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Biodiesel produciton from jatropha oil

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  1. A review of the sustainability of Jatropha cultivation projects for biodiesel production in southern Africa: Implications for energy policy in Botswana
    Abstract

    Kgathi, D. L.; Mmopelwa, G.; Chanda, R.; Kashe, K.; Murray-Hudson, M. 2017. A review of the sustainability of Jatropha cultivation projects for biodiesel production in southern Africa: Implications for energy policy in Botswana. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 246314-324

    Jatropha camas L. biofuel development is considered a strategy for achieving energy security, climate change mitigation, foreign exchange savings and economic development. This paper reviews the experiences of some southern African countries with the impacts of Jatropha biofuel development on sustainability, with a view to providing lessons for biofuel development policy for Botswana. The review has shown that most of the large commercial plantations planned to produce jatropha seed for home consumption and export were not economically viable mainly due to low seed yield, high cost of production, delayed production and uncompetitive feedstock prices. On the other hand, smallholder-based jatropha biofuel projects were economically viable due to their low input costs. Analysis of social impacts showed that jatropha production has been associated with loss of rights to land, low compensation levels, and compromised food security where land and other production inputs were diverted from food crops to jatropha production. Positive social impacts in some countries included increased employment opportunities and incomes. Jatropha production is associated with environmental impacts such as loss of biodiversity, high water requirements and high carbon debts resulting from conversion of land. Positive environmental impacts included high energy return on investment and high GHG savings when Jatropha is cultivated on abandoned agricultural fields as revealed by research in some parts of West Africa. Policy considerations for the Government of Botswana include: providing support to biofuel projects at their early stage of development, discouraging large plantation business models until such time that research in Botswana produces high seed-yielding Jatropha varieties, introducing legal safeguards for protection of land rights of local communities, and ensuring that land-use change and high carbon debts are minimized as they have adverse impacts on biodiversity and climate change.
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  2. Active Heterogeneous CaO Catalyst Synthesis from Anadara granosa (Kerang) Seashells for Jatropha Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Anr, R.; Saleh, A. A.; Islam, M. S.; Hamdan, S. 2017. Active Heterogeneous CaO Catalyst Synthesis from Anadara granosa (Kerang) Seashells for Jatropha Biodiesel Production. 9th International Unimas Stem Engineering Conference (Encon 2016) Innovative Solutions for Engineering and Technology Challenges. 87

    Heterogeneous catalysts are often used at large to produce biodiesel from non-edible vegetable crude oils such as Jatropha curcas oil (JCO). In this study, an active heterogeneous CaO catalyst was synthesized from a tropical biodiversity seashells Anadara granosa (A.granosa). The catalytic efficiency of A.granosa CaO was investigated in transesterification of JCO as biodiesel. The A.granosa CaO catalyst was synthesized using 'Calcination - hydration - dehydration' protocol. The spectral characterization of the catalyst were investigated by employing FT-IR, SEM, BET and BJH spectrographic techniques. The experimental design was executed with four reaction parameters that include catalyst concentration (CC), methanol ratio (MR), transesterification time (TT) and reaction temperature (RT). The JCO transesterification reactions as well as impact of reaction parameters on the Jatropha biodiesel yield (JBY) were analyzed. The sufficiency of the experimental results conformed through sequential validation tests, as a result, an average of 96.2% JMY was noted at optimal parametric conditions, CC of 3wt. %, TT of 120 min, MR of 5 mol. and RT of 60 degrees C at a constant agitation speed of 300rpm. An average JMY of 87.6% was resulted from the A.granosa CaO catalyst during their recycling and reuse studies up to third reuse cycle.
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  3. Active Razor Shell CaO Catalyst Synthesis for Jatropha Methyl Ester Production via Optimized Two-Step Transesterification
    Abstract

    Reddy, A. N. R.; Saleh, A. A.; Islam, M. S.; Hamdan, S. 2017. Active Razor Shell CaO Catalyst Synthesis for Jatropha Methyl Ester Production via Optimized Two-Step Transesterification. Journal of Chemistry.

    Calcium based catalysts have been studied as promising heterogeneous catalysts for production of methyl esters via transesterification; however a few were explored on catalyst synthesis with high surface area, less particle size, and Ca leaching analysis. In this work, an active Razor shell CaO with crystalline size of 87.2 nm, S-BET of 92.63m(2)/g, pore diameters of 37.311 nm, and pore volume of 0.613 cc/g was synthesized by a green technique "calcination-hydro aeration-dehydration." Spectrographic techniques TGA/DTA, FTIR, SEM, XRD, BET&BJH, and PSA were employed for characterization and surface morphology of CaO. Two-step transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil was performed to evaluate CaO catalytic activity. A five-factor-five-level, two-block, half factorial, central composite design based response surface method was employed for experimental analysis and optimization of Jatropha methyl ester (JME) yield. The regression model adequacy ascertained thru coefficient of determination (R-2: 95.81%). A JME yield of 98.80% was noted at C (3.10 wt.%), M (54.24mol./mol.%), T (127.87 min), H (51.31 degrees C), and R ( 612 rpm). The amount of Ca leached to JME during 1st and 4th reuse cycles was 1.43 ppm +/- 0.11 and 4.25 ppm +/- 0.21, respectively. Higher leaching of Ca, 6.67 ppm +/- 1.09, was found from the 5th reuse cycle due to higher dispersion of Ca2+; consequently JME yield reduces to 76.40%. The JME fuel properties were studied according to biodiesel standards EN 14214 and comply to use as green biodiesel.
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  4. An economic model for estimating the viability of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L.
    Abstract

    Navarro-Pineda, F. S.; Ponce-Marban, D. V.; Sacramento-Rivero, J. C.; Barahona-Perez, L. F. 2017. An economic model for estimating the viability of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L.. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 92(5) 971-980

    BACKGROUND: At commercial level, the biodiesel production process is well established for many types of feedstock. However, economic feasibility depends on regional fluctuating data, making each case unique. A calculation model to analyze the economic feasibility of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas was developed, along with an analysis of the energetic balance derived from this process.
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  5. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil by simultaneous esterification and transesterification using sulphated zirconia
    Abstract

    Raia, R. Z.; da Silva, L. S.; Marcucci, S. M. P.; Arroyo, P. A. 2017. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil by simultaneous esterification and transesterification using sulphated zirconia. Catalysis Today. 289105-114

    Ethyl esters were synthesized by simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions, using Jatropha curcas L. oil as raw material and sulphated zirconia (SZ) as catalyst. SZ catalysts were synthesized by the precipitation method, and the final pH of each precipitation was 6, 7 and 8 (SZ6, SZ7 and SZ8, respectively). X-ray diffraction showed the presence and intensity of a tetragonal crystal phase, which was associated with acidity and activity of the catalysts. In addition, the BET surface area was directly proportional to the pH of precipitation. During the catalytic tests it was observed that the most acidic sample (SZ8) had the highest catalytic activity for simultaneous esterification and transesterification, resulting in a 59.4% yield of ethyl esters. Furthermore, the catalyst had activity for separate esterification and transesterification reactions, and both were influenced by the mechanism of the simultaneous reactions. It could also be seen that, in reactions at different acidity levels, free fatty acids influenced the reaction mechanism, such that for high acid contents (14.29%), higher ethyl ester yields and faster reaction rates were obtained compared with lower acid contents (2.39%). (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  6. Biodiesel production from Jatropha Curcas oil using strontium-doped CaO/MgO catalyst
    Abstract

    Sudsakorn, K.; Saiwuttikul, S.; Palitsakun, S.; Seubsai, A.; Limtrakul, J. 2017. Biodiesel production from Jatropha Curcas oil using strontium-doped CaO/MgO catalyst. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 5(3) 2845-2852

    The synthesis of methyl ester (ME) as biodiesel from Jatropha oil and MeOH was investigated using CaO/MgO doped with strontium catalyst (Sr2+- CaO/MgO). This catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation method and compared with its uni-or bi-corresponding component catalysts in terms of physical properties and catalytic activities. The results indicated that the Sr2+ dopant played a key role in enhancing the catalytic performance of CaO and MgO components while MgO reduced the overall particle size and improved the catalyst reusability. The synthesized Sr2+-CaO/MgO catalyst was also studied at various transesterification conditions to determine the optimal conditions. The maximum ME content of 99.6% was obtained at 65 degrees C for 2 h and the MeOH-to-oil molar ratio of 9: 1 with the catalyst amount of 5 wt%. At these conditions, the Sr2+- CaO/MgO catalyst could be reused up to four times while maintaining high activity with the ME content higher than 90%.
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  7. Biodiesel production from one-step heterogeneous catalyzed process of Castor oil and Jatropha oil using novel sulphonated phenyl silane montmorillonite catalyst
    Abstract

    Negm, N. A.; Sayed, G. H.; Yehia, F. Z.; Habib, O. I.; Mohamed, E. A. 2017. Biodiesel production from one-step heterogeneous catalyzed process of Castor oil and Jatropha oil using novel sulphonated phenyl silane montmorillonite catalyst. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 234157-163

    The present study describes the preparation of novel modified montmorillonite clay in highly acidic form and its evaluation as a heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel from castor oil and jatropha oil by a one-step catalyzed transesterification reaction. The prepared catalyst was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET surface area and HRTEM. The study showed that the optimized conditions of castor oil transesterification were: 5% catalyst by weight, 1:12 oil to methanol molar ratio, at 60 degrees C for 300 min at 800 rpm; in case of jatropha oil: 5% catalyst by weight, 1:6 oil to methanol ratio, at 110 degrees C for 150 min at 800 rpm. The obtained biodiesels properties were agreed with the ASTM standard specifications. Blending of castor oil and jatropha oil biodiesels with petroleum diesel improved their fuel properties according to engine test parameters. The prepared catalyst exhibited highest activity in the transesterification reactions, and showed good stability during the reaction with a reusability for seven rounds of transesterification without considerable decrease in its activity. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  8. Biometric and biotechnology strategies in Jatropha genetic breeding for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Laviola, B. G.; Rodrigues, E. V.; Teodoro, P. E.; Peixoto, L. D.; Bhering, L. L. 2017. Biometric and biotechnology strategies in Jatropha genetic breeding for biodiesel production. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 76894-904

    Due to shortages of fossil fuels, and the worldwide concern approximately climate change and global warming, biofuels have become an important source of sustainable energy. Several species can be used to produce biofuels such as soybeans (Glycine max), oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.). Therefore, the objective of this paper was to integrate the information available in the literature and report the most promising strategies for genetic and biotechnological progress in Jatropha. Jatropha has become a potential crop to produce biofuel due to the high oil content found in the seeds, which can be transformed into biofuel. Jatropha has an average seed oil content of 35%, and the oil extracted from the seeds has 24.6% crude protein and 47.2% crude fat. Moreover, Jatropha has several agronomic morphological traits that make it a useful crop for biofuel production and animal feed, such as drought tolerance, rapid growth, and ease of propagation. It can be grown at almost any altitude, and plants can produce for more than 50 years. Additionally, Jatropha oil has good stability to oxidation, low viscosity, a low pour-point, which makes Jatropha oil better than soybean or palm oil. This paper presented an innovative and comprehensive literature review on all agronomic aspects of Jatropha, and the strategies that have been used to select superior genotypes for Jatropha breeding. Several important traits of Jatropha are affected by the environment and new strategies to select superior genotypes are required by breeders. Therefore, genomic wide selection associated with recurrent selection can be an appropriate strategy for Jatropha breeding.
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  9. Calculation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Jatropha Oil and Jatropha Biodiesel as Alternative Fuels for Electricity Production in Cote d'Ivoire
    Abstract

    Atta, P. A.; N'guessan, Y.; Morin, C.; Voirol, A. J.; Descombes, G. 2017. Calculation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Jatropha Oil and Jatropha Biodiesel as Alternative Fuels for Electricity Production in Cote d'Ivoire. Technologies and Materials for Renewable Energy, Environment and Sustainability (Tmrees16). 1814

    The electricity in Cote d'Ivoire is mainly produced from fossil energy sources. This causes damages on environment due to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The aim of this paper is to calculate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of jatropha oil and jatropha biodiesel as alternative fuels for electricity production in Cote d'Ivoire by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The functional unit in this LCA is defined as 1 kWh of electricity produced by the combustion of jatropha oil or jatropha biodiesel in the engine of a generator. Two scenarios, called short chain and long chain, were examined in this LCA. The results show that 0.132 kg CO2 equivalent is emitted for the scenario 1 with jatropha oil as an alternative fuel against 0.6376 kg CO2 equivalent for the scenario 2 with jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel. An 87 % reduction of kg CO2 equivalent is observed in scenario 1 and a 37 % reduction of kg CO2 equivalent is observed in the scenario 2, when compared with a Diesel fuel.
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  10. Caprolactam-Based Bronsted Acidic Ionic Liquids for Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Oil
    Abstract

