym 435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) and Amberlyst 15 (acidic styrene-divinylbenzene sulfonated ion-exchange resin), are tested and their catalytic activities under various reaction conditions are compared. Novozym 435 acts fast and its optimal specific activity (g BD/h/g catalyst) is 50-fold higher than that of Amberlyst 15. The maximum BD yields obtained using Novozym 435 and Amberlyst 15 are 95 and 97%, respectively. Both catalysts are recycled more than 15 cycles without losing their activities. The results suggest that both Novozym 435 and Amberlyst 15 can be effectively used for BD production from PFAD.
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  170. Continuous esterification for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate using economical process
    Abstract

    Chongkhong, S.; Tongurai, C.; Chetpattananondh, R. 2009. Continuous esterification for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate using economical process. Renewable Energy. 34(4) 1059-1063

    An overflow system for continuous esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) using an economical process was developed using a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Continuous production compared to batch production at the same condition had higher product purity. The optimum condition for the esterification process was a 8.8:1:0.05 molar ratio of methanol to PFAD to sulfuric acid catalyst, 60 min of residence time at 75 degrees C under its own pressure. The free fatty acid (FFA) content in the PFAD was reduced from 93 to less than 1.5%wt by optimum esterification. The esterified product had to be neutralized with 10.24%wt of 3 M sodium hydroxide in water solution at a reaction temperature of 80 degrees C for 20 min to reduce the residual FFA and glycerides. The components and properties of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could meet the standard requirements for biodiesel fuel. Eventually the production costs were calculated to disclose its commercialization. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  171. Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of palm methyl ester in Thailand
    Abstract

    Pleanjai, S. 2009. Greenhouse gas emissions from the production and use of palm methyl ester in Thailand. International Journal of Global Warming. 1(4) 418-431

    This study compares the life cycle Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from Palm Methyl Ester (PME) and conventional diesel (diesel hereinafter) used for transportation in Thailand. The life cycle GHG emissions from the production and use of PME were found to be 79.5% less than that from diesel production and use. Hence, a fuel switch from diesel to PME, according to the Thai government's plan of using a 10% blend of biodiesel countrywide by 2012, will contribute to reducing global warming potential by 7.8 million tonne CO(2)-eq per year as well as reducing crude oil imports.
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  172. Life cycle assessment for the production of biodiesel: A case study in Malaysia for palm oil versus jatropha oil
    Abstract

    Lam, M. K.; Lee, K. T.; Mohamed, A. R. 2009. Life cycle assessment for the production of biodiesel: A case study in Malaysia for palm oil versus jatropha oil. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 3(6) 601-612

    One of the most promising forms of renewable energy is biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, such as rapeseed, soybean and palm oil. Malaysia, being the world's second-largest producer of palm oil, therefore begins to align herself as the potential world producer of palm biodiesel apart from exporting palm oil as feedstock for the food and oleochemical industries. However, due to the recent food versus fuel debate, Malaysian palm oil has received a lot of negative attention especially from non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The sustainability of palm biodiesel production and environmental issues are constantly being questioned. Many quarters have even claimed that the use of non-edible oils, such as Jatropha curcas L., should be promoted rather than palm oil for biodiesel production. Therefore, this study aims to compare and validate the production of biodiesel from palm and jatropha using the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The assessment encompasses the cultivation of the crop, the oil extraction stage and finally, the biodiesel production stage. We found that to produce 1 tonne of jatropha biodiesel, the land area requirement is 118% higher than to produce 1 tonne of palm biodiesel. The energy output-to-input ratio for palm biodiesel is 2.27, slightly higher than jatropha biodiesel at 1.92. Furthermore, CO(2) sequestration for the whole life cycle chain of palm biodiesel is 20 times higher than jatropha biodiesel. All these results show the superiority and sustainability of palm oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production (C) Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons. Ltd
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  173. Novozym 435 for production of biodiesel from unrefined palm oil: Comparison of methanolysis methods
    Abstract

    Talukder, M. M. R.; Wu, J. C.; Van Nguyen, T. B.; Fen, N. M.; Melissa, Y. L. S. 2009. Novozym 435 for production of biodiesel from unrefined palm oil: Comparison of methanolysis methods. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 60(3-4) 106-112

