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Biodiesel produciton from general feedstock

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  1. A novel perspective for techno-economic assessments and effects of parameters on techno-economic assessments for biodiesel production under economic and technical uncertainties
    Abstract

    Xia, Y. J.; Tang, Z. C. 2017. A novel perspective for techno-economic assessments and effects of parameters on techno-economic assessments for biodiesel production under economic and technical uncertainties. Rsc Advances. 7(16) 9402-9411

    Various parameters, such as biodiesel price, capital cost, interest rate, operating cost, feedstock price, maintenance rate, biodiesel conversion efficiency and glycerol price, may exhibit variation in the techno-economic assessments of biodiesel production within the project's lifetime due to economic and technical uncertainties. This paper first defines a new indicator for techno-economic assessments of biodiesel production when all uncertain parameters are regarded as being uniformly distributed within their variation ranges. This new indicator is named economical infeasibility probability (EIP), which defines the probability that total profit, payback period and net present value (NPV) of biodiesel production or one of them or two of them do not satisfy the prescribed requirements, and the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method is employed to evaluate EIP. Based on economical infeasibility analysis, the sensitivity analysis of EIP with respect to an individual uncertain parameter is defined, and MCS is utilized to evaluate the effect. It is found that EIP for the studied biodiesel production is 0.3676 under the selected distributions of uncertain parameters, and biodiesel price, feedstock price, biodiesel conversion efficiency and operating cost have significant effects on EIP, while capital cost, maintenance rate, interest rate and glycerol price have negligible effects.
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  2. Assessing biodiesel production from sewage sludge-derived bio-oil
    Abstract

    Arazo, R. O.; de Luna, M. D. G.; Capareda, S. C. 2017. Assessing biodiesel production from sewage sludge-derived bio-oil. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 10189-196

    The undesirable properties of pyrolysis bio-oil such as high fractions of oxygenated and nitrogenated compounds, high viscosity, and high instability, limit its usage for transportation and energy applications. In this work, the upgrading of sludge-derived bio-oil using nickel-modified HZSM-5 catalyst was explored to determine the effects of temperature, ethanol to bio-oil mass ratio and reaction time on sewage sludge-derived (SSD) biodiesel yield and the degrees of denitrogenation and deoxygenation. The SSD biodiesel yield was found to be decreasing when the reaction temperature was increased, while the nitrogen and oxygen removal were both improved. Increased yield and deoxygenation were also observed at higher ethanol amounts, while denitrogenation was enhanced at longer reaction time. The optimum conditions for SSD biodiesel production (temperature - 258.5 degrees C, ethanol to bio-oil mass ratio - 2.50, reaction time - 3.23 h) were determined using response surface methodology and obtained the following results: 67.2% biodiesel yield, 20.4% degree of denitrogenation, and 33.6% degree of deoxygenation. Catalytically upgrading the bio-oil from sewage sludge into biodiesel resulted in better properties and quality and an increased heating value of 39.97 MJ/kg, generally comparable to commercial biodiesel.
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  3. Assessment of fuel properties on the basis of fatty acid profiles of oleaginous yeast for potential biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Patel, A.; Arora, N.; Mehtani, J.; Pruthi, V.; Pruthi, P. A. 2017. Assessment of fuel properties on the basis of fatty acid profiles of oleaginous yeast for potential biodiesel production. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 77604-616

    Over the last decade, there has been a huge upsurge of interest in, sustainable production of biomass-based biofuels to fulfill the existing energy demand and simultaneously reducing the environmental deterioration. Earlier, vegetable oils and animal fats were utilized for biodiesel production, but due to food crisis and environmental sustainability, renewable sources such as neutral lipid derived from microbes are gaining much attention for budding biodiesel industries. Among various types of microorganisms, oleaginous yeasts are more promising feedstock to accomplish the current demand of biodiesel production and utilize a large number of cost-effective renewable substrates for their growth and lipid accumulation. However, biodiesel obtained from oleaginous yeasts have certain restrictions regarding their commercial utilization due to their unstable fuel properties such as oxidative stability, cetane number, viscosity and low-temperature performance etc. Numerous articles have been published in the public domain describing the fatty acid profiles of oleaginous yeast as feedstock for biodiesel production. However, the evaluation of quality parameters of biodiesel obtained from oleaginous yeasts is still in infancy. Although there is a huge disparity in a number of papers published for biodiesel production yet the reporting performance on diesel engines need to-be verified in details. In this review article, attempt has been made to assess the important biofuel properties on the basis of the fatty acid profile of oleaginous yeast. Thus this evaluation would provide a guideline to the biodiesel producer to improve the production plans related to feedstocks for oleaginous yeast, culture conditions and biodiesel blending.
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  4. Augmented lipid accumulation in ethyl methyl sulphonate mutants of oleaginous microalga for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mehtani, J.; Arora, N.; Patel, A.; Jain, P.; Pruthi, P. A.; Poluri, K. M.; Pruthi, V. 2017. Augmented lipid accumulation in ethyl methyl sulphonate mutants of oleaginous microalga for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 242121-127

    The aim of this work was to generate high lipid accumulating mutants of Chlorella minutissima (CM) using ethyl methyl sulphonate (EMS) as a random chemical mutagen. Amid the 5% surviving cells after exposure to EMS (2 M), three fast growing mutants (CM2, CM5, CM7) were selected and compared with wild type for lipid productivity and biochemical composition. Among these mutants, CM7 showed the maximum biomass (2.4 g/L) and lipid content (42%) as compared to wild type (1.5 g/L; 27%). Further, the mutant showed high photosynthetic pigments with low starch content signifying the re-allocation of carbon flux to lipid. The obtained mutant showed no visible morphological changes in comparison to its WT. The fatty acid profile showed increase in monounsaturated fatty acids while decreased saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids signifying good quality biodiesel. The mutant strain thus obtained can be optimized further and applied for enhanced biodiesel production. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  5. Biodiesel - feedstocks, production and applications
    Abstract

    Sabbas, Radley 2017. Biodiesel - feedstocks, production and applications. . pages cm

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  6. Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Tallow Fat Using Heterogeneous Catalysis
    Abstract

    Vafakish, B.; Barari, M. 2017. Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Tallow Fat Using Heterogeneous Catalysis. Kemija U Industriji-Journal of Chemists and Chemical Engineers. 66(1-2) 47-52

    Biodiesel is an eco-friendly alternative diesel fuel prepared from domestic renewable resources i.e. vegetable oils and animal fats. In this process, biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides present in animal fat or vegetable oils, by displacing glycerine with a low molar mass alcohol using homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysis. The resulting ester, after mixing with diesel fuels, has physicochemical properties similar to those of conventional fuels. In this work, the batch process of biodiesel production has been studied using tallow fat as raw material with methanol and a heterogeneous catalyst. The quality of the produced biodiesel was evaluated by the determination of important properties, such as viscosity, flash point, cetane number, oxidation stability, glycerine content, acid value, etc. The produced biodiesel was found to demonstrate fuel properties within the ranges recommended by the ASTM D6751.
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  7. Biodiesel production from bitter almond oil as new non-edible oil feedstock
    Abstract

    Al-Tikrity, E. T. B.; Fadhil, A. B.; Ibraheem, K. K. 2017. Biodiesel production from bitter almond oil as new non-edible oil feedstock. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(7) 649-656

    Bitter almond (Prunus dulcis var. amara) seed oil was tested as new nonedible feedstock for producing ethylic biodiesel by base-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol. The oil was extracted from bitter almond seed with maximum yield of 42.0 wt%, which can be considered as significant feedstock for biodiesel production. The experimental parameters involved in the optimization process were the type and concentration of the catalyst, ethanol-to-oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and rate of stirring. The maximum yield of biodiesel (97.1% w/w) was obtained using 0.60 wt% KOH, 7: 1 ethanol-to-oil molar ratio, 65 degrees C reaction temperature, 60 min of reaction, and 700 rpm rate of stirring. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were within the acceptable limits prescribed by ASTM D 6751. The H-1 NMR spectroscopy assured the conversion of bitter almond oil into biodiesel. Based on these results, it was concluded that bitter almond seed oil is an acceptable non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  8. Biodiesel Production from Citrillus colocynthis Oil using based Catalytic Reaction and Characterization Studies
    Abstract

    Nehdi, I. A.; Sbihi, H. M.; El Blidi, L.; Rashid, U.; Al-Resayes, S. I. 2017. Biodiesel Production from Citrillus colocynthis Oil using based Catalytic Reaction and Characterization Studies. Protein Pept Lett.

    In this investigation, an enzyme catalyzed process was optimized to prepare methyl esters from crude Citrullus colocynthis oil (CCO). Novozym 435 was used to synthesize biodiesel by transesterification of CCO with methanol. Use of tert-butanol as a reaction medium eliminated negative effects caused by excess methanol and formation of glycerol byproduct. Several variables affecting the Citrullus colocynthis methyl ester (CCME) yield including lipase quantity, water content, methanol/oil mole ratio, reaction temperature, reaction medium composition, and reaction time were optimized. A CCME yield of 97.8% was achieved using enzyme catalyzed transesterification of CCO under optimal conditions. CCME also exhibited long-term storage stability and fuel properties within biodiesel standards.
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  9. Biodiesel production from microbial oil derived from wood isolate Trichoderma reesei
    Abstract

    Bharathiraja, B.; Sowmya, V.; Sridharan, S.; Yuvaraj, D.; Jayamuthunagai, J.; Praveenkumar, R. 2017. Biodiesel production from microbial oil derived from wood isolate Trichoderma reesei. Bioresource Technology. 239538-541

    In the present study Trichoderma reesei, a wood isolate can yield high biomass quantities up to 30 g/L, yielding 32.4% of lipids of dry cell weight (DCW). Biodiesel production from Trichoderma reesei involved simple unit operations like filtration and ultrasonication, yet giving good lipid yield with desirable biodiesel properties. Optimization of ultrasonication conditions was done to ensure maximum lipid extraction. SEM analysis of ultrasonicated samples showed distinct breakage of fungal hyphae. The lipids were found to contain 49.7% saturated fatty acids. Transesterification using chemical and biological catalysts were compared and 96.09% efficiency was observed for lipase-catalyzed transesterification. The biodiesel properties satisfied ASTM and EN specifications with cetane number: 53.1, iodine value: 63.34 g, saponification value: 235.07 mg KOH/g, cold flow plugging point: 9.13 degrees C. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  10. Biodiesel production from Mucor circinelloides using ethanol and heteropolyacid in one and two-step transesterification
    Abstract

    Carvalho, A. K. F.; da Conceicao, L. R. V.; Silva, J. P. V.; Perez, V. H.; de Castro, H. F. 2017. Biodiesel production from Mucor circinelloides using ethanol and heteropolyacid in one and two-step transesterification. Fuel. 202503-511

    Biodiesel production from Mucor circinelloides biomasswas investigated by conventional method involving the lipid extraction using ethanol followed by transesterification (two-step process) in comparison with directly producing from the whole biomass without extraction (one-step process). Both processes used solid heteropolyacid catalyst (12-molybdophosphoric acid (H3PMo12O40) support on alumina (Al2O3) under conditions previously set up (200 degrees C for 4 h). Either one or two-step process was able to convert the microbial lipids into ethyl esters (FAEE) with high yields (97%), though the former simplifies the production process due to the elimination of an oil extraction step that incurs oil loss. Moreover, to minimize the energy used for dewatering, this method can be also used for transesterification of wet M. circinelloides biomass. Direct transesterification of wet biomass greatly simplifies the process of FAEE production by eliminating the drying and oil extraction steps, making this a renewable and environmental friendly process. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  11. Biodiesel Production from Oils Extracted from Date Pits
    Abstract

    Al-Zuhair, Sulaiman; Taher, Hanifa; Dhaheri, Salama Al; Wajeeh, Shereen; Nour, Mutasim; El-Najjar, Emad 2017. Biodiesel Production from Oils Extracted from Date Pits. Green and Sustainable Chemistry. Vol.07No.019

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  12. Biodiesel production from oleander (Thevetia Peruviana) oil and its performance testing on a diesel engine
    Abstract

    Yadav, A. K.; Khan, M. E.; Pal, A. 2017. Biodiesel production from oleander (Thevetia Peruviana) oil and its performance testing on a diesel engine. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 34(2) 340-345

    Oleander oil has been used as raw material for producing biodiesel using ultrasonic irradiation method at the frequency of 20 kHz and horn type reactor 50 watt. A two-step transesterification process was carried out for optimum condition of 0.45 v/v methanol to oil ratio, 1.2% v/v H2SO4 catalyst, 45 A degrees C reaction temperature and 15min reaction time, followed by treatment with 0.25 v/v methanol to oil ratio, 0.75% w/v KOH alkaline catalyst, 50 A degrees C reaction temperature and 15 min reaction time. The fuel properties of Oleander biodiesel so obtained confirmed the requirements of both the standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 for biodiesel. Further Oleander biodiesel-diesel blends were tested to evaluate the engine performance and emission characteristics. The performance and emission of 20% Oleander biodiesel blend (B20) gave a satisfactory result in diesel engines as the brake thermal efficiency increased 2.06% and CO and UHC emissions decreased 41.4% and 32.3% respectively, compared to mineral diesel. Comparative investigation of performance and emissions characteristics of Oleander biodiesel blends and mineral diesel showed that oleander seed is a potential source of biodiesel and blends up to 20% can be used for realizing better performance from an unmodified diesel engine.
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  13. Bioprospecting for seed oils from wild plants in the Mediterranean Basin for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Guil-Guerrero, J. L.; Guil-Laynez, J. L.; Guil-Laynez, A. 2017. Bioprospecting for seed oils from wild plants in the Mediterranean Basin for biodiesel production. Journal of Cleaner Production. 159180-193

    In the Mediterranean Basin, petroleum energy resources are scarce. For an environmentally sustainable solution, the seeds collected from wild plants indigenous to this area could be used as biodiesel producers to meet the energy demand. For this, the fatty acid profiles of seed oils from 127 species belonging to 30 plant families, all native of the Mediterranean Basin, were surveyed in a search for fossil-fuel substitutes. The saponification number (SN, mg KOH/g), iodine value (IV, g 1(2)/100 g), cetane number (Phi), higher heating value (delta, MJ/kg), cold filter-plugging point (CFPP, degrees C), density (rho, g/cm(3)), induction period (IP, h) and kinematic viscosity (eta, mm(2)/s) were empirically determined and then used to establish the suitability of the different seed oils for biodiesel production. The aptness to serve as biodiesel was determined by applying the specification for biodiesel standard made by several organizations. In addition to three already well-characterized species, the fatty acid methyl esters from the seeds of Conium maculatum (Phi = 53.7; delta = 40.1), Dyngium maritimum (Phi = 53.2; delta= 40.2), Nigella damascena (Phi = 58.1; delta = 40.1), Portulaca oleracea (Phi = 62.9; delta = 40.5), Prangos uechtritzii (Phi= 52.8; delta = 40.1), and Tribulus terrestris (Phi = 59.4; delta= 40.1), meet the major quality standards set by several organizations, and thus are suitable for biodiesel production. Data from empirical models used for estimating biodiesel properties was compared with experimental data from biodiesel prepared with available seeds, and good correlations between the two methodologies were found. The sowing of selected species in natural habitats, in addition to providing a valuable resource, i.e. biodiesel, both the Mediterranean Basin ecoregions and unproductive agricultural lands could be improved as appropriate habitats for wildlife, and in parallel this action would create employment in rural areas using natural resources. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  14. Challenge of biodiesel production from sewage sludge catalyzed by KOH, KOH/activated carbon, and KOH/CaO
    Abstract

    Wu, X. M.; Zhu, F. F.; Qi, J. J.; Zhao, L. Y.; Yan, F. W.; Li, C. H. 2017. Challenge of biodiesel production from sewage sludge catalyzed by KOH, KOH/activated carbon, and KOH/CaO. Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering. 11(2)

    The considerable compounds content, abundance, and low costs involved has led to the proposal to use sewage sludge as raw material for biodiesel production. The transesterification reaction is catalyzed using an acid catalyst instead of base catalysts because of the high free fatty acid concentration. However, the use of a base catalyst, particularly a solid base catalyst, has certain advantages, including faster reaction speed and easier separation. In this study, we utilize in situ transesterification by base catalyst (KOH, KOH/activated carbon (AC) and KOH/CaO) with sewage sludge as raw material. Many conditions have been tested to increase biodiesel yield through single-factor tests, including mass fraction and catalyst dosage. Preliminary experiments have optimized reaction time and temperature. However, the three catalysts did not work better than H2SO4, which had a maximum yield of 4.6% (dry sewage sludge base) considering the purity by KOH, KOH/CaO, and KOH/AC. The features of the catalyst were analyzed using XRD, BET and SEM. As to BET of KOH/AC and the good spiculate formation of KOH crystal appears to be essential to its function. As for KOH/CaO, the formation of K2O and absorption points is likely essential. (C) Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017
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  15. Continuous biodiesel production in supercritical two-step process: phase equilibrium and process design
    Abstract

    Osmieri, L.; Esfahani, R. A. M.; Recasens, F. 2017. Continuous biodiesel production in supercritical two-step process: phase equilibrium and process design. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 12457-71

    A supercritical biodiesel production process via transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol, using CO2 as co-solvent is designed, simulated, and validated with experimental data. A preliminary study of the liquid-vapor equilibrium of the reacting mixture at different compositions was done to determine the supercritical conditions, by means of pressure-temperature diagrams. Under supercritical conditions, the presence of a single phase increases the reaction kinetics, avoiding the limitation by interphase mass transfer, and enabling to carry out the process with low residence time. The proposed process is based on two fixed-bed catalytic reactors in series, with intermediate glycerol separation. CO2 used as co-solvent decreases the critical temperature, enabling to carry out the process in milder conditions. The intermediate glycerol separation displaces the chemical equilibrium towards higher conversion of triglyceride, increasing biodiesel yield. The results of a complete experimental study are used to validate the model, through a comparison with the simulations result. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  16. Detergent assisted ultrasonication aided in situ transesterification for biodiesel production from oleaginous yeast wet biomass
    Abstract

    Yellapu, S. K.; Kaur, R.; Tyagi, R. D. 2017. Detergent assisted ultrasonication aided in situ transesterification for biodiesel production from oleaginous yeast wet biomass. Bioresource Technology. 224365-372

    In situ transesterification of oleaginous yeast wet biomass for fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) production using acid catalyst, methanol with or without N-Lauroyl sarcosine (N-LS) treatment was performed. The maximum FAMEs yield obtained with or without N-LS treatment in 24 h reaction time was 96.1 +/- 1.9 and 71 +/- 1.4% w/w, respectively. The N-LS treatment of biomass followed by with or without ultrasonication revealed maximum FAMEs yield of 94.3 +/- 1.9% and 82.9 +/- 1.8% w/w using methanol to lipid molar ratio 360: 1 and catalyst concentration 360 mM (64 mu L H2SO4/g lipid) within 5 and 25 min reaction time, respectively. The FAMEs composition obtained in in situ transesterification was similar to that obtained with conventional two step lipid extraction and transesterification process. Biodiesel fuel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number and total glycerol) were in accordance with international standard (ASTM D6751), which suggests the suitability of biodiesel as a fuel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  17. Experimental study of biodiesel fuel production from Euphorbiaceae using a Ca-Al-CO3 hydrotalcite catalyst
    Abstract

    Eskandari, M.; Kia, A.; Afrasiabi, S.; Dara, A.; Fahimizadeh, M.; Maddah, H. 2017. Experimental study of biodiesel fuel production from Euphorbiaceae using a Ca-Al-CO3 hydrotalcite catalyst. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(2) 225-231

    Biodiesel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils is a promising alternative fuel to diesel because of limited fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns. The use of heterogeneous catalysts greatly simplifies the technological process by facilitating the separation of the post-reaction mixture. The purpose of the present work was to examine a heterogeneous catalyst, in particular, Ca-Al-CO3 hydrotalcites, to produce methyl esters of Euphorbiaceae curcas oil (ECO). In this study, the transesterification of ECO with methanol was studied in a heterogeneous system, using Mg-Al hydrotalcites as solid base catalysts. The reaction was carried out in a batch type reaction vessel. The dependence of the conversion of ECO on the reaction variables such as the molar ratio of methanol/oil, the amount of catalysts used, reaction temperatures, and reaction times were performed. The conversion of 99% was achieved under the optimum reaction conditions.
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  18. Fermentation of glycerol by a newly discovered anaerobic bacterium: adding value to biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Hidalgo, M.; Puerta-Fernandez, E. 2017. Fermentation of glycerol by a newly discovered anaerobic bacterium: adding value to biodiesel production. Microbial Biotechnology. 10(3) 528-530

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  19. Functionalized cellulose-magnetite nanocomposite catalysts for efficient biodiesel production
    Abstract

    El-Nahas, A. M.; Salaheldin, T. A.; Zaki, T.; El-Maghrabi, H. H.; Marie, A. M.; Morsy, S. M.; Allam, N. K. 2017. Functionalized cellulose-magnetite nanocomposite catalysts for efficient biodiesel production. Chemical Engineering Journal. 322167-180

    Cellulose-magnetite nanocomposites were fabricated via the adsorption of magnetite onto the surfaces of functionalized nanocellulose, using different organic and inorganic acids. The properties of functionalized nanocellulose derivatives and cellulose-magnetite nanocomposites were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), magnetic properties measurements, and thermal analysis. The catalytic activity of the functionalized nanocellulose and cellulose-magnetite nanocomposites was evaluated towards the esterification of oleic acid with methanol for the production of methyl oleate (biodiesel). The sulfonated cellulose-magnetite nanocomposite (MSNC) showed the highest catalytic activity toward the esterification reaction (96%) due to the high dispersion of the Lewis acid sites resulted from the impregnation of magnetite (0.98 wt%) in addition to the already presented Bronsted acid sites in the surface of the nanocellulose. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  20. High purity FAU-type zeolite catalysts from shale rock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Doyle, A. M.; Alismaeel, Z. T.; Albayati, T. M.; Abbas, A. S. 2017. High purity FAU-type zeolite catalysts from shale rock for biodiesel production. Fuel. 199394-402

    FAU-type zeolite was prepared using Irish shale rock and tested as a catalyst in the liquid-phase esterification of oleic acid (a model test reaction for biodiesel production). A systematic study was conducted (over the stated preparation ranges) by varying the water: shale ratio (4: 1-15: 1 by mass), and mixing (1-24 h), aging (6-48 h) and hydrothermal treatment times (6-72 h) to determine the optimal parameters. XRD confirmed that the product purity was highly dependent on the experimental conditions used. The BET surface area of the calcined FAU-type zeolite was 571 m(2) g(-1) and its crystal purity was comparable to that of a commercial zeolite Y. The prepared zeolite was catalytically active in the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol reaching a maximum of 78% conversion after 90 mins, which is practically identical to that recorded for commercial zeolite Y. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  21. Hydrodynamic feasibility of the production of biodiesel fuel in a high-pressure reactive distillation column
    Abstract

    May-Vazquez, M. M.; Rodriguez-Angeles, M. A.; Gomez-Castro, F. I.; Uribe-Ramirez, A. R. 2017. Hydrodynamic feasibility of the production of biodiesel fuel in a high-pressure reactive distillation column. Chemical Engineering and Processing. 11231-37

    Among the different processes for producing biodiesel fuel, the use of methanol under conditions near to the critical point is a promissory alternative. The reactive distillation has been proposed to reduce the energy requirements of the esterification step in this process. Such reductions are accompanied by reductions in the total annual costs and the environmental impact. However, due to the conditions under which the column should be operated, special care must be taken in the design of the trays and their hydraulic performance. Proper design of the trays should prevent operational problems. In this work, a strategy for the mechanical design of sieve trays in a homogeneous reactive distillation column is presented. In the column, oleic acid is esterified with methanol under a pressure of 7 MPa. The designs obtained are tested in terms of hydraulics through CFD simulations. CFD analysis is carried out using ANSYS Fluent software. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  22. Hydrogen production from biomass: The behavior of impurities over a CO shift unit and a biodiesel scrubber used as a gas treatment stage
    Abstract

    Loipersbock, J.; Lenzi, M.; Rauch, R.; Hofbauer, H. 2017. Hydrogen production from biomass: The behavior of impurities over a CO shift unit and a biodiesel scrubber used as a gas treatment stage. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 34(8) 2198-2203

    Most of the hydrogen produced is derived from fossil fuels. Bioenergy2020+ and TU Wien have been working on hydrogen production from biomass since 2009. A pilot plant for hydrogen production from lignocellulosic feedstock was installed onsite using a fluidized bed biomass gasifier in Gussing, Austria. In this work, the behavior of impurities over the gas conditioning stage was investigated. Stable CO conversion and hydration of sulfur components could be observed. Ammonia, benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and sulfur reduction could be measured after the biodiesel scrubber. The results show the possibility of using a commercial Fe/Cr-based CO shift catalyst in impurity-rich gas applications. In addition to hydrogen production, the gas treatment setup seems to also be a promising method for adjusting the H-2 to CO ratio for synthesis gas applications.
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  23. Isolation and Characterization of Triacylglycerol Accumulating Microorganisms for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Susanto, S. A. 2017. Isolation and Characterization of Triacylglycerol Accumulating Microorganisms for Biodiesel Production. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences. 5(1) 111-119

    Triacylglycerol is an important feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, several strains of oleaginous bacteria were isolated from environmental sample based on their ability to grow on mineral salts medium supplemented with wood derived sugars such as cellulose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, and galactose. The lipid accumulating bacteria were selected on the basis of fluorescent signal from hydrophobic inclusion in the cytoplasm after incubation in selective medium containing lipophilic dye 0.5 % (w/v) nile red. The lipid content was analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In this study, three bacterial isolates 2HPCS1R4, 1LPCS2R2, and 1LPCS2R14 were selected among several studied candidates. TLC analysis of hydrophobic substance from 1LPCS2R2 and 1LPCS2R14 showed two overlapped discrete bands corresponded to triacylglycerol reference band, while 2HPCS1R4 displayed a faint band located above the reference band. GC-MS analysis confirmed that the bands consisted of fatty acid methyl esters with alkyl length varied from C12 to C17. Kinetic study showed that the fastest growing strain was 1LPCS2R2 had the highest growth rates and grown in glucose (mu = 0.29 h(-1)) and xylose (mu = 0.16 h(-1)). In conclusion, this study has identified of prospective bacterial isolates for commercial biodiesel production.
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  24. Lignocellulosic biomass production and industrial applications
    Abstract

    Kuila, Arindam; Sharma, Vinay 2017. Lignocellulosic biomass production and industrial applications. . pages cm

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  25. Lipid Production for Biodiesel from Sludge and Crude Glycerol
    Abstract

    Zhang, X.; Chen, J.; Yan, S.; Tyagi, R. D.; Surampalli, R. Y.; Li, J. 2017. Lipid Production for Biodiesel from Sludge and Crude Glycerol. Water Environ Res. 89(5) 424-439

    Oleaginous yeast Trichosporon oleaginosus was studied for lipid production using municipal sludge with or without fortification of crude glycerol in a 15-L fermenter. The maximum lipid content (concentration) was 32.0% w/w (9.35 g/L), 33.6% (10.13 g/L), 33.3% (9.13 g/L), and 33.1% (9.03 g/L) w/w with the addition of 25, 50, 100, and 150 g/L glycerol, respectively. Glycerol concentration had little effect on lipid accumulation. However, glycerol concentration substantially affected increase of biomass concentration and cell count. The suitable glycerol concentration was approximately 40 g/L for Trichosporon oleaginosus growing in sludge medium with initial suspended solids (SS) concentration 30 g/L. Addition of nitrogen to sludge-glycerol medium enhanced lipid and biomass concentration. The energy conversion efficiency was 1.78, 1.55, and 1.71 with no nitrogen added, with addition of 1 g/L urea, and 3.7 g/L peptone, respectively. The biodiesel production cost was estimated nearly 0.75 US$/L.
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  26. Mixed oxides tuned with alkaline metals to improve glycerolysis for sustainable biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Balsamo, N. F.; Sapag, K.; Oliva, M. I.; Pecchi, G. A.; Eimer, G. A.; Crivello, M. E. 2017. Mixed oxides tuned with alkaline metals to improve glycerolysis for sustainable biodiesel production. Catalysis Today. 279209-216

    In this study, monoglycerides were produced as glycerol value-added products via transesterification reaction of methyl stearate. This green and selective process involved catalysis from hydrotalcite-like compounds with different metals incorporated (Li, K or Cs) to improve their basic properties. Layered double hydroxides were obtained by two different methods and activated by calcination. All samples were examined by X-ray diffraction, specific surface area determined by the BET method, temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 and infrared absorption spectroscopy with Fourier transform for basic sites measurement. Metal content was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The hydrotalcite-like compounds modified with monovalent metal ions (Li, K or Cs) with the lamellar structure were synthesized. The metal percentage incorporated was higher for materials modified with Li than for those modified with K and Cs. This fact can be attributed to the lower size of their ionic radii. All mixed oxides presented basic properties. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography. The correlation between the basic properties of the solid catalysts and the activity in the transesterification reaction was investigated. The highest activity was found for the catalyst with Li incorporated by the co-precipitation method with yield values around 78% for monoglycerides. Which also showed the greatest Lewis medium basic sites density, a 31% more than the rest of the materials. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  27. Natural sepiolite promoted with Ni as new and efficient catalyst for the sustainable production of hydrogen by steam reforming of the biodiesel by-products glycerol
    Abstract

    Menor, M.; Sayas, S.; Chica, A. 2017. Natural sepiolite promoted with Ni as new and efficient catalyst for the sustainable production of hydrogen by steam reforming of the biodiesel by-products glycerol. Fuel. 193351-358

    Glycerol, a byproduct derived from the production of biodiesel, is currently in oversupply because of the increase of biodiesel production. One approach to alleviate this problem is to transform glycerol into valuable chemicals or energy. Catalytic steam reforming of glycerol to produce hydrogen (a promising energy vector) could be a valuable option; however efficient catalysts are still under study. In this work, natural sepiolite promoted with Ni incorporated by two different methods: precipitation and incipient wetness impregnation, has been prepared and studied by the first time in the steam reforming of glycerol (SRG). At low temperatures (350-400 degrees C) the catalyst prepared by the patented precipitation method showed the highest glycerol conversion and hydrogen selectivity. In addition, the production of undesired product (CO, C2H4O, C3H6O and C2H4) and deactivation were found significantly lower for this catalyst. Its higher metallic active surface area, lower size and well-dispersed Ni metallic particles determined by XRD, H-2-Chemisorption, TPR and TEM, seem to be the major responsible of this improved catalytic performance. Thus, natural sepiolite promoted with Ni incorporated by the patented precipitation method can be considered a promised catalytic material to produce renewable hydrogen by the steam reforming of glycerol at low-milder reaction conditions (350-500 degrees C). (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  28. Novel Heterogeneous SO3Na-Carbon Transesterification Catalyst for the Production of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Devi, B. L. A. P.; Lakshmi, K. V.; Gangadhar, K. N.; Prasad, R. B. N.; Prasad, P. S. S.; Jagannadh, B.; Kundu, P. P.; Kumari, G.; Narayana, C. 2017. Novel Heterogeneous SO3Na-Carbon Transesterification Catalyst for the Production of Biodiesel. Chemistryselect. 2(5) 1925-1931

    Glycerol, a major biodiesel by-product, was valorised into a novel and highly stable heterogeneous carbon-based solid base catalyst with transesterification activity. The SO3H-carbon catalyst developed previously by us from glycerol was modified into base catalyst by treating with aqueous alkali under controlled conditions. The reported solid base catalyst is first of its kind having polycyclic aromatic carbon sheets attached with -SO3Na, -COONa and -ONa functionalities. The catalyst was characterized for its structural properties using XRD, FTIR, (13)CMAS NMR, XPS, EDAX, SEM, TEM, TG/DTA, ICP-OES and Raman spectral techniques. The SO3Na-catalyst was employed for the transesterification of sunflower oil to fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) in high yields (99%) at atmospheric pressure. The strong basic sites of the catalyst contributed to its remarkable performance and the activity was intact even after 8 cycles of reuse without any leaching, indicating its high structural stability. Thus, the reported SO3Na-carbon catalyst possessed the potential of green and economic biodiesel production from oils & fats apart from clean glycerol as by-product.
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  29. Optimization of Annona squamosa oil biodiesel production by using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Omkaresh, B. R.; Suresh, R.; Yatish, K. V. 2017. Optimization of Annona squamosa oil biodiesel production by using response surface methodology. Biofuels-Uk. 8(3) 377-382

    Demand for liquid fuels has become an important challenge for today's scientific research. Fossil fuel resources decline daily. Biodiesel seems to be an environmentally viable fuel and a possible replacement for fossil fuel. Central composite rotatable design of response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimum conditions for the production of biodiesel from Annona squamosa (Custard apple) oil. Four process parameters were evaluated at five levels (2(4) experimental designs). A total of 30 experiments were designed and conducted to study the effect of catalyst concentration (potassium hydroxide), reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, and temperature with respect to biodiesel yield. The 94.29% yield of Annona squamosa oil methyl ester (ASOME/biodiesel) was found to be 6.98:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 35.35 minutes reaction time, 1.22% (wt./v) catalyst concentration and 53.27 degrees C temperature. The fuel properties of the biodiesel such as kinematic viscosity, density, flash point, copper corrosion, calorific value, cloud point, pour point, ash content and carbon residue were determined.
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  30. Optimization of biodiesel production from raw and purified bio-oil
    Abstract

    Murugesan, A.; Avinash, A. 2017. Optimization of biodiesel production from raw and purified bio-oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(10) 978-984

    In this work, an endeavor has been made to study in detail the biodiesel production from raw and purified vegetable oil. For this purpose, ethyl and methyl esters of biodiesel have been prepared from raw and purified Pungamia oil. It was noted from the experimental results that the use of purified oil improved the biodiesel quality and significantly reduced the amount of catalyst and solvent required for biodiesel production than raw oil. The biodiesel yield of purified oil was also noted to be higher than raw oil. Furthermore, the higher biodiesel yield of around 95% was noted for ethyl esters of purified Pungamia oil than methyl esters.
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  31. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production from biodiesel by-product and propionic acid by mutant strains of Pandoraea sp
    Abstract

    de Paula, F. C.; de Paula, C. B. C.; Gomez, J. G. C.; Steinbuchel, A.; Contiero, J. 2017. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production from biodiesel by-product and propionic acid by mutant strains of Pandoraea sp. Biotechnol Prog. 33(4) 1077-1084

    Pandoraea sp. MA03 wild type strain was subjected to UV mutation to obtain mutants unable to grow on propionic acid (PA) but still able to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] from glycerol and PA at high 3HV yields. In shake flask experiments, mutant prp25 was selected from 52 mutants affected in the propionate metabolism exhibiting a conversion rate of PA into 3HV units of 0.78 g g-1 . The use of crude glycerol (CG) plus PA or valeric acid resulted in a copolymer with 3HV contents varying from 21.9 to 30 mol% and 22.2 to 36.7 mol%, respectively. Fed-batch fermentations were performed using CG and PA and reached a 3HV yield of 1.16 g g-1 , which is 86% of the maximum theoretical yield. Nitrogen limitation was a key parameter for polymer accumulation reaching up to 63.7% content and 18.1 mol% of 3HV. Henceforth, mutant prp25 is revealed as an additional alternative to minimize costs and support the P(3HB-co-3HV) production from biodiesel by-products. (c) 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1077-1084, 2017.
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  32. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Eriobotrya Japonica seed oil: an optimization study
    Abstract

    Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M. I.; Iqbal, S.; Sultana, N.; Wei, C. K. 2017. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Eriobotrya Japonica seed oil: an optimization study. International Journal of Green Energy. 14(6) 569-574

    Biodiesel is now-a-days recognized as a real potential alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel due to its number of desirable characteristics. However, its higher production cost resulting mainly due to use of costly food-grade vegetable oils as raw materials is the major barrier to its economic viability. Present work is an attempt to explore the potential of Eriobotrya japonica seed oil for the synthesis of biodiesel using alkali-catalyzed transesterification. Optimization of production parameters, namely molar ratio of alcohol to oil, amount of catalyst, reaction time and temperature, was carried out using Taguchi method. Fatty acid composition of both oil and biodiesel was determined using GC and H-1 NMR. Alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6: 1, catalyst amount of 1% wt/wt, 2 h reaction time and 50 degrees C reaction temperature were found to be the optimum conditions for obtaining 94.52% biodiesel. Highest % contribution was shown by the 'amount of catalyst' (67.32%) followed by molar ratio of alcohol to oil (25.51%). Major fuel properties of E. japonica methyl esters produced under optimum conditions were found within the specified limits of ASTM D6751 for biodiesel, hence it may be considered a prospective substitute of petro-diesel.
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  33. Production of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens OG and its metabolites in renewable media: valorisation for biodiesel production and p-xylene decontamination
    Abstract

    Etchegaray, A.; Coutte, F.; Chataigne, G.; Bechet, M.; Dos Santos, R. H.; Leclere, V.; Jacques, P. 2017. Production of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens OG and its metabolites in renewable media: valorisation for biodiesel production and p-xylene decontamination. Can J Microbiol. 63(1) 46-60

    Biosurfactants are important in many areas; however, costs impede large-scale production. This work aimed to develop a global sustainable strategy for the production of biosurfactants by a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Initially, Bacillus sp. strain 0G was renamed B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (syn. Bacillus velezensis) after analysis of the gyrA and gyrB DNA sequences. Growth in modified Landy's medium produced 3 main recoverable metabolites: surfactin, fengycin, and acetoin, which promote plant growth. Cultivation was studied in the presence of renewable carbon (as glycerol) and nitrogen (as arginine) sources. While diverse kinetics of acetoin production were observed in different media, similar yields (6-8 g.L-1) were obtained after 72 h of growth. Glycerol increased surfactin-specific production, while arginine increased the yields of surfactin and fengycin and increased biomass significantly. The specific production of fengycin increased approximately 10 times, possibly due to a connecting pathway involving arginine and ornithine. Adding value to crude extracts and biomass, both were shown to be useful, respectively, for the removal of p-xylene from contaminated water and for biodiesel production, yielding approximately 70 mg.g-1 cells and glycerol, which could be recycled in novel media. This is the first study considering circular bioeconomy to lower the production costs of biosurfactants by valorisation of both microbial cells and their primary and secondary metabolites.
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  34. Production of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens OG and its metabolites in renewable media: valorisation for biodiesel production and p-xylene decontamination
    Abstract

    Etchegaray, A.; Coutte, F.; Chataigne, G.; Bechet, M.; dos Santos, R. H. Z.; Leclere, V.; Jacques, P. 2017. Production of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens OG and its metabolites in renewable media: valorisation for biodiesel production and p-xylene decontamination. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 63(1) 46-60

    Biosurfactants are important in many areas; however, costs impede large-scale production. This work aimed to develop a global sustainable strategy for the production of biosurfactants by a novel strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Initially, Bacillus sp. strain 0G was renamed B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (syn. Bacillus velezensis) after analysis of the gyrA and gyrB DNA sequences. Growth in modified Landy's medium produced 3 main recoverable metabolites: surfactin, fengycin, and acetoin, which promote plant growth. Cultivation was studied in the presence of renewable carbon (as glycerol) and nitrogen (as arginine) sources. While diverse kinetics of acetoin production were observed in different media, similar yields (6-8 g.L-1) were obtained after 72 h of growth. Glycerol increased surfactin-specific production, while arginine increased the yields of surfactin and fengycin and increased biomass significantly. The specific production of fengycin increased similar to 10 times, possibly due to a connecting pathway involving arginine and ornithine. Adding value to crude extracts and biomass, both were shown to be useful, respectively, for the removal of p-xylene from contaminated water and for biodiesel production, yielding similar to 70 mg.g(-1) cells and glycerol, which could be recycled in novel media. This is the first study considering circular bioeconomy to lower the production costs of biosurfactants by valorisation of both microbial cells and their primary and secondary metabolites.
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  35. Production of biodiesel using HZSM-5 zeolites modified with citric acid and SO42-/La2O3
    Abstract

    Vieira, S. S.; Magriotis, Z. M.; Graca, I.; Fernandes, A.; Ribeiro, M. F.; Lopes, J. M. F. M.; Coelho, S. M.; Santos, N. A. V.; Saczk, A. A. 2017. Production of biodiesel using HZSM-5 zeolites modified with citric acid and SO42-/La2O3. Catalysis Today. 279267-273

    The present study aims at evaluating the efficiency of the HZSM-5 zeolite dealuminated with citric acid and modified with sulfated lanthanum oxide (SO42-/La2O3) as catalysts for the production of biodiesel via esterification. The effects of the treatments in the structural, textural and acid properties of produced catalysts were monitored by PXRD, adsorption/desorption of N-2 and measurements of acidity by FTIR using pyridine and collidine as probe molecules. The catalysts were tested in the reaction of esterification using oleic acid and methanol as reactants. Different molar ratios (1:10, 1:20 and 1:45) and amounts of catalyst (2%, 5% and 10%) were tested and the conversion of oleic acid into methyl oleate analysed. Results show that the dealumination with citric acid and impregnation of SO42-/La2O3 over HZSM-5 produced catalysts more active for the conversion of oleic acid for the production of biodiesel, when compared to the parent HZSM-5 zeolite. The increase of external surface properties (acidity and area) was the main parameter influencing the activity of the catalysts for the considered reaction. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  36. Production of recombinant lipase B from Candida antarctica in Pichia pastoris under control of the promoter PGK using crude glycerol from biodiesel production as carbon source
    Abstract

    Robert, J. M.; Lattari, F. S.; Machado, A. C.; de Castro, A. M.; Almeida, R. V.; Torres, F. A. G.; Valero, F.; Freire, D. M. G. 2017. Production of recombinant lipase B from Candida antarctica in Pichia pastoris under control of the promoter PGK using crude glycerol from biodiesel production as carbon source. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 118123-131

    The use of new constitutive promoters and recycled carbon sources in the recombinant production of industrial proteins such as lipases in the cell factory Pichia pastoris is desirable, in order to improve production and minimize the cost of the culture medium. With this aim, the recombinant production of lipase B from Candida antarctica (rLipB) in P. pastoris under the PGK promoter, using crude glycerin from biodiesel, was assessed. Study of the best culture conditions made possible a significant increase in production. The optimal culture conditions used minimal medium containing crude glycerol as the carbon source, starting the batch with 100 g/L, and subsequently making four pulses of this crude glycerol, of 25 g/L each. The lipase produced was characterized and compared to commercially available lipase from Aspergillus niger, sold by Novozymes. rLip B proved to be stable in basic pHs and temperatures lower than 55 degrees C, the optimum conditions being pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C. The selectivity for medium-sized carbon chains was similar in both, and tributyrine (C4:0) was the best triacylglycerol studied. The results showed that this approach is a viable alternative to produce rLipB with this new promoter, Using crude glycerol. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  37. Production, analysis and combustion characterization of biomass fast pyrolysis oil - Biodiesel blends for use in diesel engines
    Abstract

    Laesecke, J.; Ellis, N.; Kirchen, P. 2017. Production, analysis and combustion characterization of biomass fast pyrolysis oil - Biodiesel blends for use in diesel engines. Fuel. 199346-357

    In this study, blends of biodiesel and softwood derived fast pyrolysis oil (FPO) were produced, characterized, and evaluated for thermodynamic and emission performance in a single cylinder research engine. FPO was supplied from an in-house fluidized bed reactor as well as a commercial source. Separate FPO-biodiesel blends from both FPO sources were prepared using initial volumetric ratios of 80:20 and 60:40 (biodiesel: FPO, by volume). After blending, mixing, and a 24 h settling period, two layers formed and the top, biodiesel-rich layers containing about 5 and 10 vol% FPO were decanted and characterized on the basis of a thermogravimetric analysis, viscosity, acid number, water content, elemental analysis, and heating value. Significant decreases in viscosity, acidity, and water content from the original FPO validated blending as means of extracting compounds suitable for use as fuels from pyrolytic liquids in biodiesel. A single cylinder, common rail, direct injection diesel engine was used to analyze the combustion performance of the FPO fuel blends against neat diesel and biodiesel. Fuel performance was characterized on the basis of a thermodynamic combustion analysis, as well as corresponding exhaust emission measurements for CO2, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and NOx.
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  38. Review on methyl ester production from inedible rubber seed oil under various catalysts
    Abstract

    Khazaai, S. N. M.; Maniam, G. P.; Rahim, M. H. A.; Yusoff, M. M.; Matsumura, Y. 2017. Review on methyl ester production from inedible rubber seed oil under various catalysts. Industrial Crops and Products. 97191-195

    The outcomes of the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris Convention (COP 21), the steady escalating of global carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and the declaration of 2015 as the warmest year ever, demanding solutions to keep the earth fit for human habitation for years to come. One of such solutions is the use of biodiesel as an energy supply for diesel engines, that is regarded as a less environment-damaging fuel. As such, this review presents the possibility of utilizing non-edible rubber seed (Hevea brasiliensis) oil as a potential feedstock in biodiesel preparation via both homogeneous and heterogeneous acid and alkali catalysts. It deliberates the one-step and two-step routes of methyl ester production with various reaction conditions that to be weighted in order to achieve environment responsibility yet cost-effective renewable fuel. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  39. Salen- Zr(IV) complex grafted into amine-tagged MIL-101(Cr) as a robust multifunctional catalyst for biodiesel production and organic transformation reactions
    Abstract

    Hassan, H. M. A.; Betiha, M. A.; Mohamed, S. K.; El-Sharkawy, E. A.; Ahmed, E. A. 2017. Salen- Zr(IV) complex grafted into amine-tagged MIL-101(Cr) as a robust multifunctional catalyst for biodiesel production and organic transformation reactions. Applied Surface Science. 412394-404

    The synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), porous coordination polymers with functional groups has received immense interest due to the functional groups can offer desirable properties and allow post synthetic modification. Herein, for the first time, Zr(IV)-Sal Schiff base complex incorporated into amino-functionalized MIL-101(Cr) framework by salicylaldehyde condensing to amino group, and coordinating Zr(IV) ion have been successfully synthesized. The worthiness of the synthesized material as a catalyst has been examined for the esterification of oleic acid (free fatty acid) with methanol producing biodiesel (methyl oleate), Knoveonagel condensation reaction of aldehydes and Friedel Crafts acylation of anisole. Our findings demonstrated that Salen-Zr(IV) grafted to framework of NH2-MIL-101(Cr) as a solid acid catalyst exhibited distinct catalytic performance for the production of biodiesel by esterification of oleic acid with methanol, Knoveonagel condensation and Friedel Crafts acylation. These could be attributed to high surface area which allow high distribution of Zr(IV) species lead to a sufficient contact with the reactants species. Furthermore, the catalyst showed excellent recycling efficiency due to the strong interaction between the Zr(IV) ions and chelating groups in the NH2-MIL-101(Cr)-Sal. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  40. Silybum marianum L. seed oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Fadhil, A. B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Dheyab, M. M. 2017. Silybum marianum L. seed oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 10S683-S690

    In the present study, biodiesel was produced from a novel non edible oil source, Silybum marianum L. seeds oil (SMSO). The acid value of the extracted oil was found to be 13.60 mg KOH/ g. Therefore, a dual step process viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification was developed to produce the biodiesel. Free fatty acids in SMSO were converted into methyl esters through the esterification of the oil by using hydrochloric acid (HCl) as an acid catalyst with 6: 1 methanol to molar ratio at 60 degrees C for 1 h, to reduce the acid value of the parent oil to below (2 mg KOH/g of oil), a value safe to produce the biodiesel through alkaline catalyzed transesterification. During alkaline-catalyzed transesterification, the parameters of this step such as alkaline catalyst type and concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction duration were optimized. The results of esterification indicated that 1.0% HCl w/w of oil was optimal for the esterification, because it lowers the acid value to the minimum. For alkaline transesterification, a maximum conversion of (95.0%) was obtained by using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst with a concentration of 0.90% w/w of oil, 6: 1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature and a reaction duration of 100 min. Biodiesel was also analyzed by using thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy. The properties of the produced biodiesel are found to conform with the ASTM standard specifications. (C) 2012 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
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  41. Surfactant-like Bronsted acidic ionic liquid as an efficient catalyst for selective Mannich reaction and biodiesel production in water
    Abstract

    Vafaeezadeh, M.; Karbalaie-Reza, M.; Hashemi, M. M.; Soleimany, K. Q. 2017. Surfactant-like Bronsted acidic ionic liquid as an efficient catalyst for selective Mannich reaction and biodiesel production in water. Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society. 14(4) 907-914

    The current study deals with the applications of a surfactant-like Bronsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([DMIm]HSO4) for Mannich reaction at room temperature. The reaction was efficiently preceded in water as solvent without using any harmful and expensive organic additives. Our findings showed that the reaction is selective for cyclohexanone and no Mannich product was observed when cyclopentanone was used as starting material. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to provide an evidence about the nature of reactivity of the cyclohexanone/cyclopentanone. The activity of the catalyst was also tested for biodiesel production of fatty acids with methanol and ethanol at mild thermal condition without applying additional water removal steps such as using additives or performing special methodologies like azeotropic distillation. In both reactions, the IL can be recycled and reused several times with relatively constant efficiency.
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  42. The methylic versus the ethylic route: considerations about the sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Leoneti, A. B.; Aragao-Leoneti, V.; Galina, S. V. R.; Porto, G. S. 2017. The methylic versus the ethylic route: considerations about the sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel production. Environment Development and Sustainability. 19(2) 637-651

    Brazil is considered one of the world's leading producers of biofuels given the predominance of ethanol fuel in its energy matrix. However, despite the prominence of Brazil in ethanol production, the vast majority of biodiesel production plants in Brazil use methanol instead of ethanol as the alcohol for transesterification reaction, as is generally the case in the rest of the world. The aim of this paper is therefore to examine the transesterification process in the Brazilian biodiesel production in terms of sustainability. In this regard, it was necessary to evaluate the way in which the industrial process is currently carried out, the role of government incentives or subsidies for the use of ethanol to produce biodiesel, and the investments of companies in technology development for the same purpose. This study presents indications that the development of the biodiesel market in Brazil is still oriented toward a production model which is inconsistent with the environmental and social aspects of sustainability.
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  43. The Potential of KerniriSunan as Feedstock for the Production of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Supriyadi, S.; Purwanto; Anggoro, D. D.; Hermawan 2017. The Potential of KerniriSunan as Feedstock for the Production of Biodiesel. Advanced Science Letters. 23(3) 2524-2526

    KemiriSunan (Reutealistrisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) seed is a material that has a great potential to be used as a biodieselfeedstock. The core seeds contain high level of free fatty acid/crude oil. This paper investigates the potential of KemiriSunan in Indonesia. Comparisons of the productivity of plants producing biodiesel and processing methods for producing biodiesel from KemiriSunan seeds are analyzed. The economic prospect for developing KemiriSunan as biodiesel is also addressed. KemiriSunan's productivity is much higher when compared to other biodiesel feedstock. The option available for development of biofuels from non-food source in Indonesia is KemiriSunan and followed by Calophylluminophyllum. The esterification and trans-esterification methods used for biodiesel production yield biodiesel that is in some parameters in accordance with the biodiesel standard according to SNI-2006 standard:density at 40 degrees C: 881 kg/m(3); kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees : 4.4 cSt; cetane number: 53.9; flash point: 129.5 degrees C; cloud point: 12 degrees C; calorific value: 39.7758 MJ/kg; and iodine number: 95.24 g iodine/100 g. The economic analysis showed that NPV Rp. 521,724,254, IRR 21.78% BCR 1.3, PBP 9.2 years.
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  44. The production of semal oil methyl esters through a combined process reactor
    Abstract

    Mohan, S.; Pal, A.; Singh, R. 2017. The production of semal oil methyl esters through a combined process reactor. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(10) 955-962

    The present study deals with the development of a combined reactor involving an ultrasonic reactor (UR) and a mechanical stirrer (MS) for the transesterification of vegetable oil, extracted from semal (Bombax Ceiba). Reaction variables such as reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, and ultrasonic irradiation power were investigated to find the optimal parameters for maximizing biodiesel yield. The optimum conditions with the combined process reactor (CPR) are: 30 min reaction time, 4.5/1 molar ratio, 0.5% catalyst, and 40% of the maximum ultrasonic power with a maximum yield of 96.4% as compared to 110 min, 6/1 molar ratio, and 1% catalyst with a maximum yield of 90.7% for the MS, and 40 min, 4.5/1 molar ratio, 0.75% catalyst, and 50% of the maximum ultrasonic power with a maximum yield of 92.1% in a UR.
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  45. Toward solar biodiesel production from CO2 using engineered cyanobacteria
    Abstract

    Woo, H. M.; Lee, H. J. 2017. Toward solar biodiesel production from CO2 using engineered cyanobacteria. Fems Microbiology Letters. 364(9)

    Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has received attention as a sustainable strategy to convert carbon dioxide to various biochemicals including fatty acid-derived biodiesel. Recently, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a model cyanobacterium, has been engineered to convert CO2 to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as biodiesel. Modular pathway has been constructed for FAEE production. Several metabolic engineering strategies were discussed to improve the production levels of FAEEs, including host engineering by improving CO2 fixation rate and photosynthetic efficiency. In addition, protein engineering of key enzyme in S. elongatus PCC 7942 was implemented to address issues on FAEE secretions toward sustainable FAEE production from CO2. Finally, advanced metabolic engineering will promote developing biosolar cell factories to convert CO2 to feasible amount of FAEEs toward solar biodiesel.
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  46. Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Eruca Sativa as an Indigenous Species in Iran
    Abstract

    Hajinezhad, A.; Hosseini, S. S. 2017. Ultrasound Assisted Biodiesel Production from Eruca Sativa as an Indigenous Species in Iran. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 7(2) 556-564

    In this study Eruca sativa was used as an industrial and least desirable edible source for biodiesel production. To this aim, fatty acid methyl esters C14, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18: 1, C18:1c ,C18:2, C18:3c, C18:3, C18:3t, C20, C20: 1, C22, C22: 1, C24 and C24: 1 were determined by Gas Chromatography (GC) and BF3 method and the results showed that C18: 1 has the highest proportion (55.91%) of methyl ester in this oil. Also, kinematic and dynamic viscosity, density, amount of free fatty acids, soap and acid values of Eruca sativa oil were measured as 33.885 (mP.s), 37.06 (mm(2)/s), 0.915 (g/cm(2)), 0.42%, 187.857 (mg KOH/1gOil) and 1.533 (mg KOH/1gOil), respectively. Biodiesel from Eruca sativa oil was obtained by a basic transesterification method using an ultrasound device under ultrasonic amplitude of 70%, power of 172.32 W, 24 kHz, and 9 min at 45 degrees C, with methanol/oil ratio of 6 and 1% potassium hydroxide as catalyst. Then, according to the EN and ASTM standards, the quality of biodiesel such as flash point, density at 15 degrees C, kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C, acid value, cetane number, and water content determined as 164 degrees C, 882 (g/m(3)), 4.8531 (mm(2)/s), 0.27 (mg KOH/1gOil), 54 and 9.17 (mg/kg), respectively. The effect of fatty acid profile of Eruca Sativa oil on physicochemical properties of methyl ester was profoundly discussed and compared according to the suitable distribution suggested by several studies. The results showed that there is a high performance of methyl ester production (95.61% conversion) from Eruca sativa oil using ultrasound technology.
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  47. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production by a novel composite of Fe(III)-based MOF and phosphotangestic acid as efficient and reusable catalyst
    Abstract

    Nikseresht, A.; Daniyali, A.; Ali-Mohammadi, M.; Afzalinia, A.; Mirzaie, A. 2017. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production by a novel composite of Fe(III)-based MOF and phosphotangestic acid as efficient and reusable catalyst. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 37203-207

    In this work, esterification of oleic acid by various alcohols is achieved with high yields under ultrasonic irradiation. This reaction performed with a novel heterogeneous catalyst that fabricated by heteropoly acid and Fe(III)-based MOF, namely MIL-53 (Fe). Syntheses of MIL-53 and encapsulation process carry out by ultrasound irradiation at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The prepared composite was characterized by various techniques such as XRD, FT-IR, SEM, BET and ICP that demonstrate excellent catalytic activities, while being highly convenient to synthesize. The obtained results revealed that ultrasound irradiation could be used for the appropriate and rapid biodiesel production. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  48. A comparative study between chemical and enzymatic transesterification of high free fatty acid contained rubber seed oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Sebastian, J.; Muraleedharan, C.; Santhiagu, A. 2016. A comparative study between chemical and enzymatic transesterification of high free fatty acid contained rubber seed oil for biodiesel production. Cogent Engineering. 3(1)

    The choice of a paramount method for biodiesel production has significance as the demand of alternative fuels like biodiesel is growing rapidly. In the present study, experimental results from chemical-catalysed as well as enzymecatalysed methods were compared using common influencing parameters such as oil/alcohol molar ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction duration. Requirement of certain solvents to enhance the reaction rate was explained in the enzyme-catalysed transesterification reaction. Biodiesel conversion of more than 90% was attained for chemical-catalysed transesterification, whereas the conversion rate was 85% for enzyme-catalysed method. This gives the indication of further refinement in the enzyme- catalysed transesterification process. The influencing parameters and absolute results of the analysis give the impression of superiority of enzymatic transesterification method for biodiesel production from high free fatty acid-contained rubber seed oil.
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  49. A fluidized bed reactor as an approach to enzymatic biodiesel production in a process with simultaneous glycerol removal
    Abstract

    Fidalgo, W. R. R.; Ceron, A.; Freitas, L.; Santos, J. C.; de Castro, H. F. 2016. A fluidized bed reactor as an approach to enzymatic biodiesel production in a process with simultaneous glycerol removal. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 38217-223

    The hydrodynamic characteristics and operational conditions to produce biodiesel by the ethanolysis of babassu oil catalyzed by immobilized lipase (Novozym (R) 435) were established in a fluidized bed reactor coupling with a column to simultaneous remove glycerol formed as byproduct. Hydrodynamics was determined by means of pulse tracer trials and results showed that the flow pattern can be described as an ideal continuous flow stirred tank. The best performance was obtained by running the reactor with biocatalyst loading of 12% and a space-time of 8 h, attaining an average yield of 98.1% and productivity of 9.9 mol(ester)/g(cat)/min. (C) 2016 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  50. A novel and robust homogeneous supported catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Benessere, V.; Cucciolito, M. E.; Esposito, R.; Lega, M.; Turco, R.; Ruffo, F.; Di Serio, M. 2016. A novel and robust homogeneous supported catalyst for biodiesel production. Fuel. 1711-4

    A homogeneous supported catalyst based on Zn(II) was prepared by anchoring complex [Zn(OAc)(2)(N, N'-chelate)] on silica, where N, N'-chelate is a suitably functionalised di-imine ligand. The complex was able to promote the esterification and transesterification of acidic vegetable oils at 160 degrees C within two hours. The catalyst could be also easily recovered and immediately re-cycled. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  51. A sustainable lignocellulosic biodiesel production integrating solar- and bio-power generation (vol 18, pg 5059, 2016)
    Abstract

    Zanotti, M.; Ruan, Z. H.; Bustamante, M.; Liu, Y.; Liao, W. 2016. A sustainable lignocellulosic biodiesel production integrating solar- and bio-power generation (vol 18, pg 5059, 2016). Green Chemistry. 18(20) 5676-5676

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  52. A systems analysis of biodiesel production from wheat straw using oleaginous yeast: process design, mass and energy balances
    Abstract

    Karlsson, H.; Ahlgren, S.; Sandgren, M.; Passoth, V.; Wallberg, O.; Hansson, P. A. 2016. A systems analysis of biodiesel production from wheat straw using oleaginous yeast: process design, mass and energy balances. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 9

    Background: Biodiesel is the main liquid biofuel in the EU and is currently mainly produced from vegetable oils. Alternative feedstocks are lignocellulosic materials, which provide several benefits compared with many existing feedstocks. This study examined a technical process and its mass and energy balances to gain a systems perspective of combined biodiesel (FAME) and biogas production from straw using oleaginous yeasts. Important process parameters with a determining impact on overall mass and energy balances were identified and evaluated.
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  53. An evaluation of biodiesel production from Camelina sativa grown in Nova Scotia
    Abstract

    Yang, J.; Caldwell, C.; Corscadden, K.; He, Q. S.; Li, J. L. 2016. An evaluation of biodiesel production from Camelina sativa grown in Nova Scotia. Industrial Crops and Products. 81162-168

    Camelina sativa has recently attracted great interest as an energy crop for biodiesel production in North America. To assess the feasibility of biodiesel production from camelina, the cultivation conditions, camelina oil fatty acid profile, alkali-catalyzed transesterificaiton process and fuel properties of camelina biodiesel were investigated. Unrefined camelina oil, containing 10%, 33.2% and 56.8% saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids respectively, was used to synthesize biodiesel. The conversion rate of C. sativa oil to its methyl esters was 96% under optimal reaction conditions. Most fuel properties of the resulting camelina biodiesel were in good agreement with specifications of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751) and European standard (EN 14214), such as kinematic viscosity, acid number, flash point, sulfur content, total glycerol content. Its cetane number (49.7) was satisfactory according to ASTM D6751, but not for EN 14214. Camelina biodiesel exhibited poor oxidative stability (1,9 h) resulting from the high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  54. Analysis of biodiesel production by transesterification of crude oil from the pulp of class iii avocado (persea americana mill var. Hass, fuerte and creole)
    Abstract

    Juarez-Moran, L. A.; Ariza-Ortega, J. A.; Ramos-Cassellis, M. E.; Luna-Suarez, S.; Diaz-Reyes, J. 2016. Analysis of biodiesel production by transesterification of crude oil from the pulp of class iii avocado (persea americana mill var. Hass, fuerte and creole). Interciencia. 41(11) 774-780

    The aim of this study was to analyze spectroscopically the crude oil of Class III avocado from the Hass, Fuerte and Creole varieties, as well as the biodiesel produced by their transesterification. The crude oils were extracted by centrifugation and solvent. The products were analysed by physiochemical quality parameters. For obtaining biodiesel, samples were subjected to different conditions transesterification B1, oil-ethyl alcohol 96% + NaOH, B2: oil-ethyl alcohol 96% + KOH, B3: oil-methanol + NaOH, and B4: oil-methanol + KOH, and they were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform. The best results were obtained with the B3 and B4 reactions in crude oil of the Hass variety extracted by centrifugation. The obtained biodiesel had an acceptable quality.
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  55. Application of limestone as based catalyst in transesterification of rubber seed oil in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zamberi, M. M.; Safari, I. A. K. M.; Razak, N. H.; Ani, F. N.; Abdollah, M. F. B. 2016. Application of limestone as based catalyst in transesterification of rubber seed oil in biodiesel production. Proceedings of Mechanical Engineering Research Day 2016. 85-86

    The effect of using natural limestone as heterogeneous catalyst on the transesterification of high free fatty acid rubber seed oil with methanol was carried out to produce a quality biodiesel. Affecting variables such as methanol to oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration were investigated. The catalyst was calcined at 900 degrees C and were characterized using XRD, SEM and XRF. The results revealed that the CaO catalyst derived from limestone was very clean, easy to used and can maintain a good catalytic activity after being used for several times and can reached up to 88.06% biodiesel yield.
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  56. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Animal Fat with Methanol
    Abstract

    Kumar, N. B. D.; Math, M. C. 2016. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Animal Fat with Methanol. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 6(1) 74-79

    In an effort to optimize the reaction conditions of biodiesel production from animal fat, response surface methodology was used. The combined effects of catalyst concentration, reaction time and methanol quantity of biodiesel yield were investigated and optimized using response surface methodology. A second order model was generated to predict biodiesel yield as a function of catalyst concentration, reaction time and methanol quantity by keeping the reaction temperature (55 degrees C to 60 degrees C) constant for all experiments A statistical model predicted the maximum animal fat methyl ester yield of 85.93% volume of oil at optimized parameters of methanol quantity (35% volume of oil), base catalyst concentration (0.46% weight of oil) and reaction time (90 minutes). Experimentally, maximum yield of 91% was obtained at the above parameters. A variation of 5.56% was observed between predicted maximum and experimental maximum yield.
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  57. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Hydnocarpus Wightiana Seed Oil with Methanol
    Abstract

    Math, M. C.; Hegde, H. L. 2016. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Hydnocarpus Wightiana Seed Oil with Methanol. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 6(4) 1619-1626

    Response surface method and Central Composite design was used in order to optimize the process parameters of transesterification reaction during the production of biodiesel from Hydnocarpus Wightiana seed oil and investigation of reaction time, methanol quantity and reaction time was done. Prediction of biodiesel yield was done by generating a quadratic model by keeping temperature of reaction constant (55 degrees C to 60 degrees C) for all the experiments. 87.53% of the volume of oil was the maximum yield predicted by model for optimized parameters of duration of reaction (75 minutes), methanol quantity (35% volume of oil) and alkaline catalyst concentration (0.46% weight of oil). And 93.6% was the maximum experimental yield obtained for same parameters.
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  58. Assessment of the Seed Oils of Persea americana and Melia dubua for Their Potentialities in the Production of Biodiesel and Possible Industrial Use
    Abstract

    Katagi, K. S.; Munnolli, R. S.; Benni, S. D.; Kulkarni, S. S. 2016. Assessment of the Seed Oils of Persea americana and Melia dubua for Their Potentialities in the Production of Biodiesel and Possible Industrial Use. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Recent Advances in Bioenergy Research. 111-120

    The seed oils of Persea americana and Melia dubua species are selected for this analytical study. These seed species yield 63.6 and 28 % of nonedible oil, respectively. The details of component fatty acids (CFAs) are collected from the literature. The necessary analytical data, viz., iodine value (IV) and saponification value (SV) of seed oils and major fuel properties of biodiesel, viz., cetane number (CN), higher heating value (HHV), and lower heating value (LHV) of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are empirically computed. These parameters of biodiesel of seed oils under investigation are compared and evaluated in reference to existing biodiesels. This work reports the suitability of especially Persea americana for the biodiesel production.
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  59. Biocatalytic transesterification of Eruca sativa oil for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Mumtaz, M. W.; Mukhtar, H.; Dilawer, U. A.; Hussain, S. M.; Hussain, M.; Iqbal, M.; Adnan, A.; Nisar, J. 2016. Biocatalytic transesterification of Eruca sativa oil for the production of biodiesel. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 5162-167

    The utilization of Eruca sativa oil for the biosynthesis of biodiesel by lipase catalyzed transesterification was appraised. The produced biodiesel was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, HPLC and GC-MS. For optimization of reaction conditions Response Surface Methodology was employed and maximum biodiesel produced was depicted to be 98.3% and 56.4% catalyzed by Novozyme-435 and Aspergillus niger (AN) lipase, respectively. The optimum reaction conditions for Novozyme-435 catalyzed transesterification of E. sativa oil were found to be 0.75% Novozyme-435 concentration, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 32.5 degrees C reaction temperature and 60 h reaction time, whereas for transesterification reactions catalyzed by A. niger lipase, the optimized conditions were, 1.0% enzyme concentration, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 32.5 degrees C reaction temperature and 60 h reaction time. Furthermore, the biodiesel was combusted in diesel engine and exhaust emission levels such as PM, CO, NOx etc. were evaluated which showed considerable reductions as compared to the conventional diesel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  60. Biodiesel production by esterification of oleic acid over zeolite Y prepared from kaolin
    Abstract

    Doyle, A. M.; Albayati, T. M.; Abbas, A. S.; Alismaeel, Z. T. 2016. Biodiesel production by esterification of oleic acid over zeolite Y prepared from kaolin. Renewable Energy. 9719-23

    Zeolite Y, with a Si/Al ratio 3.1, was prepared using Iraqi kaolin and tested as a catalyst in the liquid-phase esterification of oleic acid (a simulated free fatty acid frequently used as a model reaction for biodiesel production). XRD confirmed the presence of the characteristic faujasite structure of zeolite Y, and further analysis was conducted using BET adsorption, FTIR spectroscopy, XRF, DLS particle size and SEM. A range of experimental conditions were employed to study the reaction; alcohol/oleic acid molar ratio, temperature, and catalyst mass loading. The optimum conditions for the reaction were observed at 70 degrees C, 5 wt% catalyst loading and 6:1 ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio. The oleic acid conversion using the zeolite prepared from kaolin was 85% after 60 min, while the corresponding value for a commercial sample of HY zeolite was 76%. Our findings show that low Si/Al ratio zeolite Y is a suitable catalyst for esterification, which is in contrast to the widespread view of the unsuitability of zeolites, in general, for such applications. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  61. Biodiesel Production by Reactive Flash: A Numerical Simulation
    Abstract

    Regalado-Mendez, A.; Skogestad, S.; Natividad, R.; Romero, R. 2016. Biodiesel Production by Reactive Flash: A Numerical Simulation. International Journal of Chemical Engineering.