    Luo, H.; Yin, H.; Wang, R.; Fan, W. Y.; Nan, G. Z. 2017. Caprolactam-Based Bronsted Acidic Ionic Liquids for Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Oil. Catalysts. 7(4)

    Caprolactam-based ionic liquids show many advantages, such as the lower toxicity, lower cost, and a simple preparation process. In this work, caprolactam-based ionic liquids were prepared and adopted as catalysts for the transesterification of Jatropha oil with methanol. The results demonstrated that the SO3H-functional caprolactam-based ionic liquids have higher catalytic activity than those of the caprolactam-based ionic liquids without sulfonic group or the SO3H-functional pyridine -based ionic liquids, attributed to their stronger Bronsted acidity. By optimizing the reaction parameter, the biodiesel yield catalyzed by 1-(4-sulfonic group) butylcaprolactamium hydrogen sulfate ([HSO3-bCPL][HSO4]) could reach above 95% at 140 degrees C for 3 h. Furthermore, the ionic liquid had a good reusability.
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  11. Catalytic production of Jatropha biodiesel and hydrogen with magnetic carbonaceous acid and base synthesized from Jatropha hulls
    Abstract

    Zhang, F.; Tian, X. F.; Fang, Z.; Shah, M.; Wang, Y. T.; Jiang, W.; Yao, M. 2017. Catalytic production of Jatropha biodiesel and hydrogen with magnetic carbonaceous acid and base synthesized from Jatropha hulls. Energy Conversion and Management. 142107-116

    Magnetic carbonaceous solid acid (C-SO3H@Fe/JHC) and base (Na2SiO3@Ni/JRC) catalysts were synthesized by loading active groups on the carbonaceous supporters derived from Jatropha-hull hydrolysate and hydrolysis residue. Characterization of their morphology, magnetic saturation, functional groups and total acid/base contents were performed by various techniques. Additional acidic functional groups that formed with Jatropha-hull hydrolysate contributed to the high acidity of C-SO3H@Fe/JHC catalyst for the pretreatment (esterification) of crude Jatropha oil with high acid values (AV). The AV of esterified Jatropha oil dropped down from 17.2 to 1.3 mg KOH/g, achieving a high biodiesel yield of 96.7% after subsequent transesterification reaction with Na2SiO3@Ni/JRC base that was cycled at least 3 times with little loss of catalysis activity. Both solid acid and base catalysts were easily recovered by magnetic force with average recovery yields of 903 wt% and 86.7%, respectively. After washed by ethanol, the catalysts were cycled for 10 times. The AV of esterified oil and biodiesel yield using the recycled catalysts remained below 2.0 mg KOH/g and above 85%, respectively. The existence of catalyst ions and residual methanol contributed to high H-2 yield (81.0%) and high purity (81.7%) in the hydrothermal gasification of glycerol by-product using the deactivated solid base. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  12. Comprehensive near infrared study of Jatropha oil esterification with ethanol for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    de Oliveira, A. D.; de Sa, A. F.; Pimentel, M. F.; Pacheco, J. G. A.; Pereira, C. F.; Larrechi, M. S. 2017. Comprehensive near infrared study of Jatropha oil esterification with ethanol for biodiesel production. Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 17056-64

    This work presents a comprehensive near infrared study for in-line monitoring of the esterification reaction of high acid oils, such as Jatropha curcas oil, using ethanol. Parallel reactions involved in the process were carried out to select a spectral region that characterizes the evolution of the esterification reaction. Using absorbance intensities at 5176 cm(-1), the conversion and kinetic behaviors of the esterification reaction were estimated. This method was applied to evaluate the influence of temperature and catalyst concentration on the estimates of initial reaction rate and ester conversion as responses to a 2(2) factorial experimental design. Employment of an alcohol/oil ratio of 16:1, catalyst concentration of 1.5% w/w, and temperatures at 65 degrees C or 75 degrees C, made it possible to reduce the initial acidity from 18% to 1.3% w/w, which is suitable for transesterification of high free fatty acid oils for biodiesel production. Using the proposed analytical method in the esterification reaction of raw materials with high free fatty acid content for biodiesel makes the monitoring process inexpensive, fast, simple, and practical. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  13. Enhanced biodiesel production from Jatropha oil using calcined waste animal bones as catalyst
    Abstract

    Nisar, J.; Razaq, R.; Farooq, M.; Iqbal, M.; Khan, R. A.; Sayed, M.; Shah, A.; Rahman, I. U. 2017. Enhanced biodiesel production from Jatropha oil using calcined waste animal bones as catalyst. Renewable Energy. 101111-119

    This study is focused on the investigation of animal bones modified with potassium hydroxide (KOH) as heterogeneous solid base catalyst for transesterification of non-edible Jatropha oil. The prepared catalyst was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The prepared catalyst had a high catalytic activity for transesterification. In addition, the catalyst had excellent stability, there by having potential use as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil with a high free fatty acid (FFA) yield. The experimental results revealed the optimal parametric conditions viz. methanol/oil molar ratio, 9:1, calcination temperature, 900 degrees C and catalyst concentration, 6.0 wt % of oil corresponding to a maximum fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield of 96.1% at temperature of 70 +/- 3 degrees C in reaction time of 3 h. Reusability results of the prepared catalyst confirmed that it could be reutilized up to 4 times without losing much activity, thus giving birth to a potentially applicable possibility in biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  14. Investigation of carbon-based solid acid catalyst from Jatropha curcas biomass in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mardhiah, H. H.; Ong, H. C.; Masjuki, H. H.; Lim, S.; Pang, Y. L. 2017. Investigation of carbon-based solid acid catalyst from Jatropha curcas biomass in biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management. 14410-17

    In this study, a carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared using the de-oiled Jatropha curcas (JC) seed cake waste. The catalyst was consequently used to esterify the JC oil in order to lower the high free fatty acid content (FFA) to an acceptable level (< 4 mg KOH g(-1)) for biodiesel production. The chemical and physical properties of the catalyst were characterized using a variety of techniques. The conversion of FFA reached 99.13% under optimum conditions of 12:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 7.5 wt% catalyst loading, 60 min reaction time and 60 degrees C reaction temperature at 350 rpm. The catalyst was also determined to outperform the conventionally used sulfuric acid catalyst in terms of reaction time needed to achieve the highest conversion yield. The high catalytic ability of the catalyst was associated with the high acid site density formed in the catalyst which was due to the high porosity and large pore size of the carbon framework of the catalyst. The hydrophobic nature of the catalyst also contributed to the stability of the catalyst in which it can be re-used up until the 4th cycle. The recyclability of the catalyst and its cheap feedstock makes the overall process much simpler, cost-efficient and environment-friendly. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  15. Kinetics of amidation of free fatty acids in jatropha oil as a for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Das, H. P.; Neeharika, T. S. V. R.; Sailu, C.; Srikanth, V.; Kumar, T. P.; Rani, K. N. P. 2017. Kinetics of amidation of free fatty acids in jatropha oil as a for biodiesel production. Fuel. 196169-177

    Owing to the growing demand for transportation fuel, enormous efforts are being carried on development of alternate fuels mainly biodiesel from various renewable sources. Different pretreatment methods are adopted for the preparation of biodiesel, major one of the them is the removal of free fatty acids (FFA). Literature reveals esterification as an essential unit process for the reduction of FFA by conversion into its respective esters. In this study, FFA present in jatropha oil were reduced by amidation reaction using monoethanolamine for use in biodiesel. The by-product obtained is fatty acid amide. The fatty acid amide obtained was separated from the feedstock by filtration or centrifugation. This pre-treated oil can be directly transesterified for the preparation of biodiesel without undergoing any process step for removal of unreacted amine. Also, the reaction kinetics of jatropha oil with monoethanolamine was studied with batch experiments at 34-64 degrees C and at molar ratios of FFA-monoethanolamine varying from 1:0.5 to 1:2 with different speeds of agitation. Based on the experimental results, 1:1.5 FFA-monoethanolamine molar ratio at 34 degrees C and 550 rpm gave maximum reduction in free fatty acids. The effect of reaction conditions such as temperature and molar ratio on the kinetics has been studied. Observed reaction rate data was fitted to the regression technique. Estimated kinetic model reaction rate constants and equilibrium constant were fitted to the Arrhenius and van't Hoff equations respectively. The deacidified jatropha oil was transesterified by conventional method and was characterized for its physico-chemical properties. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  16. Kinetics Study of Jatropha Oil Esterification with Ethanol in the Presence of Tin (II) Chloride Catalyst for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kusumaningtyas, R. D.; Ratrianti, N.; Purnamasari, I.; Budiman, A. 2017. Kinetics Study of Jatropha Oil Esterification with Ethanol in the Presence of Tin (II) Chloride Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. International Conference on Engineering, Science and Nanotechnology 2016 (Icesnano 2016). 1788

    Jatropha oil is one of the promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Jatropha oil is non-edible oil hence utilization of this oil would not compete with the needs of food. However, crude jatropha oil usually has high free fatty acid (FFA) content. Due to this fact, direct alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of crude jatropha oil for biodiesel production cannot be performed. FFA in crude jatropha oil will react with a base catalyst, resulting in soap as by product and hindering methyl ester (biodiesel) production. Therefore, prior to a transesterification reaction, it is crucial to run a pretreatment step of jatropha oil which can lower the FFA content in the oil. In this work, the pretreatment process was conducted through the esterification reaction of FFA contained in crude jatropha oil with ethanol over tin (II) chloride catalyst to reduce the acid value of the feedstock. The feedstock was Indonesia crude jatropha oil containing 12.03% of FFA. The esterification reaction was carried out in a batch reactor with a molar ratio of FFA to ethanol was 1: 60 and total reaction time was 180 minutes. Tin (II) chloride catalyst was varied at 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% wt, whereas the effect of the reaction temperature was studied at 35, 34, 55, and 65 degrees C. The best reaction conversion was 71.55%, achieved at the following condition: a reaction temperature of 65 degrees C, catalyst concentration of 10% wt, the reaction time of 180 min, and the molar ratio of FFA to ethanol was 1: 60. Kinetics study was also conducted in this work. It was found that esterification reaction of jatropha oil FFA with ethanol catalyzed by tin(II) chloride fitted the first-order pseudohomogeneous kinetics model. It was also revealed that the frequency factor (A) and the activation energy (Ea) were 4.3864 x 10(6) min(-1) and 56.2513 kJ/mole, respectively.
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  17. Optimisation of Process Parameter Conditions for Biodiesel Production by Reactive Extraction of Jatropha Seeds
    Abstract

    Supardan, M. D.; Fahrizal; Moulana, R.; Safrida, D.; Satriana; Mustapha, W. A. W. 2017. Optimisation of Process Parameter Conditions for Biodiesel Production by Reactive Extraction of Jatropha Seeds. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology. 12(3) 847-859

    Biodiesel can be produced by reactive extraction of jatropha seeds to reduce the cost and processing time associated with conventional methods. In this study, the relationship between various parameters of reactive extraction of jatropha seeds is investigated. The effect of processing time, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and hexane to oil weight ratios are examined to determine the best performance for biodiesel yield. Response surface methodology was used to statistically evaluate and optimise the process parameter conditions. It was found that the biodiesel production achieved an optimum biodiesel yield of 73.7% under the following conditions: processing time of 160 min, moisture content of jatropha seeds of 1% and hexane to oil weight ratio of 7.2.
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  18. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of Jatropha oil with microwave heating
    Abstract

    Lin, J. J.; Chen, Y. W. 2017. Production of biodiesel by transesterification of Jatropha oil with microwave heating. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 7543-50

    Biodiesel has attracted attention due to energy crisis and CO2 issue. Using an efficient processing technology to prepare biodiesel from Jatropha seed oil is a competitive way to produce biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained by transesterification reaction using KOH catalyst under microwave radiation in this study. Since the side reactions occur when water and free fatty acids (FFA) exist, a pretreatment is needed. The pre-esterification was used to reduce the amount of FFA. The optimum pre-esterification reaction conditions were 70 C-omicron, 12 wt% methanol, 1 wt% sulfuric acid, and 2 h reaction time. To accelerate the reaction rate of transesterification, microwave radiation was used. The optimum reaction conditions in microwave batch reactor were the molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1: 6, 1 wt% KOH, 200 rpm, and 65 C-omicron. The conversion of the oil was 90% after 10 s reaction time. The reaction rate in microwave reactor was much faster than that by the conventional heating method. The penetration length of microwave in Jatropha seed oil was calculated to be 27 cm. A large scale process was developed by using a continuous microwave reactor. This process has high conversion in a very short reaction time under mild reaction conditions. (C) 2017 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  19. Steam Deacidification of High Free Fatty Acid in Jatropha Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kombe, G. G.; Temu, A. K. 2017. Steam Deacidification of High Free Fatty Acid in Jatropha Oil for Biodiesel Production. Energy & Fuels. 31(6) 6206-6210