    Biodiesel (BD) is commonly produced from refined vegetable oils by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. Unrefined vegetable oils are economically attractive but not suitable for alkali catalysis because of their high content of free fatty acids (FFAs). Novozym 435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B), which accepts both FFA and oil as substrates, was, therefore, employed to convert unrefined palm oil to BD. Three different methanolysis methods, namely, t-butanol mediated system (method-1), LiCl solution based controlled release system for methanol (method-2) and solvent-free system with three successive additions of methanol (method-3), were compared. The optimal methanol to oil molar ratios in the method-1, -2 and -3 are 6:1,3:1 and 3: 1, respectively. 131) yield at an optimal methanol concentration reaches 91-92% after 10, 20 and 24 h in the method-1, -2 and -3, respectively. BD yield remains the same over five repeated cycles in the method-1, while it drops to 68 and 71% by the fifth cycle in the method-2 and -3, respectively. The results show that the method-1 is the most effective for production of BD from a low cost feedstock like unrefined palm oil. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  174. Process integration possibilities for biodiesel production from palm oil using ethanol obtained from lignocellulosic residues of oil palm industry
    Abstract

    Gutierrez, L. F.; Sanchez, O. J.; Cardona, C. A. 2009. Process integration possibilities for biodiesel production from palm oil using ethanol obtained from lignocellulosic residues of oil palm industry. Bioresource Technology. 100(3) 1227-1237

    In this paper, integration possibilities for production of biodiesel and bioethanol using a single source of biomass as a feedstock (oil palm) were explored through process simulation. The oil extracted from Fresh Fruit Bunches was considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production. An extractive reaction process is proposed for transesterification reaction using in situ produced ethanol, which is obtained from two types of lignocellulosic residues of palm industry (Empty Fruit Bunches and Palm Press Fiber). Several ways of integration were analyzed. The integration of material flows between ethanol and biodiesel production lines allowed a reduction in unit energy costs down to 3.4%, whereas the material and energy integration leaded to 39.8% decrease of those costs. The proposed integrated configuration is an important option when the technology for ethanol production from biomass reaches such a degree of maturity that its production costs be comparable with those of grain or cane ethanol. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  175. Process Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Using Response Surface Methodology
    Abstract

    Chin, L. H.; Hameed, B. H.; Ahmad, A. L. 2009. Process Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Palm Oil (Elaeis guineensis) Using Response Surface Methodology. Energy & Fuels. 23(1) 1040-1044

    A central composite rotatable design was used to study the effect of methanol to oil ratio, reaction time, catalyst amount, and temperature on the transesterification of waste cooking palm oil using oil palm ash as a catalyst. The reaction was carried out at 10 bar. All of the variables except reaction time significantly affected the biodiesel yield, amount of catalyst and reaction temperature being the most effective, followed by methanol to oil ratio. Using response surface methodology, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for biodiesel yield by multiple regression analysis. The optimum conditions for transesterification of waste cooking palm oil to biodiesel were found as follows: amount of catalyst of 5.35 wt% (based on oil weight), temperature of 60 degrees C, methanol to oil ratio of 18.0 and reaction time of 0.5 h. The predicted and experimental biodiesel yields were found to be 60.07% (wt) and 71.74% (wt), respectively.
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  176. Production of biodiesel by esterification of palmitic acid over mesoporous aluminosilicate Al-MCM-41
    Abstract

    Carmo, A. C.; de Souza, L. K. C.; da Costa, C. E. F.; Longo, E.; Zamian, J. R.; da Rocha, G. N. 2009. Production of biodiesel by esterification of palmitic acid over mesoporous aluminosilicate Al-MCM-41. Fuel. 88(3) 461-468

    Biodiesel has been obtained by esterification of palmitic acid with methanol, ethanol and isopropanol in the presence of Al-MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves with Si/Al ratios of 8.16 and 32. The catalytic acids were synthesized at room temperature and characterized by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen absorption (BET/BJH), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reaction was carried out at 130 degrees C whilst stirring at 500 rpm, with an alcohol/acid molar ratio of 60 and 0.6 wt% catalyst for 2 h. The alcohol reactivity follows the order methanol > ethanol > isopropanol. The catalyst Al-MCM-41 with ratio Si/Al = 8 produced the largest conversion values for the alcohols studied. The data followed a rather satisfactory approximation to first-order kinetics. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  177. Production of biodiesel from palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) using heterogeneous catalyst: An optimized process
    Abstract