    Reactive flash (RF) in biodiesel production has been studied in order to investigate steady-state multiplicities, singularities, and effect of biodiesel quality when the RF system approaches to bubble point. The RF was modeled by an index-2 system of differential algebraic equations, the vapor split (phi) was computed by modified Rachford-Rice equation and modified Raoult's law computed bubble point, and the continuation analysis was tracked on MATCONT. Results of this study show the existence of turning points, leading to a unique bubble point manifold, (chi(Biodiesel), T) = (0.46, 478.41 K), which is a globally stable flashing operation. Also, the results of the simulation in MATLAB (R) of the dynamic behavior of the RF show that conversion of triglycerides reaches 97% for a residence time of 5.8 minutes and a methanol to triglyceride molar flow ratio of 5:1.
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  62. Biodiesel production catalyzed by highly acidic carbonaceous catalysts synthesized via carbonizing lignin in sub- and super-critical ethanol (vol 190, pg 103, 2016)
    Abstract

    Huang, M.; Luo, J.; Fang, Z.; Li, H. 2016. Biodiesel production catalyzed by highly acidic carbonaceous catalysts synthesized via carbonizing lignin in sub- and super-critical ethanol (vol 190, pg 103, 2016). Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 196233-233

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  63. Biodiesel production from castor oil using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst: Simulation and validation
    Abstract

    Thirugnanasambandham, K.; Shine, K.; Agatheeshwaren, A.; Sivakumar, V. 2016. Biodiesel production from castor oil using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst: Simulation and validation. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(19) 2898-2905

    The key objective of the present research is to optimize and investigate the biodiesel production from ricinuscommunis (castor) oil using microwave-assisted hybrid transesterfication process under various conditions such as microwave power, treatment time, ethanol: oil ratio and catalyst concentration (KOH). Response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with four factors with a three-level Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD) was employed to model the transesterfication technique. The obtained results were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a second-order polynomial model was developed to study the interactive effect of process factors on biodiesel production. Derringer's desired function methodology was used for the optimization and optimum conditions for maximizing the biodiesel production. Under optimum conditions, the predicted biodiesel production was found to be 95% with a desirability value of 0.998. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were compared with the ASTM D6751 standards.
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  64. Biodiesel production from castor plant integrating ethanol production via a biorefinery approach
    Abstract

    Bateni, H.; Karimi, K. 2016. Biodiesel production from castor plant integrating ethanol production via a biorefinery approach. Chemical Engineering Research & Design. 1074-12

    Biodiesel, a promising alternative fuel, is not a completely renewable fuel, as it currently uses oil-based methanol for its industrial production. Integrated biodiesel and bioethanol production in a biorefinery unit can overcome this challenge together with an improved economy. In this study, castor plant was applied to an integrated biodiesel and ethanol production. The extracted oil was transesterified with ethanol produced through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the castor plant residue. An alkaline pretreatment using 8% w/v sodium hydroxide at 100 degrees C for 60 min was applied to improve the ethanol production yield from 27.2 to 71.0%. An experimental design using response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the biodiesel production yield. The optimum biodiesel yield was 85.0 +/- 1.0%, obtained at 62.5 degrees C using an ethanol to oil mass ratio of 0.29:1 for 3.46 h, which was in agreement with the predicted yield (84.4%). Accordingly, 1 kg of castor plant resulted in production of 149.6 g biodiesel and at least 30.1 g ethanol as the final products with no extra alcohol feedstock requirement. (C) 2015 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  65. Biodiesel production from Cedrus deodara oil in different types of ultrasonic reactors and energy analysis
    Abstract

    Mohan, S.; Pal, A.; Singh, R. 2016. Biodiesel production from Cedrus deodara oil in different types of ultrasonic reactors and energy analysis. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(24) 3709-3715

    This paper deals with the production of biodiesel using vegetable oil, extracted from Deodar (Cedrus deodara) in various types of ultrasonic reactors. The biodiesel so produced is tested for its property and stability. Biodiesel yield is optimized as a function of reaction time for various ultrasonic reactors. The biodiesel production through the triple-frequency flow cell ultrasonic reactor is found the most energy efficient when compared to other types of ultrasonic reactors. Biodiesel so produced from deodar oil is stable under atmospheric conditions with its various physicochemical properties within the range of acceptable limits of the diesel engine.
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  66. Biodiesel Production from Moringa oleifera Oil and Its Characteristics as Fuel in a Diesel Engine
    Abstract

    Zeeshan, M.; Vasudeva, M.; Sarma, A. K. 2016. Biodiesel Production from Moringa oleifera Oil and Its Characteristics as Fuel in a Diesel Engine. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Recent Advances in Bioenergy Research. 149-157

    Biodiesel is emerging as a promising source for alternative energy, owing to the increasing demand for fuel derived from fossil fuel resources. For developing countries like India, biodiesel can help reduce the dependency on the fossil fuel being imported. Present study is focused on the production of biodiesel from a nonedible oil source (Moringa oleifera) along with the engine testing of its blends as fuel. A single-step transesterification process is carried out for the extraction of biodiesel from M. oleifera oil with NaOH as catalyst. Properties of biodiesel extracted are tested and met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of 10, 15, 20 (% vol.) biodiesel blends and diesel are examined on a four-stroke diesel engine at compression ratio of 16. An average increase in brake power of 2.2 % and decrease in brake thermal efficiency of 3.7 % is observed for biodiesel blends compared to diesel. Overall increase in brake specific fuel consumption of 4.1 % for biodiesel blends is observed compared to diesel. On an average carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of biodiesel blends decreased by 4.9 and 74.4 %, respectively, compared to diesel. Carbon dioxide and NOx emissions of biodiesel blends increased by 19.5 and 13.9 %, respectively, on an average compared to diesel. M. oleifera can be considered as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production and used as diesel engine fuel without making any engine modifications.
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  67. Biodiesel production from Nerium oleander (Thevetia peruviana) oil through conventional and ultrasonic irradiation methods
    Abstract

    Yadav, A. K.; Khan, M. E.; Pal, A.; Dubey, A. M. 2016. Biodiesel production from Nerium oleander (Thevetia peruviana) oil through conventional and ultrasonic irradiation methods. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(23) 3447-3452

    In the present research work, Nerium oleander oil has been used as raw material for producing biodiesel using both ultrasonic transesterification and a magnetic stirrer method. A two-step transesterification process was carried out for optimum condition of 0.40% V/V methanol to oil ratio, 1% V/V H2SO4 catalyst, 55 degrees C temperature, and 60 min reaction time followed by treatment with 0.2% V/V methanol to oil ratio, 1% V/W KOH alkaline catalyst, 55 degrees C temperature, and 60 min reaction time. The process is repeated with an ultrasonic method at the frequency of 28 kHz using ultrasonic horn type reactor (50 W) for about 10-15 min. Biodiesel obtained from ultrasonic method and magnetic stirrer was then compared for their percentage yield and physiochemical properties. Ultrasonic transesterification process gave a maximum yield of 97% by weight of oleander biodiesel along with improved physiochemical characteristics. Therefore, it is concluded that ultrasonic method is the most effective method for converting crude oleander oil into biodiesel.
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  68. Biodiesel production from sewage sludge lipids catalysed by Bronsted acidic ionic liquids
    Abstract

    Olkiewicz, M.; Plechkova, N. V.; Earle, M. J.; Fabregat, A.; Stuber, F.; Fortuny, A.; Font, J.; Bengoa, C. 2016. Biodiesel production from sewage sludge lipids catalysed by Bronsted acidic ionic liquids. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 181738-746

    Production of biodiesel from sewage sludge lipids was catalysed by six different Bronsted acidic imidazolium and long chain ammonium ionic liquids; both with an alkane sulfonic acid group and with different anions. Among the ionic liquid tested, 4-(3-methylimidazolium) butanesulfonic acid trifluoromethanesulfonate, [mimC(4)SO(3)H][SO3CF3], was selected as the best catalyst due to its high catalytic performance and purer biodiesel obtained than the equivalent ammonium ionic liquid, 4-(trihexylammonium) butanesulfonic acid trifluoromethanesulfonate, [N-666(C4SO3H)][SO3CF3]. The influence of different reaction variables on the biodiesel yield was studied using [mimC(4)SO(3)H][SO3CF3] as a catalyst. The yield of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) reached 90% (based on saponifiable lipids) under the following optimised conditions: 10:1 molar ratio of methanol to saponifiable lipids, 7 wt% ionic liquid catalyst (web, based on lipids), 100 degrees C and 5 h. In addition, the ionic liquid has a good reusability and can be easily separated from the biodiesel. These acidic ionic liquids were found to be efficient catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel from low-cost and non-edible feedstock like sewage sludge lipids. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  69. Biodiesel production from two stage esterification of simarouba glauca seed oil and its characterization
    Abstract

    Jeyalakshmi, P.; Subramanian, R.; Nedunchezhian, N. 2016. Biodiesel production from two stage esterification of simarouba glauca seed oil and its characterization. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(9) 1163-1168

    In this work, biodiesel was produced from simarouba glauca seed oil through a two-stage acid-alkali esterification process. Concentrated sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide were used as catalysts for acid and alkaline catalyzed esterification process, respectively. The free fatty acid content of the oil was reduced from 3.5 to 0.2%. The major properties of oil and its biodiesel were studied. Upon two-stage esterification, kinematic viscosity was reduced from 45.75 to 3.1 cSt and the acid value was reduced from 6.9348 to 0.4 mg KOH/g. The measured physio-chemical properties are within the limits set by ASTM biodiesel standards.
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  70. Biodiesel Production Via Hydrodynamic Cavitation: Numerical Study of New Geometrical Arrangements
    Abstract

    Ladino, J. A.; Herrera, J.; Malagon, D. H.; Prisciandaro, M.; Piemonte, V.; Capocelli, M. 2016. Biodiesel Production Via Hydrodynamic Cavitation: Numerical Study of New Geometrical Arrangements. 2nd International Conference on Biomass (Iconbm 2016). 50319-324

    Hydrodynamic Cavitation is employed as process enhancer for the industrial production of biodiesel with important improvements in energy efficiency, yields and required time. These improvements can play an important role in the new generation of biodiesel facilities, even more under the recent global scenario of low petroleum prices where the biodiesel industry is struggling to be competitive and economically sustainable. In this framework the cost and time reduction can be achieved overcoming the present limitations of low mass transfer coefficients and enabling the utilization of high fatty acid oils. This work explores via an integrated mathematical model (computational fluid dynamics and single bubble dynamics) several geometrical possibilities for cavitational reactors with simple construction and easy scalability as cylinders and Venturi channel arrangements. The paper presents the fundamental equations and the global simulation criteria integrating the multi-scale approaches for the evaluation of cavitation activities and power consumption in transesterification reactors. The preliminary results are presented in this paper, together with an innovative overall comparison including the different features characterizing the cavitation performances. Finally, the methodology applied to 16 configurations of Venturi and cylinder arrangements suggest that the cylinder arrangement named 4510 (array cylinders with throat diameter of 4mm and cylinder diameter of 5mm) has better overall performance at less energy consumption, reaching up to 95% of active cavities and an average performance of 60% compared with other evaluated geometries.
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  71. Biodiesel production with green technologies
    Abstract

    Islam, Aminul; Pogaku, Ravindra 2016. Biodiesel production with green technologies. . 1 online resource

    This book provides a single-source reference to green technologies in advanced biofuel technology. The main focus is on the description of the state of the art in catalytic processes for the "green" production of biofuels. The authors describe two different, practical approaches for catalysts, which allow for effective and easy separation of the catalyst by simple filtration, and enable reuse for several cycles. Readers will gain understanding as to the mechanisms involved in the synthesis and structure formation of the catalyst, in order to maximize yield of biodiesel production. The authors also address the question of how catalytic material should be distributed inside a porous support to obtain optimal performance. The effects of physicochemical and operating parameters are analyzed to gain insight into the underlying phenomena governing the performance of optimally designed catalysts. Emphasizes the comparison of green biofuel technologies with existing methods, in order to evaluate efficient methods for producing biofuel technologies; Highlights the macroscopic and encapsulated technology of catalyst preparation; Balances theory and practice, with emphasis on commercial applications.
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  72. Biodiesel-triple bottom line (TBL): A new hierarchical sustainability assessment framework of principles criteria & indicators (PC&I) for biodiesel production. Part II-validation
    Abstract

    Bautista, S.; Enjolras, M.; Narvaez, P.; Camargo, M.; Morel, L. 2016. Biodiesel-triple bottom line (TBL): A new hierarchical sustainability assessment framework of principles criteria & indicators (PC&I) for biodiesel production. Part II-validation. Ecological Indicators. 69803-817

    Sustainability assessment is a critical issue for the biodiesel production chain. The constant growth of the biodiesel industry has generated important sustainability concerns, such as competition with food production, indirect land use change, and impacts on water, biodiversity and social values. Government policies consider that quantitative, robust and independent sustainability assessment is vital to estimate the extent to which the biodiesel industry impacts sustainability issues. However, weaknesses in the definition of adequate indicators to measure the sustainability of biodiesel production have been identified. In this context, this work proposes a hierarchical assessment framework based on sustainability dimensions, principles, criteria and indicators. To do this, after a systematic literature review, a first version of the framework was proposed. Then, to define the final framework, a validation strategy based on expert survey consultations and a descriptive statistical analysis were developed. In order to define the principles and criteria importance for sustainability assessment of biodiesel, 62 experts answered an online survey assessing three attributes: relevance, ease of measurement and reliability. The first result of the validation analysis was the definition of a framework composed of five dimensions (social, economic, environmental, political and technological), 13 principles, and 30 criteria that would be part of a sustainability assessment of biodiesel production. The second result was the identification of potential groups and relationships between principles and criteria represented through data visualization techniques. The validated framework provides the basis for defining future studies about interdimensional principles and criteria. Also, the proposed sustainability assessment framework could be adapted and applied to biodiesel production in specific contexts. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  73. Butanol production from organosolv treated spent mushroom substrate integrated with in situ biodiesel extraction
    Abstract

    Zhu, Y. S.; Chang, Y. K.; Guan, J.; Shanguan, G. Q.; Xin, F. X. 2016. Butanol production from organosolv treated spent mushroom substrate integrated with in situ biodiesel extraction. Renewable Energy. 96656-661

    The aim of this study is to convert spent mushroom substrate (SMS), a by-product from industrial mushroom production, to high production of biobutanol via integration with in situ butanol removal strategy. The modified organosolv pretreatment under mild conditions (35 degrees C, without acid catalyst) could efficiently improve the sugar yield (9.7% Vs 41.7%) of SMS by reducing lignin content (20.2% Vs 10.5%). The batch fermentation results using the organosolv treated SMS enzymatic broth indicate that adding extractant of biodiesel could enhance butanol production (14.65 g/L) compared to the control batch (12.03 g/L). Moreover, no significant toxicity of biodiesel is observed on the growth of solvento-genic Clostridium acetobutylicum. In the fed-batch fermentation system with sugar feeding, the maximum amount of butanol is obtained at 30.21 g/L. This study suggests that in situ butanol removal using biodiesel from SMS enzymatic hydrolysate has great potential for commercial butanol production. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  74. Carbon Nanotube-Based Solid Sulfonic Acids as Catalysts for Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester via Transesterification and Esterification
    Abstract

    Liu, H.; Chen, J. Z.; Chen, L. M.; Xu, Y. S.; Guo, X. H.; Fang, D. Y. 2016. Carbon Nanotube-Based Solid Sulfonic Acids as Catalysts for Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester via Transesterification and Esterification. Acs Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 4(6) 3140-3150

    A series of polymer-carbon nanotube composite materials (CNT-P-SO3H) were prepared by covalent grafting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with sulfonic acid-functionalized polymers (P-SO3H) including poly(3-vinyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium chloride)-grafted multiwalled CNTs (CNT-PVSAIC), poly(4-vinyl-1-sulfonic acid pyridinium chloride) -grafted multiwalled CNTs (CNT-PVSAPC), and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) -grafted multiwalled CNTs (CNT-PSSA). Such a functionalization method provides a facile route to obtain various polyelectrolyte brushes on the surfaces of CNTs in order to improve the dispersibility and modulate the acidity of CNTs to selectively introduce functional groups and densely create active sites over CNTs for potential catalytic applications. Both CNT-PVSAIC and CNT-PVSAPC consist of cationic polyelectrolyte chains functionalized by sulfonic acid groups, whereas CNT-PSSA is composed of anionic polymer brushes grafted by sulfonic acid groups. The physicochemical properties of CNT-P-SO3H were analyzed by BET, TGA, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, Raman, and HRTEM techniques. The resulting CNT-P-SO3H materials exhibit excellent catalytic activity as CNT-based solid acids in liquid phase transesterification of triglycerides with methanol and esterification of oleic acid with methanol, which are typical model reactions for biodiesel production. The outstanding catalytic performance of the CNT-P-SO3H catalysts is attributed to the combination of the mesoporous structure together with a well extended P-SO3H coating over the outer surface of the CNTs, providing the formation of a dense but uniform surface distribution of active sites.
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  75. Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Fatty Acids for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Stepacheva, A. A.; Sapunov, V. N.; Sulman, E. M.; Nikoshvili, L. Z.; Sulman, M. G.; Sidorov, A. I.; Demidenko, G. N.; Matveeva, V. G. 2016. Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Fatty Acids for Biodiesel Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis. 11(2) 125-132

    This paper is devoted to the production of second generation biodiesel via catalytic hydrodeoxygenation of fatty acids. Pd/C catalysts with different metal loading were used. The palladium catalysts were characterized using low-temperature nitrogen physisorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was revealed that the most active and selective catalyst was 1%-Pd/C which allowed reaching up 97.5% of selectivity (regarding to n-heptadecane) at 100% conversion of substrate. Moreover, the chosen catalyst is more preferable according to lower metal content that leads the decrease of the process cost. The analysis of the catalysts showed that 1%-Pd/C had the highest specific surface area compared with 5%-Pd/C. Copyright (C) 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved
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  76. Comments on the 'Electrodialysis aided desalination of crude glycerol in the production of biodiesel from oil feed stock'
    Abstract

    Turek, M.; Mitko, K.; Laskowska, E. 2016. Comments on the 'Electrodialysis aided desalination of crude glycerol in the production of biodiesel from oil feed stock'. Desalination. 38478-80

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  77. Comparison of Oil Refining and Biodiesel Production Process between Screw press and n-hexane Techniques from Beauty Leaf Feedstock
    Abstract

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N. 2016. Comparison of Oil Refining and Biodiesel Production Process between Screw press and n-hexane Techniques from Beauty Leaf Feedstock. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering (Icme 2015). 1754

    The Beauty Leaf Tree (Callophylum inophyllum) is regarded as an alternative source of energy to produce 2nd generation biodiesel due to its potentiality as well as high oil yield content in the seed kernels. The treating process is indispensable during the biodiesel production process because it can augment the yield as well as quality of the product. Oil extracted from both mechanical screw press and solvent extraction using n-hexane was refined. Five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for screw press and five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for n-hexane were selected for refining as well as biodiesel conversion processes. The oil refining processes consists of degumming, neutralization as well as dewaxing. The degumming, neutralization and dewaxing processes were performed to remove all the gums (phosphorous-based compounds), free fatty acids, and waxes from the fresh crude oil before the biodiesel conversion process carried out, respectively. The results indicated that up to 73% and 81% of mass conversion efficiency of the refined oil in the screw press and n-hexane refining processes were obtained, respectively. It was also found that up to 88% and 90% of biodiesel were yielded in terms of mass conversion efficiency in the transesterification process for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. While the entire processes (refining and transesterification) were considered, the conversion of beauty leaf tree (BLT) refined oil into biodiesel was yielded up to 65% and 73% of mass conversion efficiency for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of crude and refined oil, and biodiesel were characterized according to the ASTM standards. Overall, BLT has the potential to contribute as an alternative energy source because of high mass conversion efficiency.
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  78. Compositions of Glycosyl and Phosphatidyl Diacylglycerides from Cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus as Potential Sources for Biodiesel Fuel Production
    Abstract

    Yoo, S. A.; Chae, S. M.; Kim, J. H.; Ten, L. N. 2016. Compositions of Glycosyl and Phosphatidyl Diacylglycerides from Cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus as Potential Sources for Biodiesel Fuel Production. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 52(1) 98-100

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  79. Cyprinus carpio fish oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Al-Tikrity, E. T. B.; Fadhil, A. B.; Albadree, M. A. 2016. Cyprinus carpio fish oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(22) 3367-3374

    Biodiesel was developed from a novel nonedible oil source, namely Cyprinus carpio fish oil. The acid value of fish oil was very low (0.70 mg KOH/g oil, 0.35 free fatty acid content). As a result, biodiesel was produced through a one-step transesterifcation process, i.e. alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol. The optimal conditions for producing biodiesel from fish oil were investigated. The highest biodiesel yield (97.22% similar to 96.88% w/w ester content) was obtained under optimum conditions of 0.75% KOH w/w, 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature and 60-minute duration. Properties of the produced biodiesel as well as its blends with petro-diesel fulfilled the standard limits as prescribed by ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 indicating its suitability as a fuel for diesel engines.
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  80. Design and Control of Thermally Coupled Reactive Distillation Sequence for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Li, L. M.; Sun, L. Y.; Xie, X.; Tian, Y. N.; Shang, J. L.; Tian, Y. Y. 2016. Design and Control of Thermally Coupled Reactive Distillation Sequence for Biodiesel Production. China Petroleum Processing & Petrochemical Technology. 18(2) 21-32

    Decreasing petroleum reserves and growing alternative fuels requirements have promoted the study of biodiesel production. In this work, two thermally coupled reactive distillation designs for biodiesel production were investigated, and the sensitivity analysis was conducted to obtain the appropriate design values. The thermodynamic analysis and economics evaluation were performed to estimate the superiority of the thermally coupled designs over the base case. The proposed biodiesel production processes were simulated using the simulator Aspen Plus, and calculation results show that the exergy loss and economic cost in the two thermally coupled designs can be greatly reduced. It is found that the thermally coupled side-stripper reactive distillation design provides more economic benefits than the side-rectifier one. The dynamic performance of the thermally coupled side-stripper design was investigated and the results showed that the proposed control structure could effectively handle large feed disturbances.
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  81. Design and development of bubble-cap tray column for continuous transesterification plant in coconut-oil-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Gnanaselvi, P.; Subramanian, P. 2016. Design and development of bubble-cap tray column for continuous transesterification plant in coconut-oil-based biodiesel production. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 86(5) 628-635

    A study was carried out on production of biodiesel from coconut oil using alkali catalyzed transesterification process by two different reactive distillation columns, viz. sieve tray and bubble-cap tray column. Coconut oil with free fatty acid content of 1.2% was used for transesterification. In laboratory scale batch system, among all the variations adopted, it was found that maximum methyl esters yield of 97.7% was obtained with 6:1 molar ratio of methanol-to-oil, 1% NaOH at 60 degrees C reaction temperature. A continuous flow transesterification using sieve tray reactive distillation column yielded 93.75% methyl ester with 5.55 min average reaction time at 65 degrees C under 4:1 molar ratio (methanol-to-oil). The excess alcohol was found to be 11.4 ml. Based on performance evaluation of sieve tray reactive distillation column, a new bubble-cap tray reactive distillation column was designed and developed for continuous biodiesel production. Maximum methyl ester yield was 96.2% with 5.55 min average reaction time at 65 degrees C under 4:1 molar ratio. Excess alcohol was found to be 17.1 ml. Daily average electricity consumption was found to be 13.6 kWh for continuous transesterification biodiesel production and processing cost was worked out as (sic)26.03. Regression analysis was employed to evaluate the effects of molar ratio and temperature on the yield of methyl esters. The R-2 value was 0.87 for sieve tray reactive distillation column and 0.92 for bubble-cap reactive distillation column which confirmed the validity of the predicted model. Based on the findings from the study, it was found out that continuous transesterification was more feasible and efficient way for production of biodiesel. It was concluded that bubble-cap tray reactive distillation column was found to be an effective than sieve tray column due to its increased yield (1 time), excess alcohol recovery (1.5 times) and better fuel properties.
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  82. Efficient confinement of ionic liquids in MIL-100(Fe) frameworks by the "impregnation-reaction-encapsulation" strategy for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Han, M. J.; Gu, Z.; Chen, C.; Wu, Z. W.; Que, Y. G.; Wang, Q.; Wan, H.; Guan, G. F. 2016. Efficient confinement of ionic liquids in MIL-100(Fe) frameworks by the "impregnation-reaction-encapsulation" strategy for biodiesel production. Rsc Advances. 6(43) 37110-37117

    A new, simple and effective strategy to confine dicationic acid ionic liquids (DAILs, 1,4-bis[3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium] butane hydrogen sulfate) in the cages of MIL-100(Fe) frameworks was constructed. The target catalyst, defined as MIL-100(Fe)@DAILs, was characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TEM, EA, TGA and N-2 adsorption-desorption. Meanwhile, the catalytic activity of the MIL-100(Fe)@DAILs catalyst was evaluated by the esterification reaction with oleic acid and methanol. The results indicated that the DAILs had been effectively encapsulated within the cages of the MIL-100(Fe) frameworks. Moreover, the influence of reaction time, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oleic acid and catalyst dosage on the conversion of oleic acid was studied by univariate analysis. The conversion of oleic acid decreased from 93.5% to 86.0% when the catalyst was reused five times, which indicated that the target catalyst possessed higher catalytic activity and superior catalytic activity. Finally, an esterification mechanism catalyzed by this novel catalyst was illustrated.
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  83. Esterification of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate
    Abstract

    Ilham, Z.; Saka, S. 2016. Esterification of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate in non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate. Springerplus. 5

    Conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to glycerol carbonate was studied by esterification with dimethyl carbonate in a non-catalytic supercritical condition. It was found that in a non-catalytic supercritical condition, glycerol at higher purity gave higher yield of glycerol carbonate at 98 wt% after reaction at 300 degrees C/20-40 MPa/15 min. The yield of glycerol carbonate was observed to increase with molar ratio, temperature, pressure and time until a certain equilibrium limit. The existence of impurities such as water and remnants of alkaline catalyst in crude glycerol will direct the reaction to produce glycidol. Although impurities might not be desirable, the non-catalytic supercritical dimethyl carbonate could be an alternative method for conversion of glycerol from biodiesel production to value-added glycerol carbonate.
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  84. Ethanol Production form Biodiesel-derived Crude Glycerol by Enterobacter Aerogenes
    Abstract

    Chanthoom, K.; Tanikkul, P.; Sirisukpoka, U.; Pisutpaisal, N. 2016. Ethanol Production form Biodiesel-derived Crude Glycerol by Enterobacter Aerogenes. 2nd International Conference on Biomass (Iconbm 2016). 50211-216

    Glycerol is an inevitable byproduct of biodiesel production that has become an attractive carbon source for fermentation processes due to its availability, low price and high degree of reduction. This study demonstrated the potential of utilising the glycerol surplus through conversion to ethanol. In this work, glycerol was used as a feedstock for ethanol batch fermentation process by Enterobacter aerogenes, under pH 7.0 and 30 degrees C. E aerogenes favored oxidative- over reductive pathways and yielded the ethanol as a main fermentative product. The profiles of glycerol utilization rate, ethanol production rate, and specific growth with respect to the glycerol concentration and the ethanol production were similar for both types of the glycerol. Substrate inhibitory effect was found at 40 g L-1 initial glycerol concentration. Impurities in the crude glycerol posed no negative impact to E aerogenes, and apparently raised the ethanol concentration and yield by 32 and 21% compared those with the pure glycerol fermentation at the optimum glycerol concentration. The highest ethanol production was 204 mM on 25 g L-1 crude glycerol. The current findings showed the potential application of E aerogenes in a large scale ethanol production from the crude glycerol.
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  85. Extent of inhibition and utilization of volatile fatty acids as carbon sources for activated sludge microbial consortia dedicated for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Fortela, D. L.; Hernandez, R.; French, W. T.; Zappi, M.; Revellame, E.; Holmes, W.; Mondala, A. 2016. Extent of inhibition and utilization of volatile fatty acids as carbon sources for activated sludge microbial consortia dedicated for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy. 9611-19

    The extent of inhibition and utilization of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid fed to activated sludge was studied using inhibition test and microbial oil accumulation. The effects of total VFAs loading and mass fraction of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in the VFAs mix were found significant factors on the inhibition on activated sludge. Almost complete inhibition occurred at total VFAs loading 10 g/L and 20 g/L. These trends were confirmed using microbial oil accumulation experiments at the regions of maximum and minimum inhibition. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profiles from the microbial oil extracts were suitable for biodiesel production. The individual effects of pH and acid concentration were also tested and found as significant contributing effects into the inhibition. To demonstrate the improvement in microbial oil accumulation of activated sludge a fed-batch feeding of acetic acid via acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer was done in 5-L bioreactor. The acetic acid fed was consumed, activated sludge biomass growth was continuous, and microbial oil increased. These findings indicated that VFAs loading and composition must be accounted in design of an activated sludge microbial system dedicated for biodiesel production operating on VFAs platform. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  86. Fabrication of H3PW12O40/agarose membrane for catalytic production of biodiesel through esterification and transesterification
    Abstract

    Hou, R.; Zhang, D.; Duan, X. X.; Wang, X. H.; Wang, S. T.; Sun, Z. 2016. Fabrication of H3PW12O40/agarose membrane for catalytic production of biodiesel through esterification and transesterification. Rsc Advances. 6(85) 81794-81801

    A membrane reactor containing heteropolyacids was designed by embedding tungstophosphoric acid (H3PW12O40, abbreviated as HPW) onto the lattice of agarose. During the gelation of agarose, HPW molecules were embedded on the densely packed 3D network of agarose through strong interaction between the polyhydroxyl sites of agarose and oxygen from HPW. This avoided the aggregation of HPW molecules and resulted in the equal distribution of HPW in the membrane. Furthermore, a material with as high as 38% loading amount of HPW on agarose had been achieved. The acidic activity was evaluated in the esterification of free fatty acid and transesterification of Eruca Sativa Gars (ESGs) oil with methanol in batch reaction. Among all HPW/agarose, it was found that HPW/agarose membrane with 38 wt% HPW showed the highest efficiency in both reactions under the optimized reaction conditions with TOF values of 82 h(-1), and 27.6 h(-1) (based on the yield of MP), respectively, in the batch reactor. Then the reaction rates increased to 164 and 45.8 h(-1) in the membrane reactor. The solid and tough structure of HPW/agarose confirm its high stability and duration, it could be used at least ten times without significant loss of activity. Furthermore, the reaction rates could be increased at least two fold in membrane mode compared to those in batch mode, showing the separation ability of water or glycerol from the mixture by the HPW/agarose membrane. This is a potential strategy for the production of biodiesel based on heteropolyacid catalysts. The fuel properties of biodiesel from ESG oil showed that they were all satisfactory for the ASTM biodiesel standard.
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  87. Green Approach for Biodiesel Production from Jojoba Oil Supported by Process Modeling and Simulation
    Abstract

    Abdelmoez, W.; Tayeb, A. M.; Mustafa, A.; Abdelhamid, M. 2016. Green Approach for Biodiesel Production from Jojoba Oil Supported by Process Modeling and Simulation. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. 14(1) 185-193

    Currently the economics of biodiesel production is the main obstacle to its large-scale industrialization. The high cost is mainly due to the cost of the expensive feedstocks used in the production process. In the past years, researchers have studied several methods to reduce the production cost of biodiesel. One method involved replacing the edible oil feedstock with the non edible one such as Jojoba oil. In this research Jojoba oil was extracted by subcritical water technology to produce jojoba oil-based biodiesel. This represents a promising alternative route for cleaner and sustainable fuel production through transestrification reaction with methanol catalyzed by potassium hydroxide. The transestrification reaction has been optimized in batch reactor with a molar ratio of 6:1 methanol to jojoba oil, using a concentration of 1.35 wt% potassium hydroxide and vigorous stirring of 600 rpm at different temperatures of 25, 40 and 50 degrees C. The obtained conversions under these conditions were 83, 87, and 95% after 80, 50, and 25 min, respectively. Based on the obtained data, a complete design for the process was developed and optimized by using ASPEN HYSYS simulation software. The maximum expected yields of methyl jojoboate, jojobyl alcohol, and methanol recovery were found to be 99.14, 93.3 and 99.9 %, respectively.
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  88. Inherent Safety Assessment of Biodiesel Production: Flammability Parameter
    Abstract

    Ahmad, S. I.; Hashim, H.; Hassim, M. H.; Muis, Z. A. 2016. Inherent Safety Assessment of Biodiesel Production: Flammability Parameter. Proceeding of 4th International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials (Icpeam 2016). 1481177-1183

    This paper discussed the inherent safety assessment of biodiesel production pathways from the perspective of flammability parameter. The NuDIST technique for flammability scores calculation is used in the case study. Ranking between the productions pathways involved was calculated by considering all chemicals in the route as a mixture instead of individual components. Aside from that, mass fractions of the chemicals involved were used as weightage factor in order to determine the main contributors to the largest hazards in the process route. Four biodiesel production pathways were used as case study. According to the inherent safety assessment done, the acid-catalyzed transesterification using fresh vegetable oil (PP4) pathway is the most hazardous route with the highest assessment score of 15.59 while the enzymatic transesterification using fresh vegetable oil (PP2) pathway is the safest route with the lowest assessment score of 1.39 in term of flammability parameter. The case study shows that the amount of chemicals existed in the process as well as their flammability characteristic, plays an important roles in determining the main contributors to the largest hazards in the route. In this work, mass fractions for every chemical were used as the weightage factor which helps in identifying the main contributors to hazards with more accuracy. A chemical with high flammability score but existed in low amount in the process might not be as hazardous as a chemical with low flammability score but existed in huge amount in the process as shown by methyl oleate and methanol in the base-catalyzed transesterification using fresh vegetable oil (PP3). (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  89. Ionic liquids in supercritical methanol greatly enhance transesterification reaction for high-yield biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ortiz-Martinez, V. M.; Salar-Garcia, M. J.; Hernandez-Fernandez, F. J.; Olivares-Carrillo, P.; de los Rios, A. P.; Quesada-Medina, J. 2016. Ionic liquids in supercritical methanol greatly enhance transesterification reaction for high-yield biodiesel production. Aiche Journal. 62(11) 3842-3846

    Significance Biodiesel production is one of the most promising future alternatives to replacing fossil fuels. This work studies the use of ionic liquids (ILs) as potential catalysts in supercritical methanol for biodiesel production from non-edible oil. The transesterification reaction of karanja oil was investigated in supercritical methanol in the presence of two respective ILs, [BMIM+][ HSO4-] and [Chol(+)][H-2 PO4-]. The reaction was performed in a one-step batch process at several temperatures and percentages by weight of catalyst (w/w(oil)). The results obtained show that the IL [Chol(+)][H-2 PO4-] allows a high yield of fatty acid methyl esters to be achieved in a short reaction time (above 95% in 45 min). A catalytic mechanism is also proposed for the IL that offered significant catalytic activity. This work investigates the effects of the use of ionic liquids as potential catalysts in supercritical methanol for the transesterification reaction of non-edible oil. The reported reaction times to obtain biodiesel yields above 90% through the transesterification reaction of karanja oil range between 90 min and 8 h. ILs as catalysts in supercritical methanol drastically reduce reaction time (45 min) to obtain high fatty acid methyl ester yield (95.6%). (c) 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 62: 3842-3846, 2016
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  90. Kinetic modelling of enzymatic biodiesel production from castor oil: Temperature dependence of the Ping Pong parameters
    Abstract

    Zarejousheghani, F.; Kariminia, H. R.; Khorasheh, F. 2016. Kinetic modelling of enzymatic biodiesel production from castor oil: Temperature dependence of the Ping Pong parameters. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 94(3) 512-517

    Biodiesel is considered an alternative replacement for petroleum diesel, and enzymatic reaction is one method for biodiesel production. Understanding the kinetics of this reaction is important to achieve higher production rates. The kinetics of transesterification of castor oil using Novozym 435 was investigated in this study. The genetic algorithm was employed for estimation of kinetic parameters including V-max, K-mTG, and K-mA in the Ping Pong kinetic model at different temperatures. In most enzymatic reactions that follow the Ping Pong mechanism, inhibition by alcohol has been taken into consideration. Here, we examined a competitive inhibition mechanism and found no inhibition effect at high alcohol-to-oil molar ratios of 12.6, 15.6, and 18.9 mol/mol. Arrhenius expressions were used to fit the kinetic parameters for reaction temperatures of 30-50 degrees C. An acceptable agreement with experimental data at 45 degrees C was observed when biodiesel yields were predicted using the temperature-dependent parameters, thus validating the proposed model.
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  91. Lipase NS81006 immobilized on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Thangaraj, B.; Jia, Z. H.; Dai, L. M.; Liu, D. H.; Du, W. 2016. Lipase NS81006 immobilized on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles for biodiesel production. Ovidius University Annals of Chemistry. 27(1) 13-21

    Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production is being the object of extensive research due to the demerits of chemical based catalytic system. Lipase immobilized on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles has the integrated advantages of traditional immobilized lipase and free lipase for its rather fast reaction rate and easy separation. It has been demonstrated that free lipase NS81006 has potential in catalyzing the alcoholysis of renewable oils for biodiesel preparation. In this study, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with organosilane compounds like (3-aminopropyl) triethyloxysilane (APTES) and (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane) MPTMS were used as carriers for lipase immobilization. Lipase NS81006 was covalently bound to the organosilane-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles by using glutaraldehyde cross-linking reagent. A biodiesel yield of 89% and 81% could be achieved by lipase immobilized on APTES-Fe3O4 and MPTMS-Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles respectively under optimized conditions of oil to methanol molar ratio 1: 3 with three step addition of methanol, reaction temperature 45 degrees C and reaction time duration 12 h. The lipases immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles could be recovered easily by external magnetic field for further use.
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  92. Lipid production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Rhodosporidium fluviale DMKU-RK253 using temperature shift with high cell density
    Abstract

    Polburee, P.; Yongmanitchai, W.; Honda, K.; Ohashi, T.; Yoshida, T.; Fujiyama, K.; Limtong, S. 2016. Lipid production from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Rhodosporidium fluviale DMKU-RK253 using temperature shift with high cell density. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 112208-218

    Lipid production from crude glycerol by Rhodosporidium fluviale DMKU-RK253 was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal medium (100 mL in 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask) consisting of 70 g/L crude glycerol, 0.55 g/L (NH4)(2)SO4, 1 g/L monosodium glutamate, 2 g/L MgSO4 center dot 7H(2)O, 0.4 g/L KH2PO4 (C/N ratio of 140) and optimal cultivation conditions, namely pH 5.5, 25 degrees C and 200 rpm shaking speed (129 h(-1) of k(L)a) were obtained. Batch cultivation in a 5 L jar fermenter performed with the optimal nutrients and conditions resulted in a high lipid content of 63.8% of dry biomass with a lipid quantity of 8.99 g/L and a lipid yield of 0.16 g/g. To enhance lipid production, a two-stage cultivation process with three different strategies viz. nutrient and temperature shift cultivation, temperature shift cultivation and temperature shift cultivation with high cell density was performed. The temperature shift cultivation (30 degrees C to 25 degrees C) with the high cell density strategy provided a high lipid quantity of 15.98 g/L, a biomass of 22.93 g/L (69.5% lipid content and lipid yield of 0.21 g/g) and small amount of lipid droplets were observed in the cultivation medium. (c) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  93. Mass and energy integration for the supercritical process for biodiesel production and a bioethanol dehydration train
    Abstract

    Gomez-Castro, F. I.; Gutierrez-Antonio, C.; Romero-Izquiero, A. G.; Morales-Rodriguez, R.; Segovia-Hernandez, J. G. 2016. Mass and energy integration for the supercritical process for biodiesel production and a bioethanol dehydration train. 26th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (Escape), Pt A. 38a487-492

    Biofuels have taken importance on the last years, due to the concern on the environmental impact of the transport sector. One of the most known liquid biofuels is biodiesel. The use of supercritical alcohols to produce biodiesel has been studied recently because of its advantages over the methods with homogeneous catalysts. Nevertheless, due to the high pressure and temperature conditions under which the supercritical process operates, the energy demand is considerable high. In addition, glycerol is produced as by-product, and it is expected that the price of glycerol falls; because of its high production on the biodiesel processes reducing the incomes for its commercialization. On the other hand, bioethanol is other well-known biofuel. To overcome the azeotrope between water and ethanol and produce high-purity bioethanol, extractive distillation is usually employed, where glycerol may be used as entrainer.
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  94. Metallic monolithic catalysts based on calcium and cerium for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Reyero, I.; Moral, A.; Bimbela, F.; Radosevic, J.; Sanz, O.; Montes, M.; Gandia, L. M. 2016. Metallic monolithic catalysts based on calcium and cerium for the production of biodiesel. Fuel. 182668-676

    The present work reports the preparation, characterization and testing of Ca/Ce oxides as heterogeneous catalysts for the transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol (methanolysis), both in powder and structured forms, to produce biodiesel. A series of Ca-based catalysts in powder form were prepared on four different supports (commercial Al2O3, SiO2 and CeO2, along with in-house prepared CeO2) following different techniques. The best catalyst formulation in terms of activity and stability was a Ca/Ce mixed oxide (20 wt% CaO) catalyst prepared under the metallic citrates decomposition technique. Different suspensions could be formulated using this catalyst for further washcoating Fecralloy monoliths. The effect of the solvent (water or alcohols) and of the use of additives (polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and colloidal Al2O3 and CeO2) on the catalytic performance of the catalysts in the transesterification reaction was studied. The best results could be obtained for the structured catalysts prepared using suspensions having isopropanol as solvent medium and 1% of polyvinylpyrrolidone. The monoliths prepared using this formulation yielded the best oil conversions after a second reaction cycle reported so far in the literature concerning the use of structured catalysts for biodiesel production, with oil conversion values of 70% after 6 h of reaction at 60 degrees C using recovered and thermally regenerated monoliths. The thermal reactivation of the catalysts has been proven to be crucial in order to partially recover the catalyst activity, though significant leaching of the active catalytic layer was found to occur during the first reaction cycle. The results presented here are remarkably superior to the best ones previously reported in the literature concerning the use in a second reaction cycle of structured methanolysis catalysts at atmospheric pressure. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  95. Modeling Lipase-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production in [BMIM][PF6]
    Abstract

    Yang, J. J.; Yang, M. Y. 2016. Modeling Lipase-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production in [BMIM][PF6]. Journal of Chemistry.

    Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production models in room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) reaction medium available in the literature are valid especially for mixing intensity. In this paper, a preliminary model is established in order to try to describe the lipase catalyzed biodiesel production process in RTILs in a stirring type bioreactor. Mixing intensity and time delay were inspected for the reaction model in [BMIM][PF6] medium. As a result, this model is a good explanation for these actual reaction conditions in RTILs. The model prediction curves well describe the experimental data indicating this bioenzymatic reaction model is effective and reliable in certain conditions.
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  96. Modeling systems relevant to the biodiesel production using the CPA equation of state
    Abstract

    Tsivintzelis, I.; Ali, S.; Kontogeorgis, G. M. 2016. Modeling systems relevant to the biodiesel production using the CPA equation of state. Fluid Phase Equilibria. 43075-92

    In this study, CPA parameters for heavy esters, glycerides, organic acids, and glycerol are presented, together with trends of these parameters against the van der Waals volume. Such trends allow the prediction of parameters for compounds for which data are not available. Pure fluid parameters were estimated by adjusting model predictions to recent DIPPR correlations and carefully selected literature data. Then, the performance of CPA was evaluated in correlating the vapor - liquid and liquid - liquid equilibrium of binary systems containing fatty acids and their esters, glycerides, water, alcohols and/or glycerol. Satisfactory correlation results were obtained using one (water-acids, alcohols/water - glycerol) or two (systems containing fatty acid esters with water, alcohols or glycerol and mixtures containing glycerides and alcohols) interaction parameters. Moreover, the interaction parameters show smooth trends with carbon chain length, permitting extrapolation for systems for which data are not available. Finally, the estimated parameters and correlations were used for the prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium of one ternary and one multicomponent mixture. The results showed that accurate predictions are feasible, however indicated the need of more accurate data, at least for important binary mixtures, such as the systems with glycerol. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  97. Modeling the effects of ultrasound power and reactor dimension on the biodiesel production yield: Comparison of prediction abilities between response surface methodology (RSM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)
    Abstract

    Mostafaei, M.; Javadikia, H.; Naderloo, L. 2016. Modeling the effects of ultrasound power and reactor dimension on the biodiesel production yield: Comparison of prediction abilities between response surface methodology (RSM) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). Energy. 115626-636

    Biodiesel is as an alternative petro-diesel fuel produced from the renewable resources. The use of novel technologies such as ultrasound technology for biodiesel production intensifies the reaction and reduces the process cost. The present study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prediction and simulating efficiency of the response surface methodology (RSM) and adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) approaches for modeling the transesterification yield achieved in ultrasonic reactor. The influence of independent variables (reactor diameter, liquid height and ultrasound intensity) on the conversion of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was investigated by Box-Behnken design of RSM and two ANFIS approaches (hybrid and back-propagation optimization methods). All models were compared statistically based on the training and validation data set by the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squares error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute error (MAE) and mean relative percent deviation (MRPD). The calculated R2 for RSM and two ANFIS models were 0.9669, 0.9812 and 0.9808, respectively. All models indicated good predictions, however, the ANFIS models were more precise compared to the RSM model, which proves that the ANFIS is a powerful tool for modeling and optimizing FAME production in ultrasound reactor. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  98. Multiphysics Modeling on Continuous Production of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Zhang, C.; Zhu, H. C.; Hong, T.; Huang, K. M. 2016. Multiphysics Modeling on Continuous Production of Biodiesel. 2016 Ieee International Conference on Computational Electromagnetics (Iccem). 75-77

    A comprehensive physics-based model is developed to understand and explain the process of continuous production of biodiesel via the application of microwaves.
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  99. Nanobioconjugates of Candida antarctica lipase B and single-walled carbon nanotubes in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bencze, L. C.; Bartha-Vari, J. H.; Katona, G.; Tosa, M. I.; Paizs, C.; Irimie, F. D. 2016. Nanobioconjugates of Candida antarctica lipase B and single-walled carbon nanotubes in biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 200853-860

    Carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTCOOH) were used as support for covalent immobilization of Candida antarctica lipase B (CaL-B) using linkers with different lengths. The obtained nanostructured biocatalysts with low diffusional limitation were tested in batch mode in the ethanolysis of the sunflower oil. SWCNTCOOH-CaL-B proved to be a highly efficient and stable biocatalyst in acetonitrile (83.4% conversion after 4 h at 35 degrees C, retaining > 90% of original activity after 10 cycles). (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  100. No-Glycerol Rapid Heterogeneous Biodiesel Production on K2CO3/Al2O3 Catalyst by Coupling Process
    Abstract

    Tang, Y.; Chang, F. Q.; Zhou, R.; Shen, B.; Cheng, Q. T. 2016. No-Glycerol Rapid Heterogeneous Biodiesel Production on K2CO3/Al2O3 Catalyst by Coupling Process. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 89(12) 2066-2071

    Biodiesel containing almost no glycerol has been produced by coupling reaction carried out over K2CO3 supported by calcium oxide as solid base catalysts. The solid base catalysts synthesized by wet impregnation exhibit an exceedingly high activity in biodiesel production. It was found that the reaction time required for the highest yield of biodiesel, 99.2%, can be shortened to 30 min over K2CO3/Al2O3 under the optimum reaction conditions: 8: 1: 1 molar ratio of methanol/DMC/oil, 30 wt % K2CO3/Al2O3 catalyst, and 65A degrees C reaction temperature. Solid basic catalysts examined in the study were characterized by BET surface area, XRD, CO2-TPD, and SEM techniques. The strong interaction between K2CO3 and the support yields a new basic active site, which can be probably responsible for the high activity of K2CO3/Al2O3.
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  101. Novel approach for preparation of poly (ionic liquid) catalyst with macroporous structure for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Wu, Z. W.; Chen, C.; Guo, Q. R.; Li, B. X.; Que, Y. G.; Wang, L.; Wan, H.; Guan, G. F. 2016. Novel approach for preparation of poly (ionic liquid) catalyst with macroporous structure for biodiesel production. Fuel. 184128-135

    An efficient poly (ionic liquid) catalyst for biodiesel production was synthesized from Bronsted acidic ionic liquid 1-vinyl-3-(3-sulfopropyl) imidazolium hydrogen sulfate [VSIM][HSO4] through free radical polymerization from a novel approach, where Fe3O4 particles acted as hard template. The template could be easily removed in short time and macrospores formed after the removal of Fe3O4. The structure of the polymer was characterized by different techniques and the results demonstrated that the macroporous polymeric network was multi-layered and exhibited repeating units of -SO3H and -HSO4 with fine separation efficiency, as a novel heterogeneous acidic catalyst. The catalytic performance of the macroporous polymer was assessed in the esterification reaction of oleic acid for biodiesel production and the Box-Behnken response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for maximizing the biodiesel yield by optimizing process variables at 80 degrees C. Under the optimum conditions (reaction time was 4.5 h, catalyst amount was 8.5 wt%, and alcohol/acid molar ratio was 12: 1), a high biodiesel yield of 92.6% was obtained. The polymeric catalyst also showed favorable reusability after six runs. The combination of macrospores with poly (ionic liquid) would significantly reduce the limitation of mass transfer in biodiesel production compared with other porous solid acidic catalysts. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  102. Optimization of biodiesel produced from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) using batch-type production unit
    Abstract

    Panneerselvam, N.; Murugesan, A.; Vijayakumar, C.; Subramaniam, D. 2016. Optimization of biodiesel produced from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) using batch-type production unit. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(16) 2343-2348

    In the present work the production of a biodiesel from watermelon seed oil (Citrullus vulgaris) by methanol-induced transesterification using an alkaline catalyst (potassium hydroxide, KOH) has been examined. The influence of the operating variables such as agitation speed, temperature, reaction time, alcohol amount, and catalyst concentration was determined experimentally and found to be 550 rpm agitation rate, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 55 min reaction time, 20% of methanol, and 13 g of catalysts concentration for 2.5 liters of oil. The yield of biodiesel from the watermelon methyl ester (WME) under optimized conditions is found to be 91%. The properties of biodiesel are measured as per ASTM standards and compared with the base diesel.
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  103. Optimization of biodiesel production from Pungamia oil by Taguchi'stechnique
    Abstract

    Saravanakumar, A.; Avinash, A.; Saravanakumar, R. 2016. Optimization of biodiesel production from Pungamia oil by Taguchi'stechnique. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(17) 2524-2529

    In biodiesel production process, not all fatty acid chains are turned into alkyl esters (biodiesel). This phenomenon reduces the biodiesel quality and yield significantly. Therefore, optimization of biodiesel production process is very much essential to attain maximum yield. In this work, biodiesel production from raw Pungamia oil was optimized by using Taguchi's method. The L9 orthogonal array was used to optimize the maximum yield of biodiesel production. The parameters like stirrer speed, concentration of NaOH catalyst, and reaction time for producing maximum yield of methyl esters from raw Pungamia oil is reported. In this analysis, signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) are employed to identify and quantify the maximum yield. The analysis revealed that 550 rpm stirrer speed, 15 g of NaOH catalyst, and 80 min reaction time are the optimum parameters for methyl esters of biodiesel production from raw Pungamia oil.
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  104. Optimization of biodiesel production via methyl acetate reaction from cerbera odollam
    Abstract

    Dhillon, S. S.; Tan, K. T. 2016. Optimization of biodiesel production via methyl acetate reaction from cerbera odollam. Advances in Energy Research. 4(4) 325-337

    Cerbera Odollam (sea mango) is a proven promising feedstock for the production of biodiesel due to its high oil content. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced as the final reaction product in the transesterification reflux condensation reaction of sea mango oil and methyl acetate (MA). Potassium methoxide was used as catalyst to study its reacting potential as a homogeneous base catalyst. The initial part of this project studied the optimum conditions to extract crude sea mango oil. It was found that the content of sea mango sea mango oil was 55%. This optimum amount was obtained by using 18 g of grinded sea mango seeds in 250 ml hexane. The extraction was carried out for 24 hours using solvent extraction method. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine the optimum conditions of the reaction. The three manipulated variables in this reaction were the reaction time, oil to solvent molar ratio, and catalyst wt%. The optimum condition for this reaction determined was 5 hours reaction time, 0.28 wt% of catalyst and 1:35 mol/mol of oil: solvent molar ratio. A series of test were conducted on the final FAME product of this study, namely the FTIR test, GC-FID, calorimeter bomb and viscometer test.
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  105. Optimization of negative pressure cavitation-microwave assisted extraction of yellow horn seed oil and its application on the biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zhang, D. Y.; Yao, X. H.; Luo, M.; Zhao, C. J.; Fu, Y. J. 2016. Optimization of negative pressure cavitation-microwave assisted extraction of yellow horn seed oil and its application on the biodiesel production. Fuel. 16667-72

    A negative pressure cavitation-microwave assisted extraction technique (NMAE) was first applied on extraction of seed oil from yellow horn. The operating conditions were optimized by a Box-Behnken design (BBD) test. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of yellow horn oil seed can reach 52 +/- 1%. The extraction kinetics of the NMAE method and soxhlet extraction (SE) method were also investigated. The results indicated that the NMAE method was more effective than the SE method. Therefore, NMAE was an efficient extraction technique for yellow horn seed oil extraction. At last, the extracted oil was used as raw materials for biodiesel production and the main Fatty Acid Methyl Esters contents were analyzed by GC-MS. The conversion yield of biodiesel can reach 96%. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  106. Optimization of scum oil biodiesel production by using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Yatish, K. V.; Lalithamba, H. S.; Suresh, R.; Arun, S. B.; Kumar, P. V. 2016. Optimization of scum oil biodiesel production by using response surface methodology. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 102667-672