    Although non-edible oil feedstocks are available at a lower price than edible oil feedstocks, their high free fatty acid (FFA) content hinders their direct utilization in the production of biodiesel by alkali-catalyzed transesterification. In this study, the steam deacidification process, has been employed in reducing the FFA of crude Jatropha oil before alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The response surface methodology (RSM) established on the central composite design (CCD) was used to model and optimize the steam deacidification efficiency under two process variables, namely, temperature and amount of steam. The optimum conditions for deacidification efficiency of 98.74% were found to be the temperature of 235 degrees C and the amount of steam of 3.4% (w/w) of the feedstock. These conditions reduce the high FFA of crude Jatropha oil from 4.54 to 0.09%, which is below 1% recommended for base-catalyzed transesterification. The deacidified crude Jatropha oil was then transesterified using a homogeneous base catalyst and gave a conversion of 97.45%. The tested fuel properties of biodiesel, such as viscosity at 40 degrees C, acid value, gross calorific value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content, and density at 15 degrees C, were found to be comparable to those of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards.
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  20. Synthesis of magnetic carbonaceous acids derived from hydrolysates of Jatropha hulls for catalytic biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zhang, F.; Tian, X. F.; Shah, M.; Yang, W. J. 2017. Synthesis of magnetic carbonaceous acids derived from hydrolysates of Jatropha hulls for catalytic biodiesel production. Rsc Advances. 7(19) 11403-11413

    A series of magnetic carbonaceous acids (JHC-T-1-T-2-SO3H@Fe/Fe3O4) were synthesized by the assembly of nano-Fe3O4 magnetic cores (particle size < 20 nm) and carbon coatings derived fromhydrolysates of Jatropha hulls. A magnetic JHC-12-600-SO3H@Fe/Fe3O4 catalyst with a total acid content of 2.69 mmol g(-1) and a magnetic saturation of 40.3 A m(2) kg(-1) was successfully prepared via a sequence of hydrothermal precipitation, pyrolytic carbonization, and finally sulfonation with H2SO4. The catalyst was directly used for the production of biodiesel from Jatropha crude oil with an acid value (AV) of 17.2 mg KOH per g, and the optimized conditions (180 degrees C for 7.5 h with a molar ratio of methanol/oil of 18/1 and a catalyst loading of 7.5 wt%) were determined by single-factor tests. An average biodiesel yield of 95.9% was achieved with a recovery rate of 94.3% after 5 reaction cycles in a 5 L batch reactor for testing the feasibility of the catalyst for large-scale use. This study demonstrates an alternative green approach to fully utilizing waste biomass from energy plants in the catalytic synthesis of Jatropha biodiesel with high efficiency.
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  21. Ultrasonic-assisted reactive-extraction is a fast and easy method for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oilseeds
    Abstract

    Kumar, G. 2017. Ultrasonic-assisted reactive-extraction is a fast and easy method for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oilseeds. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 37634-639

    The alkyl ester of vegetable oil represents as an alternative fuel for diesel engines which is to reduce the cost of biodiesel by increasing the efficiency of biodiesel production by single step reaction i.e. production of biodiesel by combing extraction of oil from oilseed and reaction of extract with alcohol by using ultra-sonication. This process is called ultrasonic reactive -extraction. It consists of the investigation of the optimum conditions i.e. seed size >1-<2, molar ratio oilseed to methanol 1:100, catalyst concentration 1.5 wt % of oilseed, reaction time 20 min and ultrasonic amplitude 50%, cycle 0.3 s gives the maximum conversion. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  22. A new approach in maximizing and direct utilization of whole Jatropha curcas L. kernels in biodiesel production - Technological improvement
    Abstract

    Go, A. W.; Sutanto, S.; Zullaikah, S.; Ismadji, S.; Ju, Y. H. 2016. A new approach in maximizing and direct utilization of whole Jatropha curcas L. kernels in biodiesel production - Technological improvement. Renewable Energy. 85759-765

    The direct (trans)esterification of whole Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) kernels in subcritical solvent mixture of water, methanol and acetic acid was explored. A high fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield of 96.56% could be achieved at a solvent (water: acetic acid: methanol = 1:5:15, v/v/v) to solid ratio of 7 cm(3) g(-1). The reaction mixture was pressurize with carbon dioxide and reacted for 1 h at 523 K and 12.5 MPa. Qualitative tests on the recovered polar fractions of the product were found to have radical scavenging activities. The characteristics of the spent kernel residues were also studied. The method employed in this study provides an alternative approach to better utilize JCL kernels and cut down the number of production steps. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  23. A novel hybrid catalyst for the esterification of high FFA in Jatropha oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mushtaq, M.; Tan, I. M.; Sagir, M.; Tahir, M. S.; Pervaiz, M. 2016. A novel hybrid catalyst for the esterification of high FFA in Jatropha oil for biodiesel production. Grasas Y Aceites. 67(3)

    The synthesis and application of a hybrid catalyst for the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) in Jatropha oil is reported. Three catalysts, namely silica sulfuric acid, silica supported boron trifluoride and a combination of the two in the weight ratio of 1:1, the hybrid catalyst, were investigated. Jatropha oil samples with a wide range of FFA values i.e. 6.64 to 45.64% were prepared and utilized for the experimental work. This study revealed that silica sulfuric acid and silica supported boron trifluoride were not very effective when used independently. However, a strong synergistic effect was noted in the catalytic activity of the hybrid catalyst which reduced the FFA value from 45.64 to 0.903% with a conversion efficiency of 98%. Reusability of the catalyst was also tested and the results were promising in up to three cycles of use when used with lower amounts of FFA (6.64%) in the oil. Under the influence of the catalyst, the reaction was found to follow first order kinetics. Activation energy was calculated to be 45.42 KJ.mol(-1) for 2 wt.% of hybrid catalyst. The products were analyzed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic techniques and the results are reported.
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  24. Analysis of optimal conditions for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil in supercritical methanol: Quantification of thermal decomposition degree and analysis of FAMEs
    Abstract

    Salar-Garcia, M. J.; Ortiz-Martinez, V. M.; Olivares-Carrillo, P.; Quesada-Medina, J.; de los Rios, A. P.; Hernandez-Fernandez, F. J. 2016. Analysis of optimal conditions for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil in supercritical methanol: Quantification of thermal decomposition degree and analysis of FAMEs. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 1121-6

    Recent years have seen great efforts made to optimise the production of biodiesel as an alternative to fossil fuel. This study looks at the optimal conditions for producing second generation biodiesel in supercritical methanol from Jatropha oil. Triglyceride conversion and the yield of monoglycerides, diglycerides and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are analysed for different ranges of temperature and time. The maximum conversion of triglycerides (100 wt%) and maximum yield of FAMEs (99.5 mol%) were achieved at 325 degrees C with a reaction time of 90 min. The thermal decomposition of the biodiesel produced was greatest (24.16%) at 350 degrees C and 90 min. Quantification of individual methyl esters showed that the fatty acid chains affected by temperature were those of oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, a lineal regression model was applied to predict the effect of temperature on the biodiesel produced. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  25. Biodiesel production from crude jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis in aqueous medium
    Abstract

    Rodrigues, J.; Perrier, V.; Lecomte, J.; Dubreucq, E.; Ferreira-Dias, S. 2016. Biodiesel production from crude jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis in aqueous medium. Bioresource Technology. 2181224-1229

    The lipase/acyltransferase from Candida parapsilosis (CpLIP2) immobilized on two synthetic resins (Accurel MP 1000 and Lewatit VP OC 1600) was used as catalyst for the production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) by transesterification of jatropha oil with methanol, in a lipid/aqueous system. The oil was dispersed in a buffer solution (pH 6.5) containing methanol in excess (2 M in the biphasic system; molar ratio methanol/acyl chains 2: 1). Transesterification was carried out at 30 degrees C, under magnetic stirring, using 10% (w/w) of immobilized enzyme in relation to oil. The maximum FAME yields were attained after 8 h reaction time: 80.5% and 93.8%, when CpLIP2 immobilized on Accurel MP 1000 or on Lewatit VP OC 1600 were used, respectively. CpLIP2 on both Accurel MP 1000 and Lewatit VP OC 1600 showed high operational stability along 5 consecutive 8 h batches. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  26. Biodiesel production from crude Jatropha oil catalyzed by non-commercial immobilized heterologous Rhizopus oryzae and Carica papaya lipases
    Abstract

    Rodrigues, J.; Canet, A.; Rivera, I.; Osorio, N. M.; Sandoval, G.; Valero, F.; Ferreira-Dias, S. 2016. Biodiesel production from crude Jatropha oil catalyzed by non-commercial immobilized heterologous Rhizopus oryzae and Carica papaya lipases. Bioresource Technology. 21388-95

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of biodiesel production by transesterification of Jatropha oil with methanol, catalyzed by non-commercial sn-1,3-regioselective lipases. Using these lipases, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and monoacylglycerols are produced, avoiding the formation of glycerol as byproduct. Heterologous Rhizopus oryzae lipase (rROL) immobilized on different synthetic resins and Carica papaya lipase (rCPL) immobilized on Lewatit VP OC 1600 were tested. Reactions were performed at 30 degrees C, with seven stepwise methanol additions.
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  27. Biodiesel Production from Crude Jatropha Oil using a Highly Active Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst by Optimizing Transesterification Reaction Parameters
    Abstract

    Reddy, A. N. R.; Saleh, A. A.; Islam, M. S.; Hamdan, S.; Maleque, M. A. 2016. Biodiesel Production from Crude Jatropha Oil using a Highly Active Heterogeneous Nanocatalyst by Optimizing Transesterification Reaction Parameters. Energy & Fuels. 30(1) 334-343

    Various heterogeneous catalysts are often used to produce biodiesel from non-edible crude oils. In this study a highly active heterogeneous calcium oxide (CaO) nanocatalyst with a diameter and surface area of 66 +/- 3 nm and 90.61 m2/g, respectively, was synthesized from Polymedosa erosa (P. erosa) seashells through a calcination-hydration-dehydration technique. The nano-CaO catalysis impact was investigated in a two-step transesterification of triglycerides from crude Jatropha oil as a biodiesel along with other reaction parameters such as catalyst ratio, reaction time, and methanol to oil ratio. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller spectrographic techniques were utilized to evaluate the CaO nanocatalyst spectral and structural characteristics. The effect of the transesterification parameters on reaction kinetics and Jatropha biodiesel (JB) yield were analyzed by employing a three-factor-five-level response surface methodology model based on a full factorial, two-block, central composite design. The adequacy of the predicted model was verified, and a 98.54% JB yield was reported at optimal parametric conditions, i.e., 0.02:1 (w/w) catalyst ratio, 133.1 min reaction time, and 5.15:1 mol/mol of methanol to the pretreated oil. An average of 95.8% JB yield was obtained from the catalyst reusability up to the sixth cycle. Fuel property test results of JB were found to be highly commensurate with the biodiesel standard EN 14214.
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  28. Biodiesel production from degummed Jatropha curcas oil using constant-temperature ultrasonic water bath
    Abstract

    Jogi, R.; Murthy, Y. V. V. S.; Satyanarayana, M. R. S.; Rao, T. N.; Javed, S. 2016. Biodiesel production from degummed Jatropha curcas oil using constant-temperature ultrasonic water bath. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(17) 2610-2616

    This paper studied tri-basic potassium phosphate for transesterification process with degummed crude Jatropha curcas oil using constant-temperature, ultrasonic water bath generating low-intensity pulses with good energy distribution converting the maximum amount of biodiesel. Tri-basic potassium phosphate is suitable for J. curcas oil when the free fatty acid (FFA) content is less than 2%. The optimal reaction levels are catalyst 1.0 wt%, temperature of 50 degrees C, and methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 12:1. The yield is 98% after 45 min, at 20 kHz frequency. The catalytic activity is found similar to potassium hydroxide and the catalyst solubility is only 4.27 ppm.
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  29. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas Oil and Palm Oil by Using Undirect Ultrasonic Assisted
    Abstract

    Widayat; Satriadi, H.; Baharsyah, A.; Supriyandi 2016. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas Oil and Palm Oil by Using Undirect Ultrasonic Assisted. 2016 4th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (Icseea). 127-131