    Hameed, B. H.; Lai, L. F.; Chin, L. H. 2009. Production of biodiesel from palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) using heterogeneous catalyst: An optimized process. Fuel Processing Technology. 90(4) 606-610

    Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the three important reaction variables - methanol/oil molar ratio (x(1)), reaction time (x(2)) and amount of catalyst (x(3)) for production of biodiesel from palm oil using KF/ZnO catalyst. Based on the CCD, a quadratic model was developed to correlate the reaction variables to the biodiesel yield. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the most influential factor on the experimental design response was identified. The predicted yield after process optimization was found to agree satisfactory with the experimental value. The optimum conditions for biodiesel production were found as follows: methanol/oil ratio of 11.43. reaction time of 9.72 h and catalyst amount of 5.52 wt%. The optimum biodiesel yield was 89.23%. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  178. Acid-catalyzed homogeneous esterification reaction for biodiesel production from palm fatty acids
    Abstract

    Aranda, D. A. G.; Santos, R. T. P.; Tapanes, N. C. O.; Ramos, A. L. D.; Antunes, O. A. C. 2008. Acid-catalyzed homogeneous esterification reaction for biodiesel production from palm fatty acids. Catalysis Letters. 122(1-2) 20-25

    This work deals with esterification of palm fatty acids to produce biodiesel in a batch reactor, using homogeneous acid catalysts, evaluating the effect of the alcohol used, presence of water, type and concentration of catalysts. Methanesulfonic and sulfuric acid were the best catalysts. Reaction with methanol showed greater yields. It was showed very clearly that the presence of water in the reaction medium showed a negative effect in the reaction velocity. Kinetic parameters were estimated and molecular modeling was performed. Protonation of the carboxylic moiety of the fatty acid were defined as rate determinant step for the reaction.
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  179. Feasibility of palm oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production via heterogeneous transesterification
    Abstract

    Kansedo, J.; Lee, K. T.; Bhatia, S. 2008. Feasibility of palm oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production via heterogeneous transesterification. Chemical Engineering & Technology. 31(7) 993-999

    The production of biodiesel has become popular recently as a result of increasing demand for a clean, safe and renewable energy. Biodiesel is made from natural renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats. The conventional method of producing biodiesel is by reacting vegetable oil with alcohol in the presence of a homogenous catalyst (NaOH). However, this conventional method has some limitations such as the formation of soap, usage of significant quantities of wash water and complicated separation processes. Heterogeneous processes using solid catalysts have significant advantages over homogenous methods. Currently, more than 90 % of world biodiesel is produced using rapeseed oil. The production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil is considered uneconomical, considering the fact that palm oil is currently the world's cheapest vegetable oil. Therefore, the focus of this study is to show the feasibility of producing biodiesel from palm oil using montmorillonite KSF as a heterogeneous catalyst. The heterogeneous transesterification process was studied using design of experiment (DOE), specifically response surface methodology (RSM) based on a four-variable central composite design (CCD) with a = 2. The transesterification process variables were reaction temperature, x(1) (50-190 degrees C), reaction period, x(2) (60-300 min), methanol/oil ratio, x(3) (4-12 mol mol(-1)) and the amount of catalyst, x(4) (1-5 wt %). It was found that the conversion of palm oil to biodiesel can reach up to 78.7 % using the following reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 155 degrees C, reaction period of 120 min, ratio of methanol/oil at 10:1 mol mol(-1) and amount of catalyst at 4 wt %. From this study, it was shown that montmorillonite KSF catalyst can be used as a solid catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil.
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  180. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor
    Abstract

    Cao, P. G.; Dube, M. A.; Tremblay, A. Y. 2008. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor. Biomass & Bioenergy. 32(11) 1028-1036