    The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine the optimal conditions for the biodiesel production from scum oil by using central composite design. Four process variables were assessed at five levels (2(4) experimental design). A total of 30 experiments had been designed and conducted to study the effect of methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, catalyst concentration (potassium hydroxide) and temperature on the biodiesel yield. An yield of 93% scum oil methyl ester (SOME/biodiesel) was obtained at different optimum conditions: 4.5:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 75 min reaction time, 1.20% catalyst concentration and 62 degrees C temperature. A linear relationship between the experimental yield and predicted values of biodiesel yield developed. The biodiesel product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The fuel properties of the biodiesel such as kinematic viscosity, density, flash point, copper corrosion, calorific value, cloud point, pour point, ash content and carbon residue were determined. (C) 2016 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  107. Optimization, kinetics and thermodynamic studies on oil extraction from Daturametel Linn oil seed for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mathiarasi, R.; Partha, N. 2016. Optimization, kinetics and thermodynamic studies on oil extraction from Daturametel Linn oil seed for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy. 96583-590

    In this research, Daturametel Linn seed oil was investigated for the first time as a promising non conventional feedstock for preparation of biodiesel fuel. The maximum extraction of oil was observed to be 38.57 (wt) % and the activation energy Ea (25.8 kJ mol(-1)) was calculated. Further the thermodynamic properties for oil extraction were determined as activation enthalpy = 25.051 kJ mol(-1), activation entropy = -241.25 J mol(-1), and the Gibb's energy = 105.39 kJ mol(-1). This present study also reports the new single-step ultrasound production of biodiesel from high fatty acid D.metel Linn oil using sulfuryl chloride as catalysts in which 95.50% yield was achieved with 2 h. Different reaction parameters for oil extraction and biodiesel production were optimized. This analysis confirms that Daturametel Linn biodiesel is appropriate alternative to petroleum diesel with recommended fuel properties as per specified standards. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  108. Optimizing mixture properties of biodiesel production using genetic algorithm-based evolutionary support vector machine
    Abstract

    Cheng, M. Y.; Prayogo, D.; Ju, Y. H.; Wu, Y. W.; Sutanto, S. 2016. Optimizing mixture properties of biodiesel production using genetic algorithm-based evolutionary support vector machine. International Journal of Green Energy. 13(15) 1599-1607

    Nowadays, biodiesel is used as one of the alternative renewable energy due to the increasing energy demand. However, optimum production of biodiesel still requires a huge number of expensive and time-consuming laboratory tests. To address the problem, this research develops a novel Genetic Algorithm-based Evolutionary Support Vector Machine (GA-ESIM). The GA-ESIM is an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based tool that combines K-means Chaotic Genetic Algorithm (KCGA) and Evolutionary Support Vector Machine Inference Model (ESIM). The ESIM is utilized as a supervised learning technique to establish a highly accurate prediction model between the input--output of biodiesel mixture properties; and the KCGA is used to perform the simulation to obtain the optimum mixture properties based on the prediction model. A real biodiesel experimental data is provided to validate the GA-ESIM performance. Our simulation results demonstrate that the GA-ESIM establishes a prediction model with better accuracy than other AI-based tool and thus obtains the mixture properties with the biodiesel yield of 99.9%, higher than the best experimental data record, 97.4%.
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  109. Pilot plant system for biodiesel and pellet production from cardoon: technical and economic feasibility
    Abstract

    Toscano, V.; Sollima, L.; Genovese, C.; Melilli, M. G.; Raccuia, S. A. 2016. Pilot plant system for biodiesel and pellet production from cardoon: technical and economic feasibility. IX International Symposium on Artichoke, Cardoon and Their Wild Relatives. 1147429-442

    Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L.) is an important species as biomass and oilseed production. It is well adapted to grow with low input management in the Mediterranean environment. The study is related to use the biomass and grain production for energetic purpose. The research was carried out in a 3-years period from 2010 to 2012 in different internal areas of Sicily. The plant material for this research was collected in various experimental fields, for a total area of 10,000 m(2). Biomass and grain processing was performed into two different pilot systems for biodiesel and pellet productions. In the three years, regards to the total biomass production, a total yield of 64 t ha(-1) of pellets was obtained. While a 23.3% of oil was extracted from grains through cold pressing and transesterified with a production of 985 L of biodiesel. The total residual presscake was 3.03 t, and it has a composition of 21.3% of protein and 6.9% of oil, which represents the 5.3% of total seed oil content. This characteristic confirms the possibility to use cardoon residuals presscake as feed. Economic balance of the process was performed to determine the economic suitability. The results show that using biomass and grain for different energetic purposes, make cardoon a very competitive and sustainable energy crop in Mediterranean environment and it represents an economic valid alternative for farmers.
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  110. Potential of Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Silveira, E. G.; Simionatto, E.; Perez, V. H.; Justo, O. R.; Zarate, N. A. H.; Vieira, M. D. 2016. Potential of Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as feedstock for biodiesel production. Industrial Crops and Products. 89448-454

    Oil from Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was investigated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. After harvest and peanut trituration, the oil was obtained by solvent extraction. The biodiesel production was carried out by chemical transesterification using bioethanol and potassium ethoxide as catalyst at 65 degrees C in a stirred glass reactor at 200 rpm during two hours. The formed biodiesel was purified to remove glycerol and other residuals and the reaction reached 100% conversion as verified by H-1 NMR. The properties of peanut oil ethyl ester produced were characterized and found in agreement with the international ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214 standards (specific gravity = 877.1 kg/m(3), kinematic viscosity = 5.06 mm(2)/s, iodine value = 81.75 +/- 0.03, cetane number = 58.9 +/- 4.1, acid number = 0.21 mg KOH/g and oxidative stability = 4.54 h). These results suggest a good quality of produced biodiesel and thus, peanut oil can be considered as a feasible feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  111. Preparation and characterization of phosphotungstic acid/PVA nanofiber composite catalytic membranes via electrospinning for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Shi, W. Y.; Li, H. B.; Zhou, R.; Qin, X. H.; Zhang, H. X.; Su, Y. H.; Du, Q. Y. 2016. Preparation and characterization of phosphotungstic acid/PVA nanofiber composite catalytic membranes via electrospinning for biodiesel production. Fuel. 180759-766

    A nanofiber composite catalytic membrane for biodiesel production was prepared from phosphotungstic acid (PWA)/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) via electrospinning on a substrate of non-woven fabric. The effects on the nanofiber structure and catalytic performance by PVA concentration and PWA content were studied, respectively. SEM images showed that the surface of PWA/PVA nanofibers was smooth and homogeneous with an average fiber diameter of 157.2 nm when PVA concentration was 12 wt% and PWA content was 20 wt%. FTIR analysis indicated that there existed the interaction between PWA and PVA in the nanofibers. DSC and TG analysis revealed that PWA/PVA nanofiber had a good thermal stability. The nanofiber membrane had a higher activity and better site accessibility than that of commercially ion-exchange resin (NKC-9) because both reaction rate constant (2.647 min(-1)) and effectiveness factor (0.92 min(-1)) of nanofiber membrane were higher than that of NKC-9. The stability test of nanofiber membrane suggested that the conversion could remain stable for 10 days in a continuous flow-through reactor for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  112. Production of 1,3-Propanediol by Clostridium butyricum Growing on Biodiesel Derived Glycerol
    Abstract

    Martins, F. F.; Saab, V. S.; Ribeiro, C. M. S.; Coelho, M. A. Z.; Ferreira, T. F. 2016. Production of 1,3-Propanediol by Clostridium butyricum Growing on Biodiesel Derived Glycerol. 2nd International Conference on Biomass (Iconbm 2016). 50289-294

    The continuous demand for alternative biofuels resulted in a significant rise of biodiesel production in last decade. As a consequence, high quantities of raw glycerol have been accumulated. The conversion of this abundant carbon source into value-added products using biotechnology consists in a significant opportunity for industry. Crude glycerol may be used in different processes, including bioconversion to 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO). 1,3-PDO is an important intermediate chemical for polymer synthesis. Some species are known to produce 1,3-PDO by fermentation of glycerol as K. pneumoneae, E. agglomerans, C. freundii, C. acetobutylicum, C. butyricum, C. pasterianum, L. brevis and L. buchneri. In this work, the objective was to produce 1,3-PDO by Clostridium butyricum NCIMB 8082 cultivated on biodiesel derived glycerol using batch and fed-batch strategies. The experiments were performed in the 1.0 L reactor, under anaerobic conditions, at 200 rpm with temperature (37 degrees C) and pH (7,0) control. In batch and fed-batch fermentations, initial glycerol concentration was 60 g. L-1 and 20 g. L-1, respectively. In fed-batch fermentation, two feeds were performed containing 20 g. L-1 each one. The glycerol consumption and product formation were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After approximately 13 hours of fermentation, a concentration of 32.18 g. L-1 of 1,3-PDO in batch condition was reached.. In fed-batch condition, the 1,3-PDO final concentration was 29.83 g. L-1 after 11 hours of fermentation. The productivity values were 2.38 and 2.55 g. L-1. h(-1) in batch and fed-batch conditions, respectively.
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  113. Production of a biodiesel additive in a stirred basket reactor using immobilized lipase: Kinetic and mass transfer analysis
    Abstract

    Hajar, M.; Vahabzadeh, F. 2016. Production of a biodiesel additive in a stirred basket reactor using immobilized lipase: Kinetic and mass transfer analysis. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 33(4) 1220-1231

    -A laboratory-scale stirred basket reactor (SBR) was constructed to study the synthesis of an n-butyl oleate ester using Novozym 435. An ester yield of approximately 98% was obtained after 6 h using an equimolar substrate ratio, 3.5 g of enzyme, a reaction temperature of 40 A degrees C, and an impeller speed of 200 rpm. The kinetic data were modeled as a ping-pong bi-bi mechanism using a non-linear regression technique. Statistical analysis of the results showed that a model that incorporated the inhibitory effect of n-butanol yielded the best fit with the following parameters: V (max) =24.8mmol L-1 min(-1), K (m, oleic acid) =190.8mM, K (m, n-butanol) =544.7 mM, and K (i, n-butanol) =158.3mM. Mass transfer effects on the enzyme kinetics were also studied, and the absence of internal and external diffusion limitations on the reaction in the SBR was confirmed by considering calculated values of the Thiele modulus and the Damkohler number. Novozym 435 exhibited satisfactory performance in repeated-batch experiments using SBR.
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  114. Production of biodiesel from castor oil using iron (II) doped zinc oxide nanocatalyst
    Abstract

    Baskar, G.; Soumiya, S. 2016. Production of biodiesel from castor oil using iron (II) doped zinc oxide nanocatalyst. Renewable Energy. 98101-107

    The depletion of fossil fuels has caused the price of petroleum to rise remarkably and created need for alternative energy such as biodiesel. In the present study, the biodiesel was produced from castor oil using ferromagnetic zinc oxide nanocomposite as heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification reaction. Single phase of nanocatalyst were confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction analysis. The spherical shape of the aggregated nanocatalyst was observed in Scanning Electron Microscopy. Magnetic properties were analysed using vibrating sample magnetometer. Atomic Force Microscopic analysis revealed the larger surface area and roughness of nanocatalyst. The biodiesel yield of 91% (w/w) was obtained in 50 min at 55 degrees C with 14 wt % catalyst loading and 12:1 methanol/oil ratio and was confirmed by Gas chromatograph with Mass Spectrometer. The result showed that the iron (II) doped ZnO nanocatalyst is a promising catalyst for the production of biodiesel via heterogeneous catalytic transesterification under milder reaction conditions. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  115. Production of biodiesel from Citrus limetta seed oil
    Abstract

    Musthafa, M. M. 2016. Production of biodiesel from Citrus limetta seed oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(20) 2994-3000

    The production of biodiesel from edible oils may cause negative impact to any country through food crisis which may lead to economic imbalance. Hence, this study focuses on viability of extracting the oil from the Citrus limetta seeds for biodiesel production for the first time. Composition of C. limetta oil was determined by gas chromatography. C. limetta biodiesel was produced by simple transesterification process, and further physiochemical properties were analyzed as per the standards. This study also describes the suitable characterization and optimization parameters used for conversion of C. limetta seed oil into biodiesel.
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  116. Production of Biodiesel Using Liquid Lipase Formulations
    Abstract

    Nielsen, P. M.; Rancke-Madsen, A.; Holm, H. C.; Burton, R. 2016. Production of Biodiesel Using Liquid Lipase Formulations. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 93(7) 905-910

    Looking back at the literature for enzymatic biodiesel, it is evident that the research has been focused on using immobilized lipase to enable re-use of the enzyme due to price constraints on lipases used for catalyzing the transesterification process. The use of liquid formulations of lipase for biodiesel has recently been implemented in the industry. Technology for using liquid formulated lipases for enzymatic biodiesel production is new and, since enzyme prices have been reduced, it is now possible to simplify the process considerably and apply it for very low-quality oils. In this paper, the use of liquid lipase formulations for enzymatic biodiesel will be described along with a general proposal for an industrial-scale enzymatic biodiesel process with > 95 % yield.
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  117. Production of biodiesel: Source strategies and efficiency in the Brazilian energy matrix
    Abstract

    Martins, C. A.; de Andrade, P. P. 2016. Production of biodiesel: Source strategies and efficiency in the Brazilian energy matrix. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(2) 277-285

    This article aims to introduce biodiesel as a possible solution, describing its evolution in Brazilian energy. It was concluded that the use of biodiesel leads to several advantages, such as significant reductions in rates of emission of some greenhouse gases and wide job creation and social inclusion in the poorest regions of the country. Besides the aspects already mentioned, within a national situation of growing imports of diesel oil and with oil prices rising, the article shows that biodiesel becomes an interesting alternative, reducing diesel imports and resulting products, thus enabling development in other industrial chains.
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  118. Production of FAME biodiesel in E. coli by direct methylation with an insect enzyme
    Abstract

    Sherkhanov, S.; Korman, T. P.; Clarke, S. G.; Bowie, J. U. 2016. Production of FAME biodiesel in E. coli by direct methylation with an insect enzyme. Scientific Reports. 6

    Most biodiesel currently in use consists of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by transesterification of plant oils with methanol. To reduce competition with food supplies, it would be desirable to directly produce biodiesel in microorganisms. To date, the most effective pathway for the production of biodiesel in bacteria yields fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) at up to similar to 1.5 g/L. A much simpler route to biodiesel produces FAMEs by direct S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylation of free fatty acids, but FAME production by this route has been limited to only similar to 16 mg/L. Here we employ an alternative, broad spectrum methyltransferase, Drosophila melanogaster Juvenile Hormone Acid O-Methyltransferase (DmJHAMT). By introducing DmJHAMT in E. coli engineered to produce medium chain fatty acids and overproduce SAM, we obtain medium chain FAMEs at titers of 0.56 g/L, a 35-fold increase over titers previously achieved. Although considerable improvements will be needed for viable bacterial production of FAMEs and FAEEs for biofuels, it may be easier to optimize and transport the FAME production pathway to other microorganisms because it involves fewer enzymes.
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  119. Prospects of bio-based alcohols for Karanja biodiesel production: An optimisation study by Response Surface Methodology
    Abstract

    Verma, P.; Sharma, M. P.; Dwivedi, G. 2016. Prospects of bio-based alcohols for Karanja biodiesel production: An optimisation study by Response Surface Methodology. Fuel. 183185-194

    Rapid industrialisation and excessive use of fossil fuel resources has led to growing concern for development of next generation fuel sources. So, the exaggerated to be fulfilled and to curb the problem of increasing fuel prices; researchers are putting their efforts to produce an alternative fuel from replenish-able resources on large scale. Biodiesel is one of the promising biofuels as a replacement to petroleum diesel in future. Transesterification is most adopted technique to produce biodiesel and generally methanol is used as reactant in transesterification. Biodiesel produced by using methanol as alcohols cannot be termed as completely renewable as methanol is derived from fossil resources. To make it completely renewable, alcohol derived from bio-based resources should be adopted. In this paper, an attempt has been made to make use of higher alcohol propanol, butanol and pentanol is used for biodiesel production process and reaction parameter catalyst, time, temperature, molar ratio are optimised with application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) by using Design Expert software. The result of experimental investigation shows that optimised biodiesel yield was obtained maximum for 1-butanol (76.4%), for 1-pentanol (73.13%) and minimum for 2-propanol (56.86%). The comparative analysis of biodiesel obtained from different alcohols shows that all the resultant biodiesel properties meets the Indian Standard 15607 standard, while the result also indicates that Karanja Oil Pentyl Ester (KOPnE) had superior cold flow properties with viscosity marginally higher among all biodiesels. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  120. Relation between quality and production cost for pure biodiesel bases on the mixes of raw materials
    Abstract

    Tsanaktsidis, C. G.; Spinthiropoulos, K. G.; Guliyev, F.; Dimitriou, D.; Euthaltsidou, K.; Tzilantonis, G. T. 2016. Relation between quality and production cost for pure biodiesel bases on the mixes of raw materials. 2016 International Conference on New Energy and Future Energy System (Nefes 2016). 40

    Nowadays biodiesel has become more attractive because it is made from renewable resources. The main ingredients of industrial biodiesel are rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked. In this study we verify that, the proportion of these components sets the qualitative composition and energy efficiency of the final product. Essential we link the raw materials (rap oil, sun oil, fat acid, olive oil cooked) used in the manufacture of industrial biodiesel the proportion of mixes, with the variation of physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced. According to the quantitative analysis we notice that the physiochemical properties which alter the value for example humidity, acidity, while a large number of physicochemical properties do not change their value depending on the ratio of raw materials in each mixture. The analysis of these changes seems that the presence of fat acids is negative for the quality of the mixture. From the analysis of the cost of the final mixtures that lower cost is achieved in the mixture was 10 and the highest cost was in the mixture 3. Based on a study of the cost of the mixtures can determine a basic relation between the quality and the cost of the final product.
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  121. Review and prospects of bitter apricot oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production - an Indian perspective
    Abstract

    Gurau, V. S.; Sandhu, S. S.; Sarma, A. K. 2016. Review and prospects of bitter apricot oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production - an Indian perspective. International Journal of Oil Gas and Coal Technology. 12(4) 425-439

    The increasing energy demands along with the gradual depletion of fossil fuels have prompted to search for alternative fuels that can be obtained from renewable energy resource. Biodiesel as a renewable energy resource has drawn the attention of many researchers and scientists because it has immense potential to be part of a sustainable energy mix in near future. This paper explores the feasibility of converting wild/bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca Linn.) oil into biodiesel and its prospects in India and reviews the history of wild apricot, its origin, distribution, oil extraction, biodiesel processing and engine testing. The positive attributes and limitations of the bitter apricot utilisation are also discussed. It was unveiled that the production of biodiesel from wild apricot oil offers many social, economical and environmental benefits for the country and can play a great role to solve the problem of energy crisis in high altitude areas of India. The prospects of wild apricot biodiesel and its expansion for setting up biodiesel industry in the mountainous regions have also been emphasised.
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  122. Screening of Novel Materials for Biodiesel Production Through the Esterification of Oleic Acid
    Abstract

    Matkovic, S. R.; Nilsson, J. F.; Fait, M. E.; Morcelle, S. R.; Briand, L. E. 2016. Screening of Novel Materials for Biodiesel Production Through the Esterification of Oleic Acid. Catalysis Letters. 146(11) 2341-2347

    The present contribution screens the specific activity of various inorganic and enzymatic based materials in the esterification of oleic acid that is typically used as a test reaction for the production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid feedstocks. The inorganic materials investigated in this contribution are bulk fosfotungstic heteropoly acid of the Wells Dawson structure H6P2W18O62.nH(2)O (HPA), as well as dispersed on titanium dioxide 18 % w/w H6P2W18O62/TiO2 and the insoluble cesium salt of the Wells Dawson heteropoly anion Cs2H4P2W18O62. Additionally, the commercial biocatalyst NovozymA (R) 435 (immobilized lipase B of Candida antarctica) and a self-supported lipase of vegetable origin obtained from the latex Araujia sericifera (ASL) were studied among the materials of enzymatic nature. The density and accessibility of Bronsted acid sites have a key role in the specific activity of the fosfotungstic based heteropoly compounds. The HPA dispersed over an oxide support catalyzed the esterification of the fatty acid in a heterogeneous fashion with the highest activity (6.4 A mu mol mg(-1) h(-1) at 85 A degrees C) among the inorganic materials. In contrast, the enzymatic materials are more active at lower temperature than the inorganic ones. Particularly, ASL catalyzed the homogenous methanolysis with the highest specific activity (30.7 A mu mol mg(-1) h(-1) at 40 A degrees C) at the lowest temperature among the materials assayed.
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  123. Simultaneous Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoates and Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) from Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel Production by Different Bacterial Strains
    Abstract

    Assis, D. D.; Gomes, G. V. P.; Pascoal, D. R. D.; Pinho, L. S.; Chaves, L. B. O.; Druzian, J. I. 2016. Simultaneous Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoates and Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) from Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel Production by Different Bacterial Strains. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 180(6) 1110-1127

    Simultaneous synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and polyglutamic acid (PGA) was investigated in cultures of Cupriavidus necator IPT 026, C. necator IPT 027, C. necator IPT 029, and Bacillus megaterium INCQS 425 strains in a medium containing 2.0 % sucrose or crude glycerol from biodiesel (CGB), in an orbital shaker (35 A degrees C, 180 rpm, 72 h). All the strains tested simultaneously produced PHA and PGA in a medium containing CGB. The C. necator IPT026 culture provided higher molecular mass PHA and PGA (1128.55 and 835.56 kDa, respectively). B. megaterium INCQS 425 promoted PGA production (1.90 g L-1) with higher crystalline melting temperature (84.04 A degrees C) and higher initial decomposition temperature (247.10 A degrees C). Furthermore, the latter culture promoted the production of medium- and long-chain PHA (0.78 g L-1) with high crystalline melting temperatures (similar to 170 A degrees C) and high initial decomposition temperature (307.53 A degrees C) and low degree of crystallinity (20.2 %). These characteristics render these PHAs more appropriate and suitable for processes that require high temperatures, such as extrusion, increasing the possibility of industrial applications, especially in the packaging sector.
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  124. Simultaneous Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoates and Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) from Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel Production by Different Bacterial Strains
    Abstract

    de Jesus Assis, D.; Gomes, G. V.; da Cunha Pascoal, D. R.; Pinho, L. S.; Chaves, L. B.; Druzian, J. I. 2016. Simultaneous Biosynthesis of Polyhydroxyalkanoates and Extracellular Polymeric Substance (EPS) from Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel Production by Different Bacterial Strains. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 180(6) 1110-1127

    Simultaneous synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and polyglutamic acid (PGA) was investigated in cultures of Cupriavidus necator IPT 026, C. necator IPT 027, C. necator IPT 029, and Bacillus megaterium INCQS 425 strains in a medium containing 2.0 % sucrose or crude glycerol from biodiesel (CGB), in an orbital shaker (35 degrees C, 180 rpm, 72 h). All the strains tested simultaneously produced PHA and PGA in a medium containing CGB. The C. necator IPT026 culture provided higher molecular mass PHA and PGA (1128.55 and 835.56 kDa, respectively). B. megaterium INCQS 425 promoted PGA production (1.90 g L-1) with higher crystalline melting temperature (84.04 degrees C) and higher initial decomposition temperature (247.10 degrees C). Furthermore, the latter culture promoted the production of medium- and long-chain PHA (0.78 g L-1) with high crystalline melting temperatures ( approximately 170 degrees C) and high initial decomposition temperature (307.53 degrees C) and low degree of crystallinity (20.2 %). These characteristics render these PHAs more appropriate and suitable for processes that require high temperatures, such as extrusion, increasing the possibility of industrial applications, especially in the packaging sector.
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  125. Solar Energy for a Solvent Recovery Stage in a Biodiesel Production Process
    Abstract

    Leon, J. A.; Montero, G.; Coronado, M.; Ayala, J. R.; Garcia, C.; Luna, A.; Vazquez, A. M. 2016. Solar Energy for a Solvent Recovery Stage in a Biodiesel Production Process. International Journal of Photoenergy.

    Recent research and development of clean energy have become essential due to the global climate change problem, which is caused largely by fossil fuels burning. Therefore, biodiesel, a renewable and ecofriendly biofuel with less environmental impact than diesel, continues expanding worldwide. The process for biodiesel production involves a significant energy demand, specifically in the methanol recovery stage through a flash separator and a distillation column. Traditionally, the energy required for this process is supplied by fossil fuels. It represents an opportunity for the application of renewable energy. Hence, the current study presents a system of thermal energy storage modeled in TRNSYS (R) and supported by simulations performed in ASPEN PLUS (R). The aim of this research was to supply solar energy for a methanol recovery stage in a biodiesel production process. The results highlighted that it is feasible to meet 91% of the energy demand with an array of 9 parabolic trough collectors. The array obtained from the simulation was 3 in series and 3 in parallel, with a total area of 118.8 m(2). It represents an energy saving of 70 MWh per year.
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  126. Studies on biodiesel production from Pongamia oil using heterogeneous catalyst and its effect on diesel engine performance and emission characteristics
    Abstract

    Anjana, P. A.; Niju, S.; Begum, K. M. M. S.; Anantharaman, N.; Anand, R.; Babu, D. 2016. Studies on biodiesel production from Pongamia oil using heterogeneous catalyst and its effect on diesel engine performance and emission characteristics. Biofuels-Uk. 7(4) 377-387

    Commercial calcium oxide (CaO) impregnated with 25 wt% potassium iodide (KI) was prepared by wet impregnation method and adopted for transesterification of Pongamia oil using methanol. The synthesized catalyst (KI/CaO) was characterized using different techniques such as X-ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis. Under the reaction conditions of 12: 1 methanol: oil ratio, 4 wt% KI/CaO catalyst, 2 h reaction time and at a reaction temperature of 65 degrees C, a maximum biodiesel conversion of 95.7% was obtained. Synthesized biodiesel was characterized by FTIR and H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy techniques. The performance and emission characteristics of different blends of Pongamia biodiesel and conventional diesel were tested using a single-cylinder, four-stroke IC engine and the results were compared.
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  127. Sustainable production of acrolein from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol over H3PW12O40 supported on Cs-modified SBA-15
    Abstract

    Liu, R.; Lyu, S. T.; Wang, T. F. 2016. Sustainable production of acrolein from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol over H3PW12O40 supported on Cs-modified SBA-15. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 37354-360

    The feasibility of producing acrolein from crude glycerol was studied by the dehydration reaction over H3PW12O40 (HPW) supported on Cs-modified SBA-15 (HPW/Cs-SBA). The influence of impurities in crude glycerol was investigated. Only the alkali metal ions caused catalyst deactivation and decreased the acrolein selectivity because they decreased the amount of catalytically effective medium Bronsted acid sites. This problem was solved by glycerol desalination, and a stable acrolein yield of 85% was obtained through 60 h of reaction, which was as good as that with pure glycerol. In addition, HPW/Cs-SBA showed good thermal stability and regeneration ability after the reaction with desalted crude glycerol. (C) 2016 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  128. Synthesis of ethyl esters from crude macauba oil (Acrocomia aculeata) for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Souza, G. K.; Scheufele, F. B.; Pasa, T. L. B.; Arroyo, P. A.; Pereira, N. C. 2016. Synthesis of ethyl esters from crude macauba oil (Acrocomia aculeata) for biodiesel production. Fuel. 165360-366

    The Macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) possesses high potential for the production of biodiesel. The species' fruits can be used for several purposes. The physical-chemical properties of the oil and ethyl esters were evaluated. During the storage period, the macauba pulp oil presented an increase of 25.4% in acid value. To obtain ethyl esters from a crude oil with high acid value without pre-treatment, the reactions were conducted in an under-pressurized Parr 4843 reactor. Moreover, an experimental delineation was conducted to study the esterification and obtain the proper concentrations of the ethanol and catalyst, as well as the correct temperature, to provide the best yield in ethyl esters. The quantified esters via gas chromatography (GC) and the response surface graphs optimized the reaction in the conditions of temperature (100-115 degrees C), Ethanol: Oil Molar Ratio (8-12) and catalyst (sulfuric acid) (1.0-1.5%), as specified. For all the conducted analyses, the produced biodiesel was within the Petroleum National Agency's (ANP) parameters. It was possible, via esterification, to achieve ethyl esters content close to the limit established by the ANP, for raw macauba oil with high acid values, which turned out to be suitable for biodiesel production due to a low-cost feedstock that also possesses a comprehensive vegetative disponibility. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  129. The Development of the Super-biodiesel Production Continuously from Sunan Pecan Oil through the Process of Reactive Distillation
    Abstract

    Yohana, E.; Yulianto, M. E.; Ikhsan, D.; Nanta, A. M.; Puspitasari, R. 2016. The Development of the Super-biodiesel Production Continuously from Sunan Pecan Oil through the Process of Reactive Distillation. Proceedings of the 3rd Aun/Seed-Net Regional Conference on Energy Engineering and the 7th International Conference on Thermofluids (Rcene/Thermofluid 2015). 1737

    In general, a vegetable oil-based biodiesel production commercially operates a batch process with high investments and operational costs. Thus, it is necessary to develop super-biodiesel production from sunan pecan oil continuously through the process of reactive distillation. There are four advantages of the reactive distillation process for the biodiesel production, as follows: (i) it incorporates the process of transesterification reaction, and product separation of residual reactants become one stage of the process, so it saves the investment and operation costs, (ii) it reduces the need for raw materials because the methanol needed corresponds to the stoichiometry, so it also reduces the operation costs, (iii) the holdup time in the column is relatively short (5 +/- 0,5 minutes) compared to the batch process (1-2 hours), so it will reduce the operational production costs, and (iv) it is able to shift the reaction equilibrium, because the products and reactants that do not react are instantly separated (based on Le Chatelier's principles) so the conversion will be increased. However, the very crucial problem is determining the design tools and process conditions in order to maximize the conversion of the transesterification reaction in both phases. Thus, the purpose of this research was to design a continuous reactive distillation process by using a recycled condensate to increase the productivity of the super-biodiesel from sunan pecan oil. The research was carried out in three stages including (i) designing and fabricating the reactive distillation equipment, (ii) testing the tool performance and the optimization of the biodiesel production, and (iii) biodiesel testing on the diesel engine. These three stages were needed in designing and scaling-up the process tools and the process operation commercially. The reactive distillation process tools were designed and manufactured with reference to the design system tower by Kitzer, et. al. (2008). The manufactured reactive distillation consisted of packing distillation columns equipped with a reboiler and condenser, with the prototype made of stainless steel material equipped with sigh glass. The filling column expands the contact of liquid-vapor phase so that the two reactants between methanol and oil would be converted into methyl ester and glycerol. The initial results of the study indicated that the relatively good condition is reached at the peak temperature and the base of the column of 62 degrees C and 71 degrees C with NaOH 2% of methanol weight as the catalyst at the feed ratio of methanol and the sunan pecan oil 4:1. The result of the performance test of the diesel engine indicated that the efficiency of the biodiesel fuel was achieved relatively good at 1.7% with 2500 rpm engine speed.
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  130. The Mechanisms of Social Inclusion: Controversial Issues Concerning the National Program for Biodiesel Production in Brazil
    Abstract

    Castellanelli, C. A. 2016. The Mechanisms of Social Inclusion: Controversial Issues Concerning the National Program for Biodiesel Production in Brazil. Holos. 32(1) 272-284

    In almost a decade of operation, the National Program for Biodiesel Production in Brazil, has a number of problems related to the social inclusion of the rural families. The government actions together with the producing companies have not achieved the desired result in the inicial plan of the program. Corrective actions are not being made for a real social inclusion, and thus one of the important goals of the program, which is the eradication of poverty and better living conditions for the participating families is failing.
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  131. The Production of Biodiesel and Bio-kerosene from Coconut Oil Using Microwave Assisted Reaction
    Abstract

    Saifuddin, N.; Fazlili, A. S.; Kumaran, P.; Pei-Juan; Priathashini, P. 2016. The Production of Biodiesel and Bio-kerosene from Coconut Oil Using Microwave Assisted Reaction. International Conference on Advances in Renewable Energy and Technologies (Icaret 2016). 32

    Biofuels including biodiesel, an alternative fuel, is renewable, environmentally friendly, non-toxic and low emissions. The raw material used in this work was coconut oil, which contained saturated fatty acids about 90% with high percentage of medium chain (C-8-C-12), especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of power and NaOH catalyst in transesterification assisted by microwave for production of biofuels (biodiesel and bio-kerosene) derived from coconut oil. The reaction was performed with oil and methanol using mole ratio of 1: 6, catalyst concentration of 0.6% with microwave power at 100W, 180W, 300W, 450W, 600W, and 850W. The reaction time was set at of 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 min. The results showed that microwave could accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel and bio-kerosene using NaOH catalyst. The highest yield of biodiesel was 97.17 %, or 99.05 % conversion at 5 min and 100W microwave power. Meanwhile, the bio-kerosene obtained was 65% after distillation.
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  132. Two different kinds of processes for biodiesel production from Chinese cottonseed
    Abstract

    Zhu, Q. L.; Shao, R.; Dong, R.; Yun, Z. 2016. Two different kinds of processes for biodiesel production from Chinese cottonseed. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(4) 583-589

    Alkali-catalyzed and supercritical methanol transesterification were used to produce biodiesel from Chinese cottonseed. Fourier transform infrared and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to identify the compositions of cottonseed oil biodiesel samples. Six major compositions of the biodiesel samples were identified by the retention time and the fragmentation pattern data of GC/MS analysis. The yields of biodiesel samples obtained from alkali-catalyzed reaction and supercritical methanol transesterification were 98.4 and 99%, respectively. In comparison to the alkaline transesterification, the supercritical methanol transesterification combining with two-phase extraction was more suitable for biodiesel production due to shorter reaction time, less purification steps, and lower cost.
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  133. Ultrasonic-assisted production of biodiesel from Pistacia atlantica Desf. oil
    Abstract

    Samani, B. H.; Zareiforoush, H.; Lorigooini, Z.; Ghobadian, B.; Rostami, S.; Fayyazi, E. 2016. Ultrasonic-assisted production of biodiesel from Pistacia atlantica Desf. oil. Fuel. 16822-26

    The objective of this research was to study the feasibility of biodiesel production from Pistacia atlantica (Atlas pistache) oil using ultrasonic system. Results showed that the best models for both the yield and energy consumption were full quadric models with suitable coefficients of determination (0.98, 0.99) and least mean squared errors (MSE) (0.351, 17.14). With increasing the amplitude and pulse, the methyl ester content increased. When reaction time and molar ratio increased to range of 5-7 min and 5-6, respectively, methyl ester content increased; while when these parameters increased out of range, yield decreased. The major properties of Atlas pistache methyl ester met the requirements of EN 14214 biodiesel standard and consequently, Atlas pistache can be a potential substitute to petro diesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  134. Utilization of Limestone Derived Calcium Oxide for Biodiesel Production From Non-Edible Pongamia Oil
    Abstract

    Anjana, P. A.; Niju, S.; Begum, K. M. M. S.; Anantharaman, N. 2016. Utilization of Limestone Derived Calcium Oxide for Biodiesel Production From Non-Edible Pongamia Oil. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 35(6) 1758-1764

    Natural lime stones were calcined in a muffle furnace at 1000 degrees C for 4 h to obtain calcium oxide (CaO) and tested as a solid catalyst for biodiesel production via transesterification of non-edible pongamia oil. Limestone based CaO catalyst was characterized using Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Braunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) techniques. The effect of transesterification process parameters such as amount of catalyst, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time and reaction temperature on biodiesel conversion were investigated. A maximum biodiesel conversion of 97.28% was observed at a methanol to oil ratio of 15:1, catalyst amount of 12 wt %, reaction time of 3 h and reaction temperature of 65 degrees C. The structure of the biodiesel was characterized by FTIR and biodiesel conversion was determined by H-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (H-1 NMR). (C) 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 35: 1758-1764, 2016
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  135. Utilization of residual frying oil in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Santos, M. X.; da Silva, J. G. F. 2016. Utilization of residual frying oil in biodiesel production. Remea-Revista Eletronica Do Mestrado Em Educacao Ambiental. 33(1) 299-306

    The current energy model that uses fossil fuels as the main source shows signs of exhaustion in the next decades. This article makes us reflect on the importance of reusing residual oils originated from used frying oils and fats for biofuel production.
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  136. ZrO2-SUPPORTED ALKALI METAL (Li, Na, K) CATALYSTS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
    Abstract

    Aguila, G.; Salinas, D.; Jimenez, R.; Guerrero, S.; Araya, P. 2016. ZrO2-SUPPORTED ALKALI METAL (Li, Na, K) CATALYSTS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society. 61(4) 3233-3238

    We studied the effect of the alkali metal type (Li, Na, and K) and the calcination temperature (500, 600 and 700 degrees C) in the activity for biodiesel production of catalysts prepared by impregnation method, with constant metal content of 10% w/w using ZrO2 as support. The results of the catalytic activity allowed to find an activity sequence regarding the alkali tested metals: Na > Li > K, with this sequence remaining constant independent of the calcination temperature. The high activity of the Na/ZrO2 system, and slightly lower activity of Li/ZrO2, can be explained by the fact that higher calcination temperatures promote the formation of alkali-based zirconate species, M2ZrO3 (M = Na or Li). The presence of these species is correlated with the higher activity of these catalysts, specifically with the Na and Li-based catalyst calcined at high temperatures (600-700 degrees C). These M2ZrO3 species show higher basicity respect to other alkali metal oxide species, as was demonstrated with CO2-TPD results. The higher activity corresponded to 10% Na supported on ZrO2 and calcined at 700 degrees C, which reached full conversion within just 30 minutes of reaction, which makes this system a promising heterogeneous replacement for the regular homogeneous systems.
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  137. A comparative study of ultrasonic and conventional methods of biodiesel production from mahua oil
    Abstract

    Bahadur, S.; Goyal, P.; Sudhakar, K.; Bijarniya, J. P. 2015. A comparative study of ultrasonic and conventional methods of biodiesel production from mahua oil. Biofuels-Uk. 6(1-2) 107-113

    In this present work, biodiesel was produced from mahua oil (Madhuca indica) having high free fatty acids through a two step esterification and transesterification process. The first step was carried out with 0.35% mol/mol methanol to oil ratio, 1% v/v sulphuric acid and one hour reaction time at 50 degrees C in a 1000 mL reactor. In the second step the mixture was transesterified with 1.5% mol/mol methanol to oil ratio and 0.75% v/v KOH, one hour reaction time at 50 degrees C. The process was repeated with ultrasonic power of 1000W, 20-30 Hz frequency and five minutes reaction time. The fuel properties of MOME (mahua oil methyl ester) including acid value, density, viscosity, iodine value, flash and fire point, cloud and pour point, and calorific value obtained from both methods were compared with ASTM 2003 standards. Biodiesel produced from ultrasonic transesterification is economically viable and more efficient than that produced by the conventional method. Therefore it is concluded that the ultrasonic method is an effective way of converting crude mahua oil into biodiesel.
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  138. A Kinetics Study of the Non-catalytic Supercritical Transesterification Reaction for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Tan, K. T.; Lee, K. T.; Mohamed, A. R. 2015. A Kinetics Study of the Non-catalytic Supercritical Transesterification Reaction for Biodiesel Production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(7) 705-713

    In the present study, a kinetics study of non-catalytic supercritical transesterification reaction for biodiesel production was conducted. The kinetics model was developed by employing a three-step reversible reaction in supercritical transesterification reaction. Important kinetics parameters, such as pre-exponential factors and activation energy, were obtained and compared with other reported studies. In the results, the developed model was found to be adequate and significant. Furthermore, it could predict the yield of FAME and other intermediate compounds with marginal error.
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  139. Adaptability of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) high oleic hybrids to different Italian areas for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Del Gatto, A.; Mengarelli, C.; Pedretti, E. F.; Duca, D.; Pieri, S.; Mangoni, L.; Signor, M.; Raccuia, S. A.; Melilli, M. G. 2015. Adaptability of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) high oleic hybrids to different Italian areas for biodiesel production. Industrial Crops and Products. 75108-117

    Currently the biodiesel chain is promoted by the European energy policy. For the Italian scenario the sunflower is one of the most important crop to be considered for biodiesel production but the chain is not fully profitable. This problem could be solved with the increase of farm incomes through a proper valorization of by-products. From this point of view the oilseed crop is not considered only for oil production but also for producing multiple products with the same economic value. This is the main inspiring concept of the Extravalore project. The sub-project "Raw Materials" investigated about the possible influence of different agro-technics performed in three distinct geographical environments (Northern, Central and Southern Italy) on the characteristics of by-products obtained from sunflower crop.
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  140. An empirical and statistical analysis of biodiesel production by transesterification process
    Abstract

    Murugesan, A.; Subramaniam, D.; Avinash, A. 2015. An empirical and statistical analysis of biodiesel production by transesterification process. Biofuels-Uk. 6(1-2) 79-86

    Despite the fragile bio-fuel market of the present day, numerous research works are being carried out all over the globe to discover a viable alternate source to fossil fuels. In this regard, the present study enumerates the production of methyl esters of Pungamia oil by transesterification process. Also, the parameters influencing biodiesel production such as the stirrer speed, reaction time, and quantity of catalyst were studied and discussed. In this work, sodium methoxide (mixture of sodium hydroxide and methanol) and potassium methoxide (mixture of potassium hydroxide and methanol) gave good conversion yields and high quality of biodiesel during transesterification process. Also, the maximum ester content of biodiesel was witnessed for potassium hydroxide catalyst and the amount of catalyst used was less than that with sodium hydroxide for the same mass of the feedstock oil.
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  141. Artificial neural network modeling to predict biodiesel production in supercritical methanol and ethanol using spiral reactor
    Abstract

    Farobie, O.; Hasanah, N.; Matsumura, Y. 2015. Artificial neural network modeling to predict biodiesel production in supercritical methanol and ethanol using spiral reactor. 5th Sustainable Future for Human Security (SustaiN 2014). 28214-223

    Non-catalytic biodiesel production in supercritical methanol (SCM) and supercritical ethanol (SCE) was conducted using spiral reactor. The experimental data were used to create artificial neural network (ANN) model in order to predict biodiesel yield. The results showed that ANN was the powerful tool to estimate biodiesel yield that was proven by a high value (0.9980 and 0.9987 in SCM and SCE, respectively) of R and a low value (2.72x10(-5), 1.68x10(-3), and 2.30x10(-3) in SCM and 2.24x10(-4), 4.49x10(-4), and 5.03x10(-4) in SCE for training, validation, and testing, respectively) of mean squared error (MSE). For biodiesel production in SCM, the highest yield of biodiesel was determined of 1.01 mol/mol corresponding to the actual biodiesel yield of 1.00 mol/mol achieved at 350 degrees C, 20 MPa within 10 min; whereas, for SCE, the highest yield of biodiesel was observed of 0.97 mol/mol corresponding to the actual biodiesel yield of 0.96 mol/mol achieved at 400 degrees C, 20 MPa within 25 min. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  142. Assessing the experimental investigation of milk thistle oil for biodiesel production using base catalyzed transesterification
    Abstract

    Ullah, K.; Ahmad, M.; Sofia; Qiu, F. X. 2015. Assessing the experimental investigation of milk thistle oil for biodiesel production using base catalyzed transesterification. Energy. 89887-895

    In the present research work, non edible oil source milk thistle (Silybum marianum (L.) Gaert) plant was investigated for biodiesel production. The extracted crude oil was 26.14% of the total seed dry weight. The free fatty acid content of oil was reduced from 0.56 mg KOH/g to 0.06 mg KOH/g by esterification before the synthesis of biodiesel. The highest conversion percentage of biodiesel was achieved 89.51% and 87.42% using solid base catalyst sodium hydroxide (0.75%) and potassium hydroxide (1.0%), respectively. The protocol for experiment was adjusted as follow: temperature (60 degrees C); time of reaction (2 h), steering (600 rpm) and the oil molar ratio was fixed 1:6. Qualitatively, the prepared biodiesel was quantified by GC chromatography, C-13 & H-1 NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), AAS and FT-IR spectroscopy. The fuel properties of biodiesel were tested and compared with ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  143. Bio-based 3-hydroxypropionic- and acrylic acid production from biodiesel glycerol via integrated microbial and chemical catalysis
    Abstract

    Dishisha, T.; Pyo, S. H.; Hatti-Kaul, R. 2015. Bio-based 3-hydroxypropionic- and acrylic acid production from biodiesel glycerol via integrated microbial and chemical catalysis. Microbial Cell Factories. 14

    Background: 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) and acrylic acid (AA) are industrially important platform-and secondary chemical, respectively. Their production from renewable resources by environment-friendly processes is desirable. In the present study, both chemicals were almost quantitatively produced from biodiesel-derived glycerol by an integrated process involving microbial and chemical catalysis.
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  144. Biodiesel Production from Beef Fat with the Assistance of CH3ONa
    Abstract

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L. 2015. Biodiesel Production from Beef Fat with the Assistance of CH3ONa. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(10) 1110-1113

    The effects of the reaction condition of the yield of biodiesel were researched by using beef fat as the feedstock, methanol as an esterifying agent, and CH3ONa as the catalyst. The experimental results demonstrated that the best reaction temperature, the reaction time, and the agitation speed are 65 degrees C, 1 h, and 200 r/min, respectively.
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  145. Biodiesel production from Norouzak (Salvia lerifolia) seeds as an indigenous source of bio fuel in Iran using ultrasound
    Abstract

    Hajinezhad, A.; Abedi, S.; Ghobadian, B.; Noorollahi, Y. 2015. Biodiesel production from Norouzak (Salvia lerifolia) seeds as an indigenous source of bio fuel in Iran using ultrasound. Energy Conversion and Management. 99132-140

    Population growth with increased demand for fossil fuels and also significant increases in air pollution has confirmed necessity of using alternative fuels such as biodiesel. In this paper, Norouzak (Salvia lerifolia) seed oil is introduced as an indigenous source of biodiesel production in Iran. The seeds were collected from desert area of South Khorasan province Northeastern-Iran. In this regards, kinematic and dynamic viscosity, density, amount of free fatty acids, soap value, acid value and water content of the Noruzak oil are measured which are 28.435 (mP s), 31.433 (mm(2)/s), 0.9046 (g/cm(2)), 0.71%, 160.25 (mg/1 g), 1.4139 (mg) and 0/3% respectively. Also, fatty acid methyl esters C-16:0, C-16:1, C-18:0, C-18:1, C-18:1c, C-18:2, C-18:2c, C-18:3, C-20, C-20:1, C-22, C-22:1, C-24, C-24:1 are known by Gas Chromatography (GC) and BF3 method which results shows C-18:2 (40.8%) and C-18:1 (24) have the highest proportion of methyl ester in this oil. Norouzak biodiesel was obtained by basic trans-esterification method using ultrasounds device as a new sustainable and environmentally-friendly green technique under ultrasonic amplitude of 60% and 9 min at 45 degrees C, with methanol ratio of 1:5, 1:6, 1:7 and 1% potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The results showed that there is maximum performance of methyl ester production (97.60) with methanol molar ratio of 1:6 which shows significant improvement in the bio fuel production yield using ultrasound technology under the operating conditions, then, according to the EN 14124 standard, the quality of biodiesel such as flash point, oxidation stability at 110 degrees C, density at 15 degrees C, kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C, acid value and water content were determined and the values are 175.2 (degrees C), 6.54 (h), 883.675 (kg/m(3)), 0.5 (mg KOH/1 gOil) and 8/38 (mg/kg) respectively. Since the Norouzak biodiesel characteristics are complied with the EN 14214 standard, therefore Norouzak biodiesel can reliably be used in compression ignition engines. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  146. Biodiesel Production using Reactive Distillation: A Comparative Simulation Study
    Abstract

    Poddar, T.; Jagannath, A.; Almansoori, A. 2015. Biodiesel Production using Reactive Distillation: A Comparative Simulation Study. Clean, Efficient and Affordable Energy for a Sustainable Future. 7517-22

    Biodiesel is one of the most prominent biofuels in the market, recent trends indicate a worldwide production growth to replace crude-based diesel as transportation fuel. In this work, two reactive distillation processes with their corresponding downstream separation units are simulated: the first involves alkali whereas the second includes heterogeneous catalyst. The processes yield a high purity biodiesel product. Aspen Plus v8.4 was used as the process simulation tool in the present work. Comparison between the two production processes were made in terms of the annual production costs and economic indicators such as Return-On-Investment (ROI) and payback period. The simulation results show that the heterogeneous-catalyzed process is more economically advantageous than the alkalicatalyzed process for biodiesel production due to a much higher ROI, lower payback period, and lower annual cost per unit of biodiesel produced. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier
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  147. Biodiesel Production via Methanol Tolerant Lipase Transesterification from Proteus mirabilis in Methyl Acetate
    Abstract

    Altier, J.; McDonnell, A.; Carey, D.; Witherow, S. 2015. Biodiesel Production via Methanol Tolerant Lipase Transesterification from Proteus mirabilis in Methyl Acetate. Faseb Journal. 29

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  148. Biodiesel reforming with a NiAl2O4/Al2O3-YSZ catalyst for the production of renewable SOFC fuel
    Abstract

    Abatzoglou, N.; Fauteux-Lefebvre, C.; Braidy, N. 2015. Biodiesel reforming with a NiAl2O4/Al2O3-YSZ catalyst for the production of renewable SOFC fuel. Biomass to Biofuels. 83191-201

    Biodiesel's contribution as a renewable energy carrier is increasing continuously. Fuel cell market penetration, although slow, is now an irreversible reality. The combination of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) with biodiesel offers considerable advantages because it entails both high energy conversion efficiency and near-zero atmospheric carbon emissions. This work is aimed at proving the efficiency of a newly-developed (patent pending), Al2O3/YSZ-supported NiAl2O4 spinel catalyst to steam reform biodiesel. Reforming converts biodiesel into a gaseous mixture, mainly composed of H-2 and CO, used directly as SOFC fuel. The work is performed in a test rig comprising a lab-scale, fixed-bed isothermal reactor and a product-conditioning train. The biodiesel/water mixtures are emulsified prior to their spray injection in the reactor preheating zone, where they are instantaneously vaporized and rapidly brought to the desired reaction temperature to avoid thermal cracking. Reforming takes place at gas hourly space velocities equal to or higher than those in industrial reforming units. The products are analysed by at-line gas chromatography. The results show that biodiesel conversion is complete at steady state. Thermodynamic calculations reveal that the fast reforming reaction reaches chemical equilibrium. The catalyst's performance is very efficient and prevents carbon formation and deactivation.
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  149. Challenges hindering development of small scale of biodiesel Production in South Africa
    Abstract

    Thaba, S. C.; Mbohwa, C. 2015. Challenges hindering development of small scale of biodiesel Production in South Africa. 2015 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (Ieom).

    The interest in renewable resources has seen a focus on the production of biodiesel in South Africa as an alternative source of energy. While this sector show huge potential for economic growth, employment creation and the production of alternative energy, the sector is faced with many challenges. Looking at the case study of the Western Cape biodiesel plants, the paper discusses challenges faced by the few emerging biodiesel producers. The paper further highlights the positive impact of biodiesel production even at such small scale. The paper argues that biodiesel production offers huge opportunities for the South African economy, suggesting that government should consider supporting local players in the sector to expand their businesses and to expand opportunities for economic growth.
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  150. Characterization of Different Biomasses Based on Their Sugar Profile with Focus on Their Utilization for Microbial Biodiesel Production (Retracted article. See vol. 12, pg. 995, 2015)
    Abstract

    Mast, B.; Merkt, N.; Hernandez, R.; French, W. T.; Claupein, W.; Graeff-Honninger, S. 2015. Characterization of Different Biomasses Based on Their Sugar Profile with Focus on Their Utilization for Microbial Biodiesel Production (Retracted article. See vol. 12, pg. 995, 2015). International Journal of Green Energy. 12(9) 930-938

    The investigation and characterization of different biomasses as potential feedstocks for microbial lipid production was the aim of the present work. Twenty-eight biomasses were analyzed for total sugar content (glucose and xylose) and C/N-ratio as two major criteria for a suitable lipid production by oleaginous microorganisms. Considering both parameters, 9 out of 28 biomasses seemed to be suitable feedstocks for microbial lipid production. To allow for a broad evaluation of the suitability of the potential feedstocks, the estimated sugar and potential energy yield per area were calculated and the production costs and energy demand of the feedstock production were considered.
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  151. Chemometric Characterization of Vegetable Oils Based on the Fatty Acid Profiles for Selection of Potential Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Skrbic, B.; Cvejanov, J.; Durisic-Mladenovic, N. 2015. Chemometric Characterization of Vegetable Oils Based on the Fatty Acid Profiles for Selection of Potential Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 9(3) 358-371

    Variation in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of 119 vegetable oils and their influence on selected fuel properties of the obtainable biodiesels were evaluated using chemometric tools like hierarchical cluster. analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The aim was to classify the oils as potential feedstocks of biodiesel that could meet the selected requirements set by the EN14214 standard. Additionally, similarities between non edible oils and those from food crops were considered in order to identify low cost non edible biodiesel feedstocks that resemble FA profiles of the suitable edible feedstocks. In this way, the work contributes to the mapping of potential (alternative) biodiesel feedstocks, which might be of special interest for practicioners interested in alternative and non edible oil sources. The literature-derived data on the contents of fourteen FAs in vegetable oils were taken into account, as well as the following fuel properties of the corresponding biodiesels, which were calculated on the base of the oils' FA composition: iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN),cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and viscosities. The groups (clusters) of similar feedstocks (e.g., "polyunsaturated," "saturated," "monounsaturated") and the oil outliers were observed and described in order to point out the potential biodiesel feedstocks worldwide, including "non-edible" alternatives and the inherent properties of the obtainable biodiesel fuels. HCA proved to be a successful tool to classify the oils with specific compositional features that would lead to the production of biodiesel in compliance with the EN14214 standard limits, while PCA clearly indicated the outlying oils with the extreme FA profiles.
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  152. Combined phospholipase and lipase catalysis for biodiesel production from phospholipids-containing oil
    Abstract

    Li, Y.; Huang, Y. F.; Du, W.; Dai, L. M.; Liu, D. H. 2015. Combined phospholipase and lipase catalysis for biodiesel production from phospholipids-containing oil. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 20(5) 965-970

    Free lipase-mediated biodiesel production has been considered to be promising due to its advantages of high catalytic efficiency and lower preparation cost. Exploring the feasibility of free lipase to convert potential low quality oil feedstock into biodiesel is of great significance for further reducing the cost of biodiesel production. However, it is reported that low quality oils usually contain high concentration of phospholipids. Our previous study showed that the presence of high phospholipids content in oil feedstock would lead to poor catalytic performance of free lipase NS81006.Thereby, in order to improve the process, a combined catalysis together with phospholipase Lecitase Ultra and lipase NS81006 was developed in this paper. First, the effect of different factors involved in the process on Lecitase Ultra's catalytic performance was investigated, then a two-step method via phospholipase-catalyzed phospholipids degradation followed by lipase-catalyzed methanolysis was further attempted to promote the conversion of phospholipids-containing oils for biodiesel production. When using oil containing 2,235 ppm initial phosphorus as feedstock, the final biodiesel yield could reach 96.4%, while the yield without phospholipase was only 76.6%. This work demonstrates that the combined catalysis of phospholipase and free lipase has a great prospect in biodiesel production from high phospholipids-containing oil feedstocks.
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  153. Compact NMR spectroscopy for real-time monitoring of a biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Killner, M. H. M.; Linck, Y. G.; Danieli, E.; Rohwedder, J. J. R.; Blumich, B. 2015. Compact NMR spectroscopy for real-time monitoring of a biodiesel production. Fuel. 139240-247

    The use of biodiesel shows innumerous advantages compared to fossil fuels, since biodiesel is a biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. Nowadays, most of the biodiesel commercialized in the world is produced by the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils with methanol and basic catalysis. Understanding the reaction kinetics and controlling its optimum progress for improving the quality of the final product and to reduce production costs is of paramount importance. The present work explores compact H-1 NMR spectroscopy to follow the course of the transesterification reaction in real time. For this purpose the magnet is integrated into a flow setup which allows one to transport the neat solution from the reactor into the measurement zone and back again into the reactor. A multivariate calibration model applying Partial Least Squares regression was built to analyze the measured data and to obtain information about the biodiesel conversion ratio with errors on the order of 1%. This information is used in combination with a Lorentzian deconvolution of the spectra to estimate the relative concentrations of methanol present in the ester-rich phase in comparison with the one in the glycerol phase, the second medium involved in the reaction mixture. Finally, we demonstrate that the conversion ratio can also be monitored by measuring the chemical shift of the hydroxylic protons of methanol and glycerol present in the esterrich phase. These results demonstrate that a compact NMR spectrometer can provide spectra with good quality and time resolution suitable for real time quality control of biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  154. Comparison of response surface methodology and artificial neural network approach towards efficient ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from muskmelon oil
    Abstract

    Maran, J. P.; Priya, B. 2015. Comparison of response surface methodology and artificial neural network approach towards efficient ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from muskmelon oil. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 23192-200

    The present study is to evaluate and compare the prediction and simulating efficiencies of response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) based models on fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield achieved from muskmelon oil (MMO) under ultrasonication by two step in situ process. In first in situ process, free fatty acid content of MMO was reduced from 6.43% to 0.91% using H2SO4 as acid catalyst and organic phase in the first step was subjected to second reaction by adding KOH in methanol as basic catalyst. The influence of process variables (methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time) on conversion of FAME (second step) was investigated by central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of RSM and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network with the topology of 4-7-1. Both (RSM and ANN) were statistically compared by the coefficient of determination, root mean square error and absolute average deviation, based on the validation data set. The coefficient of determination (R-2) calculated from the validation data for RSM and ANN models were 0.869 and 0.991 respectively. While both models showed good predictions in this study. But, the ANN model was more precise compared to the RSM model and it showed that, ANN is to be a powerful tool for modeling and optimizing FAME production. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  155. Composition of Carotenoids from Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp BD47 Biomass, Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Ten, L. N.; Chae, S. M.; Yoo, S. A. 2015. Composition of Carotenoids from Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp BD47 Biomass, Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 51(3) 568-570

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  156. Crystal Facets Make a Profound Difference in Polyoxometalate-Containing Metal-Organic Frameworks as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Liu, Y.; Liu, S.; He, D.; Li, N.; Ji, Y.; Zheng, Z.; Luo, F.; Liu, S.; Shi, Z.; Hu, C. 2015. Crystal Facets Make a Profound Difference in Polyoxometalate-Containing Metal-Organic Frameworks as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production. J Am Chem Soc. 137(39) 12697-703

    An inherent challenge in using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for catalysis is how to access the catalytic sites generally confined inside the porous structure, in particular for substrates larger than the pores. We present here a promising solution to bypass this roadblock by modulating the facets of a crystalline MOF NENU-3a to enhance the facet exposure of the catalytic sites and the adsorption of substrates. Specifically, by transforming it with encapsulated catalysis-responsible polyoxometalate from octahedron characterized entirely by {111} facets to cube with only {100} facets, much enhanced catalytic activities were observed, especially for sterically demanding substrates that are otherwise hard to diffuse into the pores. Crystallographic analysis and adsorption/desorption experiments collectively established the critical effects of morphological control on the enhanced catalysis. The cubic crystals were then applied for biodiesel production, reaching more than 90% conversion of fatty acids (C12-C22) in comparison to <22% using octahedral crystals.
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  157. Crystal Facets Make a Profound Difference in Polyoxometalate-Containing Metal-Organic Frameworks as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Liu, Y. W.; Liu, S. M.; He, D. F.; Li, N.; Ji, Y. J.; Zheng, Z. P.; Luo, F.; Liu, S. X.; Shi, Z.; Hu, C. W. 2015. Crystal Facets Make a Profound Difference in Polyoxometalate-Containing Metal-Organic Frameworks as Catalysts for Biodiesel Production. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 137(39) 12697-12703

    An inherent challenge in using metal organic frameworks (MOFs) for catalysis is how to access the catalytic sites generally confined inside the porous structure, in particular for substrates larger than the pores. We present here a promising solution to bypass this roadblock by modulating the facets of a crystalline MOF NENU-3a to enhance the facet exposure of the catalytic sites and the adsorption of substrates. Specifically, by transforming it with encapsulated catalysis-responsible polyoxometalate from octahedron characterized entirely by {111} facets to cube with only {100} facets, much enhanced catalytic activities were observed, especially for sterically demanding substrates that are otherwise hard to diffuse into the pores. Crystallographic analysis and adsorption/desorption experiments collectively established the critical effects of morphological control on the enhanced catalysis. The cubic crystals were then applied for biodiesel production, reaching more than 90% conversion of fatty acids (C-12-C-22) in comparison to <22% using octahedral crystals.
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  158. Development of semi-synthetic microbial consortia of Streptomyces coelicolor for increased production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters)
    Abstract

    Bhatia, S. K.; Yi, D. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, H. J.; Seo, H. M.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, J. H.; Jeon, J. M.; Jang, K. S.; Kim, Y. G.; Yang, Y. H. 2015. Development of semi-synthetic microbial consortia of Streptomyces coelicolor for increased production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters). Fuel. 159189-196