    The limitation of unrenewable energy required alternative renewable energy and environmental friendly. Biodiesel as one renewable energy that production from vegetable oil. The main reactions are on biodiesel production esterification and transesterification. Nevertheless, this reaction is slow, requires a lot of alcohol and a catalyst, the reaction has not been perfect. a mixing of vegetable that contain jatropha curcas oil and palm oil as feedstock. The objective of this research to optimumize of triglyceride conversion for three variable; include weight ratio jatropha curcas oil to palm oil catalyst concentration and molar ratio of methanol to oil. The experiments were carried out with ultrasonic undirect assisted.. The operation condition was included ultrasonic frequency of 40 kHz and temperature of 60 degrees C. The results showed that optimum condition was obtained in weight ratio jatropha and palm oil 2:1, 1.5 wt% catalyst, and mole ratio of 6:1 with a mixture of methanol-oil and conversion is 95.341%, where product are qualified SNI and ASTM.
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  30. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil in a closed system
    Abstract

    Shaaban, W.; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F.; Ohshima, M. 2016. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil in a closed system. 2016 5th International Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering (Iccpe 2016). 69

    The use of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is becoming increasingly popular nowadays due to global energy shortage. The interest in using Jatropha as a non-edible oil feedstock is rapidly growing. Biodiesel produced from crude Jatropha oil with NaOH as a catalyst is investigated. Transesterification by methanol is carried out in a closed vessel as a batch system. Factors affecting the process which included the reaction temperature and pressure, reaction time, the molar ratio of methanol to oil and catalyst amount are investigated. The maximum conversion ratio of methyl ester yield of 97.7% was recorded under the conditions of 65 degrees C, 1% (by mass) NaOH of the oil mass and 6:1 methanol to oil ratio.
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  31. Biodiesel production from soybean and Jatropha oils using cesium impregnated sodium zirconate as a heterogeneous base catalyst
    Abstract

    Torres-Rodriguez, D. A.; Romero-Ibarra, I. C.; Ibarra, I. A.; Pfeiffer, H. 2016. Biodiesel production from soybean and Jatropha oils using cesium impregnated sodium zirconate as a heterogeneous base catalyst. Renewable Energy. 93323-331

    Cesium modified sodium zirconate (Cs-Na2ZrO3) was prepared by ionic exchange from sodium zirconate (Na2ZrO3), which was synthesized via a solid state reaction. Both ceramics, i.e., pristine Na2ZrO3 and the Cs-Na2ZrO3, were used as basic heterogeneous catalysts in biodiesel production. Soybean and Jatropha oils were used as triglyceride sources for transesterification reactions. Parameters, such as catalyst concentration (between 0.5 and 3 wt%), reaction time, different methanol/vegetable oil molar ratios, and temperature of the reaction, were evaluated. The cesium cation influence was evaluated from the basic transesterification reactivity. The results showed that the introduction of cesium significantly modified the catalytic activity in biodiesel production. Cs enhanced the reaction kinetics in obtaining biodiesel and reduced the reaction time in comparison with pristine Na2ZrO3. The results showed that Cs-Na2ZrO3 as a basic heterogeneous catalyst exhibited the best fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) conversion for soybean oil (98.8%) at 1 wt%, 30:1 methanol/oil ratio, 65 degrees C, and 15 min. The best conditions for Jatropha oil (90.8%) were 3 wt%, 15:1 methanol/oil ratio, 65 degrees C, and 1 h. The impregnation of Na2ZrO3 with cesium represents a very exciting alternative heterogeneous base catalyst for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  32. Biophysicochemical evaluation and micropropagation study of Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Verma, K. C.; Verma, S. K.; Bains, K. 2016. Biophysicochemical evaluation and micropropagation study of Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis for biodiesel production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(6) 797-804

    The upcoming energy sources of Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis promise to mitigate the energy crisis and environmental pollution belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. Both of them have been researched in terms of availability, cost, and biochemical parameters. The seed oils of various jatropha and castor biotypes were screened out and evaluated for their physiochemical parameters viz. oil content (34-49%), biodiesel yield (30-81%), density (0.875-0.971 g/cm(3)), viscosity (0.6032-2.004 mm(3)/s), iodine value (75-450.45 mg/g), free fatty acid value (0.986-3.400 mg/g), saponification value (59.29-93.79 mg/g), flash point (133-218 degrees C), fire point (163-262 degrees C), fatty acid composition, and ash content (0.065-0.398%), and were estimated for comparison between jatropha and castor biotypes. Various combinations of auxins with cytokinins were used for a regeneration study. The best shoot regeneration (70%) was observed in MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.5 ppm) and BAP (2.5 ppm). Root induction (95%) was successfully obtained in plane MS. Acclimatization and hardening was quite successful with a survival rate of 70%.
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  33. Determinants of smallholder farmers' continuous adoption of Jatropha as raw material for biodiesel production: a proposed model for Nigeria
    Abstract

    Mas'ud, A. 2016. Determinants of smallholder farmers' continuous adoption of Jatropha as raw material for biodiesel production: a proposed model for Nigeria. Biofuels-UK. 7(5) 549-557

    Despite the introduction of the Nigerian Biofuel Policy and Incentive in 2007, little is known about the impact of that policy for biodiesel development in Nigeria. The objective of this study is to explore the determinants of smallholder farmers' continued adoption of Jatropha as raw materials for biodiesel development in northern Nigeria, with Jigawa State as an area of study. Building on the literature, this paper proposes a model for Nigeria on determinants of smallholder farmers' continued adoption of Jatropha as raw material for biodiesel production. A pilot testing using few samples in Jigawa state revealed that the determinants composed in the proposed model are likely to influence farmers' decision on continued adoption of Jatropha as a raw material for biodiesel production. The proposed model if further validated using larger survey samples will guide policymakers towards the enhancement of farmers' participation and retention in the Jatropha project for biodiesel raw materials production. As a byproduct, implementing research findings from the larger sample will be employment generation, poverty reduction, combating desert encroachment, economic diversification to renewable energy sources and electricity generation using biodiesel.
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  34. Dual-stage methodology for production, characterization, and storage stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel
    Abstract

    do Nascimento, M. R. F.; Aranda, D. A. G.; Fai, A. E. C.; Silveira, S. D.; Cruz, Y. R.; Soares, F. S.; Cavalcanti, E. H. D. 2016. Dual-stage methodology for production, characterization, and storage stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 6(2) 209-218

    The increasing demand for energy and environmental consciousness has encouraged a considerable amount of research effort to synthesize alternative fuels from renewable resources. Biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines has gained international attention. This study aimed to produce biodiesel using a dual-stage methodology from Jatropha curcas oil, a nonedible raw material, esterification followed by alkaline transesterification method. The physical and chemical determinations were carried out at such as acidity as high as 9.0 mg KOH g(-1). Therefore, esterification was first conducted with decreasing acidity to a suitable value of 1.75 mg KOH g(-1) which is liable to subsequent transesterification stage. The chromatographic data shows that the oil fatty acids present in greatest quantity are 47.85 % oleic (C18:1) and 33.28 % linoleic (C18:2), with suitable lipids for biodiesel production. From the results obtained through the characterization of J. curcas biodiesel, it was noted that this had to be a promising oilseed for biodiesel production, with a yield of 97.5 % in the esterification reaction and 84.4 % in transesterification reaction, and obtained an ester content of 98.5 % (w/w). The oxidative stability was raised to 6.17 h with the addition of 2000 ppm of antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). During the storage period, the sample of J. curcas biodiesel showed a decrease in oxidative stability and an increase in water content with time.
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  35. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol
    Abstract

    Lau, P. C.; Kwong, T. L.; Yung, K. F. 2016. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol. Scientific Reports. 6

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is reported the first time here as a robust heterogeneous catalyst that exhibited over 90% conversion by using aqueous ethanol containing 80 wt.% of water in the production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE). The employment of 95 wt.% ethanol with respect to water could achieve 99.7% feedstock conversion in 6 hours under the optimal reaction conditions: reaction temperature (150 degrees C), feedstock-to-ethanol molar ratio (1:20) and catalyst loading (6 wt.%). Commercially available low grade crude bioethanol with the presence of impurities like sugars were applied which demonstrated remarkable catalytic activity in 24 hours. The high water tolerance of MnGly towards biodiesel production could eventually simplify the purification of bioethanol that consumes less energy and production cost.
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  36. Emissions Study and Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Production from Jatropha Curcas Oil Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Wu, Y. P. G.; Lin, Y. F.; Chang, S. H. 2016. Emissions Study and Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Production from Jatropha Curcas Oil Biodiesel. Aerosol and Air Quality Research. 16(5) 1222-1233

    The goal of this study was to analyse the combustion characteristics and emissions of Jatropha curcas biodiesel (JCB) when run in a diesel engine. Jatropha curcas oil was used to produce Jatropha curcas biodiesel (JCB) through a transesterification process. The major fuel properties of JCB, including the acid value, kinematic viscosity, flash point, gross heating value, and iodine value, were determined and compared with that of soybean biodiesel (SBM), sunflower seed biodiesel (SFM), mackerel fish oil biodiesel (MB), and premium diesel (D). JCB had a higher density, acid value, kinematic viscosity, iodine value and flash point, but a lower gross heating value, than D. JCB was then used to analyze combustion characteristics, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, SO2, and particulate matter (PM), under varied engine speeds and varied engine loads. The experimental results show CO2 concentration increased with increasing engine loads for all fuels. Engine trials on D exhibited better combustion efficiency at lower engine loads (0 kW-4 kW) but engine trials on JCB exhibited better combustion efficiency for higher engine loads (5 kW-8 kW). JCB emitted more NO and NOx on a loaded engine. Engine trials on JCB emitted higher PM concentration when the engine was not loaded, while engine trials on MB produced higher PM concentration when the engine was loaded. The estimated CO2 emissions for JCB, MB, and D are 9221.3, 9617.2, and 10185.0 g (gal fuel)(-1), respectively.
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  37. Ethyl biodiesel production from non-edible oils of Balanites aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, and Jatropha curcas seeds - Laboratory scale development
    Abstract

    Nitiema-Yefanova, S.; Coniglio, L.; Schneider, R.; Nebie, R. H. C.; Bonzi-Coulibaly, Y. L. 2016. Ethyl biodiesel production from non-edible oils of Balanites aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, and Jatropha curcas seeds - Laboratory scale development. Renewable Energy. 96881-890

    By starting first at the laboratory scale, optimal operating conditions for the reaction unit aimed at producing ethyl biodiesels from non-edible vegetable oils (NEVO) were determined with the ultimate objective of proposing an on-farm processing technology that should be sustainable for emerging countries. Three NEVO widely available in Burkina Faso were selected: Balanites aegyptiaca (BA), Azadirachta indica (AI), and Jatropha curcas (JC) oils. Their conversion to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) was conducted via a two-stage procedure under atmospheric pressure: an alkali-catalyzed ethanolysis at ambient temperature for the BA and AI oils (leading to 93 and 87 wt.% FAEE respectively) and an acid-catalyzed ethanolysis at the normal boiling of the alcohol for the JC oil (leading to 89 wt.% FAEE). Based on the intermediate addition of glycerol at ambient temperature, the two-stage procedure combines chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and phase equilibrium phenomena. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  38. Fate of toxic phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas oil by a biodiesel fuel production process
    Abstract

    Huy, D. H.; Imamura, K.; Thanh, L. T.; Luu, P. D.; Truong, H. T.; Le, H. T. N.; Van Luu, B.; Takenaka, N.; Maeda, Y. 2016. Fate of toxic phorbol esters in Jatropha curcas oil by a biodiesel fuel production process. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 18(7) 2305-2314

    Biodiesel fuel (BDF) is an important alternative fuel because of the carbon neutral nature of biomass and the exhaustion of fossil fuel resources. Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) produced from J. curcas seeds contains toxic phorbol esters that can cause cancer. The behaviors of toxic phorbol esters were investigated during BDF production. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and photodiode array analyses revealed that the phorbol esters contained in JCO had a tigliane skeleton. The partition coefficients of phorbol esters between methanol (MeOH) and the oil (K-MeOH/oil) ranged from 2.4 to 20. As a result, the phorbol esters in the JCO were largely partitioned into the MeOH phase. The phorbol esters in the oil were converted stoichiometrically into phorbol and the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters via a transesterification reaction in a potassium hydroxide (KOH)/methanol (MeOH) solution. The phorbol produced predominantly partitioned into the glycerin phase. A small amount of phorbol residue contained in the BDF could be removed by washing with water. These results suggest that it is safe to use BDF produced by the aforementioned transesterification reaction and purification process. However, phorbol contamination of glycerin and wastewater from the production process should not be ignored.
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  39. International experiences with the cultivation of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Gonzales, N. F. C. 2016. International experiences with the cultivation of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production. Energy. 1121245-1258