    High-purity fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was produced from different lipids, such as soybean oil, canola oil, a hydrogenated palm oil/palm oil blend, yellow grease, and brown grease, combined with methanol using a continuous membrane reactor. The membrane reactor combines reaction and separation in a single unit, provides continuous mixing of raw materials, and maintains a high molar ratio of methanol to lipid in the reaction loop while maintaining two phases during the reaction. It was demonstrated that the membrane reactor can be operated using a very broad range of feedstocks at highly similar operating conditions to produce FAME. The total glycerine and free glycerine contents of the FAME produced were below the ASTM D6751 standard after a single reaction step. Under essentially the same reaction conditions, a conventional batch reaction was not able to achieve the same degree of FAME purity. The effect of the fatty acid composition of the lipid feedstocks on the FAME purity was also shown. it was demonstrated that, due to the fatty acid composition, FAME from virgin soybean oil and virgin canola oil was produced in the membrane reactor within ASTM specifications even without a water washing step. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  181. Improved method for efficient production of biodiesel from palm oil
    Abstract

    Talukder, M. M. R.; Beatrice, K. L. M.; Song, O. P.; Puah, S.; Wu, J. C.; Won, C. J.; Chow, Y. 2008. Improved method for efficient production of biodiesel from palm oil. Energy & Fuels. 22(1) 141-144

    Biodiesel (methyl esters of long-chain fatty acids) can be produced by methanolysis of vegetable oils using lipase as a biocatalyst. However, the lipase, such as immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), is poisoned as a result of the contact with insoluble methanol, reducing the lipase activity. To minimize the problem, a salt-solution-based controlled release system for methanol is developed. The developed method can easily minimize the problem by dissolving methanol in the salt solution and keeping an acceptable methanol concentration in vegetable oil, thereby increasing the lipase activity. The results of methanolysis of palm oil in the salt-solution-based methanol release system are compared to those in a salt-solution-free system, where methanol is added by the traditional method of three successive additions of methanol. The maximum biodiesel yields in both systems are the same (97%), but methanolysis in the developed method progresses 4-fold faster than that in the traditional method. It is found that a LiCl-saturated solution stabilizes Novozym 435 against heat-induced inactivation. The results suggest that the salt-solution-based methanol release system can be an acceptable substitution for the traditional method and provides an efficient method for biodiesel production.
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  182. Microwave assisted in continuous biodiesel production from waste frying palm oil and its performance in a 100 kW diesel generator
    Abstract

    Lertsathapornsuk, V.; Pairintra, R.; Aryusuk, K.; Krisnangkura, K. 2008. Microwave assisted in continuous biodiesel production from waste frying palm oil and its performance in a 100 kW diesel generator. Fuel Processing Technology. 89(12) 1330-1336

    A household microwave (800W) was modified as a biodiesel reactor for continuous transethylation of waste frying palm oil. The high free fatty acid oil was simultaneously neutralized and transesterified with sodium hydroxide. With the ethanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1, 3.0% NaOH (in ethanol) and 30s residence time, the continuous conversion of waste frying palm oil to ethyl ester was over 97%. The waste palm oil biodiesel was then tested in a 100 kW diesel generator as a neat fuel (13100) and 50% blend with diesel No. 2 fuel (1350). The engine performance and emission are recorded. At the engine loads varied from 0 kW to 75 kW (at 25 kW intervals) of the maximum electrical rating, the performance of the neat and B50 are slightly lower than diesel No. 2 fuel. Emissions of NO(x), CO and HC from B100 and B50 are lower than those of diesel No. 2 fuel, except that at the 75 kW engine load, where the B100 emits higher levels of NO than the diesel No. 2 fuel. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
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  183. Performance test of a 6-stage continuous reactor for palm methyl ester production
    Abstract

    Leevijit, T.; Tongurai, C.; Prateepchaikl, G.; Wisutmethangoon, W. 2008. Performance test of a 6-stage continuous reactor for palm methyl ester production. Bioresource Technology. 99(1) 214-221