    Biodiesel, an alternative to petroleum oil has gained significant attention from the research community because of its high energy content and good compatibility with existing engine systems. It can be produced from many different sources, such as animals, plants, and microbes. In this study, we demonstrated the overproduction of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) using a synthetic consortium of manA mutant Streptomyces coelicolor with Ralstonia eutropha. The synthetic consortium of S. coelicolor Delta manA: R. eutropha produced 114 mg/L fatty acids, which is 124% higher than the amount produced using S. coelicolor alone. Overall, the fatty acids produced by the consortia S. coelicolor Delta manA: R. eutropha were composed of medium chain fatty acid (MCFA): long chain fatty acid (LCFA): very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) in 8.75: 91.0: 0.25 proportion, and contained 75% saturated and 25% unsaturated fatty acids, which resulted in FAMEs with better cetane number (65) and oxidation stability (76 h) than the fatty acids produced by one strain alone. Nile red staining and subsequent fluorescence spectroscopy revealed S. coelicolor Delta manA as good candidate for triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation. Phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) analysis of consortia shows that S. coelicolor Delta manA and R. eutropha synergistically support each other's growth. The results suggest that the synthetic consortium provides an approach for biodiesel production along with improved quality. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  159. Differential equations on the kinetics of biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bruning, M.; Aylwin, C.; Alvarado, F. A. D. 2015. Differential equations on the kinetics of biodiesel production. Fuel. 142303-303

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  160. Effect of Different Photosynthetic Light Energy Enhancing Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Govindan, N. 2015. Effect of Different Photosynthetic Light Energy Enhancing Biodiesel Production. European Journal of Phycology. 50187-187

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  161. Encapsulation of Heteropolyanion-Based Ionic Liquid within the Metal-Organic Framework MIL-100(Fe) for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Wan, H.; Chen, C.; Wu, Z. W.; Que, Y. G.; Feng, Y.; Wang, W.; Wang, L.; Guan, G. F.; Liu, X. Q. 2015. Encapsulation of Heteropolyanion-Based Ionic Liquid within the Metal-Organic Framework MIL-100(Fe) for Biodiesel Production. Chemcatchem. 7(3) 441-449

    A new strategy was proposed to construct the ionic liquid, polyoxometalate (POM), and metal-organic framework (MOF) composite. The POM-based MOF was synthesized by using the direct hydrothermal method. The sulfonic acid group-functionalized ionic liquid was used for further modification of the hybrid material to realize the encapsulation of the heteropolyanion-based ionic liquid within the cages of the MOF. The catalysts were characterized by using XRD, N-2 adsorption-desorption, FTIR, SEM, TEM, elemental analysis, and TGA. The results indicated that the heteropolyanion-based ionic liquid had been successfully encapsulated within the cages and the structure of MIL-100 (MIL=Materials of Institut Lavoisier) remained intact. The POM-ionic-liquid-functionalized MOF, with high content of the active component, had both Lewis and BrOnsted acid sites, which led to high catalytic activity for the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol. The esterification reaction conditions were optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM), and the corresponding conversion of oleic acid reached 94.6%. The catalyst could be easily recovered and reused six times without significant loss of activity.
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  162. Enhanced 2,3-butanediol production from biodiesel-derived glycerol by engineering of cofactor regeneration and manipulating carbon flux in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
    Abstract

    Yang, T. W.; Rao, Z. M.; Zhang, X.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, Z. H.; Yang, S. T. 2015. Enhanced 2,3-butanediol production from biodiesel-derived glycerol by engineering of cofactor regeneration and manipulating carbon flux in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Microbial Cell Factories. 14

    Background: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 exhibited an excellent ability for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from biodiesel-derived glycerol. However, the accumulation of by-products (acetoin, acetoin, lactate and succinate) and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production.
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  163. Esterification of free fatty acids with supercritical methanol for biodiesel production and related kinetic study
    Abstract

    Jin, T. W.; Wang, B.; Zeng, J. H.; Yang, C.; Wang, Y. Q.; Fang, T. 2015. Esterification of free fatty acids with supercritical methanol for biodiesel production and related kinetic study. Rsc Advances. 5(64) 52072-52078

    Non-catalytic esterification of free fatty acids (oleic acid) with methanol for biodiesel production was studied in the reaction temperature range of 220-280 degrees C. To optimize the reaction conditions, the influence of the process parameters on biodiesel yield was studied with response surface methodology (RSM). It was found that biodiesel yield decreases at an exorbitant temperature. Thus, a reaction temperature below 260 degrees C is appropriate. At a temperature of 260 degrees C, with a methanol to oleic acid molar ratio of 20/1 and a reaction time of 60 min, the biodiesel yield can reach about 95%. In addition, a simplified approach to implementing a kinetic model for the esterification reaction was developed. The kinetic parameters were analyzed and discussed, and the experimental results were found to fit a first-order kinetic rate law. The rate constant of esterification in supercritical methanol increases significantly in comparison to that of subcritical conditions, and the apparent activation energy is higher than that of subcritical conditions.
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  164. Evaluation by Atomic Spectrometry of Solubilization Methods for the Determination of Metals in Glycerin from Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Clasen, C. D.; Lisboa, M. T.; Pinto, A. M. T. P.; Ribeiro, A. S.; Vieira, M. A. 2015. Evaluation by Atomic Spectrometry of Solubilization Methods for the Determination of Metals in Glycerin from Biodiesel Production. Quimica Nova. 38(1) 77-84

    This paper describes the evaluation of simple and fast solubilization methods for the determination of Ca, Mg, and K in glycerin samples from biodiesel production by atomic spectrometry. The solubilization in water was compared with two other methods: solubilization in formic acid and solubilization in ethanol. Using solubilization in water, determination of the three analytes was possible; the values of limits of detection for Ca, K, Mg were 0.31, 0.06, and 0.16 mg kg(-1), respectively. Because no adequate reference material was available, the accuracy was evaluated by assessing the recoveries tests with both solubilization methods; the evaluation ranged from 90% to 115%, with values of relative standard deviation >8%, indicating good accuracy of the measure. Four crude glycerin samples obtained from biodiesel plants of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed after treatment with the different methods of solubilization, and the obtained results of Ca, Mg, and K concentration were in agreement with the values obtained from both solubilization methods. Therefore, solubilization in water is concluded to be a simpler, faster, and viable method for sample preparation of glycerin.
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  165. Evaluation of eleven genotypes of castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Armendariz, J.; Lapuerta, M.; Zavala, F.; Garcia-Zambrano, E.; Ojeda, M. D. 2015. Evaluation of eleven genotypes of castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) for the production of biodiesel. Industrial Crops and Products. 77484-490

    The castor oil plant is an important industrial crop around the world and it could become an important raw material for biodiesel production due to the particular characteristics of its oil. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the seed and oil production and yield and the quality of the biodiesel fuel produced from eleven wild genotypes collected in different areas of Mexico. The seed and oil production was evaluated considering the crop as annual in experimental plots at field level, and biodiesel was produced by transesterification of the oil at laboratory scale. The quality evaluation was made following the current standards. The results indicate that the seed production varied between 937.1 kg/ha and 56.3 kg/ha. Oil content varied between 42% w/w and 54% w/w. Oil production varied between 431.7 kg/ha and 271
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  166. Evaluation of energy efficient low carbon hydrogen production concepts based on glycerol residues from biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Tasnacli-Asztalos, Z.; Agachi, P. S.; Cormos, C. C. 2015. Evaluation of energy efficient low carbon hydrogen production concepts based on glycerol residues from biodiesel production. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 40(22) 7017-7027

    The need to develop energy efficient low carbon conversion processes is of critical importance today. Hydrogen production concepts using glycerol resulted as byproduct from biodiesel production, at industrial scale (100,000 Nm(3)/h hydrogen equivalent to 300 MWth), with and without carbon capture was evaluated in the present paper. Three hydrogen production routes based on glycerol processing with carbon capture were investigated: the first two concepts are based on glycerol steam and autothermal catalytic reforming coupled with gas liquid absorption for carbon capture. The third concept is based on innovative energy-efficient chemical looping cycle using ilmenite as oxygen carrier. Similar designs without carbon capture have been developed for glycerol autothermal and steam reforming to quantify the energy penalty for carbon capture. The assessments show that chemical looping is by far the most promising option in terms of overall energy efficiency (higher than 72%) and carbon capture rate (higher than 97%). Reforming-based glycerol processing concepts with CO2 capture based on gas liquid absorption have significantly lower energy efficiency (55-65%) and carbon capture rate (57-70%). Among evaluated reforming technologies, steam conversion performs better than autothermal option. Copyright (C) 2015, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  167. Fabrication of a Dendritic Heteropolyacid as Self-Separated, Water-Resistant Catalyst for Biodiesel Fuel Production
    Abstract

    Duan, X. X.; Sun, Z.; Li, X. Y.; Wang, X. H.; Wang, S. T.; Li, S. W. 2015. Fabrication of a Dendritic Heteropolyacid as Self-Separated, Water-Resistant Catalyst for Biodiesel Fuel Production. Energy Technology. 3(8) 871-877

    A novel dendritic heteropolyacid (HPA)-based ionic liquid has been prepared from the interaction between H3PW12O40 (HPW) and a multi-SO3H dendritic ionic liquid (IL). This HPA IL exhibited strong Bronsted acidity and a dendritic structure, which was efficient for the esterification and trans-esterification reactions with excellent water- and acid-resistant stability. The good performance was attributed to the dendritic arrangement with many catalytic sites, porous structure, and hydrophobic surroundings. The catalyst was insoluble in the organic phase resulting easy separation for reuse.
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  168. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Price, J.; Nordblad, M.; Woodley, J. M.; Huusom, J. K. 2015. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production. 12th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering (Pse) and 25th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (Escape), Pt B. 371337-1342

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of a continuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this work we use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developed in our previous work was used to determine the reactor operating conditions for a desired conversion. However, in using a detailed mechanistic model, given the large number of parameters and few experimental data points, the parameters were found not identifiable. The model is then only applicable within the limited operating range for which the model was validated. We hypothesize that fitting this model to fed-batch and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) data together will enable us to use the model for determination of residence times to reach a specified conversion in a CSTR. With this approach, the model fits the experimental data for the five measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.
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  169. From glycerol as the by-product of biodiesel production to value-added monoacetin by continuous and selective esterification in acetic acid
    Abstract

    Rastegari, H.; Ghaziaskar, H. S. 2015. From glycerol as the by-product of biodiesel production to value-added monoacetin by continuous and selective esterification in acetic acid. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 21856-861

    A continuous and selective method for monoacetin synthesis was developed. Effects of the process parameters including reaction temperatures (100-140 degrees C), acetic acid to glycerol mol ratios (1-3), feed flow rates (0.2-0.6 mL min(-1)), and pressures (1-160 bar) on the glycerol conversion and the monoacetin selectivity were studied. At the optimum conditions of 100 degrees C, acetic acid to glycerol mol ratio of 1, feed flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1), and 1 bar, the glycerol conversion and monoacetin selectivity was, respectively, 53% and 93%. The effect of water amount in the feed (3-15%)was also studied at the optimum conditions. (C) 2014 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  170. Functional properties of neem oil as potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bhandare, P.; Naik, G. R. 2015. Functional properties of neem oil as potential feedstock for biodiesel production. International Letters of Natural Sciences. 347-14

    Fossil fuel resources are decreasing daily while biodiesel fuels are attracting increasing attention worldwide as blending components or direct replacements for diesel fuel in vehicle engines. In this experiment the seed oils of 30 Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. juss) biotypes were screened and evaluated for their physio-chemical parameters for oil content, biodiesel yield, density, viscosity, iodine value, free fatty acid and saponification value. Hence the neem seed oil tested in this current study could be the potential sources of raw material for biodiesel production.
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  171. Future scenarios for N2O emissions from biodiesel production in Europe
    Abstract

    van Wijnen, J.; Kroeze, C.; Ivens, W. P. M. F.; Lohr, A. J. 2015. Future scenarios for N2O emissions from biodiesel production in Europe. Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences. 1217-30

    Biodiesel is increasingly used as a fuel in transportation. It is generally considered an environmentally friendly alternative for diesel from fossil oil, because of lower emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during the growth of energy crops can be considerable. N2O is emitted as a result of fertiliser use, needed to cultivate the energy crops. Fertiliser use not only increases the direct agricultural soil emissions, but also the indirect N2O emissions from aquatic systems, after leaching and runoff of nitrogen from fertilised soils. The aim of this study is to quantify future N2O emissions associated with the cultivation of energy crops in European river basins. We analyse three future scenarios for biodiesel production in Europe, and the associated N2O emissions from fertilised fields. Our focus is on biodiesel produced from first generation energy crops. The scenarios assume that by the year 2050, 15-30% of the demand for fossil diesel is replaced by biodiesel. This would change the European fertiliser needs and, as a result, N2O emissions from fertilised soils. Our results indicate that increased biodiesel production may increase N2O emissions in Europe by about 25-45% relative to a scenario without a growth in biodiesel production, but not equally in all regions and all scenarios. The rate of change depends on where energy crops are grown, and whether or not they replace agricultural crops, or natural vegetation.
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  172. Heterogeneous Acid-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production from Crude Tall Oil: A Low-Grade and Less Expensive Feedstock
    Abstract

    Mkhize, N. M.; Sithole, B. B.; Ntunka, M. G. 2015. Heterogeneous Acid-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production from Crude Tall Oil: A Low-Grade and Less Expensive Feedstock. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology. 35(5) 374-385

    The present study indicates that solid acid catalysis of crude tall oil (CTO) over a WO3/ZrO2 catalyst is effective in converting the CTO fatty acids components into biodiesel in high yield. Preparation of the catalyst by an impregnation method was selected and WO3 activity was best at a loading mass fraction of 5% to ZrO2 support and activation at 500 degrees C for five hours under air at atmospheric pressure. Optimal reaction conditions were reaction temperature at 250 degrees C; methanol to CTO molar ratio at 10; reaction time four hours, catalyst mass fraction of 3%; and stirring intensity at 625 rpm. The conversion at optimal reaction conditions was 70%. The catalyst was highly active at temperatures higher than 200 degrees C. The biodiesel produced met some, but not all, the diesel quality parameters stipulated by standard specifications such as ASTM D6751 and EN14214.
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  173. Heterogeneous Catalysts for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Radu, D. R.; Kraus, G. A. 2015. Heterogeneous Catalysts for Biodiesel Production. Heterogeneous Catalysis for Today's Challenges: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications. (33) 117-130

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  174. Homogeneous borotungstic acid and heterogeneous micellar borotungstic acid catalysts for biodiesel production by esterification of free fatty acid
    Abstract

    Sun, Z.; Duan, X. X.; Zhao, J.; Wang, X. H.; Jiang, Z. J. 2015. Homogeneous borotungstic acid and heterogeneous micellar borotungstic acid catalysts for biodiesel production by esterification of free fatty acid. Biomass & Bioenergy. 7631-42

    A highly negatively charged borotungstic acid H5BW12O40 had been tested as homogeneous catalyst in esterification. Compared with common used H3PW12O40, it displayed a higher conversion (98.7%) and excellent efficiency (96.2%) due to its high amount of protons in methanol. In order to overcome the drawbacks of homogeneous heteropolyacid H5BW12O40, a Bronsted-surfactant-combined (C(16)TA)H4BW12O40 (C(16)TA = cetyltrimethyl ammonium) had been fabricated with strong acidity and nano-size micellar structure resulting in enhanced activity and stability during the reaction, which exhibited consistent activity during recycling in esterification reaction. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  175. Immobilized lipase from Schizophyllum commune ISTL04 for the production of fatty acids methyl esters from cyanobacterial oil
    Abstract

    Singh, J.; Singh, M. K.; Kumar, M.; Thakur, I. S. 2015. Immobilized lipase from Schizophyllum commune ISTL04 for the production of fatty acids methyl esters from cyanobacterial oil. Bioresource Technology. 188214-218

    Novel lipase from model mushroom Schizophyllum commune strain ISTL04 produced by solid state fermentation of Leucaena leucocephala seeds, was immobilized onto Celite for enzymatic FAMEs production from cyanobacterial endolith Leptolyngbya ISTCY101. The isolate showed vigorous growth and produced remarkable lipase activity of 146.5 U g(-1) dry solid substrate, without any external lipase inducer. Single-factor experiments were carried out to study the effects of various reaction parameters on the FAMEs yield. The best conditions for enzymatic transesterification as revealed by the results were: 1: 3 oil to methanol molar ratio, added at 3 h intervals, 12% water content, 1581.5 U g(-1) immobilized lipase, temperature 45 degrees C, and time 24 h. Under these conditions, the maximum FAMEs yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase was able to produce >90% of the relative FAMEs yield after four repeated transesterification cycles. This immobilized lipase exhibited potential for application in biodiesel industry. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  176. Isolation and Screening of Filamentous Fungi Producing Extracellular Lipase with Potential in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Pacheco, Sabrina Moro Villela; J¨²nior, Am¨¦rico Cruz; Morgado, Ayres Ferreira; J¨²nior, Agenor Furigo; Amadi, Onyetugo Chioma; Guis¨¢n, Jos¨¦ Manuel; Pessela, Benevides 2015. Isolation and Screening of Filamentous Fungi Producing Extracellular Lipase with Potential in Biodiesel Production. Advances in Enzyme Research. Vol.03No.0414

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  177. Kinetics of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic biodiesel production from Macauba coconut oil
    Abstract

    Michelin, S.; Penha, F. M.; Sychoski, M. M.; Scherer, R. P.; Treichel, H.; Valerio, A.; Di Luccio, M.; de Oliveira, D.; Oliveira, J. V. 2015. Kinetics of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic biodiesel production from Macauba coconut oil. Renewable Energy. 76388-393

    This work reports the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) by means of Macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) coconut oil (MCO) solvent-free enzymatic transesterification reactions using a commercial immobilized lipase (Novozym 435) under the influence of ultrasound irradiation. An experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of temperature (40-70 degrees C), enzyme (5-20 wt%) concentration, oil to ethanol molar ratio (1:3-1:10) and output irradiation power (40-70% of the maximum supply value) on the reaction yield. Besides, a kinetic study varying the enzyme concentration was also carried out. Results show that ultrasound-assisted lipase-catalyzed transesterification of MCO with ethanol in solvent-free system might be a potential alternative route to conventional alkali-catalyzed and/or traditional enzymatic methods, as reaction yields around 70 wt% were obtained at mild irradiation power supply (similar to 132 W), and temperature (65 degrees C) in a short reaction time, 30 min. Reutilization of enzyme showed that it may be advantageously employed up to 5 reuse cycles. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  178. Large-scale Biodiesel Production From Moroccan Used Frying Oil
    Abstract

    Ouanji, F.; Khachani, M.; Kacimi, M.; Ziyad, M.; Boualag, M. 2015. Large-scale Biodiesel Production From Moroccan Used Frying Oil. Proceedings of 2015 3rd Ieee International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (Irsec'15). 1102-1104

    Biodiesel was synthesized at large scale (400L by Batch). The H-1-NMR, C-13-NMR, gas chromatography, and FTIR analyses of the final product confirmed that in the chosen experimental conditions, the reaction is total. The biodiesel does not contain traces of glycerol. The biodiesel quality parameters that are borderline do not pose any particular problem. The electricity generator diesel engine are run with the synthesized biodiesel without any modification.
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  179. Mechanistic and kinetic studies on biodiesel production catalyzed by an efficient pyridinium based ionic liquid
    Abstract

    Li, K. X.; Yang, Z. H.; Zhao, J.; Lei, J. X.; Jia, X. L.; Mushrif, S. H.; Yang, Y. H. 2015. Mechanistic and kinetic studies on biodiesel production catalyzed by an efficient pyridinium based ionic liquid. Green Chemistry. 17(8) 4271-4280

    Biodiesels produced from renewable sources exhibit superior fuel properties and renewability and they are more environmentally friendly than petroleum-based fuels. In this paper, a three-step transesterification, catalyzed by a pyridinium-based Bronsted acidic ionic liquid (BAIL), for biodiesel production was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d) level. The DFT results elucidate the detailed catalytic cycle, which involves the formation of a covalent reactant-BAIL( methanol) n (n = 1/3) intermediate and two transition states. Hydrogen bond interactions were found to exist throughout the process of the catalytic cycle, which are of special importance for stabilizing the intermediate and transition states. Thus, a mechanism involving cooperative hydrogen bonding for BAIL-catalyzed biodiesel production was established. The Gibbs free energy profile based on the above mechanism was validated by the subsequent kinetic study. The trend of activation energy from kinetic mathematical models was reasonably consistent with that obtained from the DFT calculations.
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  180. Methane fermentation as method for utilisation of the glycerol fraction from biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Sulewski, M.; Urbaniak, W.; Traczykowski, A.; Budzinska, K.; Peter, E. 2015. Methane fermentation as method for utilisation of the glycerol fraction from biodiesel production. Przemysl Chemiczny. 94(12) 2142-2145

    Glycerol fraction from transesterification of vegetable oils was added to sewage sludge and fermented to biogas under anaerobic conditions. The kinetics of decompn. of glycerol and fatty acid Me esters during the fermentation was studied. The addn. of glycerol resulted in an increase in pH of the fermentation medium but pH decreased during the process.
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  181. Microwave Assisted Production of Biodiesel From Beef Tallow
    Abstract

    Tippayawong, N.; Singkham, R. 2015. Microwave Assisted Production of Biodiesel From Beef Tallow. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(14) 1513-1519

    In this study, microwave-heated biodiesel production from catalyzed transesterification of beef tallow was investigated for a range of reaction times between 10-30 min, temperatures between 40-60 degrees C, amounts of alkali catalyst between 0.25-0.75% w/w, and tallow to methanol molar ratio between 1:3 to 1:9. Results showed that fast conversion of beef tallow into biodiesel can be obtained with microwave heating. High biodiesel yields of 98% with an ester content over 96.5% can be achieved within 10 min at a molar ratio of 1:6, a catalyst concentration of 0.75%, and reaction temperature of 60 degrees C.
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  182. Modeling of liquid liquid equilibrium of systems relevant for biodiesel production using Backtracking Search Optimization
    Abstract

    Merzougui, A.; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A.; Hasseine, A.; Laiadi, D.; Labed, N. 2015. Modeling of liquid liquid equilibrium of systems relevant for biodiesel production using Backtracking Search Optimization. Fluid Phase Equilibria. 38884-92

    In this paper, the liquid-liquid equilibrium of thirty ternary systems relevant for biodiesel production was modeled using the NRTL and UNIQUAC equations and the Backtracking Search Optimization algorithm (BSOA). Performance of this new optimization method for liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) parameter estimation, with and without the application of the closure equations, has been analyzed and compared with those obtained using the genetic algorithm (GA) and harmony search algorithm (HAS). Results on the estimation of the interaction parameters of local composition models showed that BSOA with the closure equations can provide promising results in tested biofuel systems. The use of closure equations improves the performance of BSOA for LLE parameter estimation in biofuels mixtures. However, the selection in the parameter elimination using closure equation is relevant for obtaining the best results in LLE data modeling. Finally, NRTL offers the best performance for LLE data modeling of tested ternary systems and this model is attractive for process system engineering in biodiesel production and purification. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  183. Modeling of Phase and Chemical Equilibria for Systems Involved in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Cunico, L. P.; Guirardello, R. 2015. Modeling of Phase and Chemical Equilibria for Systems Involved in Biodiesel Production. Icheap12: 12th International Conference on Chemical & Process Engineering. 431855-1860

    In recent years, the interest in the use of renewable energy has encouraged the growth of studies into renewable sources, such as the production of biofuels. This work investigates the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE), vapor-liquid-liquid equilibrium (VLLE) and liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) of binary, ternary, quaternary and pseudo-quaternary systems using an optimization approach for components found in biodiesel production, which consists in vegetable oils, fatty acids, esters and alcohols. A methodology has been developed based on the Gibbs energy minimization and the discretization of the molar fraction domain, which incorporates a thermodynamic model to describe the phase equilibria. This work used the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state (SRK-EOS) for phase equilibria calculation, where the compressibility factor was used to determine the phase present in the system (liquid, vapor or supercritical fluid). The chemical and phase equilibrium problem is solved using linear programming and satisfies the mass balance constraints. It was found that the proposed methodology adequately represents the selected experimental data, with an average absolute deviation of 1.31 % obtained.
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  184. Molybdenum carbide supported nickel-molybdenum alloys for synthesis gas production via partial oxidation of surrogate biodiesel
    Abstract

    Shah, S.; Marin-Flores, O. G.; Norton, M. G.; Ha, S. 2015. Molybdenum carbide supported nickel-molybdenum alloys for synthesis gas production via partial oxidation of surrogate biodiesel. Journal of Power Sources. 294530-536

    In this study, NiMo alloys supported on MO2C are synthesized by wet impregnation for partial oxidation of methyl oleate, a surrogate biodiesel, to produce syngas. When compared to single phase Mo2C, the H-2 yield increases from 70% up to >95% at the carbon conversion of similar to 100% for NiMo alloy nanoparticles that are dispersed over the Mo2C surface. Supported NiMo alloy samples are prepared at two different calcination temperatures in order to determine its effect on particle dispersion, crystalline phase and catalytic properties. The reforming test data indicate that catalyst prepared at lower calcination temperature shows better nanoparticle dispersion over the MO2C surface, which leads to higher initial performance when compared to catalysts synthesized at higher calcination temperature. Activity tests using the supported NiMo alloy on MO2C that are calcined at the lower temperature of 400 degrees C shows 100% carbon conversion with 90% H-2 yield without deactivation due to coking over 24 h time-on-stream. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  185. One-step Synthesis of Peanut Shell-derived Solid Acid for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Shang, Y.; Jiang, Y.; Gao, J. 2015. One-step Synthesis of Peanut Shell-derived Solid Acid for Biodiesel Production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(10) 1039-1045

    A peanut shell-derived solid acid of amorphous carbon bearing SO3H, COOH, and phenolic OH groups has been prepared by a one-step process. The effects of preparation conditions on the activity of the solid acid were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. This catalyst showed high activity in the esterification of oleic acid with methanol. Under the optimal reaction conditions, a biodiesel yield of 98% could be obtained. Additionally, after six repeated uses, more than 95% yield of biodiesel was obtained, which indicated that the catalyst has a highly operational stability.
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  186. Optimal Experimental Design for an Enzymatic Biodiesel Production System
    Abstract

    Yu, H.; Yue, H.; Halling, P. 2015. Optimal Experimental Design for an Enzymatic Biodiesel Production System. Ifac Papersonline. 48(8) 1258-1263

    Two optimal experimental design (OED) problems for an enzymatic biodiesel production system are investigated to improve parameter estimation quality. An orthogonalized sensitivity analysis method is firstly implemented to select important parameters. Next the design of measurement set and sampling strategy is developed in the form of to convex optimization problems which are solved by the interior-point algorithm and the Powell's method; respectively. Simulation results demonstrate the function of OED in reducing parameter estimation errors. The biodiesel concentration is identified to be the most valuable state variable observation, and the parameter estimation accuracy can be improved through optimal sampling design. (c) 2015, IFAC (International Federation or Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  187. Optimization for Biodiesel Fuel Production and its Application on the Electronically Controlled Common Rail Diesel Engine
    Abstract

    Xu, G. J.; Li, M. D.; Chen, Q. Z.; Li, X. Z. 2015. Optimization for Biodiesel Fuel Production and its Application on the Electronically Controlled Common Rail Diesel Engine. Journal of the Chinese Society of Mechanical Engineers. 36(5) 431-438

    The biodiesel production technics was optimized based on the orthogonal test and neural network theory, parameters such as alcohol-oil ratio, catalyst concentration were used as the input parameters, and the biodiesel yield was used as the output parameters. Having completed the 1000-hours reliability test of a diesel engine fueled with BD5 biodiesel. Having measured the engine parameters, such as fuel consumption, lubricant oil consumption, power, torque, piston leakage volume, and exhaust temperature before and after the reliability test. Having analyzed the lubricants chromatographic and the durability of main engine parts. We can see that the best production parameters were, alcohol-oil ratio (6:1), catalyst concentration (1.0%), reaction temperature (40 degrees C), reaction time (60min). the neural network model can predict the yield very exactly. The diesel engine could burn biodiesel fuel for long-term without problems and the specific fuel consumption and oil consumption increases slightly after the reliability test. The power, torque and exhaust temperature decreases at different degrees, but the piston leakage volume increases. The engine lubricating oil contains unsaturated fatty acid methyl ester and arouses lubricants metamorphism. Some carbon depositions exist in the fuel injector, the valve and the piston. Small scratches could be found in the piston skirt and piston ring as a result of normal attrition. These changes were the same under the situation when diesel engine burning with diesel fuel.
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  188. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Carthamus Tinctorius L. CV. Thori 78: A Novel Cultivar of Safflower Crop
    Abstract

    Ahmad, M.; Teong, L. K.; Sultana, S.; Khan, I. U.; Zuhairi, A. A.; Zafar, M.; Hassan, F. U. 2015. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Carthamus Tinctorius L. CV. Thori 78: A Novel Cultivar of Safflower Crop. International Journal of Green Energy. 12(5) 447-452

    In the present work, the potential of novel cultivar of safflower seed crop with highest 52% oil contents is evaluated for the first time as a feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. The specific aim of this study was to optimize the transesterification process for maximum biodiesel yield using different parameters and to evaluate its fuel compatibility with mineral diesel. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of safflower oil were produced by standard transesterification process using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. Optimum biodiesel yield of 98% achieved at 65 degrees C, 5:1 methanol: oil molar ratio, 0.32 g catalyst concentration, and reaction time of 80 min. The kinematic viscosity@ 40 degrees C (cSt), flash point, sulfur contents (wt%), pour point and cloud point of pure safflower oil biodiesel (SOB) were found to be 5.32 mm(2)/s, 80 degrees C, 0.00041%, -9 degrees C and -11 degrees C, respectively. These together with other fuel parameters were in accordance with ASTM standards. The results obtained indicate that SOB appears to be the potential feedstock for biodiesel production and can be used as an alternate source of fuel in diesel engines.
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  189. Optimization of biodiesel production from Manilkara zapota (L.) seed oil using Taguchi method
    Abstract

    Kumar, R. S.; Sureshkumar, K.; Velraj, R. 2015. Optimization of biodiesel production from Manilkara zapota (L.) seed oil using Taguchi method. Fuel. 14090-96

    In this work, the optimization of transesterification process parameters for the production of Manilkara Zapota Methyl Ester (MZME) has been studied. Molar ratio of methanol to oil, time of reaction, temperature of reaction, and concentration of catalyst were the four parameters considered in the study. Taguchi experimental design was used for the optimization of the above mentioned four process parameters of transesterification. The physicochemical properties and fatty acid methyl ester concentrations were experimentally analyzed. The experimental study revealed that 50 degrees C temperature of reaction, 90 min of time of reaction, 6:1 M ratio of methanol to oil and 1 wt% of concentration of catalyst are the optimal process parameters. Also the study revealed that out of the four parameters considered, methanol to oil molar ratio is most effective in controlling the optimal biodiesel production. The optimal conditions yielded 94.83% of biodiesel. The biodiesel MZME produced with the optimized process parameters meets the global standards for biodiesel EN 14214 and hence could be considered as a suitable substitute for fossil diesel in unmodified diesel engine applications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  190. Potential in vitro degradability and gas production of the byproducts of the biodiesel chain
    Abstract

    Silva, A. M. D.; Alves, S. V.; Bezerra, L. R.; Carneiro, H.; Oliveira, R. L.; de Medeiros, F. F.; Pereira, J. M.; de Araujo, D. R. C. 2015. Potential in vitro degradability and gas production of the byproducts of the biodiesel chain. Ciencia E Investigacion Agraria. 42(2) 285-293

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the in vitro degradability and gas production from different byproducts of the domestic biodiesel industry (Glycine max, Brassica napus L., Helianthus annuus and Raphanus sativus L.) using four increasing levels (0, 30, 50 and 70%) of replacement of Pennisetum purpureum. The inoculum for the in vitro incubations was obtained from three Holstein cows with rumen fistulas. Gas production was measured at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours of incubation. The experimental design was a completely randomized 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, with byproducts and their levels being the factors. The results showed a significant effect (P <= 0.05) of all byproducts. A higher level of degradation was observed following 48 hours of incubation with Glycine max compared with other byproducts, but it did not reduce gas production; Raphanus sativus was the most efficient byproduct to reduce the total gas production. The lowest degradation was obtained with sunflower. All the studied byproducts may be used in the diet of ruminants as potential protein supplements.
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  191. Preparation and characterization of inorganic acid catalytic membrane for biodiesel production from oleic acid
    Abstract

    Xu, W.; Xu, J. W.; Gao, L. J.; Xiao, G. M. 2015. Preparation and characterization of inorganic acid catalytic membrane for biodiesel production from oleic acid. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering. 10(6) 851-857

    An inorganic catalytic membrane constructed of a ceramic membrane (CM) support and catalytic coating (active component SO42-/TiO2) was prepared and used as a heterogeneous catalyst in the esterification of oleic acid with methanol for biodiesel production. SO42-/TiO2-CM catalytic membrane was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction patterns, and scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive analyzer for X-ray (EDS). It was found that the SO42-/TiO2 particles were well coated on the surface of CM matrix, and the oleic acid conversion could become 97.6% at the optimum condition. (C) 2015 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  192. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Sulfone) (SPES)/Phosphotungstic Acid (PWA) Hybrid Membranes for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Shi, W. Y.; Yang, M. X.; Li, H. B.; Zhou, R.; Zhang, H. X. 2015. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly (Ether Sulfone) (SPES)/Phosphotungstic Acid (PWA) Hybrid Membranes for Biodiesel Production. Catalysis Letters. 145(8) 1581-1590

    A new kind of organic-inorganic hybrid membrane based on sulfonated poly (ether sulfone) (SPES) with different degree of sulfonation (DS) embedded phosphotungstic acid (PWA) was prepared as a heterogeneous acid catalyst for biodiesel production. Three kinds of hybrid membranes with the DS of SPES 9.7, 20.3 and 39.1 % were obtained. The interactions between SPES and PWA in SPES/PWA hybrid membrane were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The band shift of FTIR spectrum showed that the PWA particles interacted primarily with sulfonic acid groups on the polymer backbone. Compared to pure SPES membrane, the thermal stability of SPES/PWA hybrid membrane was enhanced. The XRD results suggested that the PWA particles were incorporated inside membrane pores and adhered on the walls outside the pores which were due to the interaction between PWA and SPES polymer matrix. The catalytic properties of SPES/PWA membranes were tested by the esterification of the acidified oil with methanol. The reaction conditions were optimized by response surface model and the optimum conditions were obtained as: methanol/oil mass ratio of 1:1, hybrid membrane loading of 1.66 meq/g and reaction time 6 h with the free fatty acids conversion of 95.3 %. The hybrid membrane with SPES/PWA mass ratio of 2:1 and the membrane thicknesses of 0.06 mm were optimal for the esterification. The SPES/PWA membrane of DS 20.3 % exhibited the best catalytic stabilities among the three kinds of hybrid membranes with different DS with a stable conversion of above 90 % in all times.
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  193. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Polymer/Non-Woven Composite Membrane for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Shi, W. Y.; Li, H. B.; Zhou, R. 2015. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonated Polymer/Non-Woven Composite Membrane for Biodiesel Production. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 9(3) 318-326

    A novel composite catalytic membrane as the heterogeneous acid catalyst for biodiesel production in flow-through catalytic membrane reactor (FTCMR) was prepared from sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) and polyethersulfone (PES) lined or inner supported with non-woven fabrics (NWF) by the phase inversion method. The effects of different solvents of the solution, coagulation bath and polymer concentration on membrane morphologies were investigated. Membrane structure was characterized by Field Emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and pore size distribution and porosity were measured by Micromeritics. FESEM pictures showed SPES/PES wrapped on the fibers of the NWF to form sponge-like structure with very high porosity under the optimum preparation condition of the catalytic membrane of 10 wt% concentration of SPES/PES solution, NMP as the solvent and ethanol as the coagulation. The catalytic membranes with different porosities were obtained by control of ethanol concentration in ethanol/acetone coagulation bath. The conversion obtained increased from 25.2% to 58.8% with an increase in the porosities of membranes from 32% to 68% at the residence time of 32 s. The membrane performance showed that the conversion reached 98.1% with the acid amount of 15.80 mmol (H+) at the residence time of 162 s in the FTCMR. In comparison, the reaction rate with the composite membrane as the catalyst is eight times higher than that with sulfuric acid under the same acid amount. The conversion was markedly increased from 58.8% to 98.2% with the increase of membrane layers from one to six. The catalytic membrane show very high conversion and excellent catalytic stability.
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  194. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel Using Nonedible Castor Oil by Immobilized Lipase from Bacillus aerius
    Abstract

    Narwal, S. K.; Saun, N. K.; Dogra, P.; Chauhan, G.; Gupta, R. 2015. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel Using Nonedible Castor Oil by Immobilized Lipase from Bacillus aerius. Biomed Research International.

    A novel thermotolerant lipase from Bacillus aerius was immobilized on inexpensive silica gel matrix. The immobilized lipase was used for the synthesis of biodiesel using castor oil as a substrate in a solvent free systemat 55 degrees C under shaking in a chemical reactor. Several crucial parameters affecting biodiesel yield such as incubation time, temperature, substrate molar ratio, and amount of lipase were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the highest biodiesel yield was up to 78.13%. The characterization of synthesized biodiesel was done through FTIR spectroscopy, H-1 NMR spectra, and gas chromatography.
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  195. Production and fuel properties of biodiesel from Firmiana platanifolia L.f. as a potential non-food oil source
    Abstract

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, Q.; Chang, F.; Pan, H.; Liu, X. F.; Li, H.; Hu, D. Y.; Yang, S. 2015. Production and fuel properties of biodiesel from Firmiana platanifolia L.f. as a potential non-food oil source. Industrial Crops and Products. 76768-771

    For the first time, Firmiana platanifolia L.f. was investigated as a promising don-food oil component of biodiesel production. F. platanifolia L.f. was obtained from resources available in China with a high oil content (36.47%). The low acid value of F. platanifolia L.f. (1.19 mg KOH g(-1)) indicated that the raw oil required no acid pretreatment. Additionally, properties of a biodiesel product derived from this plant were evaluated, which were found to fulfill ASTM 06751 and EN 14214 biodiesel specifications, possessing a good cetane number (58.2) and excellent oxidation stability (13.3 h). The results indicate that F. platanifolia L.f. is a potential species to be used as a biodiesel feedstock in China. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  196. Production Biodiesel from Coconut Oil Using Microwave: Effect of Some Parameters on Transesterification Reaction by NaOH Catalyst
    Abstract

    Suryanto, A.; Suprapto, S.; Mahfud, M. 2015. Production Biodiesel from Coconut Oil Using Microwave: Effect of Some Parameters on Transesterification Reaction by NaOH Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis. 10(2) 162-168

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of reaction time and NaOH catalyst in transesterification of coconut oil enhanced by microwave and to obtain a biodiesel. Reaction was conducted in batch reactor which equipped by microwave. Coconut oil contains saturated fatty acids about 70% with medium chain (C8-C14), especially lauric acid and myristic acid. The reaction was initiated by mixing oil and methanol with oil to methanol mole ratios of 1:3, 1:6, 1:9 and 1:12, catalyst concentration of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25 and 0.3 wt.%, as well as setting electrical power at 100, 264 and 400 W. The reaction times were of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 min. The result showed that microwave could be employed as an energy source and was able to accelerate the transesterification process to produce biodiesel using NaOH catalyst. The biodiesel yields increase with increasing microwave power. The highest yield of biodiesel obtained was of 97.37% with reaction conditions set at 0.2 wt.% catalyst, a reaction time of 2 min, molar ratio of methanol to oil 1:9 and microwave power of 400 watt. (C) 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.
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  197. Production characterization and working characteristics in DICI engine of Pongamia biodiesel
    Abstract

    Rao, M. S.; Anand, R. B. 2015. Production characterization and working characteristics in DICI engine of Pongamia biodiesel. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 12116-21

    Renewable energy plays a predominant role in solving the current energy requirement problems and biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to tide over the energy crisis and conserve fossil fuels. The present work investigates an eco-friendly substitute for the replacement of fossil fuels and the experiments are designed to determine the effects of a catalyst in the biodiesel production processes. Pongamia pinnata oil was utilized to produce the biodiesel by using catalysts namely KOH and NaOH and the properties of the fuel were found by using Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulfur (CHNS) elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-1 NMR) Spectroscopy and the thermophysical properties were compared with those of neat diesel. In continuation, the working characteristics of the biodiesel and biodiesel-water emulsions were accomplished in a four stroke compression ignition engine and the results were compared to those of neat diesel. It was found that the exhaust emission characteristics like brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbons (BSHC) and smoke opacity were better for neat biodiesel (except brake specific nitric oxide BSNO) than those of neat diesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  198. Production characterization and working characteristics in DICI engine of Pongamia biodiesel
    Abstract

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Anand, R. B. 2015. Production characterization and working characteristics in DICI engine of Pongamia biodiesel. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 12116-21

    Renewable energy plays a predominant role in solving the current energy requirement problems and biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to tide over the energy crisis and conserve fossil fuels. The present work investigates an eco-friendly substitute for the replacement of fossil fuels and the experiments are designed to determine the effects of a catalyst in the biodiesel production processes. Pongamia pinnata oil was utilized to produce the biodiesel by using catalysts namely KOH and NaOH and the properties of the fuel were found by using Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulfur (CHNS) elemental analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography & Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) Spectroscopy and the thermophysical properties were compared with those of neat diesel. In continuation, the working characteristics of the biodiesel and biodiesel-water emulsions were accomplished in a four stroke compression ignition engine and the results were compared to those of neat diesel. It was found that the exhaust emission characteristics like brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO), brake specific hydrocarbons (BSHC) and smoke opacity were better for neat biodiesel (except brake specific nitric oxide BSNO) than those of neat diesel.
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  199. Production of Biodiesel with Supercritical Parameters
    Abstract

    Ivannikova, E. M.; Sister, V. G.; Mitin, A. K. 2015. Production of Biodiesel with Supercritical Parameters. Chemical and Petroleum Engineering. 51(1-2) 10-13

    A method for producing biodiesel with supercritical parameters is described and the advantages of the method vis-a-vis the catalytic methods are determined. An experimental setup for obtaining fatty acid methyl esters ( FAME) is presented with a description of its basic units. Arrays of parameters that determine the efficiency and intensity of the process as a whole are obtained by a series of experiments. The rate of formation and yield of FAME depending on these parameters are determined, and then the optimal parameters of process implementation for producing biodiesel in supercritical methanol are presented. The feasibility of producing biodiesel with supercritical parameters is shown.
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  200. Production of Polyols and Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersions from Biodiesel-Derived Crude Glycerol
    Abstract

    Hu, S. J.; Luo, X. L.; Li, Y. B. 2015. Production of Polyols and Waterborne Polyurethane Dispersions from Biodiesel-Derived Crude Glycerol. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 132(6)

    This study investigated the preparation of polyols and waterborne polyurethane dispersions (CG-WPUDs) from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol. The polyols were produced from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol via a thermochemical conversion process, which converted crude glycerol components such as glycerol, free fatty acids, and methyl esters of fatty acids (FAMEs) into polyols under optimized reaction conditions. CG-WPUDs with different hard segments (41.0% to 63.2 wt %) were prepared from the crude glycerol-based polyols produced. PU coating films cast from CG-WPUDs showed increasing glass transition temperatures (T-g) from 63 degrees C to 81 degrees C when hard segment content increased from 41.0% to 63.2% and had good thermal stability up to 240 degrees C. CG-WPUD-based coatings showed excellent adhesion to steel panel surfaces, pencil hardness as high as F, but relatively low flexibility. This study demonstrated the potential of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol for the production of bio-based polyols and WPUDs. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  201. Production of Valuable Chemicals Via Esterification and Acetylation of Glycerol, by-Product of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Ekinci, E. K.; Gunduz, G.; Oktar, N. 2015. Production of Valuable Chemicals Via Esterification and Acetylation of Glycerol, by-Product of Biodiesel. Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University. 30(3) 443-450

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel to gasoline due to its environmental and economical benefits. Glycerol is the main by-product of the biodiesel production by transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol or ethanol. The esterification of glycerol with acetic acid can be a good choice for utilization of by-product glycerol. In this work esterification of glycerol with acetic acid was performed in liquid phase autoclave batch reactor in the presence of Smopex-101. Complete glycerol conversion was achieved in the reaction studies even at room temperatures. Effects of reaction temperatures and initial reactant molar ratios on the glycerol conversions and product selectivity were also investigated. The maximum diacetin (77 %) and triacetin (23 %) selectivities were achieved at 363 K and glycerol/acetic acid; 1/12 molar ratio. Acetylation reactions were performed with acetyl chloride in the presence of Smopex-101 in order to increase triacetin selectivity. 66 % triacetin selectivity was achieved in acetylation reaction studies in a period of 1200 minutes at room temperature.
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  202. Purification and characterization of organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Streptomyces sp. OC119-7 for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ayaz, B.; Ugur, A.; Boran, R. 2015. Purification and characterization of organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Streptomyces sp. OC119-7 for biodiesel production. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 4(1) 103-108

    This study determined the lipolytic activity of Streptomyces isolates and then purified and characterized the lipase obtained from Streptornyce.s sp. OC 119-7, the isolate demonstrated to have the high lipolytic activity. Ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography were used to purify the extracellular alkaline lipase obtained from StTeptornyces sp. OC 119-7, and resulted in 5.52-fold purification with 68.055 U/mg specific activity. The enzyme showed optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 50 degrees C, with stability in a temperature range of 40-60 degrees C and at pHs of >= 7. Enzyme activity was enhanced by the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+ and inhibited by the presence of Mn2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, K+, Na+ and PMSF. OC 119-7 lipase displayed stability against surfactants and organic solvents. Lip0C 119-7 catalyzed transesterification of olive oil with methanol, suggesting that this lipase may be a potential enzymatic catalyst for biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  203. Rapid and high-density covalent immobilization of Rhizomucor miehei lipase using a multi component reaction: application in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mohammadi, M.; Ashjari, M.; Dezvarei, S.; Yousefi, M.; Babaki, M.; Mohammadi, J. 2015. Rapid and high-density covalent immobilization of Rhizomucor miehei lipase using a multi component reaction: application in biodiesel production. Rsc Advances. 5(41) 32698-32705

    Aldehyde-functionalized silica and silica nanoparticles (SBA-15) were prepared as a matrix system for enzyme immobilization. Immobilization of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) on these supports was performed via a multicomponent reaction under extremely mild conditions (25 degrees C, pH 7). Investigation on the mechanism of this reaction confirmed the Ugi four-component immobilization approach. The loading capacity of the supports and specific activity of the immobilized derivatives were interestingly improved. The results revealed very rapid immobilization of 10 and 60 mg of RML on 1 g of aldehyde-functionalized silica and SBA-15 after 10 and 30 minutes, respectively. Leaching experiments were performed by incubation of the immobilized derivatives in 1 M NaCl solution. The lack of the free lipase in the solution confirmed the covalent nature of the linkage. The thermal stability and co-solvent stability of the derivatives in the presence of three polar organic solvents (1-propanol, 2-propanol and dioxane) were greatly improved compared to the soluble enzyme. Both the derivatives were also used to catalyze the transesterification of colza oil with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). In the case of RML immobilized on SBA-15 (SBA-RML), the presence of 40% of tert-butanol (v/v) as solvent in the reaction medium largely improved the conversion yield.
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  204. Real-Time Model Based Process Monitoring of Enzymatic Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Price, J.; Nordblad, M.; Woodley, J. M.; Huusom, J. K. 2015. Real-Time Model Based Process Monitoring of Enzymatic Biodiesel Production. Biotechnology Progress. 31(2) 585-595

    In this contribution we extend our modelling work on the enzymatic production of biodiesel where we demonstrate the application of a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter (a state estimator). The state estimator is used to correct for mismatch between the process data and the process model for Fed-batch production of biodiesel. For the three process runs investigated, using a single tuning parameter, q(x)=2 x 10(-2) which represents the uncertainty in the process model, it was possible over the entire course of the reaction to reduce the overall mean and standard deviation of the error between the model and the process data for all of the five measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acid methyl esters, and free fatty acid). The most significant reduction for the three process runs, were for the monoglyceride and free fatty acid concentration. For those components, there was over a ten-fold decrease in the overall mean error for the state estimator prediction compared with the predictions from the pure model simulations. It is also shown that the state estimator can be used as a tool for detection of outliers in the measurement data. For the enzymatic biodiesel process, given the infrequent and sometimes uncertain measurements obtained we see the use of the Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter as a viable tool for real time process monitoring. (c) 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 31:585-595, 2015
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  205. Research on Swida wilsoniana for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Zhang, L. B.; Xiao, Z. H.; Li, P. W.; Liu, R. K.; Pi, B.; Chen, J. Z.; Li, C. Z.; Kang, X. Y. 2015. Research on Swida wilsoniana for Biodiesel Production. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 9(1) 78-81

    Swida wilsoniana is an oil tree with strong-adaptability, wide distribution, whole fruit contain oil, high economic-yield and excellent processing performance. Natural distribution, ecological adaptation, biological and agronomic characteristics of Swida wilsoniana are described. Plus tree selection, fruit-oil extraction, fatty acid composition and grease conversion of bio-diesel of Swida wilsoniana are summarize to provide a reference for the energy utilization of Swida wilsoniana.
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  206. Run-to-Run Optimization of Biodiesel Production using Probabilistic Tendency Models: A Simulation Study
    Abstract

    Luna, M. F.; Martinez, E. C. 2015. Run-to-Run Optimization of Biodiesel Production using Probabilistic Tendency Models: A Simulation Study. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 93(9) 1613-1623

    Variability of the composition and properties of raw materials used for biodiesel production may cause a loss of productivity, since the same operating conditions give rise to different yields for alternative feedstock sources. The capability to re-optimize the process when the raw materials change may lead to a significant improvement in productivity. For yield optimization, first-principles models of a biodiesel reactor have limited prediction capabilities due to the complex kinetics involving transesterification and saponification reactions, which demands active learning of relevant data through optimal design of experiments. In this work, a Bayesian approach for integrating experimentation with imperfect models is proposed to optimize biodiesel production on a run-to-run basis. Parameter distributions in a probabilistic tendency model for the transesterification of triglycerides are re-estimated using data from a sequence of experiments designed to guide policy improvement. Global sensitivity analysis is used to formulate the optimal sampling strategy in each dynamic experiment as an optimization problem. Results obtained highlight that, even when there are significant errors in the tendency model structure and reduced information content in samples, a significant increase in biodiesel production can be achieved after a handful of runs.
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  207. Study on the enzyme's 1,3-positional specificity during lipozyme TL-mediated biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Li, R. W.; Du, W.; Lu, D. L.; Dai, L. M.; Liu, D. H. 2015. Study on the enzyme's 1,3-positional specificity during lipozyme TL-mediated biodiesel production. Rsc Advances. 5(77) 62460-62468

    The 1,3-positional specificity of lipases plays an important role in obtaining high yield of products especially in themethanolysis for biodiesel production. In this paper, the effect of solvent and water activity on the enzyme's 1,3-positional specificity during lipozyme TL-catalyzed methanolysis of triglyceride (TAG) for biodiesel production was explored. Then the effect of organic solvent and water activity on the methanolysis of monoglyceride (MAG) was further carried out from the aspect of a kinetics study. It was found that either in the methanolysis of TAG or MAG, the 1,3-positional specificity of lipozyme TL correlated well with the log P of organic solvents. With the increase of the log P of the organic solvent, the enzyme's 1,3-positional specificity decreased. Interestingly, in each group of solvents (ketones, alkanes and chlorinated hydrocarbon), the 1,3-positional specificity of the lipase improved with water activity increasing from 0.11 to 0.53, while it decreased with water activity further increasing from 0.53 to 0.97. Further exploration on the related mechanism with a molecular dynamics simulation revealed that the organic solvent influenced the dehydration state of the lipase, which might subsequently influence the lipase's 1,3-positional specificity.
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  208. Study on utilization of Camelina seed for production of biodiesel fuel
    Abstract

    Mosio-Mosiewski, J.; Luczkiewicz, T.; Warzala, M.; Nawracala, J.; Nosal, H.; Kurasiak-Popowska, D. 2015. Study on utilization of Camelina seed for production of biodiesel fuel. Przemysl Chemiczny. 94(3) 369-373

    Camelina oil from the seeds of winter camelina variety Luna was studied for acid, iodine and saponification nos., P content, d., kinematic and dynamic viscosities and chem. compn. and then used for prodn. of fatty acid Me esters by 2-step transesterification in presence of KOH at 50 degrees C for 1 h in a steel reactor (2 m(3)). The aq. glycerol-contg. phase was neutralized with H3PO4 and distd. to sep. glicerol and PK fertilizer. The product quality was good enough for usual applications.
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  209. Synthesis and characterization of carbon cryogel microspheres from lignin-furfural mixtures for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zainol, M. M.; Amin, N. A. S.; Asmadi, M. 2015. Synthesis and characterization of carbon cryogel microspheres from lignin-furfural mixtures for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 19044-50

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of biofuel and biomass processing industry side-products as acid catalyst. The synthesis of carbon cryogel from lignin-furfural mixture, prepared via sol-gel polycondensation at 90 degrees C for 0.5 h, has been investigated for biodiesel production. The effect of lignin to furfural (L/F) ratios, lignin to water (L/W) ratios and acid concentration on carbon cryogel synthesis was studied. The carbon cryogels were characterized and tested for oleic acid conversion. The thermally stable amorphous spherical carbon cryogel has a large total surface area with high acidity. Experimental results revealed the optimum FAME yield and oleic acid conversion of 91.3 wt.% and 98.1 wt.%, respectively were attained at 65 degrees C for 5 h with 5 wt.% catalyst loading and 20: 1 methanol to oleic acid molar ratio. Therefore, carbon cryogel is highly potential for heterogeneous esterification of free fatty acid to biodiesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  210. Technological Forecasting: Use of Lipase for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Pinheiro, M. P.; Lopes, F. E. D.; Rodrigues, L. P.; Marques, L. G. A.; Freitas, A. L. P. 2015. Technological Forecasting: Use of Lipase for Biodiesel Production. Revista Geintec-Gestao Inovacao E Tecnologias. 5(4) 2589-2596

    Renewable fuels are currently viewed as a potential alternative to fossil fuels because they are less harmful to the environment. Biodiesel is an example of the substituent of the common diesel is produced by transesterification reactions which can be catalyzed by lipases. The aim of this study was to conduct a prospection on the technological production of biodiesel using lipase, by searching in two databases of patent applications, the European Patent Office (EPO) and the National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI). The research showed that many patents in this area, distributed in 15 different countries and that requests for deposits have been increasing over the years.
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  211. Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kawano, M. S.; Kamikawachi, R. C.; Fabris, J. L.; Muller, M. 2015. Thermally assisted sensor for conformity assessment of biodiesel production. Measurement Science and Technology. 26(2)

    Although biodiesel can be intentionally tampered with, impairing its quality, ineffective production processes may also result in a nonconforming final fuel. For an incomplete transesterification reaction, traces of alcohol (ethanol or methanol) or remaining raw material (vegetable oil or animal fats) may be harmful to consumers, the environment or to engines. Traditional methods for biodiesel assessment are complex, time consuming and expensive, leading to the need for the development of new and more versatile processes for quality control. This work describes a refractometric fibre optic based sensor that is thermally assisted, developed to quantify the remaining methanol or vegetable oil in biodiesel blends. The sensing relies on a long period grating to configure an in-fibre interferometer. A complete analytical routine is demonstrated for the sensor allowing the evaluation of the biodiesel blends without segregation of the components. The results show the sensor can determine the presence of oil or methanol in biodiesel with a concentration ranging from 0% to 10% v/v. The sensor presented a resolution and standard combined uncertainty of 0.013% v/v and 0.62% v/v for biodiesel-oil samples, and 0.007% v/v and 0.22% v/v for biodiesel-methanol samples, respectively.
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  212. Thlaspi arvense oil: content and potential use for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    CasteIli, G. C.; Ravasio, N.; Zaccheria, F. 2015. Thlaspi arvense oil: content and potential use for biodiesel production. Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse. 92(4) 253-256

    The extraction and analysis of Thlaspi arvense oil was carried out using laboratory methods. Thlaspi arvense is a plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, more commonly known as Field Pennycress. The gaschromatographic analysis results show that the oil is rich in erucic acid, a characteristic shared by the Brassicaceae.
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  213. Ultrasonic Assisted Transesterification of Neem Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Bahadur, S.; Goyal, P.; Sudhakar, K. 2015. Ultrasonic Assisted Transesterification of Neem Oil for Biodiesel Production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(17) 1921-1927

    In this experimental study, neem oil has been used as raw material for producing biodiesel using both ultrasonic transesterification and a magnetic stirrer method. A two-step transesterification process was carried out for optimum condition of 0.45 V/V methanol to oil ratio, 0.75% V/V sulphuric acid catalyst, 60 degrees C and 60 min reaction time followed by treatment with 0.2% V/V methanol to oil ratio, 1.2% KOH alkaline catalyst, 60 degrees C and 60 min reaction time. The process is repeated with an ultrasonic method at the frequency of 20 KHz and ultrasonic power of 200 W for about 5-10 min. Biodiesel obtained from ultrasonic method and magnetic stirrer was then compared for their percentage yield and physiochemical properties. Ultrasonic transesterification process gave a maximum yield of 98.01% by weight of neem biodiesel along with better physiochemical characteristics. Therefore, it is concluded that ultrasonic is the most effective method for converting crude neem oil into biodiesel.
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  214. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil
    Abstract

    Saez-Bastante, J.; Ortega-Roman, C.; Pinzi, S.; Lara-Raya, F. R.; Leiva-Candia, D. E.; Dorado, M. P. 2015. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil. Bioresource Technology. 185116-124

    The main drawbacks of biodiesel production are high reaction temperatures, stirring and time. These could be alleviated by aiding transesterification with alternative energy sources, i.e. ultrasound (US). In this study, biodiesel was obtained from Camelina sativa oil, aided with an ultrasonic probe (20 kHz, 70% duty cycle, 50% amplitude). Design of experiments included the combination of sonication and agitation cycles, w/wo heating (50 degrees C). To gain knowledge about the implications of the proposed methodology, conventional transesterification was optimized, resulting in higher needs on catalyst concentration and reaction time, compared to the proposed reaction. Although FAME content met EN 14103 standard, FAME yields were lower than those provided by US-assisted transesterification. Energy consumption measurements showed that ultrasound assisted transesterification required lower energy, temperature, catalyst and reaction time. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  215. Use of HZSM-5 modified with citric acid as acid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production via esterification of oleic acid
    Abstract

    Vieira, S. S.; Magriotis, Z. M.; Ribeiro, M. F.; Graca, I.; Fernandes, A.; Lopes, J. M. F. M.; Coelho, S. M.; Santos, N. A. V.; Saczk, A. A. 2015. Use of HZSM-5 modified with citric acid as acid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production via esterification of oleic acid. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials. 201160-168

    In this study, the efficiency of citric acid as dealumination agent was evaluated in the case of zeolite HZSM-5 by varying the experimental conditions, namely concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol L-1) and treatment temperature (60 and 80 degrees C). The effect of the CA treatment on structural, textural and acidity properties of the starting HZSM-5 material was monitored using XRD, N-2 sorption and FTIR (pyridine and collidine) measurements. Heptane and methylcyclohexane cracking model reactions were used to evaluate the catalytic behavior of the modified materials, in terms of acid strength and active sites accessibility. The modified catalysts were tested in the esterification reaction, using oleic acid as reagent and different oleic acid/methanol molar ratios. All the results show the beneficial effect of the citric acid treatment on the physicochemical properties of the final materials, with an improvement of the external acidity, a crucial parameter for the reaction considered, i.e. the oleic acid esterification. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  216. Used Vegetable Oil (UVO) As a Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in South Africa
    Abstract

    Thaba, E. C.; Mbohwa, C.; Pradhan, A. 2015. Used Vegetable Oil (UVO) As a Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in South Africa. 2015 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (Ieom).