    This paper is the first of its kind, providing an identification of the problems encountered in all documented global experiences of cultivating the Jatropha curcas plant, covering 22 case studies. Influential components of the biodiesel production (stakeholders like government, farmers and enterprises as well as resources such as land and water) and how they are interconnected are pinpointed. In addition, the article gives recommendations to the main actors under ecological and socio-economic criteria to ensure a sustainable production of J. curcas oil in regions with appropriate climatic conditions for the plant's viability. Hence, this analysis of experiences discusses the following questions: What are the reasons and factors for the previous unsuccessful and unsustainable cultivation of J. curcas for producing biodiesel? Can it be lucrative and simultaneously achieve poverty alleviation/job creation under the constraints of efficient use of resources (land and water)?. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  40. Jatropha curcas L. oil extracted by switchable solvent N, N-dimethylcyclohexylamine for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zeng, S. J.; Tao, C. D.; Parnas, R.; Jiang, W.; Liang, B.; Liu, Y. Y.; Lu, H. F. 2016. Jatropha curcas L. oil extracted by switchable solvent N, N-dimethylcyclohexylamine for biodiesel production. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 24(11) 1640-1646

    Biodiesel, which is a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel, has been studied widely to help remedy increasing environmental problems. One of the key processes of biodiesel production is oil extraction from oilseed materials. Switchable solvents can reversibly change from molecular to ionic solvents under atmospheric CO2, and can be used for oil extraction. N, N-dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), a switchable solvent, was used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas L. oil seeds to produce biodiesel. The appropriate extraction conditions were: 1: 2 ratio of seed mass to DMCHA volume, 0.3-1 mm particle size, 200 r.min(-1) agitation speed, 60min extraction time, and 30 degrees C extraction temperature. The extraction ratio was about 83%. This solvent extracted the oil more efficiently than hexane, and ismuch less volatile. By bubbling CO2 under 1 atm and 25 degrees C for 5 h, the oil was separated, and DMCHA was recovered after releasing CO2 by bubbling N-2 under 1 atm and 60 degrees C for 2 h. The residual solvent content in oil was about 1.7%. Selectivity of DMCHA was evaluated by detecting the protein and sugar content in oil. Using the oil with residual solvent to conduct transesterification process, the oil conversion ratio was approximately 99.5%. (C) 2016 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. All rights reserved.
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  41. Micro-fibrillated cellulose reinforced eco-friendly polymeric resin from non-edible 'Jatropha curcas' seed waste after biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Rahman, M. M.; Netravali, A. N. 2016. Micro-fibrillated cellulose reinforced eco-friendly polymeric resin from non-edible 'Jatropha curcas' seed waste after biodiesel production. Rsc Advances. 6(52) 47101-47111

    Eco-friendly polymeric resin with desirable mechanical and physical properties was developed from non-edible protein extracted from 'Jatropha curcas' (Jatropha) seed cake, so far considered as an agro-waste after oil extraction for bio-diesel conversion. A green, facile and cost-effective water-based casting and evaporation method was applied to fabricate Jatropha Protein (JP) based resin sheets. High molecular weight and the presence of reactive amino acids (a high content of arginine) in JP provide the basis to form a sustainable polymeric material. Also, JP resins were found to display diverse mechanical properties ranging from brittle and rigid to ductile and soft depending on the external modifiers such as plasticizer, cross-linker and reinforcing element used. Experimental studies using 10% sorbitol as a plasticizer, 10% glyoxal as a cross-linker and 20% microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) as a reinforcing element rendered JP resin with promising mechanical, thermal and physico-chemical properties. A favorable comparison between the modified JP and various polymers opens up possibilities for a sustainable alternative from non-edible protein-based agro-wastes that can reduce the dependency on biobased polymers from edible sources and petroleum based non-degradable polymers for applications such as fiber reinforced composites.
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  42. Mobile Plant for Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas Seeds, in Colombian Caribbean Regions
    Abstract

    Acevedo, P.; Cabeza, I.; Puello, J.; Benedetti, E. 2016. Mobile Plant for Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas Seeds, in Colombian Caribbean Regions. 2nd International Conference on Biomass (Iconbm 2016). 50283-288

    Jatropha Curcas is a wild plant whose parts offer a viable and sustainable alternative in various applications. This work presents the conceptual design of a mobile plant for producing biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas seeds, and a basic analysis of the technical viability for its operation in rural areas in the Colombian Caribbean region, where energy demands are not fully covered, and where the climatic conditions and soil quality are appropriate for growing Jatropha Curcas. The mobile biodiesel plant consists of a unit for the extraction of oil from the Jatropha seeds and a production unit where the oil is processed to obtain biodiesel. Once the plant starts the production, the energy required for its operation is self-supplied using the biodiesel that is produced. Due to its mobile design, this biodiesel plant can be moved around small crops to process the Jatropha Curcas and supply energy in farms. The potential applications of the products obtained in the mobile plant, apart from the biodiesel, are also explained, as a reference for future projects that support the sustainable operation of a biorefinery from Jatropha Curcas.
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  43. Optimization of biodiesel production process for mixed Jatropha curcas-Ceiba pentandra biodiesel using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Dharma, S.; Masjuki, H. H.; Ong, H. C.; Sebayang, A. H.; Silitonga, A. S.; Kusumo, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I. 2016. Optimization of biodiesel production process for mixed Jatropha curcas-Ceiba pentandra biodiesel using response surface methodology. Energy Conversion and Management. 115178-190

    Exploring and improvement of biodiesel production from non-edible vegetable oil is one of the effective ways to solve limited amount of traditional raw materials and their high prices. The main objective of this study is to optimize the biodiesel production process parameters (methanol-to-oil ratio, agitation speed and concentration of the potassium hydroxide catalyst) of a biodiesel derived from non-edible feedstocks, namely Jatropha curcas and Ceiba pentandra, using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken experimental design. Based on the results, the optimum operating parameters for transesterification of the J50C50 oil mixture at 60 degrees C over a period of 2 h are as follows: methanol-to-oil ratio: 30%, agitation speed: 1300 rpm and catalyst concentration: 0.5 wt.%. These optimum operating parameters gives the highest yield for the J50C50 biodiesel with a value of 93.33%. The results show that there is a significant improvement in the physicochemical properties of the J50C50 biodiesel after optimization, whereby the kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C, density at 15 degrees C, calorific value, acid value and oxidation stability is 3.950 mm(2)/s, 831.2 kg/m(3), 40.929 MJ/kg, 0.025 mg KOH/g and 10.01 h, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the optimized J50C50 biodiesel fulfill the requirements given in the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 standards. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  44. Simultaneous solvent extraction and transesterification of jatropha oil for biodiesel production, and potential application of the obtained cakes for binderless particleboard
    Abstract

    Kartika, I. A.; Evon, P.; Cerny, M.; Suparno, O.; Hermawan, D.; Ariono, D.; Rigal, L. 2016. Simultaneous solvent extraction and transesterification of jatropha oil for biodiesel production, and potential application of the obtained cakes for binderless particleboard. Fuel. 181870-877

    This study investigated biodiesel production from jatropha seeds in a single step, i.e. by simultaneous solvent extraction and transesterification of jatropha oil, and possibility to transform the obtained cakes into binderless particleboards. n-Hexane was used as extracting solvent. The best operating conditions were identified to obtain optimal biodiesel yield and quality, and optimal physical and mechanical properties for binderless particleboards. Biodiesel yield was usually influenced by operating conditions, and the influences of both n-hexane to seed and methanol to oil ratios were most significant. An increase in n-hexane to seed ratio (from 1: 1 to 3: 1) combined with the decrease in methanol to oil ratio (from 13.3: 1 to 8.0: 1) led to an improvement in biodiesel yield. The best biodiesel yield (92% with a fatty acid methyl ester purity >98%) was obtained from 2: 1 n-hexane to seed ratio, 10.6: 1 methanol to oil ratio, 200-600 rpm stirring speed, 50 degrees C temperature and 6 h reaction time. Operating conditions had no significant effect on the biodiesel quality, except the n-hexane to seed ratio. Moreover, cohesive particleboards were produced from the obtained cakes, proteins and fibers acting respectively as binder and reinforcing fillers. An increase in the cake moisture content significantly improved the particleboard properties. The most promising binderless particleboard was manufactured from cake B under 20% cake moisture content and 160 degrees C pressing temperature. Its properties were 0.87 g/cm(3) density, 8.4% moisture content, 7.2 MPa modulus of rupture, 10.4 GPa modulus of elasticity, 0.14 MPa internal bonding strength, 52% water absorption and 20% thickness swelling after 24 h immersion in water. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  45. The Optimization Process of Biodiesel Production Using Multiple Feedstock (CPO And Jatropha) with Assistance of Ultrasound at 40 Khz
    Abstract

    Fajar, B.; Wilis; Widayat 2016. The Optimization Process of Biodiesel Production Using Multiple Feedstock (CPO And Jatropha) with Assistance of Ultrasound at 40 Khz. Proceedings of the 3rd Aun/Seed-Net Regional Conference on Energy Engineering and the 7th International Conference on Thermofluids (Rcene/Thermofluid 2015). 1737

    CPO prices are unstable, therefore affecting the supply of feedstock to produce biodiesel [2]. To overcome the shortage of feedstock, it is necessary to use multiple feedstock, in this case is CPO and Jatropha [1]. This objective of this work to optimizate biodiesel production using multifeedstock (CPO and Jatropha) with assistance of ultrasound. The optimization was to find the highest yield and the least production time. Experiments was carried out using an ultrasonic bath at a frequency of 40 kHz. The ratio of CPO and Jatropha was 1: 1, 3: 1, 4: 1 while the ratio of methanol and oil was 5: 1, 6: 1, 7: 1 and the reaction time was 50, 60, and 70 minutes. KOH was used as a catalyst. The experiment data was optimized using a Response Surface Methodology [3,4]. The optimum point was at a frequency of 40 kHz obtained at a 2.8: 1 mixture of CPO - Jatropha, 6.4: 1 molar ratio of methanol-oil and 61.5 minutes of reaction time. The results of quality testing shows that the biodiesel produced meets the ASTM standard D6751 and SNI 04-7182-2006 [5].
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  46. A Comparison of Life Cycle Assessment on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and Physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Indonesia
    Abstract

    Siregar, K.; Tambunan, A. H.; Irwanto, A. K.; Wirawan, S. S.; Araki, T. 2015. A Comparison of Life Cycle Assessment on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and Physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Indonesia. New and Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation, the 3rd Indo Ebtke-Conex 2014, Conference and Exhibition Indonesia. 65170-179

    The objective of this study was to perform and compare LCA of biodiesel production from crude palm oil and crude Jatropha curcas oil. The system boundary for LCA study from cradle to gate. The produced palm oil biodiesel has higher GWP value than Jatropha curcas biodiesel. Utilization of agrochemical, in form of fertilizer and plant protection, generate significant contribution to environmental impact of biodiesel production i.e. 50.46 % and 33.51 % for palm oil and Jatropha curcas oil, respectively. GWP emission up to five years of plantation is 1 695.36 kg-CO(2)eq./t-BDF and 740.90 kg-CO(2)eq./t-BDF for palm oil and Jatropha curcas, respectively. After production stabilised, CO2 emission of diesel fuel decreases up to 37.83 % and 63.61 % for BDF-CPO and BDF-CJCO, respectively. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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  47. A review of processing and machinery for Jatropha curcas L. fruits and seeds in biodiesel production: Harvesting, shelling, pretreatment and storage
    Abstract

    Lim, B. Y.; Shamsudin, R.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Yunus, R. 2015. A review of processing and machinery for Jatropha curcas L. fruits and seeds in biodiesel production: Harvesting, shelling, pretreatment and storage. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 52991-1002

    The harvested Jatropha fruits need to be cleaned, dehulled and stored properly as part of the production of Jatropha biodiesel. During processing, the oil yield and quality of the extracted crude oil can be further improved by removing the husks (outer coating) of the seeds before any necessary seed treatment. This report attempts to provide an insight into the major issues of the process from harvesting the Jatropha fruits to the final storage of the seeds and pretreatment of the Jatropha seeds prior to the oil extraction process in production. This report describes a few aspects of the processes including common methods, research and technologies involved so that some improving strategies can be devised. The final part of this report also describes current development trends and the future prospect of Jatropha as a biodiesel. The paper has determined that both the harvest and shelling processes are basically performed manually, especially in rural areas. These activities are time consuming and introduce a high labour cost (80% of the feedstock cost) that can potentially make the Jatropha oil economically uncompetitive. A solution consisting of process mechanisation and mechanical device development are proposed to improve the sustainability of the industry and to meet the increasing world demand. An improvement in oil yield can also be achieved by fruit/seed pretreatment such as drying, shelling and heating. However, improper control may lead to the formation of oxidation products such as free fatty acids which will affect the efficiency of biodiesel production. This is an important sustainability issue which is related to the future development of Jatropha biodiesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  48. Biodiesel production and de-oiled seed cake nutritional values of a Mexican edible Jatropha curcas
    Abstract