    Effects of residence time (3-12 min), stirrer speed (0-800 rpm), and NaOH concentration (0.25-1.0 wt% of oil) on the production performance of the designed 6-stage continuous reactor (2.2721) for transesterification of palm oil were investigated at molar ratio of methanol to oil of 6:1 and temperature of 60 degrees C. Higher stirrer speed increased the reaction rate up to an appropriate speed but excessive stirrer speed decreased the reaction rate. Inappropriate stirrer speed runs dramatically decreased the production capacity of the reactor. Higher NaOH concentration significantly increased reaction rate and production capacity of the reactor. The reactor had a residence time distribution equivalent to 5.98 ideal CSTRs in series and a production performance equivalent to a plug flow reactor. At NaOH of 1.0 wt% of oil, the reactor could produce saleable biodiesel within residence time of 6 min in which a production capacity was 17.31/h and a power consumption of stirrer was 0.6 kW/m(3). (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  184. Production methyl esters from palm fatty acids in supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Petchmala, A.; Yujaroen, D.; Shotipruk, A.; Goto, M.; Sasaki, M. 2008. Production methyl esters from palm fatty acids in supercritical methanol. Chiang Mai Journal of Science. 35(1) 23-28

    This study investigated the biodiesel production via a noncatalytic esterification reaction in supercritical methanol. The palm oil fatty acids were chosen as the raw material because of its availability as a low cost byproduct of palm oil industry. The variables affecting the methyl ester (biodiesel) conversion were investigated, which included molar ratio of fatty acids and methanol (1:1 to 1:12), reaction temperature (250 to 300 degrees C) and reaction time (from 10 to 80 min). The results from this study showed that esterification of palm oil fatty acids in supercritical methanol gave the high conversion of 94 % and was obtained at the fatty acids/methanol molar ratio of 1:6 and at 300 degrees C after 30 min. Furthermore, water whose content in fatty acid between 0-30 %v/v was found to lower the yield of methyl ester by hydrolyzing methyl ester back to fatty acids, and the degree of hydrolysis increased as water content and reaction time increased. When compared the result of methyl ester yield obtained from methyl esterification of fatty acids with methyl transesterification of purified oil, it was found that the esterification of palm fatty acids requires lower operating conditions (molar ratio 1:6 versus 1:45 and time 30 min versus 50 min, respectively). When compared with conventional acid catalyzed process, supercritical methyl esterification of fatty acids required shorter reaction time (30 min versus 9 hr) and no neutralization process was needed. This suggests that palm fatty acids offer high potentials as more economical raw material for production of biodiesel.
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  185. Biodiesel production by esterification of palm fatty acid distillate
    Abstract

    Chongkhong, S.; Tongurai, C.; Chetpattananondh, P.; Bunyakan, C. 2007. Biodiesel production by esterification of palm fatty acid distillate. Biomass & Bioenergy. 31(8) 563-568

    Production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) having high free fatty acids (FFA) was investigated in this work. Batch esterifications of PFAD were carried out to study the influence of: including reaction temperatures of 70-100 degrees C. molar ratios of methanol to PFAD of 0.4:1-12: 1, quantity of catalysts of 0-5.502% (wt of sulfuric acid/wt of PFAD) and reaction times of 15-240 min. The optimum condition for the continuous esterification process (CSTR) was molar ratio of methanol to PFAD at 8:1 with 1.834 wt% of H2SO4 at 70 degrees C under its own pressure with a retention time of 60 min. The amount of FFA was reduced from 93 wt% to less than 2 wt% at the end of the esterification process. The FAME was purified by neutralization with 3 M sodium hydroxide in water solution at a reaction temperature of 80 degrees C for 15 min followed by transesterification process with 0.396 M sodium hydroxide in methanol solution at a reaction temperature of 65 degrees C for 15 min. The final FAME product met with the Thai biodiesel quality standard, and ASTM D6751-02. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  186. Biodiesel production from crude palm oil: 1. Design and simulation of two continuous processes
    Abstract

    Zapata, C. D.; Martinez, I. D.; Castiblanco, E. A.; Uribe, C. A. H. 2007. Biodiesel production from crude palm oil: 1. Design and simulation of two continuous processes. Dyna-Colombia. 74(151) 71-82

    Two continuous transesterification processes for biodiesel production from crude palm oil were designed and simulated, using the HYSYS (TM) process simulator. The first one includes a pretreatment of the free fatty acids via neutralization and the second one via an esterification with acidic conditions. To establish a comparative analysis between both processes, a technological assessment was carried out. It was concluded that the raw materials consumption is greater for the process with free fatty acids neutralization. It was found, also, that the second process, with previous esterification, generates more biodiesel for an equal amount of crude oil of inlet.
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  187. Biodiesel production from crude palm oil: 2. Economic assessment
    Abstract