    Although there has been much debate about biodiesel production, only now is the government showing real interest in the sector. Small scale biodiesel production has been running for more than a decade, despite all the challenges faced by biodiesel producers. The industry remains gripped by so many challenges hampering its prospects for economic development, employment creation and alternative energy production. This paper argues that there is a need for comprehensive government support, including the protection and availing of UVO to local producers if the emerging industry should sustain.
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  217. Valuing crop diversity in biodiesel production plans
    Abstract

    Baglivi, A.; Fiorese, G.; Guariso, G.; Ugge, C. 2015. Valuing crop diversity in biodiesel production plans. Energy. 932351-2362

    The problem of defining efficient and environmentally compatible short-term agricultural plans for biodiesel exploitation is dealt with in this paper with a multi-objective modelling framework. To optimally use local resources, the first phase of the plan consists in the analysis of land and climate features in order to evaluate which energy crop can be successfully grown. This phase is performed at local scale using GIS (geographic information system) data and software. The second phase consists in the formulation of a multi-objective mathematical programming problem. Using the land to be cultivated in each parcel with each crop as decision variables, we solve a three objectives problem: the maximization of the net energy produced, of the greenhouse gases avoided with respect to conventional fossil fuels and of the diversity of the energy crop mix. The last is quantitatively measured using a well-known biodiversity index, which allows to study the trade-off between a more varied crop mix and the other two objectives along the frontier of Pareto efficient solutions. The proposed methodology is applied to a region of Mato Grosso, Brazil, where biodiesel is produced from oleaginous crops. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  218. A Comparison Between Ethanol and Biodiesel Production: The Brazilian and European Experiences
    Abstract

    Shikida, P. F. A.; Finco, A.; Cardoso, B. F.; Galante, V. A.; Rahmeier, D.; Bentivoglio, D.; Rasetti, M. 2014. A Comparison Between Ethanol and Biodiesel Production: The Brazilian and European Experiences. Liquid Biofuels: Emergence, Development and Prospects. 2725-53

    Industrialized countries' dependence on fossil fuels has been distressing for a long time for countries that do not have self-sufficiency, whether for environmental, economic, geopolitical, or other reasons. In this context, it is understood that the burning of fossil fuels contributes to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) increasing the risk of intensifying climatic disturbances that can deteriorate the processes of production, consumption, and welfare in the world. Therefore, the development of alternative energy sources can provide solutions for the gaps, since reducing exposure to the vulnerability of supply and price volatility, environmental issues, and even the development of new investment opportunities in these countries. This is due to the possibility of developing innovations in the production and processing industry, which would contribute to the economic activity. Thus, increasing the use of bioenergy is one of the existing ways to reconcile the need to expand the supply of energy with the slowdown in global warming, i.e., the most important and disseminated use would be the biomass power generated by the consumption of biofuels, once it reduces GGE emissions.
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  219. A facile synthesis strategy for structural property control of mesoporous alumina and its effect on catalysis for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Wu, W.; Wan, Z. J.; Chen, W.; Yang, H.; Zhang, D. K. 2014. A facile synthesis strategy for structural property control of mesoporous alumina and its effect on catalysis for biodiesel production. Advanced Powder Technology. 25(4) 1220-1226

    A facile synthesis route for the production of mesoporous alumina (MA) with tuneable structural properties including BET surface area, pore volume and pore size was systematically investigated by tailoring the amount of template P123 used in the synthesis. The general synthesis strategy was based on a sol-gel process by hydrolysis of aluminium isopropoxide associated with nonionic block copolymer (P123) as the template in a water system. The results showed that the addition of P123 played a crucial role in the synthesis process, leading to very regular variations in the surface area (146.6-261.6 m(2)/g), pore volume (0.164-2.152 cm(3)/g) and pore size (3.5-29.9 nm). MA-supported K species (MA-K) were prepared using KNO3 as the potassium precursor and adopted as the catalysts for biodiesel production. The introduction of K species to MA caused a reduction in the BET surface area and pore volume, but gave rise to a significant increase in pore size, especially when the K species was higher than 10%. K incorporation resulted in the formation of disordered, but significantly larger mesopores. In catalysis, by introducing 20% molar fraction of K species to MA, very high yield of biodiesel was achieved (92.2%) and further increased to 94.4% with 25% K. Based on the control of structural properties of MA, a series of MA-20K catalysts with the same K loading (20%) but different structural properties were prepared by varying P123 addition and were further tested in biodiesel synthesis. Higher biodiesel yields were obtained over the MAs with higher surface area, pore volume and bigger pore size, which were attributed to the reduced mass transfer limitation in catalysis. (c) 2014 The Society of Powder Technology Japan. Published by Elsevier B. V. and The Society of Powder Technology Japan. All rights reserved.
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  220. A mathematical model for polyhydroxybutyrate production by a wild type Bacillus megaterium using raw glycerol from biodiesel industry as sole carbon source
    Abstract

    Yanez, P. A. M.; Faccin, D. J. L.; Cardozo, N. S. M.; Escalante, H.; Combariza, M. Y.; Guzman, C. 2014. A mathematical model for polyhydroxybutyrate production by a wild type Bacillus megaterium using raw glycerol from biodiesel industry as sole carbon source. New Biotechnology. 31S176-S176

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  221. A novel SPES/PES catalytic membrane for production biodiesel: Optimization by central composite design
    Abstract

    Shi, W. Y.; Li, H. B.; Zhou, R. 2014. A novel SPES/PES catalytic membrane for production biodiesel: Optimization by central composite design. Materials Science, Mechanical Engineering and Applied Research. 628338-341

    A sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES)/polyethersulfone (PES) blend catalytic membrane was prepared and used as a heterogeneous catalyst in the esterification of oleic acid with methanol for producing biodiesel. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design(CCD) was used to optimize the three important reaction variables methanol/oleic acid mass ratio, catalytic membrane loading and reaction time for the esterification by SPES/PES blend catalytic membrane. The optimum condition for the esterification was as follows: methanol/oleic acid mass ratio 1: 1, catalytic membrane loading 1.66 meq/g, reaction time 6 h. The optimum predicted fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was 97.44% and the actual value was 98.64%. The above results shows that the RSM study based on CCD is adaptable for FAME yield studied for the current esterification system.
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  222. A Study of the Effects of Aeration and Agitation on the Properties and Production of Xanthan Gum from Crude Glycerin Derived from Biodiesel Using the Response Surface Methodology
    Abstract

    Assis, D. D.; Brando, L. V.; Costa, L. A. D.; Figueiredo, T. V. B.; Sousa, L. S.; Padilha, F. F.; Druzian, J. I. 2014. A Study of the Effects of Aeration and Agitation on the Properties and Production of Xanthan Gum from Crude Glycerin Derived from Biodiesel Using the Response Surface Methodology. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 172(5) 2769-2785

    The effects of aeration and agitation on the properties and production of xanthan gum from crude glycerin biodiesel (CGB) by Xanthomonas campestris mangiferaeindicae 2103 were investigated and optimized using a response surface methodology. The xanthan gum was produced from CGB in a bioreactor at 28 A degrees C for 120 h. Optimization procedures indicated that 0.97 vvm at 497.76 rpm resulted in a xanthan gum production of 5.59 g L-1 and 1.05 vvm at 484.75 rpm maximized the biomass to 3.26 g L-1. Moreover, the combination of 1.05 vvm at 499.40 rpm maximized the viscosity of xanthan at 0.5 % (m/v), 25 A degrees C, and 25 s(-1) (255.40 mPa s). The other responses did not generate predictive models. Low agitation contributed to the increase of xanthan gum production, biomass, viscosity, molecular mass, and the pyruvic acid concentration. Increases in the agitation contributed to the formation of xanthan gum with high mannose concentration. Decreases in the aeration contributed to the xanthan gum production and the formation of biopolymer with high mannose and glucose concentrations. Increases in aeration contributed to increased biomass, viscosity, and formation of xanthan gum with greater resistance to thermal degradation. Overall, aeration and agitation of CGB fermentation significantly influenced the production of xanthan gum and its properties.
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  223. A study of the effects of aeration and agitation on the properties and production of xanthan gum from crude glycerin derived from biodiesel using the response surface methodology
    Abstract

    de Jesus Assis, D.; Brandao, L. V.; de Sousa Costa, L. A.; Figueiredo, T. V.; Sousa, L. S.; Padilha, F. F.; Druzian, J. I. 2014. A study of the effects of aeration and agitation on the properties and production of xanthan gum from crude glycerin derived from biodiesel using the response surface methodology. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 172(5) 2769-85

    The effects of aeration and agitation on the properties and production of xanthan gum from crude glycerin biodiesel (CGB) by Xanthomonas campestris mangiferaeindicae 2103 were investigated and optimized using a response surface methodology. The xanthan gum was produced from CGB in a bioreactor at 28 degrees C for 120 h. Optimization procedures indicated that 0.97 vvm at 497.76 rpm resulted in a xanthan gum production of 5.59 g L(-1) and 1.05 vvm at 484.75 rpm maximized the biomass to 3.26 g L(-1). Moreover, the combination of 1.05 vvm at 499.40 rpm maximized the viscosity of xanthan at 0.5% (m/v), 25 degrees C, and 25 s(-1) (255.40 mPa s). The other responses did not generate predictive models. Low agitation contributed to the increase of xanthan gum production, biomass, viscosity, molecular mass, and the pyruvic acid concentration. Increases in the agitation contributed to the formation of xanthan gum with high mannose concentration. Decreases in the aeration contributed to the xanthan gum production and the formation of biopolymer with high mannose and glucose concentrations. Increases in aeration contributed to increased biomass, viscosity, and formation of xanthan gum with greater resistance to thermal degradation. Overall, aeration and agitation of CGB fermentation significantly influenced the production of xanthan gum and its properties.
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  224. Acetone Cataluminescence as an Indicator for Evaluation of Heterogeneous Base Catalysts in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Zhang, L. J.; Chen, Y. C.; He, N.; Lu, C. 2014. Acetone Cataluminescence as an Indicator for Evaluation of Heterogeneous Base Catalysts in Biodiesel Production. Analytical Chemistry. 86(1) 870-875

    Rapid and effective evaluation techniques for heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production are highly desirable with increased global demand for biofuels. In this work, we have discovered direct connections between the number of medium-strength basic sites of heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production and cataluminescence intensity in acetone aldol condensation reactions. Accordingly, acetone cataluminescence has been employed as an indicator for rapid evaluation of heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production. Its practical feasibility has been first established using commercially available heterogeneous base catalysts in biodiesel production (including MgO, Al2O3, TiO2, and ZnO), indicating a good matching between the proposed cataluminescence screening method and routine temperature-programmed desorption measurements. Subsequently, the proposed cataluminescence method can be used to effectively distinguish a set of layered double hydroxides and layered double oxide with fewer differences of basic sites, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the proposed method is 2.90%. The developed cataluminescence platform is able to take advantage of low cost, simple configuration, fast response, long-term stability, and easy operation. This work has a great potential in distinguishing weak/strong basic sites and even acidic sites of each catalyst system by tuning molecular probes.
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  225. Analysis on Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production Rate Based on Probability Theory
    Abstract

    Yi, W.; Jing, Z.; Mu, Z.; Zhang, Y. D. 2014. Analysis on Factors Affecting Biodiesel Production Rate Based on Probability Theory. Energy Development, Pts 1-4. 860-8631030-+

    Biodiesel orthogonal experiments require large amount of experimental data collected and in order to save experimental time, referring to the correlation coefficients analysis in probability theory, the factors which affect the yield of biodiesel are analyzed. Under the same reaction temperature, the range order is as follows: the molar ration of alcohol to oil, the dosage of catalyst and reaction of time. At the same time, it provides theoretical guidance for obtaining optimum reaction conditions.
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  226. Application of the Taguchi Method for the Optimization of Effective Parameters on the Safflower Seed Oil Methyl Ester Production
    Abstract

    Karabas, H. 2014. Application of the Taguchi Method for the Optimization of Effective Parameters on the Safflower Seed Oil Methyl Ester Production. International Journal of Green Energy. 11(9) 1002-1012

    In this study, safflower seed oil for biodiesel production is examined. The oil extraction process from safflower seeds and transesterification process for biodiesel production are investigated. Although, there are many factors related with the production of the biodiesel, the four factors are only determined such as molar ratio of alcohol to oil, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time. Taguchi experimental design is used for the production of safflower seed oil methyl ester by using process parameter optimization. The orthogonal array, signal/noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variances are employed to find out the optimal process parameters. The optimal conditions of process parameters are determined as 1:6 molar ratio of alcohol to oil, catalyst concentration 0.3 wt %, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, and 45-min reaction time by using NaOH as catalyst in experimental studies. According to Taguchi method, the most efficient process parameter is molar ratio of alcohol to oil in producing safflower seed oil methyl ester. Finally, the conversion rate of safflower seed oil methyl ester is produced to 98% with the optimal conditions of the process parameters, which are obtained by Taguchi method.
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  227. Applying green chemistry principles in an investigation of alternative transesterification catalysts and wash methods in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ackley, B.; Brush, E. J. 2014. Applying green chemistry principles in an investigation of alternative transesterification catalysts and wash methods in biodiesel production. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 247

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  228. Biodiesel Exhaust Induced Cytotoxicity and Pro-Inflammatory Mediator Production in Healthy Human Airway Epithelial Cells
    Abstract

    Larcombe, A.; Kicic, A.; Ling, K.; Mead-Hunter, R.; Mullins, B. 2014. Biodiesel Exhaust Induced Cytotoxicity and Pro-Inflammatory Mediator Production in Healthy Human Airway Epithelial Cells. Respirology. 1944-44

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  229. Biodiesel production from baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) seed kernel oil and its fuel properties
    Abstract

    Modiba, E.; Osifo, P.; Rutto, H. 2014. Biodiesel production from baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) seed kernel oil and its fuel properties. Industrial Crops and Products. 5950-54

    This paper reports on the production of biodiesel from baobab (Adansonia digitata L) seed kernel oil, its fuel properties are evaluated which its finding are limited. The transesterification of baobab oil was carried out using sodium methoxide as a homogeneous catalyst. One factor at a time experimental design was used to study the effect of temperature (30-70 degrees C), time (0.5-2.5 h), catalyst to oil ratio (0.7-3.5 wt.%) and methanol to oil ratio (10-50 wt.%) on the transesterification of baobab oil. Optimum biodiesel production conditions were as follows: reaction temperature (60 degrees C), reaction time (1 h), catalyst to oil ratio (1.4 wt.%) and methanol to oil ratio (30 wt.%). An optimum biodiesel yield of 96 wt.% was obtained. Important fuel properties such kinematic viscosity, density, flash point, pour point, cloud point, oxidation stability and cetane number were measured and compared to the biodiesel properties in the European and American biodiesel standards (EN and ASTM standard). Results show that important fuel properties of biodiesel from baobab oil met both EN and ASTM standard. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  230. Biodiesel production from Camptotheca acuminata seed oil catalyzed by novel Bronsted-Lewis acidic ionic liquid
    Abstract

    Li, J.; Peng, X.; Luo, M.; Zhao, C. J.; Gu, C. B.; Zu, Y. G.; Fu, Y. J. 2014. Biodiesel production from Camptotheca acuminata seed oil catalyzed by novel Bronsted-Lewis acidic ionic liquid. Applied Energy. 115438-444

    In the present research, microwave-assisted biodiesel production from Camptotheca acuminata seed oil catalyzed by novel Bronsted-Lewis acidic ionic liquid (IL) was investigated. A series of IL catalysts were prepared using Bronsted acidic IL [BSO3HMIM]HSO4 with various metal sulfates for the first time, and the catalytic mechanism of transesterification reaction using the prepared Bronsted-Lewis acidic IL was clarified. The results showed that [BSO3HMIM]HSO4-Fe-2(SO4)(3) represented a superior catalytic activity. Meanwhile, the parameters affecting the microwave-assisted conversion process were studied. A high conversion yield (95.7%) was achieved in short duration (about 60 min) under relatively low (60 degrees C). Analyzing the FAMEs composition by GC-MS and main properties demonstrated that the biodiesel product prepared from C acuminata seed oil was of high quality. In addition, a kinetic model was established for the conversion process. The results showed that microwave-assisted biodiesel production catalyzed by Bronsted-Lewis acidic IL was an efficient and environment-friendly technology for bioenergy industry. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  231. Biodiesel production from esterification of free fatty acid over PA/NaY solid catalyst
    Abstract

    Liu, W.; Yin, P.; Zhang, J.; Tang, Q. H.; Qu, R. J. 2014. Biodiesel production from esterification of free fatty acid over PA/NaY solid catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 8283-91

    Because of the incitements from increasing petroleum prices, diminishing petroleum reserves and the environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum fueled engines, biodiesel has been used as a substitute of the regular diesel in recent years. In this paper, biodiesel production from the esterification of the free fatty oil oleic acid with ethanol catalyzed by PA/NaY (PA = organic phosphonic acid) was investigated, and the effect of reaction conditions such as PA loading, catalyst amount, molar ratio of alcohol to acid, reaction temperature and reaction time on the esterification reaction was examined. The process optimization using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed and the interactions between the operational variables were elucidated. The optimum values for maximum conversion ratio of oleic acid could be obtained by using a Box-Behnken center-united design with a minimum of experimental work. The oleic acid conversion reached 79.51 +/- 0.68% with the molar ratio of alcohol to oleic acid being 7:1 and 1.7 g PA/NaY catalyst (20 ml of PA loading) at 105 degrees C for 7 h. Moreover, a kinetic model for the esterification catalyzed by PA/NaY catalyst was established. By fitting the kinetic model with the experimental results, the reaction order n = 2, activation energy of the positive reaction Ea+ = 43.41 kJ/mol and that of the reverse reaction Ea- = 59.74 kJ/mol were obtained. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  232. Biodiesel production from Trichilia emetica seeds using in-situ transesterification
    Abstract

    Adinew, B. 2014. Biodiesel production from Trichilia emetica seeds using in-situ transesterification. Bulgarian Chemical Communications. 46(2) 334-338

    The main purpose of this research work was production of biodiesel from trichilia emetic seeds by in-situ transesterification. The process was studied at reaction temperature 80 degrees C and reaction time 100min. The physico-chemical parameters of the biodiesel were checked by ASTM D 6751 standards. In this study, copper strip corrosion, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, ash content have 1 a, 5.44mm(2)/s, 18 degrees C and 0.062% respectively. These values satisfy the quality criteria of biodiesel set by ASTM D6751. However, the flash point and the acid values of biodiesel don't meet the quality criteria set by ASTM D6751, due to the presence of unreacted (residual) alcohol and residual mineral acids from the production process respectively. In other words, 60% the physico-chemical properties of the biodiesel satisfies the quality criteria set by ASTM D6751 and pretreatment of the seeds is necessary to increases the quality of biodiesel.
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  233. Biodiesel production from used vegetable oil collected from shops selling fritters in Kolkata
    Abstract

    Banerjee, N.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Jash, T. 2014. Biodiesel production from used vegetable oil collected from shops selling fritters in Kolkata. 4 International Conference on Advances in Energy Research (Icaer 2013). 54161-165

    Used vegetable oil is an important feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel has been produced from used vegetable oil collected from shops selling fritters in Kolkata. Transesterification is affected by factors like oil to alcohol ratio, concentration of catalyst used, temperature, stirring rate and reaction time. The process parameters were optimized and a maximum biodiesel yield of 94% has been achieved. Important properties of the biodiesel like density, flash point, calorific value and viscosity have also been estimated. (c) 2014 Ritica Ramakrishnan. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  234. Biodiesel production from yeast Cryptococcus sp using Jerusalem artichoke
    Abstract

    Sung, M.; Seo, Y. H.; Han, S.; Han, J. I. 2014. Biodiesel production from yeast Cryptococcus sp using Jerusalem artichoke. Bioresource Technology. 15577-83

    Jerusalem artichoke was investigated as a cheap substrate for the heterotrophic production using a lab yeast strain Cryptococcus sp. Using Response Surface Method, 54.0% of fructose yield was achieved at 12% of dried Jerusalem artichoke powder, 0.57% of nitric acid concentration, 117 degrees C of reaction temperature, and 49 min of reaction time. At this optimal condition, nitric acid showed the best catalytic activity toward inulin hydrolysis and also the resulting fructose hydrolyte supported the highest microbial growth compared with other acids. In addition, lipid productivity of 1.73 g/L/d was achieved, which is higher than a defined medium using pure fructose as a substrate. Lipid quality was also found to be generally satisfactory as a feedstock for fuel, demonstrating Jerusalem artichoke could indeed be a good and cheap option for the purpose of biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  235. Biodiesel production via esterification of oleic acid catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia
    Abstract

    Zhang, Y.; Wong, W. T.; Yung, K. F. 2014. Biodiesel production via esterification of oleic acid catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia. Applied Energy. 116191-198

    Biodiesel is a promising renewable alternative to fossil energy. Biodiesel production from low-cost feedstock involves an essential pretreatment step - esterification of free fatty acids (e.g. oleic acid), for avoiding soap formation and catalyst deactivation. Sulfuric acid modified zirconia (H2SO4-ZrO2) is known to be an effective heterogeneous catalyst for this reaction. However, due to rapid SO,- leaching, its reusability is low and its practical use is thus largely hindered. Herein, we report a more stable solid acid analogue for the reaction, chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia (HClSO3-ZrO2). It was characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, EDX, IR, TGA, and NH3-TPD. Compared with H2SO4-ZrO2, there is over 3 times more sulfur content and nearly 4 times more acid sites amount for HClSO3-ZrO2. More importantly, HClSO3-ZrO2 demonstrates high catalytic activity and long durability in esterification of oleic acid, in which the fatty acid methyl ester yield reaches 100% consecutively for at least 5 cycles under mild conditions. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  236. Biodiesel production via transesterification in a mixed carbon dioxide-methanol system with a heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Soh, L.; Chen, C. C.; Zimmerman, J.; Beckman, E. J. 2014. Biodiesel production via transesterification in a mixed carbon dioxide-methanol system with a heterogeneous catalyst. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 248

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  237. Bioenergy as a means to social and economic development in Guinea-Bissau: a proposal for a biodiesel production and use program
    Abstract

    Dos Santos, M. S.; Ianda, T. F.; Padula, A. D. 2014. Bioenergy as a means to social and economic development in Guinea-Bissau: a proposal for a biodiesel production and use program. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology. 21(6) 495-502

    Given that agro-industrial activity is widely seen as a means of promoting development and the production of bioenergy has come to be considered a means of both fostering socioeconomic development and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the production of biodiesel would appear to be a means of promoting development in developing countries. The situation of Guinea-Bissau suggests the country may benefit from a biodiesel production program. Thus, this paper uses Brazil's experience with biodiesel as a basis for proposing a framework for a Biodiesel Program in Guinea-Bissau. The proposed framework includes the following elements related to public policy, regulations, organizations and mechanisms: (i) introduction of biodiesel through the creation and implementation of laws and regulations; (ii) an Inter-ministerial Executive Committee to plan, coordinate and manage the program; (iii) promotion, incentives and support for agricultural and agro-industrial production by providing tax benefits for specific links of the chain, creating incentive programs for different oilseeds and establishing programs that support family farming; and (iv) the creation and installation of representative bodies for the stakeholders involved in the chain, such as small farmers cooperatives, national association of biodiesel producers, R&D and rural extension programs.
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  238. Biological co-production of ethanol and biodiesel from wheat straw: a case of dilute acid pretreatment
    Abstract

    Morikawa, Y.; Zhao, X. B.; Liu, D. H. 2014. Biological co-production of ethanol and biodiesel from wheat straw: a case of dilute acid pretreatment. Rsc Advances. 4(71) 37878-37888

    A process for co-production of ethanol and biodiesel from wheat straw was proposed. Dilute acid prehydrolysis of hemicellulose followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose were optimized to maximize recovery of total sugars. It was found that xylose yield obtained by super-dilute acid (0-0.1%) pretreatment under the experimental conditions was too low. By using moderate conditions (140-160 degrees C) with higher sulfuric acid concentration (0.3-0.6%), xylose recovery could be greatly increased to 60-70%. The relatively optimum conditions for dilute acid pretreatment were 0.5% H2SO4 at 140 degrees C for 1 h. 15.1 g L (-1) ethanol with approximately 58% of theoretical yield obtained by SSF of the pretreated solid. The hydrolyzate was directly converted to microbial lipid using a mutagenized Rhodosporidium toruloides. The extracted lipid was well converted to biodiesel with 90% conversion ratio under the catalysis of immobilized lipase. Mass balance showed that 0.80 g biodiesel and 10.1 g ethanol were produced from 100 g of wheat straw. This work thus can provide a novel idea for biological production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass.
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  239. Biorefinery development based on sunflower-based biodiesel industry by-products for the production of microbial oil and value-added products
    Abstract

    Leiva-Candia, D.; Tsakona, S.; Kopsahelis, N.; Garcia, I. L.; Papanikolaou, S.; Dorado, M. P.; Koutinas, A. 2014. Biorefinery development based on sunflower-based biodiesel industry by-products for the production of microbial oil and value-added products. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 247

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  240. Catalytic deoxygenation of C-18 fatty acids for production of biodiesel by Ir/SAPO-11
    Abstract

    Chen, H.; Wang, Q. F.; Zhang, X. W.; Wang, L. 2014. Catalytic deoxygenation of C-18 fatty acids for production of biodiesel by Ir/SAPO-11. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 247

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  241. Catalytic performance of acidic ionic liquid-functionalized silica in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zhen, B.; Jiao, Q. Z.; Wu, Q.; Li, H. S. 2014. Catalytic performance of acidic ionic liquid-functionalized silica in biodiesel production. Journal of Energy Chemistry. 23(1) 97-104

    Acidic ionic liquid ([BsAIm][OTf]) was immobilized on sulfhydryl-group-modified SiO2 (MPS-SiO2) via free radical addition reaction. The [BsAIm][OTf] loading on acidic ionic liquid-functionalized silica ([BsAIm][OTf]/SiO2) was controlled through tuning the sulfydryl (SH) content of MPS-SiO2. All the samples were characterized by FT-W, elemental analysis, N-2 adsorption-desorption measurements and TG-DTA. The catalytic performance of [BsAIm][OTf]/SiO2 in the esterification of oleic acid and the transesterification of glycerol trioleate for biodiesel production was investigated. The results showed that with the increase of [BsAIm][OTf] loading on SiO2 the specific surface area and pore volume of [BsAIm][OTf]/SiO2 decreased, and the pore diameter of [BsAIm][OTf]/SiO2 narrowed. In the esterificaiton of oleic acid, the oleic acid conversion increased with the increasing [BsAIm][OTf] loading. In the transesterification of glycerol trioleate, with the increasing [BsAIm][OTf] loading the glycerol trioleate conversion decreased and the selectivities to glycerol monooleate and methyl oleate increased.
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  242. Combined Production of Biodiesel and Nontoxic Cottonseed Meal Using Two-Step Two-Phase Solvent Extraction
    Abstract

    Cao, J. J.; Wang, F.; Fan, H.; Yun, Z. 2014. Combined Production of Biodiesel and Nontoxic Cottonseed Meal Using Two-Step Two-Phase Solvent Extraction. Chemical Engineering & Technology. 37(6) 1030-1036

    The preparation of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed by two-step two-phase solvent extraction (TS-TSE) combined with the transesterification reaction was investigated. The TS-TSE process could significantly reduce the biodiesel production costs when compared with the two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) process due to the reduction in methanol. A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the effects of some factors on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield and free gossypol (FG) content. These conditions resulted in a maximum FAME yield and reduced the FG content in the cottonseed meal far below the Food and Drug Administration standard. The nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal feed protein source.
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  243. Combustion synthesis of the MgAl2O4 using glycerin from the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    de Moraes, G. G.; Bonin, L.; de Moraes, E. G.; Donadel, K.; Barp, K.; de Oliveira, A. P. N. 2014. Combustion synthesis of the MgAl2O4 using glycerin from the production of biodiesel. 20th Brazilian Conference on Materials Science and Engineering. 775-776682-+

    This work aims to investigate the glycerin from the biodiesel as fuel in the combustion synthesis into two routes, one for high temperature called direct route, in order to inhibit the formation of acrolein and compare it with the conventional combustion synthesis at low temperatures, using as fuels saccharose, pure glycerin, pure glycerin gel, glycerin from biodiesel, biodiesel from glycerin dried 24 h, biodiesel from glycerin gel dried 24 h to obtain the magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4). The synthesis was performed from the mixture of the precursors (Al(NO3)(3)center dot 9H(2)O and Mg(NO3)(2)center dot 6H(2)O) in water with the addition of the fuels. In the direct route case, the mixture was placed in a furnace heated to 500 degrees C followed by calcination at different temperatures for 2 h. In the conventional route cases, the mixtures were slowly heated to 800 degrees C for 2 h. The obtained powders, product of the combustion reactions, were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser scattering particle size analyzer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the product (powder) obtained by direct reaction was the MgAl2O4 as the only crystalline phase formed with particle sizes of approximately 41 mu m. Even so, small particles with sizes of about 30 nm were also observed according to measurements on SEM images.
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  244. Commercial demonstration of biorefinery of lipids - coproduction of biodiesel and 1,3-propanediol
    Abstract

    Liu, D. H. 2014. Commercial demonstration of biorefinery of lipids - coproduction of biodiesel and 1,3-propanediol. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 248

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  245. Comparison of Thraustochytrids Aurantiochytrium sp., Schizochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp., and Ulkenia sp. for production of biodiesel, long-chain omega-3 oils, and exopolysaccharide
    Abstract

    Lee Chang, K. J.; Nichols, C. M.; Blackburn, S. I.; Dunstan, G. A.; Koutoulis, A.; Nichols, P. D. 2014. Comparison of Thraustochytrids Aurantiochytrium sp., Schizochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp., and Ulkenia sp. for production of biodiesel, long-chain omega-3 oils, and exopolysaccharide. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 16(4) 396-411

    Heterotrophic growth of thraustochytrids has potential in coproducing biodiesel for transportation, as well as producing a feedstock for omega-3 long-chain (>/=C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for use in nutraceuticals. In this study, we compared eight new endemic Australian thraustochytrid strains from the genera Aurantiochytrium, Schizochytrium, Thraustochytrium, and Ulkenia for the synthesis of exopolysaccharide (EPS), in addition to biodiesel and LC-PUFA. Aurantiochytrium sp. strains readily utilized glucose for biomass production, and increasing glucose from 2 to 4 % w/v of the culture medium resulted in increased biomass yield by an average factor of 1.7. Ulkenia sp. strain TC 010 and Thraustochytrium sp. strain TC 033 did not utilize glucose, while Schizochytrium sp. strain TC 002 utilized less than half the glucose available by day 14, and Thraustochytrium sp. strain TC 004 utilized glucose at 4 % w/v but not 2 % w/v of the culture suggesting a threshold requirement between these values. Across all strains, increasing glucose from 2 to 4 % w/v of the culture medium resulted in increased total fatty acid methyl ester content by an average factor of 1.9. Despite an increasing literature demonstrating the capacity of thraustochytrids for DHA synthesis, the production of EPS from these organisms is not well documented. A broad range of EPS yields was observed. The maximum yield of EPS was observed for Schizochytrium sp. strain TC 002 (299 mg/L). High biomass-producing strains that also have high lipid and high EPS yield may be better candidates for commercial production of biofuels and other coproducts.
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  246. Continuous flow vortex fluidic production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Britton, J.; Raston, C. L. 2014. Continuous flow vortex fluidic production of biodiesel. Rsc Advances. 4(91) 49850-49854

    A thin film vortex fluid device (VFD) is effective in the room temperature continuous flow conversion of sunflower oil to biodiesel. Optimised VFD operating parameters affords high purity biodiesel, with no saponification, without the need for the otherwise conventional use of a co-solvent or the use of complex catalysts, with improved green chemistry metrics for biodiesel production. The biodiesel, glycerol byproduct and catalyst also spontaneously separate post-VFD processing, and the catalyst can then be readily recycled three times without the need for further complex down-streaming processing.
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  247. De novo assembly of a mesoporous beta zeolite with intracrystalline channels and its catalytic performance for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zhang, Q. Q.; Ming, W. X.; Ma, J. H.; Zhang, J. L.; Wang, P.; Li, R. F. 2014. De novo assembly of a mesoporous beta zeolite with intracrystalline channels and its catalytic performance for biodiesel production. Journal of Materials Chemistry A. 2(23) 8712-8718

    A mesoporous beta zeolite was hydrothermally prepared directly by silanizing silica without any mesoporous template via the bond-blocking principle. Si-C bond-blocking arose during the crystalline growth. The crystallization took more than 10 days, but the material had a fairly stable structure and could even be processed up to 32 days later in the hydrothermal system. XRD, N-2-adsorption/desorption and TEM/SEM characterization of the materials indicated that the beta zeolite is truly a sponge-like mesoporous zeolite with a BEA topological structure, which consists of self-sustaining macroscopic sized zeolitic aggregates assembled from nanosized crystalline domains of beta zeolite with intracrystalline mesopores. The mesoporous beta zeolite possessed an extremely large external surface area and adjustable mesoporosity. Compared to conventional beta zeolite, FTIR results of pyridine (Py) and 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine (DTBPy) demonstrated an increase of the Lewis-site contribution and a large improvement for the accessibility of bulky molecules in the mesoporous beta zeolite. Finally the mesoporous beta zeolite exhibited significant activity in the transesterification reaction of triolein to afford methyl oleate (biodiesel) due to the accessibility increase and diffusion-limitation reduction of large lipids to acid sites in the H-beta zeolite framework.
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  248. Dealing with the surplus of glycerol production from biodiesel industry through catalytic upgrading to polyglycerols and other value-added products
    Abstract

    Gholami, Z.; Abdullah, A. Z.; Lee, K. T. 2014. Dealing with the surplus of glycerol production from biodiesel industry through catalytic upgrading to polyglycerols and other value-added products. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 39327-341

    An increase in glycerol production is expected because of the increasing use of fuel additives such as methyl esters. This increase can enhance the importance of glycerol as a cheap raw material for producing value-added products. Future scenarios for worldwide glycerol market will mostly be related to the supply and demand of glycerol and its application in other industries. Much research have been developed and continuously investigated to convert low-value glycerol using different strategies and approaches. Due to the unique structure of glycerol, properties and renewability feature of it, new opportunities for the transformation of glycerol into high-valued chemicals have merged in recent years. This paper provides a review on glycerol, global market of glycerol and conversion of glycerol to value-added products. Catalytic etherification of glycerol to value-added products such as polyglycerols is particularly reviewed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  249. Development of a thermoeconomic methodology for optimizing biodiesel production. Part II: Manufacture exergetic cost and biodiesel production cost incorporating carbon credits, a Brazilian case study
    Abstract

    Coronado, C. R.; Tuna, C. E.; Zanzi, R.; Vane, L. F.; Silveira, J. L. 2014. Development of a thermoeconomic methodology for optimizing biodiesel production. Part II: Manufacture exergetic cost and biodiesel production cost incorporating carbon credits, a Brazilian case study. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 29565-572

    The purpose of this study is to carry on a thermoeconomic analysis at a biodiesel production plant considering the irreversibilities in each step (part I: biodiesel plant under study and functional thermoeconomic diagram [1]), making it possible to calculate the thermoeconomic cost in US$/kWh and US$/1 of the biodiesel production, and the main byproduct generated, glycerin, incorporating the credits for the CO2 that is not emitted into the atmosphere (carbon credits). Assuming a sale price for both the biodiesel and the byproduct (glycerin), the annual revenue of the total investment in a plant with a capacity of 8000 t/year of biodiesel operating at 8000 h/year was calculated. The variables that directly or indirectly influence the final thermoeconomic cost include total annual biodiesel production, hours of operation, manufacturing exergy cost, molar ratio in the transesterification reaction, reaction temperature and pressure in the process. Depending on the increase or decrease in sale prices for both biodiesel and glycerin, the payback is going to significantly increase or decrease. It is evident that, in exergy terms, the sale of glycerin is of vital importance in order to reduce the biodiesel price, getting a shorter payback period for the plant under study. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  250. Development of simple and transferable molecular models for biodiesel production with the soft-SAFT equation of state
    Abstract

    Oliveira, M. B.; Freitas, S. V. D.; Llovell, F.; Vega, L. F.; Coutinho, J. A. P. 2014. Development of simple and transferable molecular models for biodiesel production with the soft-SAFT equation of state. Chemical Engineering Research & Design. 92(12) 2898-2911

    The knowledge of fatty acid esters/biodiesels thermodynamic properties is crucial not only for developing optimal biodiesel production and purification processes, but also for enhancing biodiesels performance in engines.
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  251. Effect of additives to supercritical methyl acetate on biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Goembira, F.; Saka, S. 2014. Effect of additives to supercritical methyl acetate on biodiesel production. Fuel Processing Technology. 125114-118

    Supercritical methyl acetate has been proven to convert triglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and triacetin. Due to the low reactivity of supercritical methyl acetate on triglycerides, reaction condition of 350 degrees C/20 MPa/45 min is needed to obtain the highest yield of 96.7 wt.% FAME and 8.8 wt% triacetin (total 105.5 wt.%). Yet, under such condition, thermal decomposition of products is inevitable, thus, further yield increments are hard to attain. This study was, therefore, done to know the possible use of additives in increasing the reaction rate of the supercritical process. Oleic acid, acetic acid, methanol and water were evaluated as additives. It was discovered that acetic acid and water additions improved the performance of supercritical methyl acetate method. Surprisingly, when both additives were used simultaneously as aqueous acetic acid, the higher yield was obtainable at a lower reaction temperature. The addition of 10 wt.% aqueous acetic acid (25 wt.% concentration) at 300 degrees C/20 MPa/45 min yielded 96.8 wt.% FAME and 12.9 wt.% triacetin (total 109.7 wt.%), thus, it is considered as a potential additive in biodiesel production by supercritical methyl acetate method. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  252. Encapsulation of Candida rugosa lipase in chitosan beads as biocatalyst for biodiesel production via non-alcohol route
    Abstract

    Hermansyah, H.; Faiz, M. B.; Sipangkar, I.; Arbianti, R. 2014. Encapsulation of Candida rugosa lipase in chitosan beads as biocatalyst for biodiesel production via non-alcohol route. New Biotechnology. 31S97-S98

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  253. Energy and economical comparison of possible cultures for a total-integrated on-field biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Allesina, G.; Pedrazzi, S.; Tebianian, S.; Muscio, A.; Tartarini, P. 2014. Energy and economical comparison of possible cultures for a total-integrated on-field biodiesel production. 31st Uit (Italian Union of Thermo-Fluid-Dynamics) Heat Transfer Conference 2013. 501

    This work is aimed at investigating the energy conversion effectiveness and the economical advantages of a total integrated solution for on-field biodiesel and electrical energy production. The system proposed here is based on the synergy of four sub-systems: a seed press for oil production, a downdraft gasifier, a biodiesel conversion plant and a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). Two possible culture rotations, suggested by literature review, were analyzed here from economical and energy balance points of view. Both the rotations were composed of oleaginous crops only, therefore the seeds collected from the different cultures were pressed, then the protein cake produced in the process was gasified in the downdraft reactor. The gasification process was modeled here, and its output suggested that, for a precise number of hectares, the syngas obtained through the cake gasification was enough for producing methanol required for oil-biodiesel conversion and feeding a 10-kW SOFC. The purge line in the methanol reactor was used in the SOFC as well. The system was simulated using ASPEN PEUS (TM) and MATEAB (TM) codes. Results of the SOFC and gasifier models underlined the capability of the fuel cell to work with this particular system, furthermore the whole system analysis suggested that the surface required for sustainability of the processes is a function of the rotation choice. In both cases little surfaces ranging from 11 to 21 hectares were found to be enough for system self-sustainability with a ROT under 7 years in all the operating conditions analyzed.
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  254. Enzymatic production of biodiesel that avoids glycerol as byproduct, by using immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae lipase
    Abstract

    Luna, C.; Verdugo, C.; Sancho, E. D.; Luna, D.; Calero, J.; Posadillo, A.; Bautista, F. M.; Romero, A. A. 2014. Enzymatic production of biodiesel that avoids glycerol as byproduct, by using immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae lipase. New Biotechnology. 31S94-S94

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  255. Ester interconversion: A new, more efficient approach to biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Struss, J. A.; Amato, D. J.; Logsdon, J. L.; Coombs, S. R. T. 2014. Ester interconversion: A new, more efficient approach to biodiesel production. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 247

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  256. Evaluation of potential biodiesel feedstock production from oleaginous insect Solenopsis sp.
    Abstract

    Bowling, J. J.; Anderson, J. B.; Armbrust, K. L.; Hamann, M. T. 2014. Evaluation of potential biodiesel feedstock production from oleaginous insect Solenopsis sp.. Fuel. 1175-7

    Oil production from single cells has been in development since the 1980s primarily for the pharmaceutical and neutraceutical industries, but the technology for using microorganisms to convert plant cellular material directly into oil is still undeveloped. The unusual amount of oil extracted from the imported fire ant (Solenopsis sp.) may be an indication of the presence of oleaginous microorganisms or enzymes supporting the digestion of raw sugars. Yield of the ant oil is 16% dry weight and contains most of the fatty acids also found in other biomass resources. Heat of combustion of the ant oil was 133,000 BTU/gal, an amount within the range of reported values for vegetable oil and biodiesel. This investigation also explores the potential source of the oil through stable isotope labeling and offers a unique perspective of a potentially new source of microorganisms or enzymes useful for reducing the cost of producing an alternative fuel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  257. Evaluation of single cell oil from Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum P10 isolated from mangrove ecosystems for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Wang, C. L.; Li, Y.; Xin, F. H.; Liu, Y. Y.; Chi, Z. M. 2014. Evaluation of single cell oil from Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum P10 isolated from mangrove ecosystems for biodiesel production. Process Biochemistry. 49(5) 725-731

    In this study, the yeast strain P10 which was identified to be a member of Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum isolated from the mangrove ecosystems was found to be able to accumulate high content of oil in its cells. After optimization of the medium for lipid production and cell growth by the yeast strain P10, it was found that 8.0 g of glucose per 100 ml, 0.02 g of yeast extract per 100 ml, 0.02 g of ammonium sulfate per 100 ml, pH 6.0 in the medium were the most suitable for lipid production. During 10-I fermentation, a titer was 66.3 g oil per 100 g of cell dry weight, cell mass was 1.3 g per 100 ml, a yield was 0.11 g of oil per g of consumed sugar and a productivity was 0.0009 g of oil per g of consumed sugar per h within 120 h. At the same time, only 0.07 g of reducing sugar per 100 ml was left in the fermented medium. The compositions of the fatty acids produced were C-16:0 (26.7%), C-16:1 (1.7%), C-18:0 (6.1%), C-18:1 (44.5%), and C-18:2 (21.0%). The biodiesel produced from the extracted lipid could be burnt well. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  258. Evaluation of the Behaviour of Objective Functions in the Optimization of a Batch Process for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Toth, L. R.; Torgyik, T.; Paor, D.; Nagy, L. 2014. Evaluation of the Behaviour of Objective Functions in the Optimization of a Batch Process for Biodiesel Production. Pres 2014, 17th Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction, Pts 1-3. 39703-708

    Modeling and optimisation of batch processes has been an emerging research field in the recent years. This work introduces the model based optimisation of a batch process, the production of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel). The aim of this work is to point out the importance of objective function formulation that greatly affects the optimal values of decision variables.
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  259. Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana S-ACP-DES3 in Escherichia coli for high-performance biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Scaglia, B.; Cassani, E.; Pilu, R.; Adani, F. 2014. Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana S-ACP-DES3 in Escherichia coli for high-performance biodiesel production. Rsc Advances. 4(108) 63387-63392

    The chemical characteristics of oil feedstocks greatly affect the physical properties of biodiesel. Bacteria, because of their very high growth-rate and their easy culture, can be used for making oilfeedstocks to produce biodiesel. In this way genetic transformation was recently applied to microorganisms to improve oil quality and hence biodiesel quality. In this work, Escherichia coli was genetically transformed by heterologous expression of Arabidopsis thaliana stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase3 (S-ACP-DES3): the cDNA coding for S-ACP-DES3 from Arabidopsis thaliana was cloned into the pET-15b vector and expressed in the E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain. The SACP-DES3 protein obtained was expressed in a soluble form after induction with IPTG and visualized by SDS-PAGE analysis. The recombinant Escherichia coli fatty acid profile showed an optimal unsaturated vs. monosaturated and saturated FAs combination. These results can be used as a starting point to try to modify oleaginous bacteria to get both high oil productivity and optimal oil composition.
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  260. False flax (Camelina sativa L.) as an alternative source for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Karcauskiene, D.; Sendzikiene, E.; Makareviciene, V.; Zaleckas, E.; Repsiene, R.; Ambrazaitiene, D. 2014. False flax (Camelina sativa L.) as an alternative source for biodiesel production. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture. 101(2) 161-168

    The current study hypothesizes that false flax (Camelina sativa L.), as a high-value biofuel feedstock, could be grown under humid conditions of western Lithuania and that nitrogen fertilisation could influence its seed yield and oil content. The following objectives were pursued: 1) to determine the optimum nitrogen fertiliser rate for winter (N-0, N-50, N-100, N-150) and summer (N-0, N-30, N-60, N-90, N-120) types of false flax, 2) to estimate false flax seed oil content, its composition and feasibility to use it for the production of biodiesel fuel. The experiments were conducted in 2008-2011 at the Vezaiciai Branch of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. It was revealed that the highest (1.28 t ha(-1), in 2010) and (1.29 t ha(-1), in 2011) as well as cost-efficient summer false flax seed yield was produced having fertilised with 90 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen. Significantly highest (1.2 t ha(-1), in 2011 and 1.6 t ha(-1), in 2010) winter false flax seed yield was obtained having fertilised with N-100. In our study, the seed oil content of summer false flax amounted to 40.3% and that of winter false flax was lower - 37.0%. Nitrogen fertilisation (N-150 and N-120) increased protein content in winter false flax seed from 22.98% to 26.97% and in summer false flax seed from 20.53% to 23.23% and did not reduce seed oil content. Methyl esters of false flax oil have a high iodine value and an especially high content of polyunsaturated linolenic acid: it reached 38.2% in winter false flax oil and 34.3% in summer false flax oil. Therefore false flax methyl esters can be used as fuel for diesel engines only in mixtures containing 40-50% of methyl esters of animal origin (used frying oil or pork lard). The most effective antioxidant Ionol BF200 (optimal dosage - 500 ppm) as well as the most effective depressants Wintron XC-30 (optimal dosage - 1500 ppm) and Infineum R-442 (optimal dosage - 1200 ppm) were selected for improvement of oxidation stability and cold flow properties of esters.
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  261. Free lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from phospholipids-containing oils
    Abstract

    Li, Y.; Du, W.; Liu, D. H. 2014. Free lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production from phospholipids-containing oils. Biomass & Bioenergy. 71162-169

    Free lipase-catalyzed biodiesel has drawn more and more attentions in recent years because of its advantages of lower cost and faster reaction rate. Utilizing free lipase to convert low quality oils such as crude vegetable oils and microbial oils is beneficial to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production. However, these oils typically contain some amount of phospholipids. Phospholipids were found to affect the lipase-catalyzed process and further influence the enzyme's thermal stability in biodiesel production process. In this work, free lipase NS81006-mediated biodiesel production from oils containing phospholipids at varied temperature was investigated systematically. It was found that the presence of phospholipids at high temperature led to a decreased fatty acid methyl esters ( FAME) yield and poor reuse stability of the lipase during NS81006-catalyzed biodiesel production process. The higher the temperature was, the greater negative effect was observed. This inhibitory effect was found to be mainly caused by the coexistence of phospholipids and methanol in the system. Based on this finding, a novel two-step enzyme-mediated process was further developed, with which the above-mentioned inhibitory effect was eliminated, and a FAME yield of 95.1% could be obtained with oils containing 10% phospholipids even at high temperature of 55 degrees C. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  262. Fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans: A potential feedstock for high quality biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mandotra, S. K.; Kumar, P.; Suseela, M. R.; Ramteke, P. W. 2014. Fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans: A potential feedstock for high quality biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 15642-47

    Present investigation studied the potential of fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans as a feedstock for biodiesel production. To study the biomass and lipid yield, the culture was grown in BBM, Modified CHU-13 and BG-11 medium. Among the tested nitrogen concentration using Modified CHU-13 medium, the highest biomass and lipid yield of 1.113 +/- 0.05 g/L and 489 +/- 23 mg/L respectively was found in the culture medium with 0.32 g/L of nitrogen (KNO3). Different lipid extraction as well as transesterification methods were also tested. Fatty acid profile of alga grown in large scale indigenous made photobioreactor has shown abundance of fatty acids with carbon chain length of C16 and C18. Various biodiesel properties such as cetane number, iodine value and saponification value were found to be in accordance with Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP255) and European biodiesel standard EN14214 which makes S. abundans as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  263. Graphical exergy analysis of reactive distillation column for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kusumaningtyas, R. D.; Purwono, S.; Rochmadi, R.; Budiman, A. 2014. Graphical exergy analysis of reactive distillation column for biodiesel production. International Journal of Exergy. 15(4) 447-467

    This paper brings the novelty of the exergy analysis technique using Ex-N-A diagram to a packed reactive distillation (RD) column for biodiesel production. In this study, biodiesel is produced through the esterification of fatty acid with methanol. The simulation of the column was performed based on the non-equilibrium (NEQ) model of a three-phase packed RD system. The graphical Ex-N-A method was utilised to evaluate exergy features of the internal RD column. This technique rigorously demonstrated the value of exergy losses at each increment of the column, i.e., losses owing to the temperature change, phase change, mixing in liquid and vapour phases and chemical reaction. The effects of the molar ratio of the reactant and the height of the packed column on the conversion and exergy losses were examined and displayed in a simple figure.
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  264. Heterotrophic Microorganisms: A Promising Source for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Magdouli, S.; Yan, S.; Tyagi, R. D.; Surampalli, R. Y. 2014. Heterotrophic Microorganisms: A Promising Source for Biodiesel Production. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 44(4) 416-453

    The authors discuss occurrence of heterotrophic microbes, specifically bacteria, yeast, and molds, in biodiesel production is well discussed. Besides, these oleaginous microorganisms are reported to accumulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) that contain long-chain fatty acids. Most of the evidence suggests that TAGs accumulated are suitable for biodiesel production. Lipid accumulation (de novo or ex novo) required a set of enzymes and expression of various genes that are under complex regulatory system. The authors take a step in this direction and provides a summary of the actual knowledge on heterotrophic oleaginous species, their fatty acids, TAGs, and sterol biosynthesis with a biochemical and genetic approaches to better understand their regulation. Likewise, the impact of abiotic factors that can contribute to higher lipid accumulation is summarized. This review also highlights various issues concerning genetic engineering that may contribute to an advanced path forward for microbial feedstock-based biodiesel.
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  265. Hierarchical Na-doped cubic ZrO2 synthesis by a simple hydrothermal route and its application in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Laia-Garcia, H. A.; Romero-Ibarra, I. C.; Pfeiffer, H. 2014. Hierarchical Na-doped cubic ZrO2 synthesis by a simple hydrothermal route and its application in biodiesel production. Journal of Solid State Chemistry. 218213-220

    Hierarchical growth of cubic ZrO2 phase was successfully synthesized via a simple hydrothermal process in the presence of different surfactants (cationic, non-ionic and anionic) and sodium hydroxide. The structural and microstructural characterizations of different ZrO2 powders were performed using various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N-2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy and infrared. Results indicated that sodium addition stabilized the cubic ZrO2 phase by a Na-doping process, independently of the surfactant used. In contrast, microstructural characteristics varied as a function of the surfactant and sodium presence. In addition, water vapor (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) sorption properties were evaluated on ZrO2 samples. Results evidenced that sample surface reactivity changed as a function of the sodium content. Finally, this surface reactivity was evaluated on the biodiesel transesterification reaction using the different synthesized samples, obtaining yields of 93%. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  266. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel
    Abstract

    Zhang, D.; Wei, D.; Li, Q.; Ge, X.; Guo, X.; Xie, Z.; Ding, W. 2014. High performance catalytic distillation using CNTs-based holistic catalyst for production of high quality biodiesel. Sci Rep. 44021

    For production of biodiesel from bio oils by heterogeneous catalysis, high performance catalysts of transesterification and the further utilization of glycerol have been the two points of research. The process seemed easy, however, has never been well established. Here we report a novel design of catalytic distillation using hierachically integrated CNTs-based holistic catalyst to figure out the two points in one process, which shows high performance both for the conversion of bio oils to biodiesel and, unexpectedly, for the conversion of glycerol to more valuable chemicals at the same time. The method, with integration of nano, meso to macro reactor, has overwhelming advantages over common technologies using liquid acids or bases to catalyze the reactions, which suffer from the high cost of separation and unsolved utilization of glycerol.
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  267. In situ reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate for biodiesel production using magnetic solid acid catalysts
    Abstract

    Wu, H. T.; Liu, Y. P.; Zhang, J. H.; Li, G. L. 2014. In situ reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate for biodiesel production using magnetic solid acid catalysts. Bioresource Technology. 174182-189

    A magnetic solid acid catalyst S2O82/ZrO2-TiO2-Fe3O4 was prepared by coprecipitation and impregnation methods and its catalytic activity was investigated for the reactive extraction of cottonseeds with methyl acetate to produce biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were characterized in detail. The influences of Zr/Ti molar ratio and calcination temperature on the catalytic performance were investigated. Moreover, optimization of the reactive extraction process was performed using response surface methodology coupled with central composite design. The catalyst with a Zr/Ti molar ratio of 3/1 calcined at 550 degrees C showed the best activity. An optimum biodiesel yield of 98.5% was obtained under the reaction temperature of 50 degrees C, catalyst amount of 21.3 wt.%, methyl acetate/seed ratio of 13.8 ml/g and 10.8 h of reaction time. Reuse of this catalyst indicated that it had steady catalytic activity and high recovery rate which could be a promising catalyst for biodiesel production from oilseeds. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  268. Industrial Scale Biodiesel Production and European Union Economics
    Abstract

    Robu, A. D.; Costuleanu, C. L. 2014. Industrial Scale Biodiesel Production and European Union Economics. Crafting Global Competitive Economies: 2020 Vision Strategic Planning & Smart Implementation, Vols I-Iv. 1974-1981

    The industrial scale biodiesel production started back in 1992, as a result of the policies and stimulation actions originated by the competent institutions of the European Union. The promotion of the production and of the use of biofuels is regulated, within the European Union States, by the European Union Directive 2003/30/CE. It stipulates the use of biofuels and of other renewable fuels, for transport mainly, as part of the European Union policy on the decrease of the reliance on energy import and on the diminishing of gas release that generates the greenhouse effect. The total production capacity was of 22.120.000 tonnes of biodiesel in 2011, a value that places Europe on the first rank globally. Despite the data, the production capacity of biodiesel in the European Union followed a descendent trend. This decrease is due to the fact that many production plants on the territory of these states have ceased production and were put on standby, due to very low or inexistent sales. The fact that the price of imported biodiesel was more competitive has determined fuel sellers to make this choice. Thus, there are deep consequences for the whole European Union economy.
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  269. Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Cerbera Manghas Biofuel Sources
    Abstract

    Ong, H. C.; Silitonga, A. S.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.; Chong, W. T. 2014. Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Cerbera Manghas Biofuel Sources. International Conference on Applied Energy, Icae2014. 61436-439

    Biodiesel from vegetable oils has attracted a great deal of interest as a alternative fuel for fossil diesel. This effort able to reduce the dependence on petroleum based fuels and provides a fuel with more benign environmental. Non edible vegetable oils are attracting more attention than edible oils due to the concern on food versus fuel and other environmental issues. Cerbera manghas oil is one of the promising non-edible feedstocks. Biodiesel production from cerbera manghas vegetable was first time reported and investigated. The viscosity of crude oil was 32.83 mm(2)/s and 12.64 mg KOH/g for acid value which is far above the 2%. Therefore, cerbera manghas methyl ester (CMME) was produced via two step acid-alkaline transesterification using H2SO4 as acid catalyst and KOH as alkaline catalysts. Hence 98.5% of biodiesel was achieved with 9:1 methanol in presence of 1% sodium hydroxide. Moreover, blending of CCME with diesel resulted in an improvement which the viscosity is reduced to 3.54 mm(2)/s. On the other hand, the blending of CMME also shown the remarkable improvement in oxidation stability (14.55 hours). The properties of cerbera manghas methyl ester fell within the recommended biodiesel standards It can be conclude that cerbera manghas oil is promising feedstock for future production of biodiesel (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  270. Investigation of the Electrocoagulation in Harvesting Chlorella Vulgaris for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Mosavi, S. F. N.; Arabian, D.; Khalilzadeh, R.; Abaspour, F. 2014. Investigation of the Electrocoagulation in Harvesting Chlorella Vulgaris for Biodiesel Production. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 43139-139

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  271. Lipase-catalyzed Biodiesel Production in [BMIM][PF6]
    Abstract

    Yang, J. J.; Guan, W. S. 2014. Lipase-catalyzed Biodiesel Production in [BMIM][PF6]. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 26(10) 2865-2869

    Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Tung oil in room temperature ionic liquids reaction system was studied with Liaclzyme and Limczyme (immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica). Limczyme was more perfect biocatalyzers than Liaclzyme. The[BMIM][PF6] was more perfect reaction medium than the others. The optimal technology parameters of production biodiesel from Tung oil using Limczyme as biocatalyzer was as follows: [BMIM][PF6] as reaction medium, pH 7.5, reaction temperature 40 degrees C, water content of 6 %, immobilized lipase Limczyme amount of 5 %, shaker speed of 200 rpm, reaction time of 48 h. As double substrates, the molar ratio of methanol to Tung oil should be maintained at 1.0, while methanol should be added into bioreactor step by step.
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  272. Lipase-catalyzed process for biodiesel production: protein engineering and lipase production
    Abstract

    Hwang, H. T.; Qi, F.; Yuan, C.; Zhao, X.; Ramkrishna, D.; Liu, D.; Varma, A. 2014. Lipase-catalyzed process for biodiesel production: protein engineering and lipase production. Biotechnol Bioeng. 111(4) 639-53

    Biodiesel is an environment-friendly and renewable fuel produced by transesterification of various feedstocks. Although the lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production has many advantages over the conventional alkali catalyzed process, its industrial applications have been limited by high-cost and low-stability of lipase enzymes. This review provides a general overview of the recent advances in lipase engineering, including both protein modification and production. Recent advances in biotechnology such as in protein engineering, recombinant methods and metabolic engineering have been employed but are yet to impact lipase engineering for cost-effective production of biodiesel. A summary of the current challenges and perspectives for potential solutions are also provided.
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  273. Low-Al Zeolite Beta as a Heterogeneous Catalyst in Biodiesel Production from Microwave-Assisted Transesterification of Triglycerides
    Abstract

    Wang, Y. Y.; Lee, D. J.; Chen, B. H. 2014. Low-Al Zeolite Beta as a Heterogeneous Catalyst in Biodiesel Production from Microwave-Assisted Transesterification of Triglycerides. International Conference on Applied Energy, Icae2014. 61918-921

    In this work microwave and reflux-assisted transesterification of triolein in methanol was carried out with alkali loaded low-Al Zeolite Beta as catalyst. The results show that the alkali-treated Zeolite Beta can effectively catalyze transesterification reaction of triglycerides to produce fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel), if Zeolite Beta has been properly modified with the alkali ion-exchange process. As a result, the final conversion yield over 90% could be obtained within an hour of reflux reaction. However, the durability of this Na-modified Zeolite Beta still has much room to be improved. In this work, this inferior catalytic durability is overcome by using the low-Al Zeolite Beta with a smaller particle size near 0.5 mu m. Consequently, for at least eight cycles, cyclic tests of these zeolite catalysts do not result in any significant decrease in catalysis in transesterification reaction. It is inferred that alkali cations existing in defect-sites of low-Al Zeolite Beta can be supplied to the surface of the catalysts during transesterification and enhance the catalysis. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  274. Membrane reactors for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Curcio, S.; Ricca, E. 2014. Membrane reactors for biodiesel production. Membranes for Clean and Renewable Power Applications. (13) 122-142

    Over the last few decades, research into an alternative fuel for diesel engines has acquired great importance due to both the reduction of oil feedstock and the environmental pollution caused by the emissions of greenhouse gases. Biodiesel, a mixture of mono-alkyl esters obtained from vegetable oils, is a good candidate. This chapter presents a short overview of the exploitation of membrane bioreactors for biodiesel production, analyzing the enzymatic transesterification of glycerides in more detail. It will also look at problems that need to be overcome to exploit this process on an industrial scale, such as enzyme recycling, enzyme stability and optimal operating conditions.
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  275. Metabolizable Energy of Different Glycerine Sources Derived from National Biodiesel Production for Broilers
    Abstract

    Zavarize, K. C.; Menten, J. F. M.; Pereira, R.; Freitas, L. W.; Romano, G. G.; Bernardino, M.; Rosa, A. S. 2014. Metabolizable Energy of Different Glycerine Sources Derived from National Biodiesel Production for Broilers. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science. 16(4) 411-415

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the quality of different glycerine sources produced in Brazil and to analyze their metabolizable energy levels and digestibility for broilers. Firstly, the composition of 10 samples of glycerine from different sources was analyzed. Secondly, glycerine from four different sources presenting contrasting compositions were selected to determine their metabolizable energy levels and digestibility in metabolism assays using 200 broilers between 21 and 29 days of age, applying the method of total excreta collection. The values of apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance of the four glycerine sources were 3145, 5026, 2828, and 2892 kcal/kg.
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  276. Methods for Lipase Immobilization and Their Use for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil
    Abstract

    Yucel, Y.; Demir, C.; Dizge, N.; Keskinler, B. 2014. Methods for Lipase Immobilization and Their Use for Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(11) 1203-1211

    In the present work, two different lipases (triacylglycerol hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3), Lipozyme TL-100L and Novozyme 388, were immobilized onto three different low-cost supports using both adsorption and covalent method: celite 545, silica gel, and styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. The maximum immobilization yield was obtained as 79.0% for Lipozyme TL-100L and the highest specific activity was 6.5 U/mg protein for Novozym 388. The properties of the support and immobilized derivatives were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Maximum methyl esters yield was obtained as 98.3%. The lipases, which are immobilized by covalently, proved to be stable after even 10 repeated reuses.
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  277. Microbial biodiesel production by direct methanolysis of oleaginous biomass
    Abstract