    Sanchez-Arreola, E.; Martin-Torres, G.; Lozada-Ramirez, J. D.; Hernandez, L. R.; Bandala-Gonzalez, E. R.; Bach, H. 2015. Biodiesel production and de-oiled seed cake nutritional values of a Mexican edible Jatropha curcas. Renewable Energy. 76143-147

    The scarcity of fossil fuels, in addition to environmental damage due to fossil fuel use and exploration, promotes research into alternative energy sources such as biofuels. Biodiesel has attracted considerable attention in recent years as an alternative to fossil fuels, since it is renewable, biodegradable and nontoxic. Biodiesel can be obtained from animal fat, vegetable oils including cooking oil. In this work, a method of producing biodiesel from seed cake waste from the edible Jatropha curcas L. plant was developed. oil extraction using hexane gave the best oil quality. Transesterifications of approximately 95% were obtained by alkali or acid catalysis, and the obtained biodiesel products were successfully corroborated with NMR techniques. Since J. curcas is a non-toxic plant, the remaining de-oiled cake was tested for its nutritional properties. Nutritional analysis showed a content of 43% and 33% of protein and carbohydrate, respectively; suggesting that this waste can be used as an attractive protein and carbohydrate source for fermentation processes and/or for formulations for animal feeding. In conclusion, this work provides evidence that the oil from an edible and non-toxic species of J. curcas is an attractive option for biodiesel production with nutritional applications and negligible wasting. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  49. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil with Ca and La mixed oxide catalyst in near supercritical methanol conditions
    Abstract

    Teo, S. H.; Goto, M.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2015. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil with Ca and La mixed oxide catalyst in near supercritical methanol conditions. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 104243-250

    The catalytic transesterification of crude Jatropha curcus oil (JCO) with supercritical methanol (scMeOH), in the presence of calcium lanthanum mixed oxide (CaLaO) heterogeneous base catalyst was carried out using a batch reactor at near critical temperatures and pressures. The performance of synthesized CaLaO mixed oxide catalysts was examined by characterizing it through instruments such as XRD, BET and CO2-TPD, revealed that the Ca/La atomic ratio strongly affects the phase structure, catalyst basic sites, and thus the catalytic reactivity. The reaction parameters including Ca/La atomic molar ratio in the mixed metal oxide catalyst, molar ratio of methanol to oil, catalyst concentration, reaction pressure, temperature and time were varied one at a time and optimized based on the content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The highest FAME yield for supercritical methanolysis reached 93% under the optimum reaction conditions: 240 degrees C, 8.2 MPa, a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 21:1, and reaction time of 10 min in the presence of 1 wt.% catalyst. The results demonstrated that the presence of CaLaO mixed oxide catalyst in the reaction system effectively reduced reaction temperature, time and pressure of supercritical conditions. It required a very low concentration to mitigate the harsh operation conditions (290 degrees C, 15 MPa, 60 min) of the scMeOH process. On the other hand, supercritical reaction compensated for low conversion rate of solid catalytic transesterification whereby, it takes one step further by improving the role of catalyst with supercritical conditions to achieve higher yield and shorter processing time. The reusability of CaLaO mixed oxide catalyst for repeated use was tested, the catalytic activity was >80% when the catalyst was employed for fourth time. The studs; concluded that slight leaching of Ca2+ (0.52-6.07 ppm) and La3+ (0.34-2.33 ppm) occurred during transesterification reaction, however it is below acceptable levels of metals as ASTM D6751 (United State) and in Europe, EN 14214 (Europe) standards. This proved that heterogeneous catalytic supercritical reaction process is more promising than non-catalytic processes and it can be turned to practical use in the near future. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  50. Biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds using heterogeneous integrated extraction reaction process
    Abstract

    Hawash, S. I.; Kader, E. A.; El Diwani, G. 2015. Biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds using heterogeneous integrated extraction reaction process. Afinidad. 72(570) 150-154

    Integrated extraction and transesterification process for biodiesel production from Jatropha Curcas (JCL) seeds using hexane and methanol via base catalyzed transesterification is reported in this paper. The effects of reaction time, catalyst dose, liquid to solid ratio, type of solvent and grain size of JCL seeds on biodiesel production were investigated. It was found that hexane played the role of both co - solvent and co - extractant which enhanced the efficiency of oil extraction and facilitated mass transfer. The highest biodiesel yield (90.8%) was obtained at hexane to seed ratio of 5:1 (vol / wt), methanol to seed ratio 1:1 (vol /wt), activated Ca O of 1% by wt of seeds, stirring speed 700 rpm, temperature of 70 degrees C at reaction time 6 hours.
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  51. Biodiesel production via ethanolysis of jatropha oil using molybdenum impregnated calcium oxide as solid catalyst
    Abstract

    Kaur, N.; Ali, A. 2015. Biodiesel production via ethanolysis of jatropha oil using molybdenum impregnated calcium oxide as solid catalyst. Rsc Advances. 5(18) 13285-13295

    Molybdenum impregnated calcium oxide (Mo/CaO) was prepared via a wet impregnation method by varying Mo loading (1-5 wt%) and calcination temperature (300-800 degrees C). Powder X-ray diffraction study of the Mo/CaO catalyst supported the homogeneous doping of Mo in CaO as no peak corresponding to molybdenum oxide was obtained. The prepared catalyst was successfully employed for the ethanolysis of high free fatty acid (up to 18 wt%) containing vegetable oils with ethanol to give >99% fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) yield under the optimal reaction conditions of ethanol to oil molar ratio of 12 : 1, catalyst concentration of 5 wt% (catalyst/oil) and reaction temperature of 65 degrees C. The catalyst was recovered and reused five times without significant loss in its activity. The Koros-Nowak criterion test demonstrated that catalytic activity was independent from the mass transport phenomenon. Under optimized reaction conditions the activation energy (E-a) for Mo/CaO catalyzed ethanolysis was found to be 66.02 kJ mol(-1). Thermodynamic activation parameters of the reactions were evaluated based on activation complex theory (ACT) and obtained values of Delta G double dagger = 43.62 kJ mol(-1), Delta H double dagger = 64.10 kJ mol(-1) and Delta S double dagger = -60.58 J mol (-1) K-1 supported an unspontaneous, endothermic and associative mechanism of reaction.
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  52. Biophysicochemical Evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. Collections for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Verma, K. C.; Verma, S. K.; Gaur, A. K. 2015. Biophysicochemical Evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. Collections for Biodiesel Production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(21) 2302-2308

    Chemical characterization of Jatropha curcas seeds is supposed to be an interesting tool to extend the knowledge on alternative products of this plant, which is of great economic interest. Chemical composition of seed oil reflects the quality of produced biodiesel. The seed oils of 6 jatropha (among 30) biotypes were evaluated for their oil quality parameters: oil content (38-41%), acid value (1.22-13.40 mg/g), free fatty acid (0.06-3.50%), iodine value (115.48-163.37 mg/g), and viscosity (0.6320-0.7431). Significant differences among biotypes were observed in oil yield and biochemical parameters. The variability among the biotypes indicate a good scope of genetic gain through selection.
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  53. Biophysicochemical Evaluation of Wild Hilly Biotypes of Jatropha curcas for Biodiesel Production and Micropropagation Study of Elite Plant Parts
    Abstract

    Verma, K. C.; Verma, S. K. 2015. Biophysicochemical Evaluation of Wild Hilly Biotypes of Jatropha curcas for Biodiesel Production and Micropropagation Study of Elite Plant Parts. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 175(1) 549-559

    Depleting reserves of fossil fuel and increasing effects of environmental pollution from petrochemicals demands eco-friendly alternative fuel sources. Jatropha curcas oil, an inedible vegetable oil, can be a substitute feedstock for traditional food crops in the production of environment-friendly and renewable fuel. Jatropha oil is looked up in terms of availability and cost and also has several applications and enormous economic benefits. The seed oils of various jatropha biotypes from hilly regions were screened out and evaluated for their physiochemical parameters, viz, seed index(520-600 g), oil content (15-42 %), biodiesel yield (71-98 %), moisture content (2.3-6.5 %), ash content (3.2-5.6 %), acid value (4.2-26), density (0.9172-0.9317 g/cm(3)), viscosity (5-37 mm(2)/s), saponification value (195.8-204.2 mg/g), iodine value (106.6-113.6 mg/g), flash point (162-235 degrees C), cetane value (46.70-50.06 degrees C), free fatty acid value (2.5-10.2 %), and refractive index (1.4600-1.4710). Fatty acid profiling of jatropha resembles as edible oilseeds. NAA with BAP was found to be superior for callus induction (up to 87 %), as well as for shoot regeneration (up to 12 shoots). Root induction (90-100 %) was successfully obtained in MS medium with or without phytoregulators. Grown plantlets were successfully transferred from lab to field with a survival rate of 80 %.
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  54. Comparative energy and environmental analysis of Jatropha bioelectricity versus biodiesel production in remote areas
    Abstract

    Portugal-Pereira, J.; Nakatani, J.; Kurisu, K. H.; Hanaki, K. 2015. Comparative energy and environmental analysis of Jatropha bioelectricity versus biodiesel production in remote areas. Energy. 83284-293

    This study presents a comparative analysis between jatropha seed production systems to generate bioelectricity versus production of biodiesel under current and optimised conditions. An LCA (life cycle assessment) has been developed, comprising both upstream and downstream processes, encompassing the farming, collection, fuel processing and usage phases. The following energy and environmental indicators were assessed: fossil depletion, GWP (global warming potential), TAP (terrestrial acidification potential), and PMF (particulate matter formation).
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  55. Controlling Parameters for Jatropha Biodiesel Production in a Batch Reactor
    Abstract

    Kabbashi, N. A.; Mohammed, N. I.; Alam, M. Z.; Mirghani, M. E. S. 2015. Controlling Parameters for Jatropha Biodiesel Production in a Batch Reactor. 2015 10th Asian Control Conference (Ascc).

    In a quest for environmental friendly energy source with least pollutants emission due to issues of global warming coupled with dwindling reserve of the fossil fuel which has been the energy source for ages, researchers have intensified study on renewable fuels among which biodiesel stands prominent. Biodiesel production is largely by transesterification of transglycerides of fatty acids almost always in a batch reactor. Of importance in the yield generation and FAME conversion achievement is the control of reagents use in production and operation parameters control. This will afford optimum resource conservation while also minimize cost and materials wastage. In this study biodiesel was produced from hydrolysate (FFA) of Jatropha curcas oil using calcinated niobic acid catalyst at controlled rates of process parameters. Yield and conversion of the alkyl esters produced inform the influence of control parameters significantly on the throughput of the final product.
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  56. Detailed investigation of optimized alkali catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ahmed, W.; Nazar, M. F.; Ali, S. D.; Rana, U. A.; Khan, S. U. D. 2015. Detailed investigation of optimized alkali catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil for biodiesel production. Journal of Energy Chemistry. 24(3) 331-336

    The non-edible oils are believed to be one of the major feedstock for the production of biodiesel in future. In the present study, we investigated the production of Jatropha oil methyl esters (JOMEs) via alkali-catalyzed transesterification route. The biophysical characteristics of Jatropha oil were found within the optimal range in accordance with ASTM standards as a substitute diesel fuel. The chemical composition and production yield of as-synthesized biodiesel were confirmed by various analytical techniques such as FT-IR, H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A high percentage conversion, similar to 96.09%, of fatty acids into esters was achieved under optimized transesterification conditions with 6:1 oil to methanol ratio and 0.9 wt% NaOH for 50 min at similar to 60 degrees C. Moreover, twelve fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) were quantified in the GC/MS analysis and it was interesting to note that the mass fragmentation pattern of saturated, monounsaturated and diunsaturated FAME was comparable with the literature reported values.
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  57. Effect of biodiesel production parameters on viscosity and yield of methyl esters: Jatropha curcas, Elaeis guineensis and Cocos nucifera
    Abstract

    Ayetor, G. K.; Sunnu, A.; Parbey, J. 2015. Effect of biodiesel production parameters on viscosity and yield of methyl esters: Jatropha curcas, Elaeis guineensis and Cocos nucifera. Alexandria Engineering Journal. 54(4) 1285-1290