    Zapata, C. D.; Martinez, I. D.; Castiblanco, E. A.; Uribe, C. A. H. 2007. Biodiesel production from crude palm oil: 2. Economic assessment. Dyna-Colombia. 74(151) 83-96

    The economical assessment of two continuous processes for biodiesel production from crude palm oil was carried out. The capital, operative and manufacturing costs were calculated for both processes. As profitability evaluation criteria, the discounted cash flow rate of return (DCFROR) and the net present value (NPV) were used. A price sensitivity analysis was performed. Both processes require a capital cost of 2 million dollars (+/- 25%) and a total manufacturing cost of 2.2 dollars/gallon. The process with previous neutralization of the free fatty acids showed a greater profitability in all the economic scenarios evaluated.
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  188. Proposed kinetic mechanism of the production of biodiesel from palm oil using lipase
    Abstract

    Al-Zuhair, S.; Ling, F. W.; Jun, L. S. 2007. Proposed kinetic mechanism of the production of biodiesel from palm oil using lipase. Process Biochemistry. 42(6) 951-960

    Experimental determination of the separate effects of palm oil and methanol concentrations on the rate of their enzymatic transesterification was used to propose suitable mechanismic steps and to test the generated kinetic model. The reaction took place in n-hexane organic medium and the lipase used was from Mucor miehei. At a constant methanol concentration of 300 mol m(-3), it was found that, initially as the palm oil concentration increased, the initial reaction rate increased. However, the initial rate dropped sharply at substrate concentrations larger than 3 3 1250 mol m(-3). Similar behaviour was observed for methanol concentration effect, where at a constant substrate concentration of 1000 mol m(-3) the initial rate of reaction dropped at methanol concentrations larger than 3000 mol m(-3). Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism with inhibition by both reactants was adopted as it best explains the experimental findings. A mathematical model was developed from a proposed kinetic mechanism and was used to identify the regions where the effect of inhibition by both substrates arised. The proposed model equation is essential for predicting the rate of methanolysis of palm oil in a batch or a continuous reactor and for determining the optimal conditions for biodiesel production. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  189. Lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of palm oil in presence and absence of organic solvent for production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Mahabubur, M.; Talukder, R.; Puah, S. M.; Wu, J. C.; Won, C. J.; Chow, Y. 2006. Lipase-catalyzed methanolysis of palm oil in presence and absence of organic solvent for production of biodiesel. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. 24(4) 257-262

    Enzymatic production of methyl esters (biodiesel) by methanolysis of palm oil in presence and absence of organic solvent was investigated using Candida antarctica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin as a biocatalyst. Although, at least molar equivalent of methanol (methanol-palm oil ratio 3:1) is required for the complete conversion of palm oil to methyl esters, lipase catalyzed methanolysis of palm oil in absence of organic solvent was poisoned by adding more than 1/3 molar equivalent of methanol. The use of polar organic solvents prevented the lipase to be poisoned in methanolysis with a molar equivalent of methanol, and tetrahydrofuran (THF) was found to be the most effective. The presence of water in methanolysis of palm oil both in presence and absence of THF inhibited the reaction rate but this inhibition was considerably low in THF containing system. The palm oil-lipase (w/w) ratio significantly influenced the activity of lipase and the optimal ratio in presence and absence of THF was 100 and 50, respectively.
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  190. Continuous production of palm methyl esters
    Abstract

    Darnoko, D.; Cheryan, M. 2000. Continuous production of palm methyl esters. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 77(12) 1269-1272

    A system for continuous transesterification of palm oil was developed using a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) and pumps for continuous delivery of oil and catalyst and for continuous removal of product. Potassium hydroxide was used as the catalyst, the methanol-to-oil molar ratio was 6:1, and reaction temperature was 60 degreesC. The yield of methyl esters increased from 58.8% of theoretical yield at a residence time of 40 minto 97.3% at a residence time of 60 min. However, higher residence times decreased the production rate. During long-term continuous operation, the CSTR displayed steady state conditions in terms of product profile and methyl ester concentration. This process has good potential in the manufacture of biodiesel.
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