    Thliveros, P.; Kiran, E. U.; Webb, C. 2014. Microbial biodiesel production by direct methanolysis of oleaginous biomass. Bioresource Technology. 157181-187

    Biodiesel is usually produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with methanol, catalyzed by strong acids or bases. This study introduces a novel biodiesel production method that features direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of the cellular biomass of oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides Y4. NaOH was used as catalyst for transesterification reactions and the variables affecting the esterification level including catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent loading (methanol) and moisture content were investigated using the oleaginous yeast biomass. The most suitable pretreatment condition was found to be 4 g L-1 NaOH and 1: 20 (w/v) dried biomass to methanol ratio for 10 h at 50 degrees C and under ambient pressure. Under these conditions, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was 97.7%. Therefore, the novel method of direct base-catalyzed methanolysis of R. toruloides is a much simpler, less tedious and time-consuming, process than the conventional processes with higher FAME (biodiesel) conversion yield. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  278. Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production from Trap Grease
    Abstract

    Fernandes, P. S. R.; Borges, L. E. P.; de Carvalho, C. E. G.; de Souza, R. O. M. A. 2014. Microwave Assisted Biodiesel Production from Trap Grease. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 25(9) 1730-1736

    Methyl and ethyl esters were prepared from lauric acid under conventional heating and microwave irradiation to determine the best fatty acid esterification conditions. These conditions were then applied in the conversion of trap grease (brown grease) to biodiesel. The trap grease is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, due to its low cost and easy esterification. In this paper, trap grease catalytic esterification with methanol was performed under conventional heating and microwave irradiation. It was possible to obtain high conversions with conventional heating, but under microwave heating, the esterification reaction equilibrium was attained much faster. The trap grease biodiesel obtained from microwave assisted reactions showed a high conversion (96%) even at mild reaction conditions (trap grease: methanol molar ratio 1:6, 1.0% H2SO4, 393 K, 10 minutes). While these initial experiments were performed in a small-scale laboratory unit, the procedure could be easily scaled-up to a commercial continuous process.
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  279. On techno-economic evaluation of production of biodiesel using consecutive-competitive transesterification reactions
    Abstract

    Sharma, K. R. 2014. On techno-economic evaluation of production of biodiesel using consecutive-competitive transesterification reactions. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 247

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  280. Operation of bench plants producing racemic lactic acid and lactide isomers from glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel fuel production process
    Abstract

    Kishida, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Moriya, T.; Ohara, H.; Nomura, N. 2014. Operation of bench plants producing racemic lactic acid and lactide isomers from glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel fuel production process. 11th Eco-Energy and Materials Science and Engineering (11th Emses). 56187-194

    We developed a novel production method for stereoblock poly(lactic acid) (sb-PLA) from glycerol that is a by-product of biodiesel fuel (BDF) production process. It includes the novelties of (1) the conversion of glycerol into racemic lactic acid by alkaline hydrothermal reaction and (2) the stereoselective polymerization of lactide isomers by using an achiral homosalen-aluminum complex as a catalyst to synthesize sb-PLA. For practical use of these novel methods, we have constructed bench plants that can produce mixture of lactide isomers from glycerol. The throughput capacity of glycerol in the bench plant is about 50 tons/year. The bench plant was controlled stably for similar to 100 hours, and it was confirmed that racemic lactic acid and then the mixture of lactide isomers were produced by the bench plants. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
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  281. Optimal locations for second generation Fischer Tropsch biodiesel production in Finland
    Abstract

    Natarajan, K.; Leduc, S.; Pelkonen, P.; Tomppo, E.; Dotzauer, E. 2014. Optimal locations for second generation Fischer Tropsch biodiesel production in Finland. Renewable Energy. 62319-330

    A country level spatially explicit mixed integer linear programming model has been applied to identify the optimal Fischer Tropsch biodiesel production plants locations in Finland. The optimal plant locations with least cost options are identified by minimizing the complete costs of the supply chain with respect to feedstock supply (energywood, pulpwood, sawmill residuals, wood imports), industrial competition (pulp mill, sawmill, combined heat and power plants, pellet industries) and energy demand (biodiesel, heat, biofuel import). Model results show that five biodiesel production plants of 390 MWfeedstock are needed to be built to meet the 2020 renewable energy target in transport (25.2 PJ). Given current market conditions, the Fischer Tropsch biodiesel can be produced at a cost around 18 (sic)/GJ including by-products income. Furthermore, the parameter sensitivity analysis shows that the production plant parameters such as investment costs and conversion efficiency are found to have profound influence on the biodiesel cost, and then followed by feedstock cost and plant size. In addition, the variations in feedstock costs and industrial competition determine the proportion of feedstock resource allocation to the production plants. The results of this study could help decision makers to strategically locate the FT-biodiesel production plants in Finland. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  282. Optimal Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Liquid Fuels from Glycerol: Integrating the Use of Biodiesel Byproducts
    Abstract

    Martin, M.; Grossmann, I. E. 2014. Optimal Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Liquid Fuels from Glycerol: Integrating the Use of Biodiesel Byproducts. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(18) 7730-7745

    In this paper, we present the optimization of the production of hydrogen and/or liquid fuels from glycerol. We propose a limited superstructure embedding a number of alternative technologies. Glycerol is first reformed using either aqueous phase reforming, steam reforming, or autoreforming. The gas obtained is cleaned, and its H-2 to CO ratio is adjusted (bypass, PSA, and/or water gas shift). Next, the removal of CO2 is performed by means of PSA, and the syngas is fed to the Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The products obtained are separated while the heavy fraction is hydrocracked. The optimization of the system is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) that is solved first for the optimal production of hydrogen alone and next for the simultaneous production of liquid fuels and hydrogen. The production of hydrogen is competitive with that obtained from switchgrass as long as the glycerol price is below $0.05/lb ($0.110/kg) using aqueous phase reforming. For the liquid fuels to be attractive, the glycerol price must be below $0.025/lb ($0.055/kg) using autoreforming. The option of integrating this facility with a biodiesel one is promising from an economical point of view.
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  283. Optimization and effects of process variables on the production and properties of methyl ester biodiesel
    Abstract

    Eloka-Eboka, A. C.; Igbum, O. G.; Inambao, F. L. 2014. Optimization and effects of process variables on the production and properties of methyl ester biodiesel. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. 25(2) 39-47

    Optimization of the production process in biodiesel production holds huge prospects. A reduced cost option is the optimization of process variables that affect yields and purity of biodiesel, which was achieved in this study. Optimized production and direct effects of process variables on the production and quality of methyl ester biodiesel fuels from the non-edible seed oils of sandbox seed was carried out. Catalyst nature and concentration, alcohol to triglyceride molar ratio, mixing speed, reaction time and temperature were taken into consideration as variables to their individual response on the yields, viscosity and specific gravity of the methyl esters produced. These are specific indispensable properties of biodiesel for use in compression ignition engines. Optimized concentrations were 0.3 to 1.5% w/v and two mole ratios of 3:1 and 6:1. Time of reaction was varied (5mins to 30mins) with temperatures (38oC and 55oC). Also, the effect of methanol in the range of 4:1 and 6:1 (molar ratio) was investigated, keeping catalyst type, reaction time and temperatures constant. The effects of KOH and NaOH on the transesterification were investigated with concentration kept constant at 1%. The general response in this study was that at optimized rate of agitation (800rpm), optimized reaction time was as low as 5minutes, 1% catalyst concentration of NaOH was the optimal concentration, and 55oC was the optimal temperature with attendant high yields. However, there are variations with the nature of feedstock as the work further exposed. These high points are particularly of interest to guide against process backdrop.
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  284. Optimization of Biodiesel Production and Fuel Properties of Blends
    Abstract

    Uzun, B. B.; Kilic, M.; Apaydin-Varol, E.; Putun, A. E. 2014. Optimization of Biodiesel Production and Fuel Properties of Blends. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(8) 898-906

    In this study, optimization of essential parameters, such as reaction time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst amount, and type of biodiesel production via transesterification, were investigated. The maximum yield under the optimal conditions was found to be ~95%. Analytical methods were used to determine the fuel characteristics of the final product. The results were compared with specified limits of the ASTM D 6751 and the EN 14214 standards. Finally, produced biodiesel was blended with five different commercial diesel fuels. B20 was found to be an optimum blend without giving any negative effect on petro diesel performance.
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  285. Optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower oil by transesterification using Na2O/NaX and methanol
    Abstract

    Martinez, S. L.; Romero, R.; Natividad, R.; Gonzalez, J. 2014. Optimization of biodiesel production from sunflower oil by transesterification using Na2O/NaX and methanol. Catalysis Today. 22012-20

    In this work, response surface methodology was used to optimize the conditions for the transesterification of sunflower oil with methanol, using Na2O supported on NaX faujasite zeolite as catalyst. By experimental design a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for biodiesel yield. Multiple regression analysis and verification experiments confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The studied variables were reaction temperature (40,50 and 60 degrees C), catalysts weight base oil (5, 7.5 and 10 wt%), Na content (5.5, 7.5, 10 and 11.5 wt%) and methanol: sunflower oil molar ratio (4:1,5:1 and 6:1). Results from the optimization study showed that reaction temperature and molar ratio methanol:oil can be optimized. Catalyst characterization was carried out by scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption and basicity determination by Hammett method. Biodiesel with highest methyl esters content (99.3%) was obtained with the catalyst with 10% Na content, at 60 degrees C, 6:1 methanol:sunflower oil molar ratio and 10 wt% catalyst concentration. The produced biodiesel was found to fulfill the specifications of the European Norm UNE-EN 14214 regarding viscosity, flash point and acid value. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  286. Optimization of high-energy density biodiesel production from camelina sativa oil under supercritical 1-butanol conditions
    Abstract

    Sun, Y. Q.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muppaneni, T.; Reddy, H. K.; Patil, P. D.; Li, C. Z.; Jiang, L. J.; Deng, S. G. 2014. Optimization of high-energy density biodiesel production from camelina sativa oil under supercritical 1-butanol conditions. Fuel. 135522-529

    Transesterification of camelina sativa oil to produce fatty acid butyl esters under supercritical 1-butanol conditions was systematically studied at alcohol to oil molar ratios of 20:1-60:1, reaction temperatures of 280-320 degrees C, and reaction times of 20-100 min. The response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the effects of process parameters on the transesterification yield and biodiesel quality. Two mathematic models for different time ranges of 20-60 min and 30-100 min were developed and combined to predict the response over a long reaction time range. The predicted responses agree well with the experimental yields. A maximum biodiesel yield of 87.6% was obtained at a reaction time of 305 degrees C, 1-butanol to camelina oil molar ratio of 40: 1, and reaction time of 80 min. The physical properties of butyl biodiesel were evaluated and compared with those of regular diesel. The good cold temperature property (pour point of -19 degrees C) and high calorific value (HHV of 39.97 MJ/kg) make the camelina oil butyl biodiesel an ideal liquid transportation fuel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  287. Phase Equilibria of Highly Asymmetric Mixtures Involved in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Annesini, M. C.; Gironi, F.; Guerani, W. 2014. Phase Equilibria of Highly Asymmetric Mixtures Involved in Biodiesel Production. Ibic2014: 4th International Conference on Industrial Biotechnology. 3867-72

    In recent years, hydroconversion of vegetable oils has been considered a promising route for biodiesel production. The process involves highly asymmetric mixtures of hydrocarbons and triglycerides which exhibit complex phase behaviours. In this work, thermodynamic modelling of C-3-C-16 and C-3-triglyceride mixtures was performed by means of Peng-Robinson and PC-SAFT EOS. Critical properties and PC-SAFT parameters for triglycerides were estimated with group contribution methods; furthermore, an approach for evaluation of triglyceride PC-SAFT parameters, based on regression of experimental binary phase equilibrium data, was proposed. The PC-SAFT model showed its capacity to depict chain molecule phase behaviour providing better predictions for all the system investigated and it is recommended as reference EOS to represent phase equilibria involved in vegetable oils hydroconversion process.
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  288. Polystyrene-based superacidic solid acid catalyst: synthesis and its application in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Chang, Y.; Lee, C.; Bae, C. 2014. Polystyrene-based superacidic solid acid catalyst: synthesis and its application in biodiesel production. Rsc Advances. 4(88) 47448-47454

    A polystyrene-supported superacidic fluoroalkyl sulfonic acid catalyst (sPS-S) was synthesized using a combination of iridium-catalyzed C-H borylation and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions. Catalytic activity of the new solid acid catalyst was examined for esterification of fatty acids and transesterification of triglyceride with methanol. Significantly higher activity than those of commercial sulfonated ion-exchange resins (Amberlyst 15 and Nafion NR50) was achieved with a catalyst loading as low as 0.5 wt%. The solid catalyst could be easily recovered by filtration and reused. Consistently high activities were obtained from the esterification for up to ten consecutive runs.
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  289. Prediction of Quality Properties for Biodiesel Production by Oleaginous Yeast Cultivated in Pure and Raw Glycerol
    Abstract

    Duarte, S. H.; Maugeri, F. 2014. Prediction of Quality Properties for Biodiesel Production by Oleaginous Yeast Cultivated in Pure and Raw Glycerol. Iconbm: International Conference on Biomass, Pts 1 and 2. 37463-468

    Biofuels such as biodiesel are a renewable and environmentally safe alternative to fossil fuels. Besides their production is growing rapidly, leading as a consequence, to large amounts of glycerol, the main co-product generated during the process. There is an increased interest in exploring alternatives for the production of lipids to produce biofuel and also to use glycerol surplus. Oleaginous microorganisms are able to accumulate 20 % or more of their biomass in lipids, mainly in the form of triacylglycerol (TAG), which can be used to produce biodiesel by transesterification process. The properties of various individual fatty esters that comprise biodiesel determine the overall fuel properties. Structural features that influence the physical and fuel properties are chain length, degree of unsaturation and branching of the chain. In this work we studied the production of lipids by Candida sp. LEB-M3 cultivated in pure and raw glycerol. Various methods for the prediction as a function of fatty acids were presented and standards used to verify the quality and applicability of this microbial oil as a raw material for biodiesel production. The fatty acid profile showed predominance of oleic acid (C18:1), 57.35 % for cultivation in pure glycerol, and linoleic acid (C18:2), 46.0 % in raw glycerol. Predicted values were (pure - raw): cetane number (56 - 53), heat of combustion (37 - 39 KJ/g), oxidative stability (8.5 - 8 h), kinematic viscosity (3.82 - 3.79 mm(2)/s), density (807 - 872 Kg/m(3)) and iodine index (74 - 115.5 g(12)/100g). The results indicate that lipid produced by Candida sp. LEB-M3 using raw glycerol is a potential and appropriate source of raw material for biodiesel production according to main current standards.
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  290. Process Intensification Technologies for Biodiesel Production Reactive Separation Processes Preface
    Abstract

    Kiss, A. A. 2014. Process Intensification Technologies for Biodiesel Production Reactive Separation Processes Preface. Process Intensification Technologies for Biodiesel Production: Reactive Separation Processes. Vii-Vii

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  291. Process Intensification Technologies for Biodiesel Production: Reactive Separation Processes
    Abstract

    Kiss, A. A. 2014. Process Intensification Technologies for Biodiesel Production: Reactive Separation Processes. Process Intensification Technologies for Biodiesel Production: Reactive Separation Processes. 1-103

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  292. Process Intensification Using CO2 As Cosolvent under Supercritical Conditions Applied to the Design of Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Macaira, J.; Santana, A.; Costa, A.; Ramirez, E.; Larrayoz, M. A. 2014. Process Intensification Using CO2 As Cosolvent under Supercritical Conditions Applied to the Design of Biodiesel Production. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(10) 3985-3995

    In this work, a new process for biodiesel production under supercritical conditions in presence of cosolvent (CO2) is designed and simulated using the process simulator Aspen Plus. The model was developed using experimental reaction data of continuous catalytic biodiesel synthesis at a 74:25:1 CO2 to methanol to triglycerides molar ratio, temperature range between 150 and 300 degrees C, at 250 bar. To decrease the temperature and pressure of operation and increase the conversion efficiency of biodiesel, CO2 was added as cosolvent to the reactants. Triolein (C57H104O6) was chosen to represent the vegetal oil and methyl oleate (C19H36O2), biodiesel. A detailed kinetic model based on a three step reversible reaction scheme is used to describe the transesterification reaction in the process simulator. The simulated process resulted in full triolein conversion and a high purity (99.8%) fatty acid methyl esters product. The process plant was designed and simulated to operate in a continuous mode and the annual production capacity of the plant was set at 10000 tons. The total energy for the designed process was 2223 kW. On the basis of a preliminary economical study the minimum selling price of biodiesel is 0.83$/L for a plant capacity of 10000 tons. A profitability analysis was conducted and the payback time was estimated as a function of the selling price and the plant capacity.
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  293. Production and characterization of biodiesel from carbon dioxide concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria, Serratia sp ISTD04
    Abstract

    Bharti, R. K.; Srivastava, S.; Thakur, I. S. 2014. Production and characterization of biodiesel from carbon dioxide concentrating chemolithotrophic bacteria, Serratia sp ISTD04. Bioresource Technology. 153189-197

    A chemolithotrophic bacterium, Serratia sp. ISTD04, enriched in the chemostat in presence of sodium bicarbonate as sole carbon source was evaluated for potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and biofuel production. CO2 sequestration efficiency of the bacterium was determined by enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). Further, Western blot analysis confirmed presence of RuBisCO. The bacterium produced 0.487 and 0.647 mg mg (1) per unit cell dry weight of hydrocarbons and lipids respectively. The hydrocarbons were within the range of C-13-C-24 making it equivalent to light oil. GC-MS analysis of lipids produced by the bacterium indicated presence of C-15-C-20 organic compounds that made it potential source of biodiesel after transesterification. GC-MS, FTIR and NMR spectroscopic characterization of the fatty acid methyl esters revealed the presence of 55% and 45% of unsaturated and saturated organic compounds respectively, thus making it a balanced biodiesel composition. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  294. Production of a H-2 Rich Gas from Biodiesel Derived Glycerol by Catalytic Steam Reforming as a Solution to Improve Biodiesel Economy
    Abstract

    Remon, J.; Jarauta, C.; Ruiz, J.; Oliva, M.; Garcia, L. 2014. Production of a H-2 Rich Gas from Biodiesel Derived Glycerol by Catalytic Steam Reforming as a Solution to Improve Biodiesel Economy. Papers of the 22nd European Biomass Conference: Setting the Course for a Biobased Economy. 1086-1092

    In the present work the catalytic steam reforming of biodiesel-derived glycerol has been studied as a possible solution to valorise this by-product towards a hydrogen rich gas. Specifically, the influence of the pH used in the purification step (5-7) has been studied aiming to select the best refining conditions for the posterior upgrading by catalytic steam reforming. Once the purification optimised, the steam reforming operating conditions: temperature (400-700 degrees C), glycerol concentration (10-50 wt.%) and the W/m(glycerol) ratio (3-17 g catalyst min/ g glycerol) of this purified glycerol have been studied using a two level-three factor design of experiment with statistical analysis of the results. From the refining experiments, it was found that the pH had a significant influence during the purification step when acetic acid was used. The best refining results in terms of purity (85.25 +/- 0.79 wt.% of glycerol) and phase separation speed were achieved when a pH of 6 was used. From the reforming results, it was found that all the variables had a statistically significant influence on the reforming step. Depending on the operating conditions, the carbon conversion to gas, liquid and solid varied from 3 to 100%, 0 to 10% and 0-94%, respectively. These operating variables also had a significant influence on the composition of the gas phase. The gas phase was made up of a mixture of H-2 (65-95 vol.%), CO2 (2-29 vol.%), CO (0-18 vol.%) and CH4 (0-5 vol.%). As a result of the optimization process, a possible optimum was found at a temperature of around 680 degrees C, feeding a glycerol solution of a 37 wt.%. These operating conditions provide a carbon conversion to gas of a 95% and a gas with the following composition: 67 vol.% H-2, 22 vol.% CO2, 11 vol.% CO and 1 vol.% CH4, minimizing the temperature and maximizing the amount of glycerol in the feed.
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  295. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oil and methyl acetate through distillative self-sorting
    Abstract

    Ji, Q.; Miljanic, O. S. 2014. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oil and methyl acetate through distillative self-sorting. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 247

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  296. Production of biodiesel through hydrocracking using solar energy
    Abstract

    McGill, K.; McPhail, J.; Youngs, M.; Kelley, C. 2014. Production of biodiesel through hydrocracking using solar energy. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 247

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  297. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in [kappa]-carrageenan
    Abstract

    Pogaku, Ravindra; Jegannathan, Kenthorai Raman 2014. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in [kappa]-carrageenan. SpringerBriefs in bioengineering. 1 online resource

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  298. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in k-carrageenan
    Abstract

    Ravindra, Ravindra 2014. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in k-carrageenan. . pages cm

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  299. Prospect of rice bran for biodiesel production in Bangladesh
    Abstract

    Hasan, A. P.; Wakil, M. A.; Kafy, M. A. 2014. Prospect of rice bran for biodiesel production in Bangladesh. 10th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering (Icme 2013). 90746-752

    This paper investigates the prospect of biodiesel from rice bran in Bangladesh. Rice bran is the non-edible portion of paddy. It can be easily collected from the rice husk of the paddy. The estimated production of paddy in Bangladesh in year 2010-11 is about 33.54 million metric ton (source: BBS). If 18-20 wt% rice is rice husk then the amount of rice husk becomes 6.71 million metric ton. This rice husk contains about 16 to 20% of crude rice bran oil of its weight. An estimate of about 1.34 million metric ton of crude rice bran oil can be obtained annually. The current consumption of Petroleum Products in Bangladesh is 3.7 MT/annum and annual growth rate is 4% (source: BPC). Diesel consumption in Bangladesh is about 2.4 MT/annum. If the estimated amount of rice bran oil (RBO) is converted into biodiesel, this can satisfy 60-70% of our diesel need. This study involves the investigation of oil properties collected from rice bran to ensure the production of biodiesel by the well-known transesterification process. In order to inveterate the clarity of cost of biodiesel production, the aim fix with the determination of fuel properties, economic analysis and comparison with other non-edible sources. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  300. Prospective technologies, feedstocks and market innovations for ethanol and biodiesel production in the US
    Abstract

    Ziolkowska, J. R. 2014. Prospective technologies, feedstocks and market innovations for ethanol and biodiesel production in the US. Biotechnol Rep (Amst). 494-98

    In recent years, production and consumption of biofuels has become controversial, mainly due to the competitive use of natural resources for food/feed and fuel production. Second generation biofuels (with cellulosic ethanol being on top of developments nowadays) have a great potential to provide an economically feasible solution. However, high processing costs related to breaking down cellulosic plant material and converting it to sugar (and fuel), missing infrastructure and environmental impacts can be detrimental. This paper discusses various biofuels technologies and feedstocks that have a potential to emerge as prospective feedstocks for second generation biofuels production in the future on the US market. It also emphasizes existing challenges that could hinder the development of these technologies and their commercialization in the long-term.
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  301. PVA supported catalytic membranes obtained by gamma-irradiation for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Casimiro, M. H.; Silva, A. G.; Alvarez, R.; Ferreira, L. M.; Ramos, A. M.; Vital, J. 2014. PVA supported catalytic membranes obtained by gamma-irradiation for biodiesel production. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. 94171-175

    PVA supported catalytic membranes have been synthesized by mutual gamma-irradiation method using adipic acid (AA) and succinic acid (SA) as crosslinkers and a commercial ion exchange resin as catalyst.
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  302. Seed oils from non-conventional sources in north-east India: potential feedstock for production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Barua, P.; Dutta, K.; Basumatary, S.; Deka, D. C.; Deka, D. C. 2014. Seed oils from non-conventional sources in north-east India: potential feedstock for production of biodiesel. Natural Product Research. 28(8) 577-580

    A total of nine oilseeds with more than 15wt% oil have been investigated for evaluating them as feedstock for biodiesel industries. Fatty acid profiles of all the nine oil samples have been determined by GC-MS analysis. The saponification numbers, gross heats of combustion of the oils and those of corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as well as cetane indices of the FAMEs have been calculated empirically. Iodine values have been determined experimentally. These values have been used for predicting the quality of the corresponding biodiesels. If prepared from these oils, biodiesels are likely to meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of the USA, Germany and European Standard Organisation. Seed oil from Cucumis sativus is found rich in linoleic acid which is considered an essential fatty acid of biological significance.
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  303. Selective ethanolysis of sunflower oil with Lipozyme RM IM, an immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase, to obtain a biodiesel-like biofuel, which avoids glycerol production through the monoglyceride formation
    Abstract

    Calero, J.; Verdugo, C.; Luna, D.; Sancho, E. D.; Luna, C.; Posadillo, A.; Bautista, F. M.; Romero, A. A. 2014. Selective ethanolysis of sunflower oil with Lipozyme RM IM, an immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase, to obtain a biodiesel-like biofuel, which avoids glycerol production through the monoglyceride formation. New Biotechnology. 31(6) 596-601

    The obtaining of Ecodiesel, a biofuel applicable to diesel engines which keeps the glycerin as monoglyceride (MG), was achieved through a selective ethanolysis process of sunflower oil, by application of Lipozyme RM IM, a Rhizomucor miehei lipase immobilized on macroporous anion exchange resins. This biocatalyst that was already described in the synthesis of conventional biodiesel has also shown its efficiency in the present selective enzymatic process, after optimization of the influence of various reaction parameters. Thus, an adequate activity is obtained that is maintained throughout five successive reuses. Quantitative conversions of triglycerides (TG) with high yields to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) were obtained under mild reaction conditions that correspond to the transformation of TG in a mixture of two moles of FAEE and a mole of MG, thus avoiding the glycerol production. Thus, the selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with absolute ethanol can be carried out under standard conditions with oil/ethanol volume ratio 12/3.5 (mL), at constant pH obtained by the addition of 50 mu l of aqueous solution of 10 N NaOH, reaction temperature of 40 degrees C and 40 mg of Lipozyme RM IM. Under these experimental conditions six successive reactions can be efficiently carried out.
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  304. Simulation Analysis of Energy Performance of Distillation-, Stripping-, and Flash-Based Methanol Recovery Units for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Philip, F. A.; Veawab, A.; Aroonwilas, A. 2014. Simulation Analysis of Energy Performance of Distillation-, Stripping-, and Flash-Based Methanol Recovery Units for Biodiesel Production. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(32) 12770-12782

    This work evaluates and compares performance of distillation-, stripping-, and flash-based methanol recovery units for biodiesel production in terms of energy requirement and purity of the recovered methanol. The evaluation was carried out by simulating the transesterification process coupled with methanol recovery units using the process simulator, Aspen Plus. The results show that the energy requirement of all tested methanol recovery units is influenced by process parameters in similar manners. The heat duty per mass of methanol recovered increases with % methanol recovery, operating pressure and reflux ratio (in case of distillation), but decreases with methanol-to-oil ratio. The flash units are the most energy efficient, followed by stripping and distillation units. They can produce pure recovered methanol, but may not achieve as high methanol recovery target (98%) as the stripping and distillation units do. The double-flash unit has no advantage over the single-flash unit in the aspect of energy requirement.
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  305. Simultaneous production of biodiesel and bioethanol through mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella sp.
    Abstract

    Lee, C. G.; Choi, W. Y.; Kang, D. H.; Lee, H. Y. 2014. Simultaneous production of biodiesel and bioethanol through mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella sp.. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences. 43(10) 1839-1848

    It is a comparative study on the effects of cultivation conditions in the simultaneous production of biodiesel and ethanol using microalga Chlorella sp. Intracellular lipid and reducing sugar were extracted from the biomass using the solvent extraction to conduct comparison of the yield, fatty acids profile configuration, and monosaccharide composition. The 27 days cultivation of Chlorella sp. in 20 l photobioreactor under mixo-, hetero-, and autotrophic conditions presented the cell concentration, lipid and reducing sugar yield at 4.13, 2.10, 3.50 g.L-1, 24.1, 18.4, 16.7 (%, w/w), and 30.6, 27.5, 29.1 (%, w/w), respectively. Result shows that Chlorella sp. achieves the highest lipid and reducing sugar yield under the mixotrophic condition with 0.0369 and 0.0468 g.L-1.d(-1), respectively. Also, Chlorella sp. when cultivated using the mixotrophic condition, builds better fatty acid and reducing sugar in the cell that can be synthesized for biodiesel and ethanol production.
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  306. Synthesis of racemic lactide using glycerol by-product from biodiesel fuel production process as feedstock
    Abstract

    Hasegawa, T.; Nomura, N.; Moriya, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kishida, H. 2014. Synthesis of racemic lactide using glycerol by-product from biodiesel fuel production process as feedstock. 11th Eco-Energy and Materials Science and Engineering (11th Emses). 56195-200

    To reduce CO2 emission, the utilization of biodiesel fuel (BDF) has expanded worldwide last decade. Accordingly, more and more glycerol that is a by-product of the BDF production process is discharged, and an effective conversion of glycerol into valuable substances has been desired. In this article, we describe a study of conversion from glycerol into racemic lactide which is to be a monomer of stereoblock poly(lactic acid) (sb-PLA) by using an achiral homosalen-aluminum complex as a polymerization catalyst. This sb-PLA is semi-crystalline and has high melting point (up to 210 degrees C). The glycerol was first converted into racemic lactic acid by hydrothermal reaction with an alkaline catalyst under the following conditions: temperature, 300 degrees C; pressure, 10 MPa; reaction time, 3.5 h. The conversion of glycerol into lactic acid was 62.5%. The racemic lactic acid was then converted into the mixture of lactide isomers, followed by purification process to afford racemic lactide (rac-LA). Purity of the obtained rac-LA was more than 99%. It demonstrates that glycerol can be a good feedstock of rac-LA for the first time. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
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  307. Synthesis of Recyclable Hollow Fe/C-SO3H Fiber as a Catalyst for the Production of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Lin, L.; Cui, H. Y.; Vittayapadung, S.; Xiao, Z. H.; Wu, W. Y.; Zhang, A. H.; Mamdouh, W.; Li, C. Z. 2014. Synthesis of Recyclable Hollow Fe/C-SO3H Fiber as a Catalyst for the Production of Biodiesel. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 33(4) 1432-1437

    Biodiesel has received much attention in the recent years as one of the most renewable bioenergy sources. The production of biodiesel from vegetable oil has a great advantage over other sources for having an efficient solid catalyst suitable for making the process fully ecofriendly. In the current work, magnetic sulfonated carbon-based solid acid catalyst Fe/CSO3H fibers were prepared by the organic gel-precursor transformation process and subsequent sulfonation from sugars and ferric salts. The esterification of oleic acid and methanol was taken as the model reaction to investigate the impact of preparation parameters on the activity of the catalyst. The experimental results showed that the conversion of oleic acid is more than 90% under optimal conditions. Furthermore, the Fe/CSO3H fibers catalyst displays superparamagnetic properties. The catalyst was separated by a magnetic field, and around 80% biodiesel conversion was obtained after being recycled for 10 times. (c) 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 33: 1432-1437, 2014
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  308. The development of biodiesel production using lipase from mutant and selected yeast
    Abstract

    Rittiboon, A.; Pansuk, W.; Jatupornpiput, M. 2014. The development of biodiesel production using lipase from mutant and selected yeast. New Biotechnology. 31S94-S94

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  309. The Efficient Production of High-Cetane Number Biodiesel from Animal Fats
    Abstract

    Choi, S. H.; Oh, Y. T.; Janchiv, A. 2014. The Efficient Production of High-Cetane Number Biodiesel from Animal Fats. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 8(2) 208-213

    A new methodology of biodiesel (BD) synthesis from lard and beef tallow (beef-T) by using suitable conditions has been experimentally developed. The problem with poor solubility between highly concentrated free fatty acid animal fat and alcohol has addressed by using high blending ratios of solvent. A polynomial equation was obtained for BD yields as a function of synthesis parameters from factorial design experiments. The most suitable combinations for high-quality BD production from animal fats were 2.0 wt.% catalyst with a 10:1 methanol/fat molar ratio, and about 65.0 wt.% solvent additive under normal atmospheric pressure. Verification experiments confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The reaction temperature should be below the boiling point of alcohol and solvent in order to prevent the evaporation. The optimized reaction time and temperature in the verification experiments were determined as to 90 min and 60 degrees C, respectively. The animal fat BD samples were evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. It is confirmed that the animal fat BD properties were in reasonable agreement with the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards.
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  310. The Energy Balance of Biodiesel Production from Sunflower Oil
    Abstract

    Portillo, E. R.; Colin, A.; Amaya, A.; Romero, R. 2014. The Energy Balance of Biodiesel Production from Sunflower Oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(20) 2271-2280

    This research aims to establish the energy balance in the production of sunflower diesel in a producing country, using as the study area the Central South region of Paraguay, quantifying the inflow and outflow in the production system of supplies, energy expenses in transportation, and elaboration and outflow of effluents from raw materials to distribution and by difference between the energy spent and energy generated, where a positive balance was obtained according to the considerations of this research.
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  311. The Optimization of Biodiesel Production from a Novel Source of Wild Non-Edible Oil Yielding Plant Silybum Marianum
    Abstract

    Ahmad, M.; Zafar, M.; Sultana, S.; Azam, A.; Khan, M. A. 2014. The Optimization of Biodiesel Production from a Novel Source of Wild Non-Edible Oil Yielding Plant Silybum Marianum. International Journal of Green Energy. 11(6) 589-594

    This study is confined to optimization of biodiesel production from a non-edible oil yielding plant milk thistle (Silybum marianum) of Mediterranean origin is reported as a new source used as raw material for biodiesel production. This study explains optimization analysis of biodiesel production through base catalyzed transesterification. Effects of four different variables includes the reactant ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and time were studied. It is found that 80% fatty acids were converted into fatty acid methyl esters within 75 min at 60 degrees C by using 5:1 molar ratio (methanol to oil). The study stated that the order of significant factors effecting biodiesel yield was catalyst concentration > reaction time > reaction temperature > methanol to oil ratio. The fuel properties of milk thistle FAMEs including color, density, kinematic viscosity, sulfur content, total acid number, flash point, pour point, distillation, cloud point, calorific value, and cetane index were determined and compared with ASTM standards.
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  312. The use of impregnated perlite as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from marula oil
    Abstract

    Modiba, E.; Osifo, P.; Rutto, H. 2014. The use of impregnated perlite as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from marula oil. Chemical Papers. 68(10) 1341-1349

    In this study, biodiesel was produced from marula (Sclerocarya birrea) oil using impregnated perlite with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a heterogeneous catalyst. The effect of experimental variables such as temperature (A degrees C), reaction time (h), methanol to oil ratio (mass %), and catalyst to oil ratio (mass %) on the transesterification process were investigated. Using a central composite design (CCD), a mathematical model was developed to correlate the experimental variables with the percentage yield of biodiesel. The model showed that optimum conditions for biodiesel production were as follows: catalyst to oil ratio of 4.7 mass %, temperature of 70.4A degrees C, methanol to oil ratio of 29.9 mass %, and reaction time of 3.6 h. The yield of 91.4 mass % of biodiesel was obtained. It was also possible to recycle and reuse the modified perlite up to three times without any significant change in its catalytic activity. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area showed no modifications in the perlite structure. The results show that the important fuel properties of marula biodiesel meet the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) biodiesel standard properties. (C) 2014 Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences
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  313. Ultrasonic Assisted Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Schabort, C. J.; Hovener, D.; Marx, S. 2014. Ultrasonic Assisted Biodiesel Production. Papers of the 22nd European Biomass Conference: Setting the Course for a Biobased Economy. 1182-1186

    One of the biggest hurdles in the production of biodiesel is the high production cost compared to petroleum-derived diesel. Even though the mechanical agitation utilised during biodiesel production is effective, it is energy intensive and costly. In this study ultrasonic assisted biodiesel production has been considered as a more economical alternative. The optimum transesterification reaction conditions were investigated using sunflower oil as a feedstock, methanol (MeOH) as the alcohol, along with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. The transesterification reactions were carried out in an ELMA (R) ultrasonic bath. The reactions were completed at different ultrasonic frequencies, reaction times, alcohol to oil molar ratios and catalyst loading weights. Both Gas Chromatography (GC-MS) and FT-IR Spectroscopy analyses were used to determine the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) content of the resulting biodiesel. The optimum ultrasonic assisted biodiesel production reactions were found to be 60 degrees C, 35 kHz, an alcohol to oil ratio of 9:1, a catalyst loading of 0.5 wt%, with a reaction time of 50 minutes. The resulting biodiesel FAME yields at these conditions were higher than 96.5 wt%. The reduction in reaction time due to the ultrasonic effect reduced the production cost by about 7% if compared to the traditional mechanical agitation.
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  314. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds
    Abstract

    Rocha, M. V. P.; de Matos, L. J. B. L.; de Lima, L. P.; Figueiredo, P. M. D.; Lucena, I. L.; Fernandes, F. A. N.; Goncalves, L. R. B. 2014. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds. Bioresource Technology. 167343-348

    This study evaluates the production of biodiesel and ethanol from spent coffee grounds (SCG). The extraction of oil from SCG, biodiesel production and ethanol production processes were studied. The liquid-to-solid ratio and temperature were evaluated in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of the oil from SCG. The highest yield (12%) was obtained using 4 mL g(-1) liquid-to-solid ratio at 60 degrees C for 45 min. The process to produce biodiesel showed a yield of 97% into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The highest glucose yield (192 mg g(SCG)(1)) was obtained by hydrolysis with 0.4 mol L-1 sulfuric acid at 121 degrees C for 15 min. The hydrolysate was used as fermentation medium for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtaining 19.0 g L-1 at 10 h of process of ethanol with a yield of ethanol and productivity of 0.50 g g(-1) and 1.90 g L-1 h(-1), respectively. Spent coffee grounds were considered a potential feedstock for biodiesel and ethanol production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  315. [Effects of pH and oxygen supply on production of 2,3-butanediol from biodiesel-derived glycerol by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens]
    Abstract

    Yang, T.; Rao, Z.; Zhang, X.; Xu, M.; Xu, Z. 2013. [Effects of pH and oxygen supply on production of 2,3-butanediol from biodiesel-derived glycerol by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 29(12) 1860-4

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was used to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from residual glycerol obtained from biodiesel synthesis. Important variables for 2,3-BD fermentation, pH and dissolved oxygen, were studied. When pH was maintained constant, the yield of 2,3-BD was inhibited. The highest 2,3-BD yields were achieved by fermentation without any pH control with an optimized initial pH 6.5. Batch fermentative production of 2,3-BD by B. amyloliquefaciens was investigated using various oxygen supply methods by changing agitation speed. Based on the analysis of three kinetic parameters including specific cell growth rate (micro), specific glucose consumption rate (q(s)) and specific 2,3-BD formation rate (q(p)), a three-stage agitation speed control strategy was proposed, aimed at achieving high concentration, high yield and high productivity of 2,3-BD. Maximum concentration of 2,3-BD reached 38.1 g/L, with the productivity of 1.06 g/(L x h), which were 14.8% and 63.1% over the best results from constant agitation speeds. In a pulse fed-batch fermentation, 2,3-BD concentration and productivity were significantly improved to 71.2 g/L and 0.99 g/(L x h), respectively. To our knowledge, these results were the highest for 2,3-BD production from biodiesel-derived glycerol.
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  316. A comparative study of solid carbon acid catalysts for the esterification of free fatty acids for biodiesel production. Evidence for the leaching of colloidal carbon
    Abstract

    Deshmane, C. A.; Wright, M. W.; Lachgar, A.; Rohlfing, M.; Liu, Z. N.; Le, J.; Hanson, B. E. 2013. A comparative study of solid carbon acid catalysts for the esterification of free fatty acids for biodiesel production. Evidence for the leaching of colloidal carbon. Bioresource Technology. 147597-604

    The preparation of a variety of sulfonated carbons and their use in the esterification of oleic acid is reported. All sulfonated materials show some loss in activity associated with the leaching of active sites. Exhaustive leaching shows that a finite amount of activity is lost from the carbons in the form of colloids. Fully leached catalysts show no loss in activity upon recycling. The best catalysts; 1, 3, and 6; show initial TOFs of 0.07 s(-1), 0.05 s(-1), and 0.14 s(-1), respectively. These compare favorably with literature values. Significantly, the leachate solutions obtained from catalysts 1, 3, and 6, also show excellent esterification activity. The results of TEM and catalyst poisoning experiments on the leachate solutions associate the catalytic activity of these solutions with carbon colloids. This mechanism for leaching active sites from sulfonated carbons is previously unrecognized. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  317. A Simple Engineering Technique to Improve Transesterification for Biodiesel Fuel Production
    Abstract

    Hayashi, T.; Habaki, H.; Egashira, R. 2013. A Simple Engineering Technique to Improve Transesterification for Biodiesel Fuel Production. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 46(7) 461-466

    The transesterification of triglyceride with methanol using an alkali catalyst was experimentally measured, and the obtained equilibrium constants were analyzed by the van't Hoff model. The constant for the conversion of triglyceride to diglyceride was the smallest. The standard enthalpies of formation in the transesterification were measured to be positive, i.e., the reaction is endothermic. Next, the transesterification using the countercurrent multistage reactor system was computationally simulated with the equilibrium stage model, in which the equilibrium constants obtained above were used. The concentrations of the triglyceride remaining in the biodiesel fuel product drastically decreased by the reactor staging, and consequently the reaction temperature and the required amount of methanol could be reduced. The transesterification by the countercurrent multistage reactor was found to be attractive because of the efficient production of the biodiesel fuel.
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  318. A study on the effects of promising edible and non-edible biodiesel feedstocks on engine performance and emissions production: A comparative evaluation
    Abstract

    Mofijur, M.; Atabani, A. E.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Masum, B. M. 2013. A study on the effects of promising edible and non-edible biodiesel feedstocks on engine performance and emissions production: A comparative evaluation. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 23391-404

    Global energy demand is increasing due to the population growth and industrialization. In order to fulfill the energy demand with considering global concern, it is necessary to find out alternative fuel sources. Biodiesel is one of the best choices because of its immense potential to be part of energy mix in the near future as well as the capability of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This paper aims to provide information to the engineers, industrialists and researchers who are interested on biodiesel. The paper presents a comprehensive review on the impact of potential biodiesel feedstocks (edible and non-edible) on engine performance and exhaust emissions including details of engine and operating condition. A large number of literatures from highly rated journals in scientific indexes are reviewed including the most recent publications. Most of the authors showed that using biodiesel from various feedstocks in diesel engines slightly lowered brake power and brake thermal efficiency but increases BSFC than diesel fuel. It was also reported that biodiesel significantly reduced the PM, HC, CO and CO2 emissions but gives slightly higher NOx emissions. It was shown that NO can be reduced by some approaches such as blending with additives and EGR technique. The study concluded that biodiesel can be used in compression ignition engine with no or minor engine modification. Finally biodiesel can be used as a substitute of diesel fuel to fulfill the energy demand, reduce dependency on fossil fuel as well as the exhaust emissions of the engine. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  319. Acceleration of biodiesel-glycerol decantation through NaCl-assisted gravitational settling: A strategy to economize biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Shirazi, M. M. A.; Kargari, A.; Tabatabaei, M.; Mostafaeid, B.; Akia, M.; Barkhi, M.; Shirazi, M. J. A. 2013. Acceleration of biodiesel-glycerol decantation through NaCl-assisted gravitational settling: A strategy to economize biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 134401-406

    When making biodiesel, slow separation of glycerol; the main by-product of the transesterification reaction, could lead to longer operating times, bigger equipment and larger amount of steel and consequently increased production cost. Therefore, acceleration of glycerol/biodiesel decantation could play an important role in the overall biodiesel refinery process. In this work, NaCl-assisted gravitational settling was considered as an economizing strategy. The results obtained indicated that the addition of conventional NaCl salt decreased the glycerol settling time significantly up to more than five times. However, NaCl inclusion rates of more than 3 g to the mixture (i.e. 5 and 10 g) resulted in significantly less methyl ester purity due to the occurrence of miniemulsion phenomenon. Overall, addition of 1 g NaCl/100 ml glycerol-biodiesel mixture was found as optimal by accelerating the decantation process by 100% while maintaining the methyl ester purity as high as the control (0 g NaCl). (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  320. Alternatives for the Production of Biodiesel by Supercritical Technologies: A Comparative Study
    Abstract

    Gomez-Castro, F. I.; Segovia-Hernandez, J. G.; Hernandez-Castro, S.; Rico-Ramirez, V.; Gamino-Arroyo, Z.; Cano-Rodriguez, I. 2013. Alternatives for the Production of Biodiesel by Supercritical Technologies: A Comparative Study. 23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering. 327-12

    On the last years, there have been proposals for using supercritical conditions to produce biodiesel fuel from vegetable oils and/or animal fats without a catalyst. Different schemes have been proposed, the most popular consisting on the use of supercritical methanol as reactant. Other alternatives involve the use of methyl acetate or acetic acid as reactants. The potential of those processes may be established in terms of their total annual cost and environmental impact. Thus, in this work, the production of biodiesel fuel by using different reactants is studied. Four processes are considered: the one step supercritical methanol process (Saka process), the two steps supercritical methanol process (Saka-Dadan process), a process with methyl acetate as reactant and a process with acetic acid as reactant. Possible flowsheets for the reaction and separation stages are proposed. The processes are analyzed and compared in terms of energy consumption, pollutant emissions and total annual costs. It has been observed that, in terms of energy, the one step methanol process has the lowest energy requirements. Nevertheless, a higher temperature for the steam supplied is required; thus, that process has high values of CO2 emissions. Furthermore, methyl esters are obtained at higher temperatures, which may have a negative impact on its quality.
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  321. An integrative process model of enzymatic biodiesel production through ethanol fermentation of brown rice followed by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis in a water-containing system
    Abstract

    Adachi, D.; Koda, R.; Hama, S.; Yamada, R.; Nakashima, K.; Ogino, C.; Kondo, A. 2013. An integrative process model of enzymatic biodiesel production through ethanol fermentation of brown rice followed by lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis in a water-containing system. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 52(2) 118-122

    We attempted to integrate lipase-catalyzed ethanolysis into fermentative bioethanol production. To produce bioethanol, ethanol fermentation from brown rice was conducted using a tetraploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. The resultant ethanol was distilled and separated into three fractions with different concentrations of water and fusel alcohols. In ethanolysis using the first fraction with 89.3% ethanol, a recombinant Aspergillus oryzae whole-cell biocatalyst expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase (r-FHL) afforded the highest ethyl ester content of 94.0% after 96 h. Owing to a high concentration of water in the bioethanol solutions, r-FHL, which works best in the presence of water when processing ethanolysis, was found to be more suitable for the integrative process than a commercial immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. In addition, r-FHL was used for repeated-batch ethanolysis, resulting in an ethyl ester content of more than 80% even after the fifth batch. Fusel alcohols such as 1-butanol and isobutyl alcohol are thought to decrease the lipase activity of r-FHL. Using this process, a high ethyl ester content was obtained by simply mixing bioethanol, plant oil, and lipase with an appropriate adjustment of water concentration. The developed process model, therefore, would contribute to biodiesel production from only biomass-derived feedstocks. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  322. An unprecedented (3,4,24)-connected heteropolyoxozincate organic framework as heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Du, D. Y.; Qin, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yan, L. K.; O'Keeffe, M.; Su, Z. M.; Li, S. L.; Wang, X. H.; Wang, X. L.; Lan, Y. Q. 2013. An unprecedented (3,4,24)-connected heteropolyoxozincate organic framework as heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst for biodiesel production. Scientific Reports. 3

    A novel 3D hexadecanuclear heteropolyoxozincate organic framework, IFMC-200, has been successfully synthesized based on a late transition metal-oxygen cluster. IFMC-200 not only represents the first example of (3,4,24)-connected framework but also contains the first 24-connected single metal cluster in a crystal structure. It exhibits superior thermal stability, good water-stability, and even insensitivity to the existence of acid and base within a certain range of pH values. Furthermore, it performs as a heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst with good activity for the conversion of long-chain fatty acids rather than short-chain ones, and high recycling efficiency for esterification reaction of fatty acids with alcohols to produce biodiesel.
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  323. Biodegradation of Biodiesel Wash Water from a Biodiesel Fuel Production Plant
    Abstract

    Fukuda, N.; Habe, H.; Ito, M. 2013. Biodegradation of Biodiesel Wash Water from a Biodiesel Fuel Production Plant. Journal of Oleo Science. 62(7) 525-532

    The objective of this research was the modification of our biodiesel fuel (BDF) production process to make higher quality BDF. The existing process which does not include a water washing process for raw BDF, has the advantage of no wash water discharge, but occasionally the resultant BDF is of lower grade due to residual ingredients. First, we attempted to integrate water washing into the existing process. After being neutralized and washed with H2SO4, the raw BDF was then washed with water equal to 20% of the raw BDF volume. A good separation of BDF and wash water was achieved, and the resultant wash water contained less than 2% methanol. Second, we evaluated biodegradation of the resultant wash water constituents, and 70% of the strains isolated from environmental samples removed 80 to 90% of total organic carbon. Among these, strain No. 20-68 removed both glycerol and methanol in the wash water within 7 days and was identified as Fusarium falciforme, a ubiquitous environmental microorganisms. These results suggest that if the wash water is released to the environments, the effects on environmental microorganisms will be minimal.
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  324. Biodiesel production control using PNN and Coriolis flowmeter
    Abstract

    Torrisi, N. M.; Sabino, M. 2013. Biodiesel production control using PNN and Coriolis flowmeter. Neural Computing & Applications. 23(5) 1275-1282

    In order to complete the transesterification process, online result verification is applied to the traditional offline verification process based on chromatographic methods. There is a quick analytical method for assessing the biodiesel content of transesterification reaction by applying a correlation with viscosity. The results can substitute chromatographic verifications when recognizing and selecting the specified biodiesel quality. This type of verification could save hours of biodiesel process production per day. The proposed work designs a control solution for online biodiesel production verification using an online application based on the PNN technology and Coriolis viscosity sensors.
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  325. Biodiesel production from a novel raw material Tung oil
    Abstract

    Yang, J. J.; Guai, W. S.; Yang, M. Y. 2013. Biodiesel production from a novel raw material Tung oil. Progress in Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Pts 1 and 2. 608-609406-410

    Tung oil from the south of Shaanxi province was assayed by chemical analysis technology, its compositions of fatty acid was discovered with gas claromotography. As experiment results, Lipase-catalyzed Tung oil producing biodiesel plays a dominant role in the process of enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel in tert-butanol reaction system. we needed controlling the continuous flow rate in the reaction system and maintained a very high FAMEs yield. Tung oil from south Shaanxi could be an ideal raw material for biodiesel production.
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  326. Biodiesel production from biomass gasification tar via thermal/catalytic cracking
    Abstract

    Laksmono, N.; Paraschiv, M.; Loubar, K.; Tazerout, M. 2013. Biodiesel production from biomass gasification tar via thermal/catalytic cracking. Fuel Processing Technology. 106776-783

    This paper is devoted to the study of valorization of tar from biomass gasification as a fuel for internal combustion engine. The methods selected were both thermal cracking and catalytic cracking in the presence of zeolite, magnesium oxide, and aluminum oxide catalyst. The chemical composition of the cracking product was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, together with the physico-chemical properties determination (density, viscosity, higher heating value, and acidic value). Thermal cracking of biomass gasification tar gave a yield of bio-diesel 73.67 wt.% of feed. The cracking process in the presence of zeolite, magnesium oxide, and aluminum oxide catalysts gave a yield of biodiesel 62-75 wt.%, 55-66 wt.%, 67-71 wt.% respectively. The influence of the type and quantity of catalyst on production yield and properties of the produced bio-oil is highlighted. The produced bio-oil density and heating value were close to the conventional diesel fuel. The viscosity and acidic value were found to be slightly higher than that of conventional diesel fuel. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  327. Biodiesel production from fatty acids esterification using Brazilian clay-based catalyst
    Abstract

    Rezende, M. J. C.; Pinto, A. C. 2013. Biodiesel production from fatty acids esterification using Brazilian clay-based catalyst. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 245

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  328. Biodiesel production from huzelnut oil by means of transesterification reaction
    Abstract

    Onay, M.; Yucel, M.; Oktem, H. A. 2013. Biodiesel production from huzelnut oil by means of transesterification reaction. Febs Journal. 280598-599

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  329. BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM LUNARIA OIL (L. annua)
    Abstract

    Dodos, G. S.; Stamatiou, G.; Zannikos, F. 2013. BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM LUNARIA OIL (L. annua). Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology.