    In this study, the effect of H2SO4 on viscosity of methyl esters from Jatropha oil (JCME), palm kernel oil (PKOME) from Elaeis guineensis species, and coconut oil (COME) has been studied. Effect of methanol to oil molar mass ratio on yield of the three feedstocks has also been studied. Methyl ester yield was decreased by esterification process using sulphuric acid anhydrous (H2SO4). Jatropha methyl ester experienced a viscosity reduction of 24% (4.1-3.1 mm(2)/s) with the addition of 1% sulphuric acid. In this work palm kernel oil (PKOME), coconut oil (COME) and Jatropha oil (JCME) were used as feedstocks for the production of biodiesel to investigate optimum parameters to obtain high yield. For each of the feedstock, the biodiesel yield increased with increase in NaOH concentration. The highest yield was obtained with 1% NaOH concentration for all. The effect of methanol in the range of 4:1-8:1 (molar ratio) was investigated, keeping other process parameters fixed. Optimum ratios of palm kernel oil and coconut oil biodiesels yielded 98% each at methanol: oil molar ratio of 8:1. The physiochemical properties obtained for each methyl showed superior properties compared with those reported in published data. (C) 2015 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
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  58. Hydrothermal effect on synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties of calcium methoxide for biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas
    Abstract

    Teo, S. H.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Rashid, U.; Islam, A. 2015. Hydrothermal effect on synthesis, characterization and catalytic properties of calcium methoxide for biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas. Rsc Advances. 5(6) 4266-4276

    Hydrothermal synthesis is a well-suited approach for preparing bulk metal catalysts with high purity as it is cost-effective and easy to control in terms of temperature and time. In the current study, an effective catalyst for transesterification of high fatty acid content of crude Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) was appraised. Calcium methoxide (Ca(OCH3)(2)) has been successfully synthesized via a green and economical hydrothermal process at different synthesis times. CaO was used as a precursor as it is abundant, inexpensive and environmentally friendly. Ca(OCH3)(2) can form on the surface of CaO and its active basic surface is very well developed. This facile experimental strategy without any surfactant or template produced porous Ca(OCH3)(2) with a high surface area and high basicity, which leads to a superior catalytic reaction and is a promising alternative for short-reaction-time solid-based catalysts in biodiesel production in terms of excellent transesterification performance and long durability. The performance of synthesized Ca(OCH3)(2) was examined by characterizing it using analytical techniques such as TG-DTA, XRD, BET, FT-IR, TEM and SEM. Ca(OCH3)(2) catalysts had three types of morphologies, i.e. (a) irregular round shape particles, (b) a well arrangement of plate-like structures with rough surface and (c) a cluster of tiny plate-like architectures with smooth surfaces. The correlation between synthesis time, surface area and morphology of catalysts and the biodiesel yield was studied. Ca(OCH3)(2) was able to maintain the FAME content above 86% after a fifth cycle, at optimum reaction conditions of 2 h reaction time, 12 : 1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 2 wt% catalyst loading and 65 degrees C reaction temperature. Ca(OCH3)(2) is a solid heterogeneous catalyst for the transesterification reaction of non-edible Jatropha curcas oil for biodiesel production. The catalyst can be separated easily from the reaction mixture and reused to give a consistent transesterification activity.
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  59. Inter-solubility of product systems in biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil with the switchable solvent DBU/methanol
    Abstract

    Bao, J. Z.; Liu, Y. Y.; Parnas, R.; Liang, B.; Lu, H. F. 2015. Inter-solubility of product systems in biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil with the switchable solvent DBU/methanol. Rsc Advances. 5(11) 8311-8317

    The switchable solvent 1,8-diazabicyclo-[5.4.0]-undec-7-ene (DBU)/methanol can be used in transesterification with oil to produce biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester). The reactants (methanol, oil and catalyst DBU) and the products (fatty acid methyl ester and glycerol) are partially soluble in the production process. The phase equilibrium of the product components is essential data for biodiesel separation and process operation. In this work, the effects of catalyst dosage and temperature were studied on the phase equilibrium of the product systems. The phase composition of the product systems and the distribution of components were measured. The results showed the distribution of methanol, DBU and glycerol in the biodiesel-rich phase increases with the increase of DBU dosage from 1 wt% of oil to 15 wt% of oil and temperature from 298.1 K +/- 0.1 K to 333.1 K +/- 0.1 K, and decreases accordingly in the glycerol-rich phase. The distribution of biodiesel in both phases varies little. Increasing the dosage of DBU and/or temperature enhances the distribution and solubility of methanol, DBU and glycerol in the biodiesel-rich phase. This phenomenon was explained by estimating and analyzing van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds.
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  60. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and quality with Jatropha curcas oil: exploring its potential for Central America
    Abstract

    Bueso, F.; Moreno, L.; Cedeno, M.; Manzanarez, K. 2015. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and quality with Jatropha curcas oil: exploring its potential for Central America. Journal of Biological Engineering. 9

    Background: Extensive native Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha) crop areas have been planted in Central America marginal lands since 2008 as a non-edible prospective feedstock alternative to high-value, edible palm oil. Jatropha biodiesel is currently exclusively produced in the region at commercial scale utilizing alkaline catalysts. Recently, a free, soluble Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL) 1,3 specific lipase has shown promise as biocatalyst, reportedly yielding up to 96 % ASTM D6751 compliant biodiesel after 24 h transesterification of soybean, canola oils and other feedstocks. Biodiesel conversion rate and quality of enzymatically catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil was evaluated. Two lipases: free, soluble TL and immobilized Candida antarctica (CA) catalyzed methanolic transesterification of crude Jatropha and refined palm oil.
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  61. Oyster and Pyramidella Shells as Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Microwave-Assisted Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas Oil
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Rattanapan, T.; Boonrin, C.; Wechayan, C.; Loryuenyong, V. 2015. Oyster and Pyramidella Shells as Heterogeneous Catalysts for the Microwave-Assisted Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas Oil. Journal of Chemistry.

    Microwave-assisted biodiesel production via transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol using solid oxide catalyst derived from waste shells of oyster and Pyramidella was studied. The shells were calcined at 900 degrees C for 2 h and calcium oxide (CaO) catalyst characterizations were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, microwave power, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the economic and environmentally friendly catalysts derived from oyster and Pyramidella shells showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts under microwave-assisted transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol.
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  62. Performance Study of a Jatropha Curcas L. Fruit Shelling Machine for Kernel Recovery in Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Lim, B. Y.; Shamsudin, R.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Yunus, R. 2015. Performance Study of a Jatropha Curcas L. Fruit Shelling Machine for Kernel Recovery in Biodiesel Production. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 31(5) 755-765

    The presence of Jatropha shells and husks during the process of oil extraction can affect oil yield and output quality. A shelling machine has been developed at the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) to supersede the time-consuming manual method to remove shells and husks directly from the whole fruits for kernel recovery. The output kernels are in broken forms that ease the oil extraction process. The machine basically consists of cracking rollers, a vibratory sieve as the first stage separator, and a blower as the second stage separator. The performance of the machine was evaluated using five different blower air speeds (3.5, 6.2, 9.5, 12.6, and 13.4 ms(-1)) and the size of the mesh on the sifter was fixed The 9.5 ms(-1) speed was selected as optimal as the highest separation efficiency of 66.98% could be achieved The considerations to determine the separation efficiencies included kernel recovery, the percentage of shells and the percentage of husks removed At the optimal setting, the shell and husk removal achieved 97.17% and 55.21%, respectively, while the kernel recovery achieved 87.88%. A total of 12.12% kernels were lost and most of the losses were kernels in tiny broken form. The results indicated that a further improvement of the machine is necessary with the application of strategies to create highly different physical properties between the kernels and other impurities to enhance the effectiveness of the removal of impurities while maintaining a low kernel loss.
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  63. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas L. Oil Having High Free Fatty Acids Content
    Abstract

    Shambhu, V. B.; Bhattacharya, T. K. 2015. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas L. Oil Having High Free Fatty Acids Content. Ama-Agricultural Mechanization in Asia Africa and Latin America. 46(4) 63-66

    The present experiment examines the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas Seed oil having high free fatty acids (16.4 % FFA). The high FFA level of Jatropha curcas Seed oil was reduced to 0.23 % FFA for Jatropha Methyl Ester (JME) and 0.27 % FFA for Jatropha Ethyl Ester (JEE) by a two step acid-base transesterification. The first step was carried out with 10 : 1 molar ratio of methanol/ethanol-to-oil in the presence of sulphuric acid as an acid catalyzed at a temperature of 60 +/- 1 degrees C and 70 +/- 1 degrees C for methyl esterification and ethyl esterification respectively. The second step was transesterified using 6 : 1 molar ratio of methanol/ethanol-to-oil and 3 % w/w KOH as an alkaline catalyst to produce biodiesel at 60 +/- 1 degrees C and 70 +/- 1 degrees C for jatropha methyl ester and jatropha ethyl ester respectively. The yield of jatropha methyl and ethyl ester under the optimized condition was found to be 97 and 95 percent respectively.
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  64. Studies on biodiesel production from Jatropha Curcas oil using chemical and biochemical methods - A mathematical approach
    Abstract

    Al Basir, F.; Datta, S.; Roy, P. K. 2015. Studies on biodiesel production from Jatropha Curcas oil using chemical and biochemical methods - A mathematical approach. Fuel. 158503-511

    As fossil fuel declining worldwide, attention is grown up to develop a cost effective process for biodiesel production from renewable sources such as Jatropha Curcas Plant. Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of Jatropha Curcas oil using chemical catalyst or biocatalyst. In this research article, we formulate and analyze two mathematical models of transesterification reaction with respect to chemical catalyst and enzyme catalyst respectively. The model systems are solved numerically by Runge-Kutta method. A comparative mathematical study has been made between these two processes with respect to product efficiency, reaction conditions and mass transfer. We also apply control theoretic approach in mixing intensity through biocatalytic process for cost effective production of biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas oil. The validity of both the models is established by experimental results available in literatures. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  65. Study On Production of Biodiesel From Jatropha Oil and the Performance and Emission of a Diesel Engine
    Abstract

    Nor, N. F. M.; Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Shamsuddin, S. A.; Ismail, M. S.; Hashim, A. H. 2015. Study On Production of Biodiesel From Jatropha Oil and the Performance and Emission of a Diesel Engine. International Conference on Mathematics, Engineering and Industrial Applications 2014 (Icomeia 2014). 1660

    The use of nonedible oil as a feedstock is needed to replace edible oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. This nonedible oils in diesel engine however leads to low performance and higher emission due to its high viscosity. The characteristics of the fuel can be improved through transesterification process. The yield of biodiesel from Jatropha oil using potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration of 1%, reaction temperature 60 degrees C, reaction time 40 minutes and molar ratio methanol to oil 6:1 was 70.1% from the lab scale. The experimental study on the performances and emissions of a diesel engine is carried out using the Jatropha biodiesel produced from the transesterification process and compared with pure diesel. Results show that B20 has closer performance to diesel and lower emission compared to B5 and diesel in terms of CO2 and HC.
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  66. Supercritical extraction and fractionation of Jatropha curcas L. oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Fernandez, C. M.; Fiori, L.; Ramos, M. J.; Perez, A.; Rodriguez, J. F. 2015. Supercritical extraction and fractionation of Jatropha curcas L. oil for biodiesel production. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 97100-106

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of supercritical oil extraction from Jatropha curcas L (JCL). The influence of the operating conditions on oil yield, free fatty acid content of JCL oil, and oil quality was examined, which included pressure, temperature, particle size, and percentage of hull. The conditions for the fractionation of fatty acid were selected to obtain good-quality oil for biodiesel production. Finally, an experiment was conducted under different conditions in which the greatest amount of free fatty acids (FFA) (26.3 wt.%) was extracted during the first fractions and then the pressure was increased to achieve good oil removal (91 wt.% oil yield) performance with low content of free fatty acids (1 wt.%). This study has a promising role to fill as a more cost-effective processing technology, and it is not necessary to carry out a degumming, esterification and dehydration in the oil of the last fractions. Furthermore, all the phorbol ester was removed from the oil by conducting a supercritical extraction using CO2. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  67. Two-step biocatalytic process using lipase and whole cell catalysts for biodiesel production from unrefined jatropha oil
    Abstract

    Zhou, G. X.; Chen, G. Y.; Yan, B. B. 2015. Two-step biocatalytic process using lipase and whole cell catalysts for biodiesel production from unrefined jatropha oil. Biotechnology Letters. 37(10) 1959-1963

    To avoid lipase deactivation by methanol in the enzymatic transesterification process, a two-step biocatalytic process for biodiesel production from unrefined jatropha oil was developed.
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  68. Biodiesel production from crude Jatropha Curcas oil using calcium based mixed oxide catalysts
    Abstract

    Teo, S. H.; Rashid, U.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Biodiesel production from crude Jatropha Curcas oil using calcium based mixed oxide catalysts. Fuel. 136244-252