    Biodiesel is a renewable substitute of diesel fuel - predominantly in the form of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters - that is being added nowadays as a mixing component at a maximum concentration of 7% v/v. According to several European Energy/Fuel Directives a 10% target has been set by 2020 concerning the energy from renewable sources in the transport, whereas a 6% reduction in the greenhouse gases of fuels used in road transport has to be achieved by the same year. Recently a new European Commission proposal has been made public designating that the share of energy from biofuels produced from food crops shall be no more than 5% of the final consumption of energy in transport. Moreover, the expected introduction of ILUC (Indirect Land-Use Change) factors, in order to account for the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the changes in land use, is also believed to impact the biofuels availability. In Europe a continuing shift from gasoline to diesel fuel is observed leading to increased demands of diesel and subsequently biodiesel fuel. Since the 1st generation biofuels (FAME, FAEE) are still the prominent widely available diesel substitutes, the utilization of alternative nonfood crops as feedstock is advised so as to able to harmonize-to a certain extend - with the new regulatory frame.
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  330. Biodiesel production from Phoenix dactylifera as a new feedstock
    Abstract

    Amani, M. A.; Davoudi, M. S.; Tahvildari, K.; Nabavi, S. M.; Davoudi, M. S. 2013. Biodiesel production from Phoenix dactylifera as a new feedstock. Industrial Crops and Products. 4340-43

    Biodiesel is one of the renewable and clean burning fuels, which can be used in diesel engines. Biodiesel is usually generated from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using the food-grade vegetable oils is not economical since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. The kind of feedstock, which is used is the most effective factor on the biodiesel characteristics and the price. So, at first finding a proper feedstock has an important role in different places. Therefore in this research the possibility of using date seed as a cheap feedstock for biodiesel production was investigated, because it is produced largely in the hot arid regions of southwestern Asia and northern Africa. After extracting oil and producing biodiesel from Phoenix dactylifera (date seed) oil, the properties of biodiesel were evaluated by fuel standard tests and the results were compared with EN14214 and ASTM D6751 standards and also compared with the properties of produced. According to the results, the important benefit of the biodiesel from the date seed oil is high cetane number (60.3), low iodine value (46), viscosity (3.84 mm(2)/s) and flash point (140 degrees C) and the only weak point is its high pouring point (-1 degrees C) which limits the use of date seed biodiesel in cold weather in comparison with other vegetable biodiesel fuels. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  331. Biodiesel Production from Silkworm Pupae Oil Using Solid Base Catalyst
    Abstract

    Gu, S. S.; Wang, J.; Pang, N.; Wang, F. Q.; Li, C.; Wu, F. A. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Silkworm Pupae Oil Using Solid Base Catalyst. Advances in Chemical, Material and Metallurgical Engineering, Pts 1-5. 634-638711-715

    How to dispose large amounts of free fatty acids of the desilked silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) pupae oil in a suitable way have attracted considerable attention. The feasibility of biodiesel production from the desilked silkworm pupae oil using Na2O center dot SiO2 center dot 5H(2)O as a solid base catalyst was investigated, and the experimental conditions (i. e. molar ratio of methanol to oil, catalyst concentration, reaction time and reaction temperature) were studied. The experimental results indicated that Na2O center dot SiO2 center dot 5H(2)O possesses high catalytic activity towards the synthesis of biodiesel from the desilked silkworm pupae oil. The methyl esters conversion of up to 73 % for free fatty acids of the desilked silkworm pupae oil was achieved using the following reaction conditions: catalyst concentration 5 %, the molar ratio of methanol to oil 6:1, reaction temperature 70 degrees C, and retention time 8 h. Therefore, the desilked silkworm pupae oil is proved to be a new biodiesel source in a more sustainable way.
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  332. Biodiesel production from Xanthoceras sorbifolia in China: Opportunities and challenges
    Abstract

    Yao, Z. Y.; Qi, J. H.; Yin, L. M. 2013. Biodiesel production from Xanthoceras sorbifolia in China: Opportunities and challenges. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2457-65

    With a deep concern over the energy shortage and climate change, biodiesel has become more attractive to governments globally. Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge, an endemic oilseed tree to China, has been identified as a major woody energy plant for biodiesel production and receives special support from Chinese governments for its development. This paper analyzes the opportunities and challenges for biodiesel production from X. sorbifolia in China. The biological characteristics, geographic distribution, site requirements, propagation, cultivation and productivity of this species are described. The information about the presence of various phytochemicals in different parts of the plant is summarized. As a multifunctional tree, it plays other important roles in addition to the oil production for biodiesel, having many potential uses such as soil and water conservation, land reclamation, carbon sink, landscaping, and productions of foods, fodders, medicines and industrial chemicals. The potential advantages and disadvantages of the biodiesel production from X sorbifolia are outlined, and the needs for further research are recommended. The low fruit-setting rate and the small percentage of fine breeds result in a low yield, a high development cost, and a low economic efficiency of the biodiesel production, which is the development bottleneck of the biodiesel industry of X. sorbifolia presently. Integral valorization of the co-products such as leaves, branches, hulls, testa and kernel meals can make for the cost reduction and industrial production of the biodiesel from X. sorbifolia. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  333. Biodiesel production using surface-bound ZnO nanowires
    Abstract

    Ozer, R. R. 2013. Biodiesel production using surface-bound ZnO nanowires. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 246

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  334. Brazilian clay-based catalysts for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Suarez, P. A.; Pinto, A. C.; Rezende, M. J. C.; Pereira, M. S. C.; Santos, G. F. N.; Aroeira, G. O. P.; Albuquerque, T. C. 2013. Brazilian clay-based catalysts for biodiesel production. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 245

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  335. Challenges in the production of hydrogen from glycerol-a biodiesel byproduct via steam reforming process
    Abstract

    Avasthi, K. S.; Reddy, R. N.; Patel, S. 2013. Challenges in the production of hydrogen from glycerol-a biodiesel byproduct via steam reforming process. Chemical, Civil and Mechanical Engineering Tracks of 3rd Nirma University International Conference on Engineering (Nuicone2012). 51423-429

    The depleting fossil fuels with their ever increasing prices have paved ways for alternative fuels. Biodiesel is one of those alternative fuels which have picked up keen interest of the people due to its similar properties to diesel. However due to biodiesel being costlier than diesel in the present scenario, it has not been preferred to diesel. However if the cost of biodiesel is reduced then its effective usage can be made, either by blending with conventional diesel or by utilizing its byproduct (glycerol) effectively. One way is to use glycerol to produce hydrogen. Hydrogen, being another source of renewable energy, is also seen as a clean fuel for transportation purpose. Hydrogen can be prepared through glycerol via various routes namely steam reforming, auto-thermal reforming, partial oxidation, etc. The paper here focuses on the steam reforming process. This process is used widely used in the industries and it would not require much change in the system if the feedstock is changed to glycerol from naphtha or natural gas. However like every process this process also has some limitations which hinder the effective production of hydrogen. The paper throws light on these challenges, along with few possible solutions which can be used in order to avoid or eliminate these challenges and help in efficient production of hydrogen. (c) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  336. Combined utilization of lipase-displaying Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts to improve biodiesel production in co-solvent media
    Abstract

    Jin, Z.; Han, S. Y.; Zhang, L.; Zheng, S. P.; Wang, Y.; Lin, Y. 2013. Combined utilization of lipase-displaying Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts to improve biodiesel production in co-solvent media. Bioresource Technology. 130102-109

    Lipase-displaying whole cells appear to be efficient biocatalysts because of their low preparation costs and simple recycling procedure. The combined utilization of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) and Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML), separately displayed on Pichia pastoris whole cells, to produce biodiesel in co-solvent media was investigated. A response surface methodology incorporating a D-optimal design was employed to obtain the optimum reaction conditions for methyl ester (ME) synthesis. The synergistic effect of the two displayed lipases and the use of tert-butanol and isooctane as the co-solvent media were found to significantly improve the transesterification reaction. Scaled-up reactions using various types of feedstock were carried out in a 0.5-1 stirred reactor under optimum conditions, affording ME yields over 90% in 12 h. Moreover, the ME yields remained above 85% after 20 repeated batch cycles. In conclusion, this biocatalyst affords a promising route to efficient biodiesel production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  337. Comparison of fuel and emission properties of petro diesel and sunflower biodiesel prepared by optimized production variables
    Abstract

    Amini-Niaki, S. R.; Ghazanfari, A. 2013. Comparison of fuel and emission properties of petro diesel and sunflower biodiesel prepared by optimized production variables. Fuel. 109384-388

    Biodiesel is considered as a renewable fuel and an alternative to petro diesel which is derived from transesterification of vegetable oils. In this research, the values of the major factors affecting the transesterification of sunflower oil were optimized by the response surface methodology. The experiments were conducted based on central composite rotatable design. A second order polynomial model was developed for predicting biodiesel yield as a function of the dependent variables. The optimum values obtained for molar ratio of oil to methanol, the percentage of catalyst (KOH), reaction time and reaction temperature were 1:5.5, 1.0%, 65.5 min and 51.7 degrees C, respectively. The yield of biodiesel using the optimized variables was 83.4%. The fuel tests indicated that the prepared biodiesel had good combustion characteristics and lower exhaust pollutant in compare with regular petro diesel. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  338. Cotton Seed Oil: A Feasible Oil Source for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Eevera, T.; Pazhanichamy, K. 2013. Cotton Seed Oil: A Feasible Oil Source for Biodiesel Production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 35(12) 1118-1128

    Cottonseed oil was transesterified to convert into biodiesel. The optimum catalyst concentration, amount of methanol used per liter of oil, time taken by the reaction, and temperature were found. This cottonseed oil-derived biodiesel was tested in a direct injection, naturally aspirated, single-cylinder diesel engine. The diesel engine was operated from no load to full load condition. Effect of this biodiesel on engine parameters, namely, fuel consumption, electrical efficiency, lower heating value, and engine speed, was examined. Also, the physical and chemical properties, including specific gravity, moisture content, refractive index, acid value, iodine number, saponification value, and peroxide value of the methyl esters used in this study, were estimated. Based on electrical efficiency, the methyl esters obtained from cottonseed oil were found to be a good alternate fuel in internal combustion engines with electrical generators.
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  339. Dark fermentative hydrogen production with crude glycerol from biodiesel industry using indigenous hydrogen-producing bacteria
    Abstract

    Lo, Y. C.; Chen, X. J.; Huang, C. Y.; Yuan, Y. J.; Chang, J. S. 2013. Dark fermentative hydrogen production with crude glycerol from biodiesel industry using indigenous hydrogen-producing bacteria. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 38(35) 15815-15822

    Glycerol is an inevitable by-product from biodiesel synthesis process and could be a promising feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production. In this study, the feasibility of using crude glycerol from biodiesel industry for biohydrogen production was evaluated using seven isolated hydrogen-producing bacterial strains (Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium pasteurianum, and Klebsiella sp.). Among the strains examined, C. pasteurianum CH4 exhibited the best biohydrogen-producing performance under the optimal conditions of: temperature, 35 degrees C; initial pH, 7.0; agitation rate, 200 rpm; glycerol concentration, 10 g/l. When using pure glycerol as carbon source for continuous hydrogen fermentation, the average H-2 production rate and H-2 yield were 103.1 +/- 8.1 ml/h/l and 0.50 +/- 0.02 mol H-2/mol glycerol, respectively. In contrast, when using crude glycerol as the carbon source, the H-2 production rate and H-2 yield was improved to 166.0 +/- 8.7 ml/h/l and 0.77 +/- 0.05 mol H-2/mol glycerol, respectively. This work demonstrated the high potential of using biodiesel by-product, glycerol, for cost-effective biohydrogen production. Copyright (C) 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  340. Development of a novel integrated continuous reactor system for biocatalytic production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Sen, R. 2013. Development of a novel integrated continuous reactor system for biocatalytic production of biodiesel. Bioresource Technology. 147395-400

    A novel integrated immobilized enzyme-reactor system involving a continuous stirred tank reactor with two packed bed reactors in series was developed for the continuous production of biodiesel. The problem of methanol solubility into oil was solved by introducing a stirred tank reactor to dissolve methanol into partially converted oil. This step made the process perfectly continuous without requiring any organic solvent and intermittent methanol addition in the process. The substrate feeding rate of 0.74 mL/min and enzyme loading of 0.75 g per reactor were determined to be optimum for maximum biodiesel yield. The integrated continuous process was stable up to 45 cycles with biodiesel productivity of 137.2 g/L/h, which was approximately 5 times higher than solvent free batch process. In comparison with the processes reported in literature using expensive Novozyme 435 and hazardous organic solvent, the present process is completely green and perfectly continuous with economic and environmental advantages. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  341. Dieselzymes: development of a stable and methanol tolerant lipase for biodiesel production by directed evolution
    Abstract

    Korman, T. P.; Sahachartsiri, B.; Charbonneau, D. M.; Huang, G. L.; Beauregard, M.; Bowie, J. U. 2013. Dieselzymes: development of a stable and methanol tolerant lipase for biodiesel production by directed evolution. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 6

    Background: Biodiesels are methyl esters of fatty acids that are usually produced by base catalyzed transesterification of triacylglyerol with methanol. Some lipase enzymes are effective catalysts for biodiesel synthesis and have many potential advantages over traditional base or acid catalyzed transesterification. Natural lipases are often rapidly inactivated by the high methanol concentrations used for biodiesel synthesis, however, limiting their practical use. The lipase from Proteus mirabilis is a particularly promising catalyst for biodiesel synthesis as it produces high yields of methyl esters even in the presence of large amounts of water and expresses very well in Escherichia coli. However, since the Proteus mirabilis lipase is only moderately stable and methanol tolerant, these properties need to be improved before the enzyme can be used industrially.
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  342. Economic Analysis of Biodiesel and Glycerol Carbonate Production Plant by Glycerolysis
    Abstract

    Nguyen, Nghi; Demirel, Ya?ar 2013. Economic Analysis of Biodiesel and Glycerol Carbonate Production Plant by Glycerolysis. Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems. Vol.03No.038

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  343. Eustigmatos Cf. Polyphem (Eustigmatophyceae), a Potential Microalga for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Li, A. F.; Han, H. J.; Zhang, Z. C. W. 2013. Eustigmatos Cf. Polyphem (Eustigmatophyceae), a Potential Microalga for Biodiesel Production. Phycologia. 52(4) 63-63

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  344. Evaluation of the glycerin from biodiesel production in the preservation of anatomical parts
    Abstract

    Carvalho, Y. K.; Zavarize, K. C.; Medeiros, L. D.; Bombonato, P. P. 2013. Evaluation of the glycerin from biodiesel production in the preservation of anatomical parts. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira. 33(1) 115-118

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  345. Experimental and simulation study of crude glycerol purification from different feed stocks in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Xiao, Y.; Varma, A. 2013. Experimental and simulation study of crude glycerol purification from different feed stocks in biodiesel production. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 246

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  346. Experimental, modeling, and optimization of pilot plant scale biodiesel production using heteropolyacid catalyst in a reactive distillation
    Abstract

    Noshadi, I.; Kanjilal, B.; Amin, N. S.; Babamohammadi, P. 2013. Experimental, modeling, and optimization of pilot plant scale biodiesel production using heteropolyacid catalyst in a reactive distillation. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 245

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  347. Family farmers and biodiesel production: Systems thinking and multi-level decisions in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Abstract

    Florin, M. J.; van Ittersum, M. K.; van de Ven, G. W. J. 2013. Family farmers and biodiesel production: Systems thinking and multi-level decisions in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Agricultural Systems. 12181-95

    This study focuses on family farmer engagement in the Brazilian national programme for Production and use of Biodiesel (PNPB). The Brazilian government has been promoting the role of family farmers as producers of biomass for biodiesel since 2004; however, fewer than expected family farmers have decided to produce biomass for biodiesel. The North of Minas Gerais is one region where a biodiesel plant has been strategically located to source castor beans grown by family farmers. The target family farm type in this region specializes in beef and/or dairy production with low input pasture (approximately 30 ha per farm), maize intercropped with beans (approximately 1 ha per farm) and sugarcane (approximately 1 ha per farm). We selected this region for a case study to explore management decisions of farmers, industry and policy makers that influence family farmer engagement with biodiesel production through cultivation of castor beans. To evaluate outcomes for family farmers engaging with the PNPB, we focused on how cultivation of castor beans impacts family farmers in terms of income levels, income stability and levels of milk production. We used an application of systems thinking known as Bayesian network modelling (BNM). BNM was chosen for its suitability to integrate different types of knowledge and to include quantitative and qualitative variables. The study was built on a body of scientific literature explaining why family farmers have not been cultivating castor beans for biodiesel production and a body of experiential knowledge of local actors (farmers, extension officers, policy makers, biodiesel manufacturers and researchers in North of Minas Gerais). The complete BNM consisted of a 'cause and effect' diagram where the strengths of the causal relationships were quantified with elicited opinions from surveyed local actors. We used the complete BNM to explore scenarios that could improve outcomes for family farmers and consequently increase their level of engagement. For example, we addressed subsidy structures of the PNPB, crop management, farm-level trade-offs and value-chain innovations. We demonstrate that decisions to support family farmer engagement with biodiesel are not singular. Engagement by family farmers requires simultaneously: improvements in technical crop management, reductions in farm-level cash constraints and innovations in the production chain such that engagement of family farmers goes beyond cultivation of one more low-value crop. Finally we discuss some methodological issues from this application of BNM to farming systems research. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  348. Fatty acid composition as an efficient tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R. 2013. Fatty acid composition as an efficient tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 246

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  349. Fatty acid content and composition of sediments from Siberian eutrophic water bodies: Implications for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Sushchik, N. N.; Kuchkina, A. Y.; Gladyshev, M. I. 2013. Fatty acid content and composition of sediments from Siberian eutrophic water bodies: Implications for biodiesel production. Water Research. 47(9) 3192-3200

    We studied lipids and fatty acids (FA) in bottom sediments from four Siberian water bodies, Bugach, Lesnoi and Krasnoyarsk freshwater reservoirs and brackish Shira lake, that differed in physico-chemical and biological conditions. We considered the potential of the bottom sediments as a feedstock for biodiesel production and estimated properties of the obtained biodiesel as a fuel on the basis of FA composition. Contents of lipids and FA in the sediments moderately varied and were generally close to the reported data from lacustrine and estuarine systems. We confirmed that long-term eutrophication of a water body resulted in the lipid-rich bottom sediments that make them a feedstock for biodiesel production. Each of the studied water bodies had specific FA composition of sediments likely due to different organic matter sources and transformation processes. Despite these differences in FA profiles, calculated key parameters (cetane number, iodine number and heat of combustion) of biodiesel produced from all the studied sediments met the limits established by current biodiesel standards. Thus, the variation in the sediment FA composition due to environmental characteristics of a water body likely has no principal significance for fuel properties of the obtained biodiesel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  350. Fermentation of biodiesel-derived glycerol by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: effects of co-substrates on 2,3-butanediol production
    Abstract

    Yang, T. W.; Rao, Z. M.; Zhang, X.; Xu, M. J.; Xu, Z. H.; Yang, S. T. 2013. Fermentation of biodiesel-derived glycerol by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: effects of co-substrates on 2,3-butanediol production. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 97(17) 7651-7658

    Cultivation in glycerol instead of sugars inhibits 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In this study, we report that B. amyloliquefaciens readily produces 2,3-BD from biodiesel-derived glycerol in the presence of beet molasses as a co-substrate. Unexpectedly, the molasses stimulated 2,3-BD production and simultaneously reduced the duration of fermentation. Productivity of 2,3-BD was enhanced at the start of fermentation, and yields increased under continuous molasses supply. Subsequently, 2,3-BD production in molasses-supplemented fed-batch culture was observed. Prior to inoculation of fed-batch fermentation culture, 15 g/l of molasses was added to the bioreactor. After 6 h of incubation, the bioreactor was fed with a solution containing 80 % glycerol and 15 % molasses. The 2,3-BD concentration, yield, and productivity significantly improved, reaching 83.3 g/l, 0.42 g/g, and 0.87 g/l center dot h, respectively. To our knowledge, these results are the highest report for 2,3-BD fermentation from biodiesel-derived glycerol.
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  351. Fungal lipid production and usage in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Cicek, F.; Yalcin, E. 2013. Fungal lipid production and usage in biodiesel production. Turkish Journal of Biochemistry-Turk Biyokimya Dergisi. 38(2) 193-199

    Objective: In this study lipid production from Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium semitectum ve Fusarium culmorum was studied, and biodiesel production from these lipids was investigated.
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  352. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Yu, X. W.; Sha, C.; Guo, Y. L.; Xiao, R.; Xu, Y. 2013. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 6

    Background: Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called "China wood oil" is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through different heterologous expression strategies and fermentation techniques, the highest expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae reached 1334 U/mL in Pichia pastoris, which is still not optimistic for industry applications.
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  353. Hydrocarbons production through hydrotreating of methyl esters over Ni and Co supported on SBA-15 and Al-SBA-15
    Abstract

    Ochoa-Hernandez, C.; Yang, Y. X.; Pizarro, P.; O'Shea, V. A. D.; Coronado, J. M.; Serrano, D. P. 2013. Hydrocarbons production through hydrotreating of methyl esters over Ni and Co supported on SBA-15 and Al-SBA-15. Catalysis Today. 21081-88

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is a suitable process to eliminate the oxygen content in vegetable oils and to produce a renewable fuel with characteristics similar to petroleum derived diesel. In this investigation, ordered mesoporous materials based on SBA-15 and Al-SBA-15 were synthesized and impregnated by incipient wetness impregnation with Ni or Co nitrate, being subsequently calcined and reduced with hydrogen. All the samples were characterized by means of XRD, N-2 adsorption-desorption analysis at 77 K, ICP-OES, H-2-TPR and TPD-NH3. Hydrotreating of a methyl esters mixture, used as convenient surrogate of triglycerides, was studied in the present work. Catalytic tests were carried out in a fixed-bed tubular reactor at 340-300 degrees C and 30 bar of H-2 for 6 h, obtaining n-paraffins as main products. The results revealed that the presence of aluminum in the supports favors HDO processes, specifically at low temperatures, achieving higher selectivities and yields to C-18 hydrocarbons than SBA-15 based materials. Besides, acid sites promote the formation of non-linear hydrocarbons in addition to n-paraffins, which are mainly produced with pure silica based catalysts. Regarding active phases, Co proved to be more active than Ni under the reaction conditions used in this study. On the basis of these results, Co/Al-SBA-15 can be considered as a very promising catalyst for the production of biofuels in diesel range from vegetable oils with a remarkable HDO activity. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
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  354. Influence of production variables for biodiesel synthesis on yields and fuel properties, and optimization of production conditions
    Abstract

    Abuhabaya, A.; Fieldhouse, J.; Brown, D. 2013. Influence of production variables for biodiesel synthesis on yields and fuel properties, and optimization of production conditions. Fuel. 103963-969

    This study presents an experimental investigation into the effects of using bio-diesel on diesel engine performance and its emissions. The bio-diesel fuels were produced from vegetable oils using the transesterification process with low molecular weight alcohols and sodium hydroxide then tested on a steady state engine test rig using a Euro 4 four cylinder Compression Ignition (CI) engine. Production optimization was achieved by changing the variables which included methanol/oil molar ratio, NaOH catalyst concentration, reaction time, reaction temperature, and rate of mixing to maximize bio-diesel yield. The technique used was the response surface methodology. In addition, a second-order model was developed to predict the bio-diesel yield if the production criteria is known. The model was validated using additional experimental testing. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  355. Inherently Safer Design Applied to the Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Gomez, G. E.; Ramos, M. A.; Cadena, J. E.; Gomez, J. M.; Munoz, F. 2013. Inherently Safer Design Applied to the Biodiesel Production. Lp2013 - 14th Symposium on Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process Industries, Vols I and Ii. 31619-624

    The implementation of the inherent safety principles could be ambiguous due to the strategies that are involved on. Optimization is one of the options that could be seen as the key to balance the risk reduction and the economic feasibility of the project. The utilization of safety index is another option, with lower time efficiency and related results. The present paper will focus on the implementation of inherent safety principles into the biofuels production. The starting point is related to the chemist modification, passing from the common trans-esterification reaction to a two steps process, a hydrolysis of the triolein and with the fatty acid obtained do an esterification with methanol. The software selected for the project development is Aspen Plus and the reduction on the process risk will be evaluated with process safety indexes. The latter involve the characteristics of the process, type of equipment and the most important thing the type of substance that is handled on each unit.
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  356. Investigating transesterification reaction parametres of Candida tropicalis lipids for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Karatay, S. E.; Donmez, G. 2013. Investigating transesterification reaction parametres of Candida tropicalis lipids for biodiesel production. Febs Journal. 280607-607

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  357. Investigation of the stability of Novozym (R) 435 in the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Jose, C.; Austic, G. B.; Bonetto, R. D.; Burton, R. M.; Briand, L. E. 2013. Investigation of the stability of Novozym (R) 435 in the production of biodiesel. Catalysis Today. 21373-80

    The effect of the composition of the feedstock (free fatty acids and methanol), the presence or absence of moisture and the contact with biodiesel on the catalytic, enzymatic and physical stability of Novozym (R) 435 during enzymatic biodiesel production was studied. The continuous removal of moisture leads to the deactivation of the biocatalyst and favours the degradation of the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) that constitutes the support of the lipase B of Candida antarctica (CALB). Nevertheless, the presence of PMMA along with the active protein was detected in the reaction media regardless of the operating conditions. Surprisingly, biodiesel (without the presence of methanol) is able to diffuse inside the biocatalyst's beads producing its swelling, modifying the internal texture and also dissolving the polymeric matrix. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
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  358. KF-loaded mesoporous Mg-Fe bi-metal oxides: high performance transesterification catalysts for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Tao, G.; Hua, Z.; Gao, Z.; Zhu, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Shu, Z.; Zhang, L.; Shi, J. 2013. KF-loaded mesoporous Mg-Fe bi-metal oxides: high performance transesterification catalysts for biodiesel production. Chem Commun (Camb). 49(73) 8006-8

    Using newly developed mesoporous Mg-Fe bi-metal oxides as supports, a novel kind of high performance transesterification catalysts for biodiesel production has been synthesized. More importantly, the impregnation solvent was for the first time found to substantially affect the structures and catalytic performances of the resultant transesterification catalysts.
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  359. Kinetics of lipase recovery from the aqueous phase of biodiesel production by macroporous resin adsorption and reuse of the adsorbed lipase for biodiesel preparation
    Abstract

    Zhao, X. B.; Fan, M.; Zeng, J.; Du, W.; Liu, C. M.; Liu, D. H. 2013. Kinetics of lipase recovery from the aqueous phase of biodiesel production by macroporous resin adsorption and reuse of the adsorbed lipase for biodiesel preparation. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 52(4-5) 226-233

    A commercial macroporous resin (D3520) was screened for lipase recovery by adsorption from the aqueous phase of biodiesel production. The influences of several factors on the adsorption kinetics were investigated. It was found that the kinetic behavior of lipase adsorption by macroporous resin could be well described by pseudo-first-order model. Temperature had no significant effects on lipase adsorption, while resin-to-protein ratio (R) significantly affected both rate constant (k(1)) and equilibrium adsorption capacity (Q(e)). No lipase was adsorbed when mixing (shaking) was not performed; however, protein recovery reached 98% after the adsorption was conducted at 200 rpm for 5 h in a shaker. The presence of methanol and glycerol showed significant negative influence on lipase adsorption kinetics. Particularly, increasing glycerol concentration could dramatically decrease k(1) but not impact Q(e). Biodiesel was found to dramatically decrease Q(e) even present at a concentration as low as 0.02%, while k(1) was found to increase with biodiesel concentration. The adsorbed lipase showed a relatively stable catalytic activity in tert-butanol system, but poor stability in solvent-free system when used for biodiesel preparation. Oil and biodiesel were also found to adsorb onto resin during transesterification in solvent-free system. Therefore, the resin had to be washed by anhydrous methanol before re-used for lipase recovery. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  360. L (+)-lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 on biodiesel crude glycerol
    Abstract

    Vodnar, D. C.; Dulf, F. V.; Pop, O. L.; Socaciu, C. 2013. L (+)-lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 on biodiesel crude glycerol. Microbial Cell Factories. 12

    Background: Given its availability and low price, glycerol derived from biodiesel industry has become an ideal feedstock for the production of fuels and chemicals. A solution to reduce the negative environmental problems and the cost of biodiesel is to use crude glycerol as carbon source for microbial growth media in order to produce valuable organic chemicals. In the present paper, crude glycerol was used as carbon substrate for production of L (+)-lactic acid using pelletized fungus R. oryzae NRRL 395 on batch fermentation. More, the experiments were conducted on media supplemented with inorganic nutrients and lucerne green juice.
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  361. Microbial oil production from various carbon sources and its use for biodiesel preparation
    Abstract

    Xu, J. Y.; Du, W.; Zhao, X. B.; Zhang, G. L.; Liu, D. H. 2013. Microbial oil production from various carbon sources and its use for biodiesel preparation. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 7(1) 65-77

    Biodiesel has gained significant attention as an alternative to petroleum diesel. Currently, there is an increasing interest in obtaining microbial oils from oleaginous micro-organisms for biodiesel production. In the accumulation of microbial oils, carbon substrate constitutes a major portion of the cost. Accordingly, significant efforts have been made to explore suitable carbon sources, and to investigate their effects on cell growth as well as lipid synthesis. This paper reviews the current trend of using various carbon sources for microbial oils production, including carbon dioxide, conventional saccharides, energy crops, C2 compounds, lignocellulosic biomass, and glycerol. The strategies for enhancement of microbial oils production are further discussed. Finally, the constraints and perspectives of using microbial oils for biodiesel production are also highlighted. (C) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons Ltd
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  362. Microwave Catalytic Process for the Production of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Chang, C. Y.; Lin, C. H.; Hwa, M. Y.; Lee, Y. C.; Tseng, W. M. 2013. Microwave Catalytic Process for the Production of Biodiesel. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 7(2) 198-201

    This study is intended to develop a new microwave catalytic process technology within the production of biodiesel. Microwave catalytic process plays a role in biodiesel production and is still in development, the main reason is the selection of catalyst. For these reasons, we comprised a household microwave oven (2450 MHz) modified as the reaction chamber, which was fitted with a cylindrical quartz reactor consist a catalytic packed column filled with granular catalyst. The production of high-performance Fe3O4 was used to testing the efficiency of biodiesel production under microwave catalytic system. The results showed that the production of biodiesel in line with the requirements for biodiesel, compared to traditional heating plate, the energy consumption is also significantly reduced by nearly 56%. Within the development of this new microwave catalytic process, the lowered microwave power and the increase in biodiesel production capacity, lead to a successful commercialization values.
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  363. Model-based run-to-run optimization under uncertainty of biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Luna, M. F.; Martinez, E. C. 2013. Model-based run-to-run optimization under uncertainty of biodiesel production. 23 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering. 32103-108

    A significant source of uncertainty in biodiesel production is the variability of feed composition since the percentage and type of triglycerides varies considerably across different raw materials. Also, due to the complexity of both transesterification and saponification kinetics, first-principles models of biodiesel production typically have built-in errors (structural and parametric uncertainty) which give rise to the need for obtaining relevant data through experimental design in modeling for optimization. A run-to-run optimization strategy which integrates tendency models with Bayesian active learning is proposed. Parameter distributions in a probabilistic model of process performance are re-estimated using data from experiments designed for maximizing information and performance. Results obtained highlight that Bayesian optimal design of experiments using a probabilistic tendency model is effective in achieving the maximum ester content and yield in biodiesel production even though significant uncertainty in feed composition and modeling errors are present.
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  364. Monascus pigment production in bioreactor using a co-product of biodiesel as substrate
    Abstract

    Buhler, R. M. M.; Dutra, A. C.; Vendruscolo, F.; Moritz, D. E.; Ninow, J. L. 2013. Monascus pigment production in bioreactor using a co-product of biodiesel as substrate. Food Science and Technology. 339-13

    The study and use of natural pigments in food industries have increased in recent years due to the toxicity presented by artificial pigments. Monascus ruber is a filamentous fungus that produces red, orange, and yellow pigments under different growing conditions. The growth of health food market has increased in parallel with the growth in biofuels production, such as biodiesel, which generates a concomitant increase in the production of glycerin that can be used in bioprocesses. The objective of this study was to use glycerin and glucose as substrates in the production of natural pigments in a bioreactor. The culture of Monascus ruber was carried out in a Bioflo III reactor with 4 L of working volume and pH, temperature, aeration, and agitation control. The highest pigment production was observed after 60 hours of fungal culture with 8.28 UA(510) of red pigment. The pH range remained from 5.45 to 6.23 favoring the release of red pigment in the medium. This study shows the feasibility of the production of natural pigments by Monascus ruber in a bioreactor using a co-product of biodiesel without previous treatment as a substrate.
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  365. Nanobiotechnology as a novel paradigm for enzyme immobilisation and stabilisation with potential applications in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Verma, M. L.; Barrow, C. J.; Puri, M. 2013. Nanobiotechnology as a novel paradigm for enzyme immobilisation and stabilisation with potential applications in biodiesel production. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 97(1) 23-39

    Nanobiotechnology is emerging as a new frontier of biotechnology. The potential applications of nanobiotechnology in bioenergy and biosensors have encouraged researchers in recent years to investigate new novel nanoscaffolds to build robust nanobiocatalytic systems. Enzymes, mainly hydrolytic class of enzyme, have been extensively immobilised on nanoscaffold support for long-term stabilisation by enhancing thermal, operational and storage catalytic potential. In the present report, novel nanoscaffold variants employed in the recent past for enzyme immobilisation, namely nanoparticles, nanofibres, nanotubes, nanopores, nanosheets and nanocomposites, are discussed in the context of lipase-mediated nanobiocatalysis. These nanocarriers have an inherently large surface area that leads to high enzyme loading and consequently high volumetric enzyme activity. Due to their high tensile strengths, nanoscale materials are often robust and resistant to breakage through mechanical shear in the running reactor making them suitable for multiple reuses. The optimisation of various nanosupports process parameters, such as the enzyme type and selection of suitable immobilisation method may help lead to the development of an efficient enzyme reactor. This might in turn offer a potential platform for exploring other enzymes for the development of stable nanobiocatalytic systems, which could help to address global environmental issues by facilitating the production of green energy. The successful validation of the feasibility of nanobiocatalysis for biodiesel production represents the beginning of a new field of research. The economic hurdles inherent in viably scaling nanobiocatalysts from a lab-scale to industrial biodiesel production are also discussed.
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  366. One-step synthesis of mesoporous H4SiW12O40-SiO2 catalysts for the production of methyl and ethyl levulinate biodiesel
    Abstract

    Yan, K.; Wu, G. S.; Wen, J. L.; Chen, A. C. 2013. One-step synthesis of mesoporous H4SiW12O40-SiO2 catalysts for the production of methyl and ethyl levulinate biodiesel. Catalysis Communications. 3458-63

    A novel one-step method for the synthesis of mesoporous H4SiW12O40-SiO2 catalysts with tunable composition was successfully developed using non-ionic polyethylene glycol dodecyl ether (Brij 30) as the structure-directing template. Different loadings of H4SiW12O40 (up to 30 wt.%) were effectively confined within the mesoporous channels of SiO2, which would facilitate easy recycling and allow for the efficient mass transport of reactants and products. The resultant mesoporous H4SiW12O40-SiO2 showed high catalytic activity for the production of methyl and ethyl levulinate biodiesel. The 20 wt.% H4SiW12O40-SiO2 catalyst exhibited the best performance in the synthesis of both methyl levulinate (73% yield achieved at 79% conversion of levulinic acid) and ethyl levulinate (67% yield obtained at 75% conversion of levulinic add). (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  367. Optimal design, dynamics and control of a reactive DWC for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ignat, R. M.; Kiss, A. A. 2013. Optimal design, dynamics and control of a reactive DWC for biodiesel production. Chemical Engineering Research & Design. 91(9) 1760-1767

    Reactive separation technologies were proposed recently for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) production, providing significant benefits such as minimal capital and operating cost savings. One approach is to use a reactive dividing-wall column (R-DWC) for the biodiesel production process. However, since the R-DWC is designed for a quaternary reactive system - two reactants (one in excess) and two products - more difficulties concerning the process control may be expected considering the high degree of integration of the process.
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  368. Optimization of biodiesel production by supercritical methyl acetate
    Abstract

    Goembira, F.; Saka, S. 2013. Optimization of biodiesel production by supercritical methyl acetate. Bioresource Technology. 13147-52

    This work has been done to find out the optimum condition of supercritical methyl acetate method in biodiesel production. The reaction temperature, pressure, time and molar ratio in methyl acetate to oil were the key parameters that must all be considered to produce an optimum condition. Evaluation of thermal decomposition on products, cis-trans isomerization and tocopherol content were required to further optimize the reaction condition. It was, therefore, concluded that for the supercritical methyl acetate method, reaction condition of 350 degrees C/20 MPa/45 min/42 M ratio gave the highest yields of FAME (96.7 wt.%) and triacetin (8.8 wt.%). Yet, at such a reaction condition, the optimum reaction condition was compromised due particularly to the unavoidable thermal decomposition of products, and tocopherols as natural anti-oxidants. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  369. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Siberian Apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) Oil Using Response Surface Methodology
    Abstract

    Wang, L.; Chu, J. 2013. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Siberian Apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) Oil Using Response Surface Methodology. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 25(5) 2577-2582

    Response surface methodology, with central composite rotatable design, was used to explore optimum conditions for the transesterification of Siberian apricot oil. The effect of five-level four factors and their reciprocal interactions were studied. A total of 30 experiments was conducted and designed to study the effect of catalyst concentration, methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time on the biodiesel yield. A second-order polynomial regression model was fitted and found adequate with R-2 of 0.9942. When the transesterification was carded out at 67 degrees C, with a 7.3:1 methanol/oil molar ratio to Siberian apricot oil, a reaction time of 60 min and a catalyst amount of 1.18 % wt, the conversion of Siberian apricot oil was 92.9 %, The most fuel properties of Siberian apricot methyl esters were found to be within the EN 14214-2005 and ASTM D6751-2003 biodiesel standards.
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  370. Optimization of Biodiesel Production Using a Magnetically Stabilized Fluidized Bed Reactor (Retraction of vol 89, pg 497, 2012)
    Abstract

    Guo, P. M.; Huang, F. H.; Huang, Q. D.; Zheng, C. 2013. Optimization of Biodiesel Production Using a Magnetically Stabilized Fluidized Bed Reactor (Retraction of vol 89, pg 497, 2012). Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 90(1) 165-165

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  371. Optimization of biodiesel production using magnetically stabilized fluidized bed reactor (Retraction of vol 89, pg 497, 2012)
    Abstract

    Guo, P. M.; Huang, F. H.; Huang, Q. D.; Zheng, C. 2013. Optimization of biodiesel production using magnetically stabilized fluidized bed reactor (Retraction of vol 89, pg 497, 2012). Renewable Energy. 55561-561

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  372. Optimization of Biodiesel Production Using Rsm and Study of Combustion Characteristics on Di Diesel Engine
    Abstract

    Sivapirakasam, S. P.; Anand, R.; Kannan, G. R.; Balasubramanian, K. R. 2013. Optimization of Biodiesel Production Using Rsm and Study of Combustion Characteristics on Di Diesel Engine. International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition - 2012, Vol 6, Pts a and B. 37-42

    Biodiesel is a monoalkyl ester of fatty acid of long chain derived from vegetable oil or animal fats. In this present investigation deccan hemp oil, a non-edible-vegetable oil is used as feed stock for the production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology based on Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) is used to analyze the interaction effect and to optimize the transesterification reaction variables such as temperature, catalyst concentration and oil to methanol ratio on biodiesel yield. A quadratic model is developed based on the CCRD, correlating the yield of biodiesel with reaction variables. The predicted yield by optimization condition is found very close to the experimental values. The optimum condition for biodiesel production is found at the temperature of 55 degrees C, oil to methanol ratio of 1:9, catalyst of 0.5%, stirring speed of 350 rpm and a reaction time of 3h gave the maximum yield of 95%. The physical and chemical properties of deccan hemp oil and its methyl ester is determined as per ASTM standards. The produced biodiesel showed shorter ignition delay of 10.5 degrees CA and lower heat release rate when compared to diesel at full load condition.
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  373. Optimization of protocol for biodiesel production of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oil
    Abstract

    Ullah, F.; Bano, A.; Ali, S. 2013. Optimization of protocol for biodiesel production of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) oil. Polish Journal of Chemical Technology. 15(1) 74-77

    Attempts were made to optimize variables affecting the yield of linseed oil biodiesel in a base catalyzed transesterification reaction. The variables studied were reaction temperature (40-70 degrees C), catalyst (NaOH) concentration (0.1-1.5%) and reaction time (30-180 min). The conversion of linseed oil into methyl esters was confirmed through analytical methods like H-1 NMR, gas chromatography (GC) and refractometer. The maximum biodiesel yield (97 +/- 1.045% w/w) was obtained at 0.5% catalyst concentration, 65 degrees C temperature, 180 min reaction time and 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil. H-1 NMR confirmed the practically obtained % conversion of triglycerides into methyl esters which was further evidenced by refractometer analyses. The refractive index of biodiesel samples was lower than pure linseed oil. GC analysis confirmed the presence of linolenic acid (C18:3) as the dominant fatty acid (68 wt. %) followed by oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2) and stearic acid (C18:0) respectively. The physical properties of linseed oil biodiesel like specific gravity (0.90 g/cm(3)) and flash point (177 degrees C) were higher than American Society for Testing and Materials standards (ASTM 6751) for biodiesel. However, kinematic viscosity (3.752 mm(2)/s) was in the range of ASTM standards.
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  374. Pollen baiting facilitates the isolation of marine thraustochytrids with potential in omega-3 and biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Gupta, A.; Wilkens, S.; Adcock, J. L.; Puri, M.; Barrow, C. J. 2013. Pollen baiting facilitates the isolation of marine thraustochytrids with potential in omega-3 and biodiesel production. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. 40(11) 1231-1240

    Marine heterotrophic microbes are capable of accumulating large amounts of lipids, omega-3 fatty acids, carotenoids, and have potential for biodiesel production. Pollen baiting using Pinus radiata pollen grain along with direct plating techniques were used in this study as techniques for the isolation of oil-producing marine thraustochytrid species from Queenscliff, Victoria, Australia. Thirteen isolates were obtained using either direct plating or using pine pollen, with pine pollen acting as a specific substrate for the surface attachment of thraustochytrids. The isolates obtained from the pollen baiting technique showed a wide range of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulation, from 11 to 41 % of total fatty acid content (TFA). Direct plating isolates showed a moderate range of DHA accumulation, from 19 to 25 % of TFA. Seven isolates were identified on the basis of 18S rRNA sequencing technique as Thraustochytrium species, Schizochytrium species, and Ulkenia species. Although both methods appear to result in the isolation of similar strains, pollen baiting proved to be a simpler method for the isolation of these relatively slow-growing organisms.
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  375. Process Structure and Control Optimization of A Batch Biodiesel Production Plant
    Abstract

    Ekawati, E.; William; Khair, A. I. 2013. Process Structure and Control Optimization of A Batch Biodiesel Production Plant. 2013 3rd International Conference on Instrumentation Control and Automation (Ica 2013). 168-173

    In order to maximize the profit of a bio-diesel production plant, one has to decide the numbers of unit productions and the values of controller parameters. This study addresses the problem by examining various control loops and process configuration within a process superstructure. The problem is formulated as a dynamic Mixed Integer Nonlinear Problem and is subsequently solved by using the Dynamic Operability Framework. This approach yields the process configuration and the controller structure that gives the maximum profit for a 200 liters biodiesel batch mini-plant.
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  376. Production and properties of biodiesel produced from Amygdalus pedunculata Pall
    Abstract

    Chu, J. M.; Xu, X. Q.; Zhang, Y. L. 2013. Production and properties of biodiesel produced from Amygdalus pedunculata Pall. Bioresource Technology. 134374-376

    The use of inexpensive vegetable oils as feedstock for biodiesel production is an effective way to reduce biodiesel costs. Here we report production and properties of biodiesel produced from Amygdalus pedunculata which is widespread in arid area in China. Biodiesel produced from A. pedunculata conformed EN 14214, ASTM D6751, and GB/T20828 standards, except for those cetane number and oxidative stability. Cold flow and transportation safety properties were excellent (cold filter plugging point -11 degrees C, flash point 169 degrees C). Additives and antioxidants would be required to meet cetane number and oxidative stability specifications. The addition of 500 ppm tert-butylhydroquinone resulted in a higher induction period (6.7 h), bringing oxidative stability into compliance with all three biodiesel standards. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  377. Production of Bio-Based Fuels: Bioethanol and Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Chakraborty, S.; Das Mondal, R.; Mukherjee, D.; Bhattacharjee, C. 2013. Production of Bio-Based Fuels: Bioethanol and Biodiesel. Sustainable Development in Chemical Engineering: Innovative Technologies. 153-180

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  378. Production of biodiesel as a renewable energy source from castor oil
    Abstract

    Halek, F.; Delavari, A.; Kavousi-rahim, A. 2013. Production of biodiesel as a renewable energy source from castor oil. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 15(6) 1063-1068

    The constantly increasing demand for energy can result in a huge crisis at the end of fossil fuels era. To prevent such an awkward situation, studies on finding alternatives have been seriously undertaken since the first oil crisis in the 1970s. Biodiesel, with a history of more than a century, has always been a potential candidate. In this research, the process of producing biodiesel from castor oil, which is a highly adaptable plant to Iran's climates was studied. Methanol and castor oil as reactants with 10:1 molar ratio and sulfuric acid as catalyst with mass percent of 3 were allowed to react through trans-esterification reaction under mild conditions. The results from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the purity of more than 94 % esters for any conducted experiments which count as a success for an oil with more complicated structure than other raw vegetable oils. GPC analysis illustrated that the castor oil has a molecular weight of 1,068, which is almost three times that of colza oil. Some significant chemical and physical properties of the product, such as kinematic viscosity, flash point, pour point, etc. were calculated to approve conformity to ASTM D6751 standards. Eventually, the polluted emissions were measured by an Orsat gas analyzer. The outcomes completely corroborate the assumption which claims that adding biodiesel to conventional diesel fuels has a strong influence on lowering CO2, CO, HC, and smoke.
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  379. Production of biodiesel from non-edible herbaceous vegetable oil: Xanthium sibiricum Patr
    Abstract

    Chang, F.; Hanna, M. A.; Zhang, D. J.; Li, H.; Zhou, Q.; Song, B. A.; Yang, S. 2013. Production of biodiesel from non-edible herbaceous vegetable oil: Xanthium sibiricum Patr. Bioresource Technology. 140435-438

    In this study, Xanthium sibiricum Patr oil, a non-edible oil, was investigated for the first time to produce biodiesel. X. sibiricum Patr has very good environmental adaptability and thus has plenty of wild resources. Its seed has a high oil content (42.34%) which gives potential annual output of 100,000 tons just in China. And the oil acid value is pretty low (1.38 mg KOH/g). Under the optimal conditions, the FAME content and yield of X. sibiricum biodiesel were 98.7 wt.% and 92.0%, respectively. The properties of the biodiesel product were tested and most properties were in accordance with EN 14214-08, ASTM D6751-10 and GB/T 20828-07 standards, except cetane number and oxidative stability. The results indicated that X. sibiricum Patr is a promising species as a biodiesel feedstock in China. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  380. Production of Biodiesel from Pinus Roxburghii Oil and its Evaluation
    Abstract

    Ishaq, M.; Saeed, K.; Ahmad, I.; Shakirullah, M.; Salma, B. 2013. Production of Biodiesel from Pinus Roxburghii Oil and its Evaluation. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan. 35(2) 353-358

    Biodiesel fuel is an alternative and renewable source of energy. It may help to reduce air pollution and our dependence on fossil fuel for energy. In this study the plant oil was extracted from saw dust of pine tree using methanol as a solvent and acid catalyst (H2SO4) was used for transesterification. The effect of reaction time, temperature and catalyst ratio was studied, which presented that the high yield of biodiesel is produced by using 9 mL of catalyst for 1 h reaction time. The physicochemical properties such as density, viscosity, heating value, cetane index, flash point, Conradson carbon residue and distillation behavior of the obtained biodiesel were determined. The results showed that the final fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) product meets with the biodiesel quality standards, and ASTM specification D6751-02. The UV-Visible and FT-IR spectroscopic studies was also performed, which revealed that the synthesized biodiesel consists of aliphatic, olifinic and aromatic hydrocarbons along with fatty acids.
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  381. Production of biodiesel through ozonolysis and hydrocracking
    Abstract

    McGill, K.; McPhail, J.; Hall, T.; Dickens, J. K.; Sova, E.; Herrin, B.; Hilliard, M.; Youngs, M. 2013. Production of biodiesel through ozonolysis and hydrocracking. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 245

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  382. Production of n-butanol from biodiesel derived crude glycerol using Clostridium pasteurianum immobilized on Amberlite
    Abstract

    Khanna, S.; Goyal, A.; Moholkar, V. S. 2013. Production of n-butanol from biodiesel derived crude glycerol using Clostridium pasteurianum immobilized on Amberlite. Fuel. 112557-561

    This paper presents accounts of research on conversion of biodiesel derived crude glycerol to n-butanol via anaerobic fermentation pathway, using immobilized Clostridium pasteurianum cells. Experiments were done to optimize the growth conditions and growth medium, viz. Reinforced Clostridial Media (RCM) and Cooked Meat Media (CMM). Out of these two media, growth was found to be faster in RCM, which was used for experiments. The cells were immobilized on a hydrophilic support Amberlite, an ion exchange resin. Varying concentration of crude glycerol as a substrate was found to have significant effect on product profile with 25 g L-1 glycerol giving maximum yield of n-butanol after 120 h. High concentration of 150 g L-1 glycerol exerted an inhibitory effect on n-butanol production with decreased 1,3-propanediol production, and absolutely no formation of ethanol. Maximum yield of ethanol and 1,3-propanediol was obtained with 5 g L-1 and 10 g L-1 crude glycerol respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of use of the immobilized cells (immobilization of C. pasteurianum cells on Amberlite) for bioconversion of glycerol to butanol. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  383. Pure silica nanoparticles for liposome/lipase system encapsulation: Application in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Macario, A.; Verri, F.; Diaz, U.; Corma, A.; Giordano, G. 2013. Pure silica nanoparticles for liposome/lipase system encapsulation: Application in biodiesel production. Catalysis Today. 204148-155

    In this work we report the synthesis of organic-inorganic solid with spherical morphology where enzyme, as active compounds, is encapsulated. The organic phase of nanospheres is composed of L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine, as liposome, and lipase from Rhizomucor miehei, as enzyme. The organic phase is covered with porous inorganic silica shell that could stabilize the internal liposomal phase and, consequently, isolate and protect the bioactive molecules. The liposome and silica amount used during the immobilization procedure have been optimized in order to obtain active and stable heterogeneous biocatalyst. Hybrid-nanospheres containing the enzyme were used to catalyze the transesterification reaction of triolein with methanol to methyl esters, typical biodiesel mixture compounds. The encapsulated enzyme retains its activity after 5 reaction cycles. The total productivity of the best catalyst obtained is higher than that of the free enzyme. (C) 2012 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
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  384. Pyrolytic Biodiesel Production by Vacuum Pyrolysis of Fatty-Acid Residue as Plant-Oil Asphalt
    Abstract

    Tang, Q.; Zheng, Y. Y.; Wang, J. F. 2013. Pyrolytic Biodiesel Production by Vacuum Pyrolysis of Fatty-Acid Residue as Plant-Oil Asphalt. Energy Technology. 1(9) 512-518

    Fatty-acid residue as plant oil asphalt (FA-POA) is a neglected biomass. The main objectives of this study were to identify the composition of FA-POA and to investigate the vacuum pyrolysis of FA-POA to synthesize liquid biofuel. Proximate and ultimate analysis of FA-POA was performed. The physical properties were also examined according to ASTM standards. The composition of FA-POA was inferred from FTIR spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis. GC-MS was conducted to determine the composition in the pyrolytic oil and biogas. Results showed that FA-POA is a polymerization product of fatty acids. It is formed by the combination of C=C addition or association and carboxyl dehydration. In vacuum pyrolysis, a pyrolytic-oil yield of 71 wt% was achieved on a FA-POA basis. The pyroltyic oil mainly consists of fatty acids, paraffins, cycloparaffins, olefins, and aromatics. It was upgraded to pyrolytic biodiesel, which is characterized as having a high calorific value and moderate oxygen content. A pyrolysis reaction scheme of FA-POA was proposed from the experimental results. It is concluded that FA-POA is an attractive biomass source for liquid biofuels, chemicals, and biochar.
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  385. Response to the Comments on "Novel zeolite Na-X synthesized from fly ash as a heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production"
    Abstract

    Babajide, O. 2013. Response to the Comments on "Novel zeolite Na-X synthesized from fly ash as a heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production". Catalysis Today. 201210-210

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  386. Screening of Sustainable Biodiesel Production Pathways during Process Research and Development (R&D) Stage using Fuzzy Optimization
    Abstract

    Liew, W. H.; Hassim, M. H.; Ng, D. K. S. 2013. Screening of Sustainable Biodiesel Production Pathways during Process Research and Development (R&D) Stage using Fuzzy Optimization. 16th International Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (Pres'13). 351075-1080

    Biodiesel is recognized as an important renewable energy source to fulfill global energy demand and resolve environmental issues. Despite its known advantages, it is still very critical to assess the sustainability of biodiesel production prior to the greater expansion for commercialization. The sustainability assessment can be conducted during process screening on the alternative biodiesel synthesis pathways. This is in line with Responsible Care, which commits chemical industries to consider safety, health and environmental (SHE) aspects when designing a new process. According to inherent safety principle, early hazard assessment offers greater benefits compared to the latter phases of lifecycle since the opportunity for making process modifications is higher yet requires lower cost. In this study, inherent SHE analysis is conducted for biodiesel production during the earliest design stage called process research and development (R&D) design. The inherent SHE assessment is done based on the fundamental information available, i.e. reaction chemistry and process condition. In this study, eight biodiesel production pathways via continuous transesterification process, such as catalyzed, supercritical and enzymatic transesterification, are identified and evaluated. Since multiple pathways need to be assessed based on multiple sustainability criteria, fuzzy optimization is used as the multi-criteria decision making tool in selecting the most optimum pathway. Based on the optimized result, pathway of enzymatic transesterification using fresh vegetable oil is identified as the optimum pathway which has least hazard in inherent SHE assessment.
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  387. Simulation of the Catalytic Reactive Distillation Process for Biodiesel Production via Transesterification
    Abstract

    Xiao, Y.; Li, H. Y.; Xiao, G. M.; Gao, L. J.; Pan, X. M. 2013. Simulation of the Catalytic Reactive Distillation Process for Biodiesel Production via Transesterification. 2013 International Conference on Materials for Renewable Energy and Environment (Icmree), Vols 1-3. 196-199

    In order to simulate catalytic reactive distillation process for biodiesel production via transesterification accurately, the Antoine parameters of biodiesel and NRTL binary interaction coefficients were regressed using Aspen Plus Data Regression function according to the data in literatures. Then vapor pressure of biodiesel under different temperature and phase equilibrium conditions could be described with these parameters. Catalytic reactive distillation process for biodiesel production via transesterification was simulated with Aspen Plus software successfully. Reaction and separation was integrated in one catalytic reactive distillation column. As a result, although methanol-to-oil ratio was only 4:1, high purity (99.8 wt %) of biodiesel with high yield (99.7%) was obtained. The catalytic reactive distillation process for biodiesel production via transesterification would be adequately good to have a potential industrial relevance.
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  388. Simulation study on biodiesel production by reactive distillation with methanol at high pressure and temperature: Impact on costs and pollutant emissions
    Abstract

    Gomez-Castro, F. I.; Rico-Ramirez, V.; Segovia-Hernandez, J. G.; Hernandez-Castro, S.; El-Halwagi, M. M. 2013. Simulation study on biodiesel production by reactive distillation with methanol at high pressure and temperature: Impact on costs and pollutant emissions. Computers & Chemical Engineering. 52204-215

    Recently, a two-step biodiesel production process which uses short-chain alcohols at supercritical conditions has been proposed. In addition, literature reports suggest that the COSMO-SAC thermodynamic model is a suitable alternative for the prediction of VLE for supercritical methanol/methyl esters mixtures. Thus, in this work a simulation study of the two-step supercritical method for the production of biodiesel is performed by using the COSMO-SAC model. Further, alternative system configurations for biodiesel production based on reactive distillation are proposed and their total emissions are compared to those corresponding to the conventional catalytic method. The study demonstrates the benefits of using reactive distillation for the esterification step and discusses the environmental impact of the supercritical production process. It has been found that the intensified alternatives reduce the emissions considerably and, through the reuse of the excess methanol, the emissions level of the supercritical process can be compared to those of the catalytic method. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  389. Simultaneous Production of Biodiesel and Free Lutein from Chlorella vulgaris
    Abstract

    C. Prommuak; P. Pavasant; A. T. Quitain; M. Goto; Shotipruk, A. 2013. Simultaneous Production of Biodiesel and Free Lutein from Chlorella vulgaris. Energy Technology. 1(5-6) 300-300

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  390. SO3H-functionalized mesoporous carbon/silica composite with a spherical morphology and its excellent catalytic performance for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Chang, B. B.; Tian, Y. L.; Shi, W. W.; Liu, J. Y.; Xi, F. N.; Dong, X. P. 2013. SO3H-functionalized mesoporous carbon/silica composite with a spherical morphology and its excellent catalytic performance for biodiesel production. Journal of Porous Materials. 20(6) 1423-1431

    Mesoporous carbon/silica composites functionalized with -SO3H groups were prepared via polymerization and carbonization of glucose into mesoporous silica SBA-15 and a followed sulfonation by sulphuric acid. These composites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, N-2 adsorption-desorption and transmission electron microscopy, which suggested the preservation of ordered mesoporous structure, as well as a novel spherical morphology. The result of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the successful modification of -SO3H groups and the acidity of catalysts was determined by an indirect titration method. The composite with 40 % carbon loading possessing the highest acidity in synthesized catalysts and the ordered mesoporous structure without pore blocking exhibited a remarkable catalytic activity for biodiesel production. Experimental parameters including the carbon loading, molar ratio of reactants, reaction time and reaction temperature were optimized. In addition, a superior recycling property was exhibited after five consecutive cycles.
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  391. Soft-template synthesis of sulfonated mesoporous carbon with high catalytic activity for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Chang, B. B.; Fu, J.; Tian, Y. L.; Dong, X. P. 2013. Soft-template synthesis of sulfonated mesoporous carbon with high catalytic activity for biodiesel production. Rsc Advances. 3(6) 1987-1994

    Here, we reported an excellent carbon-based solid acid catalyst for the catalytic synthesis of biodiesel, which was prepared by carbonizing a mesoporous phenolic resin and then followed by sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid. The influence of carbonization temperature on the pore structure and acidity was studied. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrum analysis and an indirect titration method were used to demonstrate the successful modification of -SO3H groups on the carbon surface and determine the acidities of catalysts. N-2 adsorption-desorption and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the mesoporous structure and pore structure parameters. These results indicated that the sulfonated catalyst carbonized at a low temperature (400 degrees C) showed the highest acidity of 2.21 mmol H+ g(-1), meanwhile, retaining a mesoporous structure and relatively large surface area. The esterification reaction of oleic acid with methanol was employed to evaluate the performance of catalysts. The sulfonated mesoporous carbon catalyst exhibited a highly efficient activity, above 95% conversion of oleic acid with a 30 : 1 methanol/oleic acid at 70 degrees C for 3 h. Experimental parameters, including the molar ratio of reactants, reaction time and reaction temperature, were optimized and a superior recycling property was presented after five consecutive cycles.
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  392. Steady-state simulation of a novel extractive reactor for enzymatic biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Chesterfield, D.; Rogers, P. L.; Al-Zaini, E.; Adesina, A. A. 2013. Steady-state simulation of a novel extractive reactor for enzymatic biodiesel production. Fuel Processing Technology. 108101-111

    Intensification of the biodiesel production process may offer significant capital and operating cost benefits due to fewer unit operations. In addition, the continuous removal of co-product glycerol from the reactive phase during transesterification promises higher biodiesel yield relative to conventional batch reactors. As a result, this paper investigates the application of a novel liquid-liquid extractive reactor with basket-like mixing impellers containing enzyme particles for biodiesel production. Steady-state modelling using commercial process simulation software coupled with an iterative method for estimation of holdup was carried out. Models considered countercurrent flow of vegetable oil and aqueous ethanol solution in a multistage, mixer-settler type extractive reaction column (XRC), catalysed by immobilised lipase. Simulation results revealed that the conversion was insensitive to solvent to feed ratios beyond stoichiometric ratio of ethanol-to-triglycerides, thus making the XRC superior to batch process which uses excess alcohol. Increasing number of stages, stirring speed and raffinate recycle ratio improved conversion over the respective ranges studied. Optimum ethanol content in the solvent (water) was located at 46%v/v. In all simulations, glycerol recovery in the extract stream exceeded 99.9%, while biodiesel was retained almost exclusively in the product raffinate stream, illustrating exceptional product quality associated with the novel XRC. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  393. Study on production process of biodiesel from rubber seed (hevea brasiliensis) by in situ (trans) esterification method with acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Widayat; Wibowo, A. D. K.; Hadiyanto 2013. Study on production process of biodiesel from rubber seed (hevea brasiliensis) by in situ (trans) esterification method with acid catalyst. International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (Icseea) 2012. 3264-73

    Biodiesel is fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters made from vegetable oils (edible and non edible) or animal fats. The objective of this research was to produce biodiesel from rubber seed by in situ method with acid catalyst with a goal for obtaining environmentally friendly alternative fuels from non edible raw material. This research focuses on influence of reaction time, concentration of acid catalyst and ratio raw material to methanol. The first stage was carried out in order to get reaction time based on the density and viscosity of mixture produced. In this process H2SO4 0.5% (v/v) was used as catalyst and ratio of raw material to methanol (1: 2). The experiments were conducted by investigating the catalyst concentration in range 0.1-1%(v/v) and ratio of raw material to methanol in range 1:1.5-1:3. The research method included, the preparation of samples, biodiesel production, biodiesel separation, and biodiesel characterization i.e density, viscosity, GC analysis, acid value and Iodine number. The results shows that the operation time for biodiesel production by in situ method with acid catalyst was 120 minutes and the yield of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) obtained was at 91,05%. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  394. Studying various optimal control problems in biodiesel production in a batch reactor under uncertainty
    Abstract

    Benavides, P. T.; Diwekar, U. 2013. Studying various optimal control problems in biodiesel production in a batch reactor under uncertainty. Fuel. 103585-592

    The optimal control problem encountered in biodiesel production can be formulated using various performance indices, namely, maximum concentration, minimum time, and maximum profit. The problems involve determining optimal temperature profile so as to maximize these performance indices. This paper presents the formulations of these optimal control problems and analyzes the solutions. Optimal control problems involve the solution of partial or second order differential equation depending on the method used, resulting in difficult tasks to solve due to their mathematical representation. This difficulty becomes more challenging when uncertainty in any parameter is considered. It has been shown that the application of maximum principle in optimal control problems provides the same results but its formulation avoids the solution of second order or partial differential equations. In this work, we use the maximum principle to solve the problems in the deterministic case. Further, we consider uncertainty in the feed composition and their effects on the optimal control solution. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  395. Sulfonic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as efficient and reusable catalysts for esterification of free fatty acid in grease in two-step biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zillillah, Z.; Tan, G. W.; Li, Z. 2013. Sulfonic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as efficient and reusable catalysts for esterification of free fatty acid in grease in two-step biodiesel production. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 245

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  396. Sustainability analysis of biodiesel production: A review on different resources in Brazil
    Abstract

    Costa, A. O.; Oliveira, L. B.; Lins, M. P. E.; Silva, A. C. M.; Araujo, M. S. M.; Pereira, A. O.; Rosa, L. P. 2013. Sustainability analysis of biodiesel production: A review on different resources in Brazil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 27407-412

    This paper assesses 13 different inputs for biodiesel production and shows that the highest cost currently associated with the processing of residual resources, as well as their small production scale, are compensated by their smaller procurement costs, by their immediate availability in the urban centers and by their larger potential for greenhouse gas emission reduction. Biodiesel production from residues can meet all technical international specifications, even the esterification process. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), the methodology used in this study, allows for the building of an efficiency index up through linear programming with multiple inputs and outputs, enabling the integration of sustainable development dimensions. The experts' conclusions were arrived at through restrictions on virtual weighting, with findings that allow the grading of alternatives. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  397. Sustainable biodiesel production via continuous reactor design in a fume hood
    Abstract

    LeCaptain, D.; Britting, J. C. 2013. Sustainable biodiesel production via continuous reactor design in a fume hood. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 245

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  398. Synthesis and Characterization of Amorphous Nano-Alumina Powders with High Surface Area for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Amini, G.; Najafpour, G. D.; Rabiee, S. M.; Ghoreyshi, A. A. 2013. Synthesis and Characterization of Amorphous Nano-Alumina Powders with High Surface Area for Biodiesel Production. Chemical Engineering & Technology. 36(10) 1708-1712

    Nano-alumina powders containing yttrium oxide were synthesized via the sol-gel method using aluminum chloride hexahydrate as catalyst precursor. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed the presence of Al-O and Al-O-Al bands in the powder structure and X-ray diffraction spectra proved that the alumina was in the amorphous phase. The amorphous nano-alumina powders were shown to be mesoporous with a high surface area, and both spherical and slit-shaped particles were found in the calcined powder. A high percentage of conversion of oil to biodiesel was obtained in the transesterification reaction and the synthesized nano-alumina powders could be easily regenerated for further use. The amorphous nano-alumina powder can thus be recommended for use as active catalyst in the transesterification reaction for biodiesel production on the industrial scale.
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  399. Synthesis of Flexible Heat-Exchanger Networks for Multifeedstock Biodiesel Production Processes
    Abstract

    Pokoo-Aikins, G.; El-Halwagi, M. M. 2013. Synthesis of Flexible Heat-Exchanger Networks for Multifeedstock Biodiesel Production Processes. Integrated Biorefineries: Design, Analysis, and Optimization. 417-430

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  400. Synthesis of SBA-15 from low cost silica precursor obtained from sugarcane leaf ash and its application as a support matrix for lipase in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Arumugam, A.; Ponnusami, V. 2013. Synthesis of SBA-15 from low cost silica precursor obtained from sugarcane leaf ash and its application as a support matrix for lipase in biodiesel production. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. 67(2) 244-250

    Ordered mesoporous silica material was synthesized from a low-cost precursor, sugarcane leaf ash, was used as a support matrix for lipase for the production of biodiesel. The mesoporous samples were characterized using Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy. The surface topography and morphology of the mesoporous materials were studied using scanning electron microscope. The pore diameter, pore volume, Brunauer Emmett and Teller surface area of the mesoporous material were determined by N-2 gas adsorption technique. Different pore size Santa Barbara Acid-15 (SBA-15) samples were synthesized and their lipase immobilization capacity and specific enzyme activity of immobilization lipase were determined and compared. Lipase from Candida Antarctica immobilized on SBA-15 (C) had shown maximum percentage immobilization and specific enzyme activity. The immobilized lipase mesoporous matrix was used for biodiesel production from crude non-edible Calophyllum inophyllum oil. The percentage yield of fatty acid methyl ester, 97.6 % was obtained under optimized conditions: 100 mg of lipase immobilized on SBA-15, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, the reaction of 2 g C. inophyllum oil with methanol.
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  401. Synthesis of Tripropionin from Crude Glycerol the by-Product of Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Herseczki, Z.; Marton, G.; Dallos, A. 2013. Synthesis of Tripropionin from Crude Glycerol the by-Product of Biodiesel Production. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Chemia. 58(2) 7-22

    Glycerol is a by-product obtained during the production of biodiesel. An increase in biodiesel production would decrease the market price of glycerol. The objective of this study was to investigate glycerol purification, esterification of glycerol by propionic acid and the field of application of the product. Crude glycerol from a Hungarian biodiesel factory was partly refined, soaps, water, methanol and pigments were removed and glycerol still containing inorganic salts was used for certain esterification reactions. A cost effective process for utilization of crude glycerol was created, which can be applied not only for tripropionin production but preparation of other glycerol esters like glyceryl triacetate, glyceryl tributyrate. Moreover, effect of tripropionin blending on engine performance characteristics and environmental repercussions were studied.
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  402. Targeted enhancement of H-2 and CO2 uptake for autotrophic production of biodiesel in the lithoautotrophic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha
    Abstract

    Eckert, C. A.; Sullivan, R.; Johnson, C.; Yu, J. P.; Maness, P. C. 2013. Targeted enhancement of H-2 and CO2 uptake for autotrophic production of biodiesel in the lithoautotrophic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 245

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  403. The Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel from Pomace Oil Using Immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus
    Abstract

    Yucel, Y. 2013. The Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel from Pomace Oil Using Immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 35(4) 370-375

    In the present work, microbial lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus was immobilized by covalent binding onto styrene-divinylbenzene polyglutaraldehyde copolymer. Immobilized support material was used to produce biodiesel with pomace oil and methanol. The properties of the support and immobilized derivative were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Biodiesel production was carried out with a semi-continuous operation system. Methanol was added into the reactor by three successive additions of 1:6 molar equivalent of methanol to avoid enzyme inhibition. The maximum methyl esters yield was obtained as 98%.
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  404. The Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Yellow Sarson (Brassica campestris L.) Oil
    Abstract

    Nosheen, A.; Bano, A.; Ullah, F. 2013. The Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Yellow Sarson (Brassica campestris L.) Oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 35(3) 278-281

    The aim of the present investigation was to optimize protocol for conversion of yellow sarson (Brassica campestris L.) subsp. Oleifera oil to biodiesel. The maximum yield of biodiesel was obtained at 75 degrees C in the presence of 1% NaOH (w/w oil) and methanol/oil molar ratio of 9:1. The quality parameters of biodiesel, such as specific gravity, color, kinematic viscosity, flash, cloud, and pour point, were in accordance with the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) D 6751.
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  405. The Status of Used Vegetable Oil (UVO) Biodiesel Production in South Africa
    Abstract

    Mbohwa, C.; Mudiwakure, A. 2013. The Status of Used Vegetable Oil (UVO) Biodiesel Production in South Africa. World Congress on Engineering - Wce 2013, Vol I. 594-603

    This paper discusses the status of used oil derived biodiesel production in South African. It highlights the positives and shortcomings of the technology used and identifies the potential for improvement. All known South African used oil biodiesel producers were targeted. The response rate was 40% out of 200 producers. Technology used was benchmarked with established advanced biodiesel producing countries such as Germany, Brazil and the USA. Production rate, yield, product quality were the key performance indicators assessed. Results show that biodiesel production in South Africa is still in its infancy and production rates are low ranging from 100litres/day to a maximum 8000litres/day. Most plants are locally manufactured. Imports from India, China and Australia make up the remainder. Batch reactors are favoured over continuous reactors because of low acquisition cost, simple design and ease of operation. They allow for phase to phase quality control. This has resulted in low volume production militating against economies of scale. Yields, at up to 94% are acceptable and competitive. The products are contaminated with methanol and free fatty acids. The standards set for biodiesel quality were found to be restrictive and prohibitive but prospects for sustainable production are excellent.
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  406. The value of switching inputs in a biodiesel production plant
    Abstract

    Brandao, L. E. T.; Penedo, G. M.; Bastian-Pinto, C. 2013. The value of switching inputs in a biodiesel production plant. European Journal of Finance. 19(7-8) 674-688

    There has been a growing concern in recent years about the quality of the environment and dependence on fossil fuels to supply the world's energy needs, which has created an interest in the development of renewable and less polluting energy sources. One of these alternatives is the biodiesel fuel, which has many advantages over the fossil based diesel, or petro diesel. In this paper we use the real options approach to determine the value of the managerial flexibility embedded in a biodiesel plant that has the option to switch inputs among two different grain commodities. Our results indicate that the option to choose inputs has significant value if we assume that future prices follow stochastic processes such as Geometric Brownian Motion and Mean Reversion Models, and can be sufficient to recommend the use of input commodities that would not be optimal under traditional valuation methods. We also show that the choice of model and parameters has a significant impact on the valuation of this class of projects.
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  407. Thermal analysis on the process of microwave-assisted biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Wu, L.; Zhu, H. C.; Huang, K. M. 2013. Thermal analysis on the process of microwave-assisted biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 133279-284

    The aim of this work was firstly to do a precise thermal analysis of microwave assisted production of biodiesel. In this paper, the effective permittivity of biodiesel synthesis was updated with two methods: a traditional method and a bivariate function of temperature and concentration of one component, then the thermal analysis of the reaction process were accomplished with multi-physics calculation. The results show that there exists large distinction in temperature between these two simulation results calculated by the two methods. The two hot spots locate in the opposite side and their temperature's difference is up to 9 degrees C when the reaction is just carried out for 18 s. But the temperature risings and distributions calculated by the new method are closer to the measured results. The thermal analysis based on the new method will be helpful for the industrial design of biodiesel production. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  408. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations for biodiesel production by reactive distillation
    Abstract

    Eleftheriades, N. M.; von Blottnitz, H. 2013. Thermodynamic and kinetic considerations for biodiesel production by reactive distillation. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 32(2) 373-376

    Reactive distillation (RD) methods have only lately been introduced into biodiesel (BD) production. They offer several advantages that could benefit the efficiency and drop production costs. A bench-scale RD unit was built, and results obtained are interpreted from kinetic and thermodynamic perspectives. Analysis of samples taken from the prereactor and the reboiler product was achieved by a conversion-viscosity chart developed that returned BD conversion from the measured viscosity. It was found that 5060% conversion was possible at ambient temperatures, with stoichiometric feed ratio and a stirrer. Thermodynamically, Raoult's law was used to predict the vapor and liquid composition in the reboiler. Three different scenarios were set up with different feed molar ratios. It was found that despite the large difference in boiling point temperatures, separation of methanol from the reactant and products mix was limited. Under all modeled scenarios reported, an appreciable amount of methanol would be lost to the product stream. The affinity of the methanol to remain in solution was greater than expected, based on the boiling points, and only when appreciable amounts of methanol were in solution could larger amounts of methanol be removed. (c) 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 373-376, 2013
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  409. Ultrafast Biodiesel Production Using Ultrasound in Batch and Continuous Reactors
    Abstract

    Boffito, D. C.; Mansi, S.; Leveque, J. M.; Pirola, C.; Bianchi, C. L.; Patience, G. S. 2013. Ultrafast Biodiesel Production Using Ultrasound in Batch and Continuous Reactors. Acs Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering. 1(11) 1432-1439

    Biodiesel is produced in multi-stage batch reactors in which mass transfer is a rate limiting step. Mass transfer rates may be accelerated with ultrasound (US). In this paper, the performance of continuous flow US reactors, a Rosett US cell reactor, and a batch US reactor are compared to a conventional mechanically stirred batch reactor. The Rosett cell reactor combines acoustic cavitation and turbulence and achieved biodiesel yields greater than 90% in 5 min, whereas the same level of performance in the conventional reactor took more than 90 min. The most significant result of this work lies in achieving biodiesel yields greater than 90% after a single passage of the reagents in a continuous flow reactor in the presence of pulsed ultrasound. This corresponds to a reaction time of 18 s and a rate 300 times faster than the conventional process.
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  410. Utilization of Biodiesel Derived Crude Glycerol by Fungal Isolates for Biomass and Single Cell Oil Production
    Abstract

    Marchand, K.; Lubitz, W. D.; Nicol, R. W. 2013. Utilization of Biodiesel Derived Crude Glycerol by Fungal Isolates for Biomass and Single Cell Oil Production. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 7(3) 415-419

    A crude glycerol co-product from a batch biodiesel production facility was collected and found to be composed of 280 g l(-1) glycerol, 260 g l(-1) methanol, 284 g l(-1) free fatty acids and 158 g l(-1) water. When this co-product was used as the carbon source to cultivate fungi isolated from the environment, 40 of the 61 isolates obtained biomass higher than the yeast extract glucose control, and 17 of these isolates rapidly utilized the glycerol. The three most promising isolates were all identified as Galactomyces geotrichum via 18S rRNA analysis and this ascomycetous fungus was further evaluated for single cell oil production. After 5 days cultivation with 50 g l(-1) crude glycerol, Galactomyces geotrichum accumulated 0.44 g of lipid, also known as single cell oil, per g of dry biomass. During this incubation time, G. geotrichum utilized 37.9% of the glycerol and 15.5% of the free fatty acids within the crude biodiesel co-product. In addition, the amount of single cell oil produced from crude glycerol by G. geotrichum was over 3.5 times higher than a pure glycerol control and over 35 times higher than a glucose control. The quantity of single cell oil produced compares favourably to other recently described oleaginous fungi cultivated with glycerol. This study is the first report of Galactomyces geotrichum as an oleaginous yeast. Crude glycerol is an inexpensive feedstock and this fungus holds promise for bioconversion of this substrate to single cell oil, which could be used for next generation biodiesel or other bio-based products.
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  411. Vanadium phosphate catalysts for biodiesel production from acid industrial by-products
    Abstract

    Domingues, C.; Correia, M. J. N.; Carvalho, R.; Henriques, C.; Bordado, J.; Dias, A. P. S. 2013. Vanadium phosphate catalysts for biodiesel production from acid industrial by-products. Journal of Biotechnology. 164(3) 433-440

    Biodiesel production from high acidity industrial by-products was studied using heterogeneous acid catalysts. These by-products contain 26-39% of free fatty acids, 45-66% of fatty acids methyl esters and 0.6-1.1% of water and are consequently inadequate for direct basic catalyzed transesterification. Macroporous vanadyl phosphate catalysts with V/P = 1 (atomic ratio) prepared via sol-gel like technique was used as catalyst and it was possible to produce in one reaction batch a biodiesel contain 87% and 94% of FAME, depending on the by-product used as raw material. The initial FAME content in the by-products had a beneficial effect on the reactions because they act as a co-solvent, thus improving the miscibility of the reaction mixture components. The water formed during esterification process seems to hinder the esters formation, possibly due to competitive adsorption with methanol and to the promotion of the FAME hydrolysis reaction. The observed catalyst deactivation seems to be related to the reduction of vanadium species. However, spent catalysts can be regenerated, even partially, by reoxidation of the reduced vanadium species with air. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  412. 1,3-propanediol fermentation with the by-product glycerol from biodiesel production by a genetic modified Klebsiella pneumoniae
    Abstract

    Liu, H. J.; Zhou, Y. J.; Cai, Z. Z.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, J. A.; Liu, D. H. 2012. 1,3-propanediol fermentation with the by-product glycerol from biodiesel production by a genetic modified Klebsiella pneumoniae. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Ii, Pts 1-4. 512-515323-+

    Nowadays, the utilization of the by-product glycerol has become a common problem with the large amount of biodiesel production. This paper studied the conversion of the by-product glycerol of biodiesel production by Klebsiella pneumonia to 1,3-propanediol. The crude glycerol could be used directly without refining by a lactate dehydrogenase deficient K. pneumoniae and the lactic acid concentration was very low. In the fed-batch fermentation of 7L fermenter, 93.3g/l 1,3-propanediol was obtained and lactic acid concentration was just 2g/l. Analysis showed that D-type lactic acid synthesis was reduced obviously. The fermentation also was scaled up on the 42L fermenter. 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-Butanediol concentration reached 81.5g/l and 33.8g/l, respectively. No lactic acid was detected. The demonstration fermentation in 5000L fermenter was also successfully performed. The final 1,3-propanediol concentration and productivity was 87g/l and 1.2g/(lh). This work was considered useful to the integrated production of biodiesel and 1,3-propanediol.
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  413. A model for evaluating the economic feasibility of small-scale biodiesel production systems for on-farm fuel usage
    Abstract

    Pienaar, J.; Brent, A. C. 2012. A model for evaluating the economic feasibility of small-scale biodiesel production systems for on-farm fuel usage. Renewable Energy. 39(1) 483-489

    Farming operations in Africa have, in general, not adopted small-scale biodiesel production technology well for on-farm fuel usage. This is mainly due to the lack of an acceptable method to assess the economic feasibility of constructing small-scale biodiesel production facilities, and the impact of such operations on existing farming production processes. The research study summarised in this paper subsequently set out to develop a model, termed the Biodiesel Production System Optimisation Model (BPSOM), which predicts the cost of producing biodiesel on a small-scale, and optimises on-farm production processes to maximise profits. The model was validated using a South African case study to evaluate the predicted cost of biodiesel per litre produced, and the economic impact of a small-scale facility on the production profits of a farm. A proxy indicator, profit per hectare cultivated land, is introduced to measure the impact. BPSOM predicts a positive profit increase of 33% for the specific farm case study, which proves the economic potential of small-scale biodiesel production facilities for fuel usage at farm level in Africa. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  414. A novel continuous extractive reactor for biodiesel production using lipolytic enzyme
    Abstract

    Chesterfield, D. M.; Rogers, P. L.; Al-Zaini, E. O.; Adesina, A. A. 2012. A novel continuous extractive reactor for biodiesel production using lipolytic enzyme. International Energy Congress 2012. 49373-383

    There is currently a need to improve the commercial feasibility of lipasic biodiesel production in order to make it an attractive alternative to conventional biodiesel processes. One such means is to apply process intensification principles, by combining reaction and product separation steps into a stirred countercurrent extractive reactor (XRC). Benefits include continuous operation, enhanced biodiesel yield via removal of by-products into a separate phase and lower capital and operating costs due to fewer unit operations. This study involves steady-state modelling of an 8-stage XRC employing oil feed and aqueous ethanol solvent, using lipase as catalyst. Modelling utilised commercial process simulation software coupled to an iterative method for estimation of dispersed phase holdup to investigate the influence of operating conditions and feed compositions on XRC performance. Results suggest the optimum solvent composition lies in the range of 50 - 70 vol% ethanol for oil feeds containing between 0 - 50 wt% free fatty acids. Increasing stage efficiency was detrimental to biodiesel yield, indicating that non-ideal reactive stages are preferable in the XRC. Incorporation of a raffinate recycle stream improved biodiesel yield, while recycling extract led to only minor downturn in yield and glycerol recovery provided that solvent to feed ratio was maintained above 1.5. (C) 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the International Energy Foundation
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  415. A Partial Differential Equations Model Predictive Control of Heterogeneous Transesterification Process for Biodiesel Production in Tubular Reactor
    Abstract

    Montriwasuwat, N.; Kittisupakom, P.; Lersbamrungsuk, V. 2012. A Partial Differential Equations Model Predictive Control of Heterogeneous Transesterification Process for Biodiesel Production in Tubular Reactor. International Multiconference of Engineers and Computer Scientist, Imecs 2012, Vol Ii. 1255-1258

    This research presents the implementation of a dynamic optimization strategy in transesterification via tubular reactor process to determine an optimal operating concentration policy maximizing concentration of biodiesel product to a product quality constraint, i.e., the requirement of coefficient of variation. Instead of assuming the perfect tracking of the optimal concentration profile, a nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) is applied to track the obtained optimal concentration policy. As feedback information of states at each time step is required in the MPC algorithm. A first-order finite difference approximation was used for this simulation. The partial derivatives in z-direction are solved to ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by the method of lines (MOL). The result of numerical integration can be optimized by using MATLAB. The manipulated variable is flow rate of cooling water. The optimization study obtains that these set points of reactor's temperature can be calculated and controlled in a sufficiently performance. The operating cost is reduced with the less IAE and higher robustness. This control can be developed for an economic reduction for the future industry of biodiesel.
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  416. A two-stage enzymatic ethanol-based biodiesel production in a packed bed reactor
    Abstract

    Xu, Y.; Nordblad, M.; Woodley, J. M. 2012. A two-stage enzymatic ethanol-based biodiesel production in a packed bed reactor. Journal of Biotechnology. 162(4) 407-414

    A two-stage enzymatic process for producing fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) in a packed bed reactor is reported. The process uses an experimental immobilized lipase (NS 88001) and Novozym 435 to catalyze transesterification (first stage) and esterification (second stage), respectively. Both stages were conducted in a simulated series of reactors by repeatedly passing the reaction mixture through a single reactor, with separation of the by-product glycerol and water between passes in the first and second stages, respectively. The second stage brought the major components of biodiesel to 'in-spec' levels according to the European biodiesel specifications for methanol-based biodiesel. The highest overall productivity achieved in the first stage was 2.52 kg FAEE(kg catalyst)(-1) h(-1) at a superficial velocity of 7.6 cm min(-1), close to the efficiency of a stirred tank reactor under similar conditions. The overall productivity of the proposed two-stage process was 1.56 kg FAEE(kg catalyst)(-1) h(-1). Based on this process model, the challenges of scale-up have been addressed and potential continuous process options have been proposed. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  417. Advanced biodiesel fuel production and combustion via supercritical fluid technologies
    Abstract

    Anitescu, G.; Tavlarides, L. L.; Bruno, T. J. 2012. Advanced biodiesel fuel production and combustion via supercritical fluid technologies. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 243

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  418. Analysis of the Possibility for Obtaining Oil from the Spend Coffee Grounds as Potential Raw Material for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Ilikovic, Z.; Redzic, E.; Andrejas, F.; Avdic, G.; Stuhli, V. 2012. Analysis of the Possibility for Obtaining Oil from the Spend Coffee Grounds as Potential Raw Material for Biodiesel Production. Hemijska Industrija. 66(4) 579-584

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the possibility of obtaining oil from spent coffee grounds, which are left behind after the coffee is prepared, as the potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The effect of process parameters, such as are the type of solvent, the ratio of spent coffee grounds/solvent and the extraction time on oil yielded from coffee grounds was examined. The oil was obtained by maceration and extraction in the Soxhlet apparatus. The obtain results show that the spent coffee grounds could be used as an alternative raw material for biodiesel production, because it contains a significant amount of oil that can be extracted. The oil yield depends on the extraction (maceration) process parameters. The maximum oil yield obtained by the Soxhlet extraction with the n-hexane for the period of 5 h was 11.85% (the weight percentage of oil on dry mater), whereas with petroleum ether the oil yield was slightly lower and amounted to 10.44%. The yield of the oil extracted by maceration increases with the decrease of spent coffee grounds/solvent ratio from 1/3 to 1/7 (g/cm(3)), and other parameters being constant. The oil yield increases with the duration of the maceration. Greater oil yield, ranging from 3 to 8.5%, can be obtained with n-hexane compared to the extraction with petroleum ether. Furthermore, n-hexane is less volatile and flammable, compared to petroleum ether, so it is more convenient to use.
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  419. Analysis of the Production of Methyl Esters by the Two-Step Supercritical Method using Reactive Distillation
    Abstract

    Gomez-Castro, F. I.; Rico-Ramirez, V.; Segovia-Hernandez, J. G.; Hernandez-Castro, S. 2012. Analysis of the Production of Methyl Esters by the Two-Step Supercritical Method using Reactive Distillation. 22 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering. 30707-711

    The Saka-Dadan process is an alternative to the conventional, catalytic process for biodiesel production. Such a process requires fewer pieces of equipment than conventional catalytic processes; furthermore, its performance is not affected by the presence of impurities on the raw material. Nevertheless, given the conditions of temperature and pressure needed, the energy requirements to obtain the biofuel and the equipment costs are still high. Thus, an alternative to reduce energy consumption and production costs is the application of process intensification. In this work, the use of reactive distillation on the esterification step of the Saka-Dadan process is proposed; then, a comparison to find the best alternative between using conventional reactor-distillation sequences or reactive distillation systems is performed through the use of a process simulator, in terms of energy consumption and total annual costs.
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  420. Apparent energy digestibility of glycerol from biodiesel production for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus 1758)
    Abstract

    Meurer, F.; Franzen, A.; Piovesan, P.; Rossato, K. A.; Dos Santos, L. D. 2012. Apparent energy digestibility of glycerol from biodiesel production for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus 1758). Aquaculture Research. 43(11) 1734-1737

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  421. Better by design: nanoengineered macroporous hydrotalcites for enhanced catalytic biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Woodford, J. J.; Dacquin, J. P.; Wilson, K.; Lee, A. F. 2012. Better by design: nanoengineered macroporous hydrotalcites for enhanced catalytic biodiesel production. Energy & Environmental Science. 5(3) 6145-6150

    Templated, macroporous Mg-Al hydrotalcites synthesised via alkali-free co-precipitation exhibit superior performance in the transesterification of C-4-C-18 triglycerides for biodiesel production, with rate-enhancement increasing with alkyl chain length. Promotion reflects improved diffusion of bulky triglycerides and accessibility of active sites within the hierarchical macropore-micropore architecture.
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  422. Biodiesel production and properties
    Abstract

    Sarin, Amit 2012. Biodiesel production and properties. . 1 online resource (xxiv, 256 p

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  423. Biodiesel production by enzymatic transesterification catalyzed by Burkholderia lipase immobilized on hydrophobic magnetic particles
    Abstract

    Liu, C. H.; Huang, C. C.; Wang, Y. W.; Lee, D. J.; Chang, J. S. 2012. Biodiesel production by enzymatic transesterification catalyzed by Burkholderia lipase immobilized on hydrophobic magnetic particles. Applied Energy. 10041-46

    Biodiesel is a promising substitute for petroleum diesel, and has been commercialized and utilized in many countries. Conventional chemical or physical methods used for biodiesel production face the drawbacks of high energy consumption or intensive use of chemicals. In contrast, using lipase-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel synthesis is clean, effective, and water tolerance. Therefore, in this work, a self-developed Burkholderia lipase was immobilized onto hydrophobic magnetic particles (HMPs) for biodiesel production. Transesterification with the immobilized lipase could be repeatedly carried out six times without severe activity loss. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic transesterification were identified as: room temperature, 200 rpm agitation, 10% water content, and a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 4:1. Under these conditions, the conversion of oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) reached nearly 70% within 12 h, giving a biodiesel production rate of 43.5 g/L/h. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  424. Biodiesel Production by Esterification of Oleic Acid over Bronsted Acidic Ionic Liquid Supported onto Fe-Incorporated SBA-15
    Abstract

    Zhang, L.; Cui, Y. D.; Zhang, C. P.; Wang, L.; Wan, H.; Guan, G. F. 2012. Biodiesel Production by Esterification of Oleic Acid over Bronsted Acidic Ionic Liquid Supported onto Fe-Incorporated SBA-15. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 51(51) 16590-16596

    The esterification of oleic acid with short-chain alcohols using Bronsted acidic ionic liquid supported onto Fe-incorporated SBA-15 (Fe-SBA-15) was studied to develop a green method for biodiesel production. This catalyst was prepared by immobilization of Bronsted acidic ionic liquid 1-(propyl-3-sulfonate)-3-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl) imidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([SO3H-PIm-CPMS][HSO4]) onto Fe-SBA-15 (IL/Fe-SBA-15). The structure of the catalyst was characterized by XRD, N-2 adsorption-desorption measurement, FT-IR and TEM. The results demonstrated that Fe was incorporated into the framework of SBA-15, bringing Lewis acidic site. After the ionic liquid was successfully immobilized onto the surface of Fe-SBA-15, the structure of the catalyst remained intact. This catalyst displayed relatively high catalytic activity in esterification of oleic acid with short-chain alcohols because of the synergistic effect of Lewis and Bronsted acidic sites. Under the optimum reaction conditions (reaction temperature 363 K, molar ratio of methanol to oleic acid 6: 1, catalyst amount 5 wt %, and reaction time 3 h), the conversion of oleic acid reached to 87.7% when methanol was used as reactant.
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  425. Biodiesel production by two-stage transesterification with ethanol by washing with neutral water and water saturated with carbon dioxide
    Abstract

    Mendow, G.; Veizaga, N. S.; Sanchez, B. S.; Querini, C. A. 2012. Biodiesel production by two-stage transesterification with ethanol by washing with neutral water and water saturated with carbon dioxide. Bioresource Technology. 118598-602

    Industrial production of ethyl esters is impeded by difficulties in purifying the product due to high amounts of soap formed during transesterification. A simple biodiesel wash process was developed that allows successful purification of samples containing high amounts of soap. The key step was a first washing with neutral water, which removed the soaps without increasing the acidity or affecting the process yield. Afterward, the biodiesel was washed with water saturated with CO2, a mild acid that neutralized the remaining soaps and extracted impurities. The acidity, free-glycerine, methanol and soaps concentrations were reduced to very low levels with high efficiency, and using non-corrosive acids. Independently of the initial acidity, it was possible to obtain biodiesel within EN14214 specifications. The process included the recovery of soaps by hydrolysis and esterification, making it possible to obtain the theoretical maximum amount of biodiesel. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  426. Biodiesel production from esterification of oleic acid over aminophosphonic acid resin D418
    Abstract

    Yin, P.; Chen, L.; Wang, Z.; Qu, R. J.; Liu, X. G.; Xu, Q.; Ren, S. H. 2012. Biodiesel production from esterification of oleic acid over aminophosphonic acid resin D418. Fuel. 102499-505

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters) is a popular possible alternative to fossil fuels due to the potential exhausting of traditional fuels and increasing price of petroleum together with environmental concerns. In the present work, biodiesel production from the esterification of the free fatty acid oleic acid with ethanol over aminophosphonic acid resin D418 has been studied, and the effects of experimental factors such as amount of D418, reaction temperature and molar ratio of ethanol to oleic acid on the conversion ratio were evaluated. The process optimization using response surface methodology (RSM) was performed and the interactions between the operational variables were elucidated. The optimum values for maximum esterification percentage can be obtained by using a Box-Behnken center-united design with a minimum of experimental work, and the oleic acid conversion reached 92.02 +/- 0.74% with the molar ratio of alcohol to oleic acid being 14:1 and a content of 10.2 wt.% D418 catalyst at 115 degrees C. Moreover, the kinetics for the esterification catalyzed by D418 catalyst has been studied, and the pseudohomogeneous (PH) model has been used to simulate the experimental data. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  427. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil Using A Limestone Based Catalyst
    Abstract

    Gimbun, Jolius; Ali, Shahid; Kanwal, Chitra Charan Suri Charan; Shah, Liyana Amer; Ghazali, Nurul Hidayah Muhamad; Cheng, Chin Kui; Nurdin, Said 2012. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil Using A Limestone Based Catalyst. Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry. Vol.02No.044

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  428. Biodiesel Production in Africa
    Abstract

    Walimwipi, H.; Yamba, F. D.; Worgetter, M.; Rathbauer, J.; Bacovsky, D. 2012. Biodiesel Production in Africa. Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa. 93-102

    This chapter provides a synopsis of biodiesel resources in African countries, production pathways and current biodiesel production technologies. It presents an overview of different feedstock types converted into biodiesel at different scales as well as options of biodiesel production technologies such as single and multi-feedstock technologies and small-scale technologies according to current practice in the industry. Finally, the chapter identifies appropriate biodiesel production pathways, technologies, biodiesel markets and biofuel policy targets in several African countries.
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  429. Biodiesel production using enzymatic transesterification - Current state and perspectives
    Abstract

    Gog, A.; Roman, M.; Tosa, M.; Paizs, C.; Irimie, F. D. 2012. Biodiesel production using enzymatic transesterification - Current state and perspectives. Renewable Energy. 39(1) 10-16

    Biodiesel has attracted considerable interest in recent years as an alternative, biodegradable and nonpolluting transportation fuel. Conventional alkaline process for biodiesel production are energy-consuming and generate undesirable by-products such as soaps, that make difficult the separation and purification of biodiesel.
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  430. Biodiesel Production Using Eruca Sativa Oil: Optimization and Characterization
    Abstract

    Mumtaz, M. W.; Adnan, A.; Mahmood, Z.; Mukhtar, H.; Danish, M.; Ahmad, Z. 2012. Biodiesel Production Using Eruca Sativa Oil: Optimization and Characterization. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 44(3) 1111-1120

    In the present study Eruca sativa oil (Taramira oil) was explored for the production of biodiesel by optimizing transesterification process using NaOH, KOH and NaOCH3 as catalysts. Optimization of different reaction parameters i.e., catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time and alcohol to oil molar ratio was done using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The order of catalytic effectiveness regarding production of the biodisel using three different catalysts was found to be NaOCH3 > KOH > NaOH. The biodiesel was characterized following GC-MS and FTIR analyses. The fuel properties such as cetane number 59.8, density 0.871 g/cm(3), specific gravity 0.889, pour point -2.97 degrees C, kinematic viscosity 5.71 mm(2)/s, flash point 197.5 degrees C carbon residue 0.01% of the biodiesel produced ascertained the suitability of oil as a potential source for biodiesel production.
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  431. Biodiesel production using magnetically stabilized fluidized bed reactor
    Abstract

    Guo, P. M.; Huang, F. H.; Huang, Q. D.; Zheng, C. 2012. Biodiesel production using magnetically stabilized fluidized bed reactor. Renewable Energy. 38(1) 10-15

    A novel production process of biodiesel using magnetically stabilized fluidized bed reactor (MSFBR) has been developed based on cottonseed oil and the reaction conditions were also studied. The reactant flow rate and magnetic field intensity affects on the magnetic catalytic particles behavior in the column were performed, and the transesterification reaction conditions of cottonseed oil were investigated in MSFBR with nanometer magnetic catalytic particles. Under the suitable reaction conditions of methanol/oil molar ratio 8:1, 40 cm(3) min(-1) flow rate, 225 Oe magnetic field intensity and temperature of 65 degrees C, the conversion efficiency reaches to 97% in 100 min. The stability and recovery of the magnetic catalytic particles in MSFBR are much better than that in autoclave stirred reactor. The result shows that most of the resultant cottonseed oil biodiesel parameters comply with the limits established by representative biodiesel standards. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  432. Biodiesel: Production and Properties
    Abstract

    Sarin, A. 2012. Biodiesel: Production and Properties. Biodiesel: Production and Properties. 1-256

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  433. Biodiscovery of new Australian thraustochytrids for production of biodiesel and long-chain omega-3 oils
    Abstract

    Chang, K. J. L.; Dunstan, G. A.; Abell, G. C. J.; Clementson, L. A.; Blackburn, S. I.; Nichols, P. D.; Koutoulis, A. 2012. Biodiscovery of new Australian thraustochytrids for production of biodiesel and long-chain omega-3 oils. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 93(5) 2215-2231

    Heterotrophic growth of thraustochytrids has potential in co-producing a feedstock for biodiesel and long-chain (LC, a parts per thousand yenC(20)) omega-3 oils. Biodiscovery of thraustochytrids from Tasmania (temperate) and Queensland (tropical), Australia, covered a biogeographic range of habitats including fresh, brackish, and marine waters. A total of 36 thraustochytrid strains were isolated and separated into eight chemotaxonomic groups (A-H) based on fatty acid (FA) and sterol composition which clustered closely with four different genera obtained by 18S rDNA molecular identification. Differences in the relative proportions (%FA) of long-chain C-20, C-22, omega-3, and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and saturated FA, as well as the presence of odd-chain PUFA (OC-PUFA) were the major factors influencing the separation of these groups. OC-PUFA were detected in temperate strains of groups A, B, and C (Schizochytrium and Thraustochytrium). Group D (Ulkenia) had high omega-3 LC-PUFA (53% total fatty acids (TFA)) and EPA up to 11.2% TFA. Strains from groups E and F (Aurantiochytrium) contained DHA levels of 50-61% TFA after 7 days of growth in basal medium at 20 A degrees C. Groups G and H (Aurantiochytrium) strains had high levels of 15:0 (20-30% TFA) and the sum of saturated FA was in the range of 32-51%. beta,beta-Carotene, canthaxanthin, and astaxanthin were identified in selected strains. Phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic groupings demonstrated similar patterns for the majority of strains. Our results demonstrate the potential of these new Australian thraustochytrids for the production of biodiesel in addition to omega-3 LC-PUFA-rich oils.
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  434. Biotechnological Utilization of Biodiesel-Derived Glycerol for the Production of Ribonucleotides and Microbial Biomass
    Abstract

    Rivaldi, J. D.; Sarrouh, B. F.; Branco, R. D.; de Mancilha, I. M.; da Silva, S. S. 2012. Biotechnological Utilization of Biodiesel-Derived Glycerol for the Production of Ribonucleotides and Microbial Biomass. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 167(7) 2054-2067

    Ten yeast strains were evaluated concerning their capabilities to assimilate biodiesel-derived glycerol in batch cultivation. The influence of glycerol concentration, temperature, pH and yeast extract concentration on biomass production was studied for the yeast selected. Further, the effect of agitation on glycerol utilization by the yeast Hansenula anomala was also studied. The yeast H. anomala CCT 2648 showed the highest biomass yield (0.30 g g(-1)) and productivity (0.19 g L-1 h(-1)). Citric acid, succinic acid, acetic acid and ethanol were found as the main metabolites produced. The increase of yeast extract concentration from 1 to 3 g L-1 resulted in high biomass production. The highest biomass concentration (21 g L-1), yield (0.45 g g(-1)) and productivity (0.31 g L-1 h(-1)), as well as ribonucleotide production (13.13 mg g(-1)), were observed at 700 rpm and 0.5 vvm. These results demonstrated that glycerol from biodiesel production process showed to be a feasible substrate for producing biomass and ribonucleotides by yeast species.
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  435. Capability of a selected bacterial consortium for degrading diesel/biodiesel blends (B20): enzyme and biosurfactant production
    Abstract

    Meyer, D. D.; Santestevan, N. A.; Bucker, F.; Salamoni, S. P.; Andreazza, R.; De Oliveira Camargo, F. A.; Bento, F. M. 2012. Capability of a selected bacterial consortium for degrading diesel/biodiesel blends (B20): enzyme and biosurfactant production. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 47(12) 1776-84

    The search for alternative sources of energy, such as biodiesel, has been stimulated, since this biofuel is highly susceptible for biodegradation and has low toxicity, thus, reducing the impact in ecosystems. The objective of this study was to select a bacterial consortium with potential for degrading diesel/biodiesel blends (B20) obtained from areas contaminated with hydrocarbons/esters. In order to evaluate the biodegrability of the blend, six enzyme assays were conducted: alkane hydroxylase, Catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, Catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, Protocatechol 3,4-dioxygenase, rho-NPA hydrolysis (esterase), and release of fatty acids through titration (lipase), with estimative of total protein and biosurfactant production (surface tension measurement and emulsifying index E(24)). The best results obtained allowed the selection of four bacteria isolates (Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) for compiling a consortium, which will be used for bioaugmentation strategies in soils contaminated with these fuels. This consortium exhibited high potential for biodegradation of biodiesel, and might be an efficient alternative for cleaning up these contaminated environments.
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  436. Comparison of Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Glycerol and Crude Glycerol Obtained from Biodiesel Processing
    Abstract

    Skaf, D. W.; Natrin, N. G.; Brodwater, K. C.; Bongo, C. R. 2012. Comparison of Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Glycerol and Crude Glycerol Obtained from Biodiesel Processing. Catalysis Letters. 142(10) 1175-1179

    Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from aqueous solutions of glycerol and crude glycerol (byproduct of biodiesel manufacturing) were compared using Pt/TiO2 and CuOx/TiO2 catalysts. Glycerol solutions generated more H-2 than crude glycerol solutions, with the H-2 generation rate approximately 2.5 times higher for Pt/TiO2 and approximately 4 times higher for CuOx/TiO2. Pt/TiO2 produced more H-2 than CuOx/TiO2, with a ratio nearly 2.5 times higher for glycerol and nearly 3.5 times higher for crude glycerol. Ion exchange of crude glycerol solutions to replace Na+ with Li+ or K+ had little impact on reactions with CuOx/TiO2 whereas ion exchange with Li+ moderately reduced reaction rates with Pt/TiO2. An anti-foam agent reduced foaming problems associated with higher concentrations of crude glycerol but itself degraded. The addition of 0.4 mM NaH2PO4 reduced the H-2 generation rate by nearly 60 % whereas the presence of 0.4 mM NaCl, 0.4 mM NaNO3 or 0.2 mM Na2SO4 reduced the H-2 generation rate by only 10-20 % over the course of the reaction.
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  437. Continuous biodiesel production in a cutinase membrane bioreactor
    Abstract

    Badenes, S. M.; Lemos, F.; Cabral, J. M. S. 2012. Continuous biodiesel production in a cutinase membrane bioreactor. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 243

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  438. Continuous biodiesel production using in situ glycerol separation by membrane bioreactor system
    Abstract

    Ko, M. J.; Park, H. J.; Hong, S. Y.; Yoo, Y. J. 2012. Continuous biodiesel production using in situ glycerol separation by membrane bioreactor system. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 35(1-2) 69-75

    Biodiesel is one of the most promising renewable fuel sources. Candida antarctica lipase B (CalB) has been used for biodiesel production because of its high activity and stability. However, CalB can only be utilized in industrial biodiesel production if the enzyme deactivation by methanol and the negative effects of glycerol can be mitigated. Methanol inhibition can be avoided by utilizing a stepwise addition of methanol, but there is no suitable method to reduce the glycerol effect. This study aims to use a membrane bioreactor system to remove glycerol during biodiesel production. In addition, methanol inhibition can be reduced by continuously feeding methanol through the membrane system. This continuous membrane bioreactor system can be used for efficient biodiesel production.
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  439. Continuous production of biodiesel using whole-cell biocatalysts: Sequential conversion of an aqueous oil emulsion into anhydrous product
    Abstract

    Yoshida, A.; Hama, S.; Tamadani, N.; Noda, H.; Fukuda, H.; Kondo, A. 2012. Continuous production of biodiesel using whole-cell biocatalysts: Sequential conversion of an aqueous oil emulsion into anhydrous product. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 687-11

    A continuous production of biodiesel from an aqueous plant oil emulsion was attempted using immobilized fungal whole cells. Six packed-bed reactors were connected in series and operated with stepwise methanol addition. In the first column, more than 3% water was necessary for methanolysis to proceed. Despite the low initial water content of 0.36%, the methyl ester content in the effluent from the second column increased similarly in a wide range of contents of water (0-20%) added, which shows the water-content-independent reaction in this column in contrast to the reaction in the first column. Further investigations using reaction mixture models suggested a contribution of the composition of the reaction mixture to the phenomenon. On the basis of these findings, the sequential methanolysis through six columns was attempted, where the upper layer of the effluent from each column was supplied into the next column without further addition of water. Consequently, an aqueous plant oil emulsion with 3% water was converted into the final product with 96.1% methyl ester and 0.15% water. Therefore, the system developed is useful for producing biodiesel enzymatically from water-containing feedstocks. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  440. Current Status of Biodiesel Production in Baja California, Mexico
    Abstract

    Montero, G.; Stoytcheva, M.; Garcia, C.; Coronado, M.; Toscano, L.; Campbell, H.; Perez, A.; Vazquez, A. 2012. Current Status of Biodiesel Production in Baja California, Mexico. Biodiesel - Quality, Emissions and by-Products. 137-152

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  441. Deacidification of Pistacia chinensis Oil as a Promising Non-Edible Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in China
    Abstract

    Qin, S. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Shi, C. L.; He, L. Q.; Meng, Y.; Ren, X. H. 2012. Deacidification of Pistacia chinensis Oil as a Promising Non-Edible Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in China. Energies. 5(8) 2759-2770

    Pistacia chinensis seed oil is proposed as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Different extraction methods were tested and compared to obtain crude oil from the seed of Pistacia chinensis, along with various deacidification measures of refined oil. The biodiesel was produced through catalysis of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The results showed that the acid value of Pistacia chinensis oil was successfully reduced to 0.23 mg KOH/g when it was extracted using ethanol. Consequently, the biodiesel product gave a high yield beyond 96.0%. The transesterification catalysed by KOH was also more complete. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the transesterification reaction. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) certified that the Pistacia chinensis biodiesel mainly consisted of C-18 fatty acid methyl esters (81.07%) with a high percentage of methyl oleate. Furthermore, the measured fuel properties of the biodiesel met the required standards for fuel use. In conclusion, the Pistacia chinensis biodiesel is a qualified and feasible substitute for fossil diesel.
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  442. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production
    Abstract

    Simasatitkul, L.; Arpornwichanop, A.; Gani, R. 2012. Design methodology for bio-based processing: Biodiesel and fatty alcohol production. 11th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering, Pts a and B. 31855-859

    A systematic design methodology is developed for producing two main products plus side products starting with one or more bio-based renewable source. A superstructure that includes all possible reaction and separation operations is generated through thermodynamic insights and available data. The number of alternative processes is systematically reduced through a screening procedure until only feasible alternatives are obtained. As part of the methodology, process intensification involving reaction-separation tasks is also considered to improve the design by shifting the equilibrium reactions. Economic analysis and net present value are determined to find the best economically and operationally feasible process. The application of the methodology is presented through a case study involving biodiesel and fatty alcohol productions.
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  443. Design of biodiesel production processes by base-catalyzed transesterification
    Abstract

    Shi, H. Y.; Yuan, M. Z.; Wang, T. R. 2012. Design of biodiesel production processes by base-catalyzed transesterification. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Ii, Pts 1-4. 512-515510-514

    A lot of efforts have been carried out to develop an alternative fuel for the current energy and environment questions. Biodiesel which is synthesized by transesterification of plant oils and animal fat is a real alternative fuel for its renewable and lower emissions. Currently, biodiesel production by the base-catalyzed transesterification of the vegetable oil and methanol is widely utilized in the world. This paper studies the design of biodiesel production with the glycerol phase separation processes, through installing a decanter between reactors and adding methanol and NaOH batch optimization operation to improve the biodiesel yield and the conversion rate of reactants. Simulation results show that biodiesel yield increased by 9.79% and triglyceride conversion rate increased by 6.99%.
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  444. Dust Suppression with Glycerin from Biodiesel Production: A Review
    Abstract

    Yan, Wei; Hoekman, S. Kent 2012. Dust Suppression with Glycerin from Biodiesel Production: A Review. Journal of Environmental Protection. Vol.03No.027

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  445. Effect of Al loading on CaO catalysts for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Takata, T.; Nakagoe, O.; Tanabe, S. 2012. Effect of Al loading on CaO catalysts for biodiesel production. International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (Icrera).

    Al loaded CaO catalysts for biodiesel synthesis were prepared with alkali co-precipitation method and investigated. The catalytic activities were examined with transesterification of triolein to oleic methyl ester (OME) as model reaction of biodiesel formation. The catalytic activity of these catalysts strongly depends on the amount of Al loading and formation of composite oxide phase on catalyst surface. The structure and nature of active sites on the catalyst surface were measured with XRD and temperature programmed desorption of CO2 and methanol. The TPD results revealed that the initial reaction activity strongly depended on the formation and stability of methoxide intermediate on the catalyst surface.
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  446. Energy Efficient Recovery of Methanol and Glycerol in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Ignat, R. M.; Kiss, A. A. 2012. Energy Efficient Recovery of Methanol and Glycerol in Biodiesel Production. Pres 2012: 15th International Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction. 291141-1146

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that consists of fatty acids methyl esters - currently produced by transesterification of glycerides with methanol. After the biodiesel synthesis, the downstream processing steps involve the purification of crude glycerol, as well as the separation of excess methanol (recyclable), glycerol by-product and water (from washing and pre-treatment step). The separation of the ternary mixture methanol-water-glycerol is carried out in a conventional direct sequence that requires two distillation columns and rather high amounts of energy.
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  447. Enhanced methanol recovery and glycerol separation in biodiesel production - DWC makes it happen
    Abstract

    Kiss, A. A.; Ignat, R. M. 2012. Enhanced methanol recovery and glycerol separation in biodiesel production - DWC makes it happen. Applied Energy. 99146-153

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that consists of fatty acids methyl esters - currently produced by transesterification of glycerides with methanol. After the biodiesel synthesis, the downstream processing steps involve the purification of crude glycerol, as well as the separation of excess methanol (recyclable), glycerol by-product and water (from washing and pre-treatment steps). The separation of the ternary mixture methanol-water-glycerol is carried out in a conventional direct sequence that requires two distillation columns and rather high amounts of energy.
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  448. Enhancement of CO2 and H-2 uptake for the production of biodiesel in Cupriavidus necator
    Abstract

    Sullivan, R. P.; Eckert, C. A.; Balzer, G. J.; Yu, J. P.; Maness, P. C. 2012. Enhancement of CO2 and H-2 uptake for the production of biodiesel in Cupriavidus necator. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 243

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  449. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from Pistacia chinensis bge seed oil using immobilized lipase
    Abstract

    Li, X.; He, X. Y.; Li, Z. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, C. Y.; Shi, H.; Wang, F. 2012. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from Pistacia chinensis bge seed oil using immobilized lipase. Fuel. 92(1) 89-93

    Biodiesel fuel from renewable non-edible woody plant oils has recently attracted more attention due to its environmental benefits and the reduced costs of raw materials. This study investigated the enzymatic transesterification of Pistacia chinensis bge seed oil (PCO) with methanol. The recombinant Rhizopus oryzae lipases (ROL) immobilized on macroporous resin and anion exchange resin, named as MI-ROL and AI-ROL, respectively, were used as biocatalysts. The transesterification reaction catalyzed by the immobilized lipase was investigated in a solvent-free system. The highest biodiesel yields of 92% and 94% were achieved under the optimum conditions (enzyme dosage 25 IUAI-ROL/g PCO or 7 IUMI-ROL/g PCO, methanol to oil molar ratio 5:1, water content 20% by weight of oil, temperature 37 degrees C, and reaction time 60 h). There was no obvious loss in the yield of biodiesel after being consecutively used for five cycles in the transesterification reactions using AI-ROL, while the yield of biodiesel remained above 60% after the MI-ROL was repeatedly used for four cycles. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  450. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from Pistacia chinensis bge seed oil using immobilized lipase (vol 92, pg 89, 2012)
    Abstract

    Li, X.; He, X. Y.; Li, Z. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, C. Y.; Shi, H.; Wang, F. 2012. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from Pistacia chinensis bge seed oil using immobilized lipase (vol 92, pg 89, 2012). Fuel. 96(1) 611-611

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  451. Enzyme immobilization for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zhang, B.; Weng, Y.; Xu, H.; Mao, Z. 2012. Enzyme immobilization for biodiesel production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 93(1) 61-70

    Biodiesel has attracted more and more attention in recent years because of its biodegradability, environmentally friendliness, and renewability. Contrary to the conventional chemical catalysis method to produce biodiesel, the biochemical catalysis method developed quickly in the past decade and many immobilized enzymes are commercially available to meet the large-scale industrialization of biodiesel. This review is focusing on the current status of biodiesel production by biochemical catalysis method, especially the commercial enzyme and its immobilization for biodiesel production. Consequently, we believe that biochemical catalysis with immobilized enzymes is bound to be an alternative method instead of chemical catalysis in biodiesel production in the near future.
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  452. Evaluation of the composition of culture medium for yeast biomass production using raw glycerol from biodiesel synthesis
    Abstract

    Dos Santos, E. O.; Michelon, M.; Furlong, E. B.; Burkert, J. F.; Kalil, S. J.; Burkert, C. A. 2012. Evaluation of the composition of culture medium for yeast biomass production using raw glycerol from biodiesel synthesis. Braz J Microbiol. 43(2) 432-40

    The work herewith investigated the production of yeast biomass as a source of protein, using Yarrowia lipolytica NRRL YB-423 and raw glycerol from biodiesel synthesis as the main carbon source. A significant influence of glycerol concentration, initial pH and yeast extract concentration on biomass and protein content was observed according to the 2v (5-1) fractional design. These factors were further evaluated using a central composite design and response surface methodology, and an empirical model for protein content was established and validated. The biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica NRRL YB-423 reached 19.5 +/- 1.0 g/L in shaken flasks cultivation, with a protein content of 20.1 +/- 0.6% (w/w).
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  453. Extraction of coffee ground oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Orozco, E. I. 2012. Extraction of coffee ground oil for biodiesel production. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 243

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  454. Fractionation and purification of crude glycerol from biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Guo, M. X.; Xiao, P. L. 2012. Fractionation and purification of crude glycerol from biodiesel production. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 244

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  455. Functional expression and characterization of five wax ester synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their utility for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Shi, S.; Valle-Rodriguez, J. O.; Khoomrung, S.; Siewers, V.; Nielsen, J. 2012. Functional expression and characterization of five wax ester synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their utility for biodiesel production. Biotechnol Biofuels. 57

    BACKGROUND: Wax ester synthases (WSs) can synthesize wax esters from alcohols and fatty acyl coenzyme A thioesters. The knowledge of the preferred substrates for each WS allows the use of yeast cells for the production of wax esters that are high-value materials and can be used in a variety of industrial applications. The products of WSs include fatty acid ethyl esters, which can be directly used as biodiesel. RESULTS: Here, heterologous WSs derived from five different organisms were successfully expressed and evaluated for their substrate preference in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We investigated the potential of the different WSs for biodiesel (that is, fatty acid ethyl esters) production in S. cerevisiae. All investigated WSs, from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798, Rhodococcus opacus PD630, Mus musculus C57BL/6 and Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, have different substrate specificities, but they can all lead to the formation of biodiesel. The best biodiesel producing strain was found to be the one expressing WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798 that resulted in a biodiesel titer of 6.3 mg/L. To further enhance biodiesel production, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase was up-regulated, which resulted in a 30% increase in biodiesel production. CONCLUSIONS: Five WSs from different species were functionally expressed and their substrate preference characterized in S. cerevisiae, thus constructing cell factories for the production of specific kinds of wax ester. WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus showed the highest preference for ethanol compared to the other WSs, and could permit the engineered S. cerevisiae to produce biodiesel.
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  456. Functional expression and characterization of five wax ester synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their utility for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Shi, S. B.; Valle-Rodriguez, J. O.; Khoomrung, S.; Siewers, V.; Nielsen, J. 2012. Functional expression and characterization of five wax ester synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their utility for biodiesel production. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 5

    Background: Wax ester synthases (WSs) can synthesize wax esters from alcohols and fatty acyl coenzyme A thioesters. The knowledge of the preferred substrates for each WS allows the use of yeast cells for the production of wax esters that are high-value materials and can be used in a variety of industrial applications. The products of WSs include fatty acid ethyl esters, which can be directly used as biodiesel.
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  457. Hydrogen production from biodiesel byproduct by immobilized Enterobacter aerogenes
    Abstract

    Han, J.; Lee, D.; Cho, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, S. 2012. Hydrogen production from biodiesel byproduct by immobilized Enterobacter aerogenes. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 35(1-2) 151-157

    The recent rapid growth of the biodiesel industry has generated a significant amount of glycerol as a byproduct. As a result, the price of glycerol is currently relatively low, making it an attractive starting material for the production of chemicals with higher values. Crude glycerol can be directly converted through microbial fermentation into various chemicals such as hydrogen. In this study, we optimized immobilization of a facultative hydrogen producing microorganism, Enterobacter aerogenes, with the goal of developing biocatalysts that was appropriate for the continuous hydrogen production from glycerol. Several carriers were tested and agar was found to be the most effective. In addition, it was clearly shown that variables such as the carrier content and cell loading should be controlled for the immobilization of biocatalysts with high hydrogen productivity, stability, and reusability. After optimization of these variables, we were able to obtain reusable biocatalysts that could directly convert the byproduct stream from biodiesel processes into hydrogen in continuous processes.
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  458. Immobilization of Burkholderia sp lipase on a ferric silica nanocomposite for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Tran, D. T.; Chen, C. L.; Chang, J. S. 2012. Immobilization of Burkholderia sp lipase on a ferric silica nanocomposite for biodiesel production. Journal of Biotechnology. 158(3) 112-119

    In this work, lipase produced from an isolated strain Burkholderia sp. C20 was immobilized on magnetic nanoparticles to catalyze biodiesel synthesis. Core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by coating Fe3O4 core with silica shell. The nanoparticles treated with dimethyl octadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] ammonium chloride were used as immobilization supporters. The Burkholderia lipase was then bound to the synthesized nanoparticles for immobilization. The protein binding efficiency on alkyl-functionalized Fe3O4-SiO2 was estimated as 97%, while the efficiency was only 76% on non-modified Fe3O4-SiO2. Maximum adsorption capacity of lipase on alkyl-functionalized Fe3O4-SiO2 was estimated as 29.45 mg g(-1) based on Langmuir isotherm. The hydrolytic kinetics (using olive oil as substrate) of the lipase immobilized on alkyl-grafted Fe3O4-SiO2 followed Michaelis-Menten model with a maximum reaction rate and a Michaelis constant of 6251 U g(-1) and 3.65 mM, respectively. Physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles and the immobilized lipase were characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Moreover, the immobilized lipase was used to catalyze the transesterification of olive oil with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), attaining a FAMEs conversion of over 90% within 30 h in batch operation when 11 wt% immobilized lipase was employed. The immobilized lipase could be used for ten cycles without significant loss in its transesterification activity. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  459. Improved performance of a packed-bed reactor for biodiesel production through whole-cell biocatalysis employing a high-lipase-expression system
    Abstract

    Yoshida, A.; Hama, S.; Tamadani, N.; Fukuda, H.; Kondo, A. 2012. Improved performance of a packed-bed reactor for biodiesel production through whole-cell biocatalysis employing a high-lipase-expression system. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 6376-80

    To improve enzymatic biodiesel production, we developed a packed-bed reactor (PBR) system using recombinant cells, into which a strong enolase promoter and 5' untranslated region were introduced. Aspergillus oryzae expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase was immobilized within biomass support particles (BSPs) during cultivation and used directly as a whole-cell biocatalyst. BSP-immobilized A. oryzae carrying three copies of the expression cassette showed a higher performance than previously developed cell systems, resulting in 87.5% conversion after 10 passes in PBR. The performance was also affected by operational factors including residence time and methanol feeding. After optimization, the PBR system attained a final methyl ester content of 96.1% with a residence time of 140 min per pass and stepwise addition of 4.25 molar equivalents of methanol to oil for 6 passes. Moreover, lipase activity was maintained for 5 batch cycles. Therefore, the developed PBR employing a high-lipase-expression system is considered useful for improving enzymatic biodiesel production. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  460. Innovative biodiesel production in a reactive dividing-wall column
    Abstract

    Kiss, A. A.; Segovia-Hernandez, J. G.; Bildea, C. S.; Miranda-Galindo, E. Y.; Hernandez, S. 2012. Innovative biodiesel production in a reactive dividing-wall column. 22 European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering. 30522-526

    This study proposes a novel biodiesel process based on a reactive dividing-wall column (DWC) that allows the use of only similar to 15% excess of methanol to completely convert the fatty acids feedstock. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are produced as pure bottom product, water as side stream, while the methanol excess is recovered as top distillate and recycled. The optimal configuration was established by using simulated annealing (SA) as optimization method implemented in Mathworks Matlab, and coupled with rigorous simulations carried out in AspenTech Aspen Plus. The generated improved design alternatives allow lower investment costs, and up to 25% energy savings.
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  461. Introduction to advanced biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Luque, R.; Melero, J. A. 2012. Introduction to advanced biodiesel production. Advances in Biodiesel Production: Processes and Technologies. (39) 1-9

    This introduction chapter highlights the environmental and economic benefits of second generation biodiesel production based on advanced processing strategies using non-edible oleaginous feedstock. An overview of the different technologies, including the development of innovative catalysts and new reactor concepts will be provided. Moreover, a list of potential feedstocks and new advances in glycerol valorisation will be also briefly reviewed.
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  462. Investigating tin(II) fluoride as a Lewis acid catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Benton, E. A.; Hartmann, R. W. 2012. Investigating tin(II) fluoride as a Lewis acid catalyst for biodiesel production. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 243

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  463. Kinetics of chemical interesterification of sunflower oil with methyl acetate for biodiesel and triacetin production (vol 171, pg 1324, 2011)
    Abstract

    Casas, A.; Ramos, M. J.; Perez, A. 2012. Kinetics of chemical interesterification of sunflower oil with methyl acetate for biodiesel and triacetin production (vol 171, pg 1324, 2011). Chemical Engineering Journal. 195403-403

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  464. Lipases as biocatalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Fan, X.; Niehus, X.; Sandoval, G. 2012. Lipases as biocatalyst for biodiesel production. Methods Mol Biol. 861471-83

    The global shortages of fossil fuels, significant increase in the price of crude oil, and increased environmental concerns have stimulated the rapid growth in biodiesel production. Biodiesel is generally produced through transesterification reaction catalyzed either chemically or enzymatically. Enzymatic transesterification draws high attention because that process shows certain advantages over the chemical catalysis of transesterification and it is "greener." This paper reviews the current status of biodiesel production with lipase-biocatalysis approach, including sources of lipases, kinetics, and reaction mechanism of biodiesel production using lipases, and lipase immobilization techniques. Factors affecting biodiesel production and economic feasibility of biodiesel production using lipases are also covered.
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  465. Lipases as Biocatalyst for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Fan, X. H.; Niehus, X.; Sandoval, G. 2012. Lipases as Biocatalyst for Biodiesel Production. Lipases and Phospholipases: Methods and Protocols. 861471-483

    The global shortages of fossil fuels, significant increase in the price of crude oil, and increased environmental concerns have stimulated the rapid growth in biodiesel production. Biodiesel is generally produced through transesterification reaction catalyzed either chemically or enzymatically. Enzymatic transesterification draws high attention because that process shows certain advantages over the chemical catalysis of transesterification and it is "greener." This paper reviews the current status of biodiesel production with lipase-biocatalysis approach, including sources of lipases, kinetics, and reaction mechanism of biodiesel production using lipases, and lipase immobilization techniques. Factors affecting biodiesel production and economic feasibility of biodiesel production using lipases are also covered.
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  466. Lipid production from hydrolysate of cassava starch by Rhodosporidium toruloides 21167 for biodiesel making
    Abstract

    Wang, Q.; Guo, F. J.; Rong, Y. J.; Chi, Z. M. 2012. Lipid production from hydrolysate of cassava starch by Rhodosporidium toruloides 21167 for biodiesel making. Renewable Energy. 46164-168

    After the lipid contents in 7 strains of Rhodosporidium toruloides were determined, R. toruloides 21167 among them was found to be able to produce the highest amount of lipid in its cells. Many ions, such as Mn2+, Ca2+, Zn2+ and Fe3+ had positive effects on lipid accumulation by R. toruloides 21167. After the yeast was cultivated in the medium containing 8.0% cassava starch hydrolysate for 144 h at flask level, cell mass, lipid content, residual reducing sugar and residual total sugar in the culture reached 18.5 g m(-3), 63.2% (w/w), 15.0 g M-3 and 3.2 g m-3, respectively, while after it was grown in the same medium by 2-1 fermentation for 192 h, cell mass, lipid content, residual reducing sugar and residual total sugar in the culture reached 22.0 g m(-3), 63.4% (w/w), 5.4 g m(-3) and 0.5 g m(-3), respectively. The results also showed that most of the sugar added to the medium was utilized by R. toruloides 21167 for cell growth and lipid accumulation. Over 96.8% of the fatty acids from the yeast strain 21167 was C-16:0, C-18:0, C-18:1 and C-18:2, especially C-18:1(53.34%). The biodiesel obtained from the produced lipid could be burnt well. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  467. Maximizing biodiesel production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g biomass using subcritical water pretreatment
    Abstract

    Tsigie, Y. A.; Huynh, L. H.; Ahmed, I. N.; Ju, Y. H. 2012. Maximizing biodiesel production from Yarrowia lipolytica Po1g biomass using subcritical water pretreatment. Bioresource Technology. 111201-207

    The yeast Yarrowia lipolytica Pot g is one of the oleaginous microorganisms with a potential for biodiesel production. Sub-critical water (SCW) treatment has been known as an effective method for increasing the amount of extractable lipids in microorganisms. In this work, the amount of neutral lipids and fatty acid profiles in neutral lipids extracted from Y. lipolytica Po1g with and without SCW pre-treatment were investigated. The effects of temperature (125, 150 or 175 degrees C), amount of water (20, 30 or 40 mL/g biomass) and time (10,20 or 30 min) showed that maximum neutral lipid (42.69%, w/w) could be achieved at 175 degrees C using 20 mL water for 20 min. The maximum neutral lipid from unpretreated samples was 23.21%. No difference in fatty acid profiles was observed, but long chain fatty acids were observed in higher amount in SCW pretreated samples. SCW pretreatment increased biodiesel yield twofold. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  468. Mechanochemically synthesized CaO center dot ZnO catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kesic, Z.; Lukic, I.; Zdujic, M.; Liu, H.; Skala, D. 2012. Mechanochemically synthesized CaO center dot ZnO catalyst for biodiesel production. Chisa 2012. 421169-1178

    The transesterification of triglycerides (vegetable oil) with methanol using CaO center dot ZnO mixed oxides catalyst were conducted to produce FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters, i.e. biodiesel). Catalyst was synthesized by ball milling of CaO and ZnO powder mixture (using molar ratio of CaO and ZnO of 1:2 and 1:4) with the addition of water, as well as solely by ball milling (molar ratio of 1:2) of mentioned powders and subsequent. After ball milling prepared mixtures were calcinatied at 700 degrees C in air atmosphere. The samples of formed catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The particle size distribution as well as the base strength using Hammett indicator was determined, too. CaO. ZnO catalysts were used in the methanolysis of sunflower oil, at 60 degrees C and 1 bar, using molar ratio of sunflower oil to methanol of 1:10 and with 2 wt% of catalyst based on oil weight. All catalysts exhibited good activity in the methanolysis of sunflower oil, with the yield of FAME above 90 % after 4 hours of reaction. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  469. Nannochloropsis s. cell suspension concentraation with ultrafiltration system and recovery of lipid for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Giorno, F.; Mazzei, R.; Giorno, L. 2012. Nannochloropsis s. cell suspension concentraation with ultrafiltration system and recovery of lipid for biodiesel production. Euromembrane Conference 2012. 44506-507

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  470. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to monitor reaction products during biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Pinzi, S.; Alonso, F.; Olmo, J. G.; Dorado, M. P. 2012. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to monitor reaction products during biodiesel production. Fuel. 92(1) 354-359

    In agreement with the principles of green chemistry, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows multicomponent analysis in a fast and nondestructive way, without requiring complex pre-treatments, being a safe, clean and energy saving technique. In this work, a preliminary study to develop near infrared calibration models to predict methyl esters (ME) yield, monoglycerides (MG), diglycerides (DG), triglycerides (TG), free glycerol (FG) and total glycerol (TotalG) content in biodiesel has been carried out. These parameters are considered key factors to determine biofuel quality, its commercialization and to study and monitor the transesterification reaction. For this purpose, samples of biodiesel produced from three different vegetable oils (maize oil, sunflower oil and olive-pomace oil) were analyzed following the EN14103 and EN14105 European standards as reference methods. NIRS calibration equations were validated with a group of validation samples. The mean spectra showed that the main variability on biodiesel NIR spectra occurred around 1700 and 2300 nm. Moreover, the principal components analysis (PCA) applied to the spectra revealed the grouping of samples according to the type of oils used for biodiesel production. The standard deviation of the prediction (cross validation) errors (RMSEP(CV)) of the calibration models and the standard deviation error (RMSEP) of the validation set resulted similar to the measurement errors (intra lab SEL(r)) and repeatability (inter lab SEL(R)) of each analyte. Results confirm the accuracy of the developed NIRS models for determination of glycerides content and methyl esters yield in biodiesel. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  471. Novel zeolite Na-X synthesized from fly ash as a heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production