    Calcium-based, CaO-NiO (calcium nickel) and CaO-Nd2O3 (calcium neodymium) mixed oxides, were synthesized via co-precipitation process. Non-edible crude Jatropha curcus oil (JCO) was used as feed-stocks for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) synthesis in the presence of CaO-NiO and CaO-Nd2O3 mixed oxides. It was found that mixed solid bases oxides depicted high basicity and stability. Temperature programmed desorption of CO2 (CO2-TPD) confirmed that both strong and strongest basic sites existed on the surface of CaO-NiO and CaO-Nd2O3 catalysts, respectively. Both mixed oxide catalysts also demonstrated high thermal stability, since X-ray diffraction (XRD) proved that the crystalline phases present in both mixed oxide catalysts preserved well as pure oxide even up to 900 degrees C. The FAME yield produced by CaO-NiO and CaO-Nd2O3 catalysts were studied and compared with calcium oxide (CaO), nickel oxide (NiO), and neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) catalysts. Both CaO-NiO and CaO-Nd2O3 catalysts exhibited high activity as CaO and were easily separated from the product. CaO-NiO catalyst was found more active than CaO-Nd2O3 during the transesterification reaction. The optimal reaction parameters for achieving the >80% of FAME yield were methanol/oil molar ratio 15:1, catalyst amount 5 wt.% and reaction temperature 65 degrees C. Reusability study suggests that catalysts could be recycled for six successive runs without significant loss in activity. As a result, these new solid base mixed catalysts showed remarkable activity and durability in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters from crude JCO. Hence, the mixed oxides catalyst might be a valuable heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  69. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: Integrated process optimization
    Abstract

    Huerga, I. R.; Zanuttini, M. S.; Gross, M. S.; Querini, C. A. 2014. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: Integrated process optimization. Energy Conversion and Management. 801-9

    Energy obtained from renewable sources has increased its participation in the energy matrix worldwide, and it is expected to maintain this tendency. Both in large and small scales, there have been numerous developments and research with the aim of generating fuels and energy using different raw materials such as alternative crops, algae and lignocellulosic residues. In this work, Jatropha curcas plantation from the North West of Argentina was studied, with the objective of developing integrated processes for low and medium sizes farms. In these cases, glycerine purification and meal detoxification processes represent a very high cost, and usually are not included in the project. Consequently, alternative uses for these products are proposed. This study includes the evaluation of the Jatropha curcas crop during two years, evaluating the yields and oil properties. The solids left after the oil extraction were evaluated as solid fuels, the glycerine and the meal were used to generate biogas, and the oil was used to produce biodiesel. The oil pretreatment was carried out with the glycerine obtained in the biodiesel production process, thus neutralizing the free fatty acid, and decreasing the phosphorous and water content. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  70. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil using mesoporous molecular sieves supporting K2SiO3 as catalysts for transesterification
    Abstract

    Wu, H. T.; Zhang, J. H.; Liu, Y. P.; Zheng, J. L.; Wei, Q. 2014. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil using mesoporous molecular sieves supporting K2SiO3 as catalysts for transesterification. Fuel Processing Technology. 119114-120

    A series of solid base catalysts based on potassium salts (K2CO3, K2SiO3 and KAc) supported on mesoporous silicas (SBA-15 and AISBA-15) were prepared by impregnation method and used to catalyze the transesterification of Jatropha oil with methanol. The prepared catalysts were characterized by several techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 (CO2-TPD). In addition, various parameters affecting catalytic activity and biodiesel yield were investigated. The results showed that Al element dopant in SBA-15 could protect the pore structure of supported catalyst. The basicity and catalytic activity of AISBA-15 silica were improved significantly after loading potassium compounds. The activity of K2SiO3 impregnated catalyst was superior to those of K2CO3 and KAc impregnated catalysts. A biodiesel yield of 95% was obtained (using the K2SiO3/AISBA-15 catalyst) with 30 wt.% of K2SiO3 loading on AISBA-15 support, methanol/Jatropha oil molar ratio 9, reaction temperature 60 degrees C, reaction time 150 min and catalyst/oil mass ratio 3%. Reuse of the catalyst indicated that the K2SiO3/AISBA-15 had steady catalytic activity compared with traditional KOH and K2CO3 catalysts. After being reused for 5 cycles, a modest decrease of its activity led to a reduction of about 6% in the biodiesel yield. This decrease of catalytic activity was mainly caused by the potassium leaching and the adsorption of organic deposits on the catalyst surface. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  71. Biodiesel production from soybean and Jatropha oils by magnetic CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O5-based catalyst
    Abstract

    Xue, B. J.; Luo, J.; Zhang, F.; Fang, Z. 2014. Biodiesel production from soybean and Jatropha oils by magnetic CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O5-based catalyst. Energy. 68584-591

    Heterogeneous CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O3-based catalyst with weak magnetism was prepared by coprecipitation and calcination. It was characterized by various techniques including X-ray diffraction, Xray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption method. Its active components were identified as mainly Ca Fe composite oxides such as CaFe2O4 for transesterification. The magnetism was further strengthened by reducing its component of Fe2O3 to Fe3O4Fe under H-2 atmosphere for better magnetic separation. Both catalysts were used for the catalytic transesterification of soybean and Jatropha oils to biodiesel. The highest biodiesel yields for soybean oil of 85.4% and 83.5% were obtained over the weak and strong magnetic catalysts, respectively under the optimized conditions (373 K, 30 min, 15/1 methanol/oil molar ratio and 4 wt% catalyst). The catalysts could be recycled three times. Biodiesel production from pretreated Jatropha oil was tested with the magnetic CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O3-Fe3O4-Fe catalyst, and 78.2% biodiesel yield was obtained. The magnetic CaFe2O4-Ca2Fe2O3-based catalyst shows a potential application for the green production of biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  72. Biodiesel production under subcritical solvent condition using subcritical water treated whole Jatropha curcas seed kernels and possible use of hydrolysates to grow Yarrowia lipolytica
    Abstract

    Go, A. W.; Sutanto, S.; Phuong, L. T. N.; Ismadji, S.; Gunawan, S.; Ju, Y. H. 2014. Biodiesel production under subcritical solvent condition using subcritical water treated whole Jatropha curcas seed kernels and possible use of hydrolysates to grow Yarrowia lipolytica. Fuel. 12046-52

    In this work, whole Japropha curcas L. seed kernels were firstly treated in subcritical water (448 K, 2.0 MPa initial N-2, 15 min, kernel to water ratio 0.5 g g(-1)) and then the treated kernels were used in the in situ production of biodiesel using a solvent mixture of 75% methanol and 25% acetic acid. It was found that hydrolysate collected from subcritical water treatment of seed kernels contained reducing sugars and can be used to grow Yarrowia lipolytica without the need of detoxification. The in-situ (trans)esterification was successfully optimized using Taguchi design of experiments and a high yield of 101.7 and 65.1 g FAME per 100 g of extractable lipid and dry kernel, respectively could be achieved under optimized conditions (523 K, 3.0 MPa initial CO2 and 7.5 cm(3) g (-1) solvent to solid ratio). The developed process can tolerate high FFA and moisture content in feedstock. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  73. Characterization of an organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Idiomarina sp W33 and its application for biodiesel production using Jatropha oil
    Abstract

    Li, X.; Qian, P.; Wu, S. G.; Yu, H. Y. 2014. Characterization of an organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Idiomarina sp W33 and its application for biodiesel production using Jatropha oil. Extremophiles. 18(1) 171-178

    A halophilic strain W33 showing lipolytic activity was isolated from the saline soil of Yuncheng Salt Lake, China. Biochemical and physiological characterization along with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed the isolate in the genus Idiomarina. The extracellular lipase was purified to homogeneity by 75 % ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the purified lipase was estimated to be 67 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Substrate specificity test indicated that it preferred long-chain p-nitrophenyl esters. Optimal lipase activity was found to be at 60 A degrees C, pH 7.0-9.0 and 10 % NaCl, and it was highly active and stable over broad temperature (30-90 A degrees C), pH (7.0-11.0) and NaCl concentration (0-25 %) ranges, showing excellent thermostable, alkali-stable and halotolerant properties. Significant inhibition by diethyl pyrocarbonate and phenylarsine oxide was observed, implying histidine and cysteine residues were essential for enzyme catalysis. In addition, the lipase displayed high stability and activity in the presence of hydrophobic organic solvents with log P (ow) a parts per thousand yen 2.13. The free and immobilized lipases produced by Idiomarina sp. W33 were applied for biodiesel production using Jatropha oil, and about 84 and 91 % of yields were achieved, respectively. This study formed the basic trials conducted to test the feasibility of using lipases from halophile for biodiesel production.
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  74. Comparison of biodiesel production from crude Jatropha oil and Krating oil by supercritical methanol transesterification
    Abstract

    Samniang, A.; Tipachan, C.; Kajorncheappun-ngam, S. 2014. Comparison of biodiesel production from crude Jatropha oil and Krating oil by supercritical methanol transesterification. Renewable Energy. 68351-355

    This work compared the production of biodiesel from two different non-edible oils with relatively high acid values (Jatropha oil and Krating oil). Using non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification, high methyl ester yield (85-90%) can be obtained in a very short time (5-10 min). However, the dependence of fatty acid methyl ester yield on reaction conditions (i.e., temperature and pressure) and the optimum conditions were different by the source of oils and were correlated to the amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) and unsaturated fatty acid content in oils. Krating oil, which has higher FFAs and unsaturated fatty acid content, gave higher fatty acid methyl ester yield of 90.4% at 260 degrees C, 16 ME's, and 10 min whereas biodiesel from Jatropha oil gave fatty acid methyl ester yield of 84.6% at 320 degrees C, 15 MPa and 5 min using the same molar ratio of methanol to oil 40:1. The product quality from crude Krating oil met the biodiesel standard. Pre-processing steps such as degumming or oil purification are not necessary. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  75. Co-production of biodiesel and hydrogen from rapeseed and Jatropha oils with sodium silicate and Ni catalysts
    Abstract

    Long, Y. D.; Fang, Z.; Su, T. C.; Yang, Q. 2014. Co-production of biodiesel and hydrogen from rapeseed and Jatropha oils with sodium silicate and Ni catalysts. Applied Energy. 1131819-1825

    Calcined sodium silicate was used to rapidly catalyze the transesterification of rapeseed and Jatropha oils to biodiesel under microwave irradiation. Biodiesel yields of 95.8% and 92.8% were achieved from rapeseed and Jatropha oils, respectively (microwave power of 400 W, methanol/oil molar ratio of 11/1, catalyst amount of 4 wt.% and reaction time of 5 min). The catalyst was recycled, and biodiesel yield reduced to 83.6% at the fourth cycle. Fresh and reused sodium silicate catalysts were charaterized by BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) surface area, XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscope) and CO2-TPD (temperature programmed desorption), and it was found that the agglomeration and leaching of basic species resulted in the loss of catalytic activity. The reused catalyst was collected and utilized for hydrothermal gasification of glycerol to hydrogen. A maximum H-2 yield of 82.8% with a concentration of 73.6% was obtained in the presence of the fourth-cycled sodium silicate and Ni catalysts at 350 degrees C. Sodium silicate was an effective catalyst for the microwave-irradiated production of biodiesel and hydrothermal production of hydrogen from by-product glycerol combined with Ni catalyst. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  76. Development and testing of a Jatropha fruit shelling process for shell-free kernel recovery in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lim, B. Y.; Shamsudin, R.; Yunus, R. 2014. Development and testing of a Jatropha fruit shelling process for shell-free kernel recovery in biodiesel production. Biosystems Engineering. 12146-55

    Achieving shell-free kernel recovery from Jatropha fruits is important to improve oil yield and oil quality during oil extraction in biodiesel production. A shelling process with two stages of cracking and separation to remove the shells completely and husks partially was designed. Both stages used double-level cracking rollers and a blower with ducting as a separation unit. For the first, the performance was evaluated using five different roller clearances (9.5 mm, 10.0 mm, 10.5 mm, 11.0 mm and 11.5 mm) with a combination of five blower air speeds (8.5 +/- 0.5 m s(-1), 9.0 +/- 0.6 m s(-1), 9.5 +/- 0.5 m s(-1), 10.0 +/- 0.4 m s(-1) and 10.5 +/- 0.5 m s(-1)). A roller clearance of 10.5 mm and air speed of 10.0 +/- 0.4 m s(-1) were selected as the optimal conditions with the highest separation efficiency between kernels and shells at 94.59%. The shells and husks achieved 95.88% and 12.20% removal respectively while kernel recovery achieved 98.65%. For the second stage, the performance was evaluated using five different roller clearances (5.0 mm, 5.5 mm, 6.0 mm, 6.5 mm and 7.0 mm) with a combination of five blower air speeds (6.5 +/- 0.4 m s(-1), 7.0 +/- 0.2 m s(-1), 7.5 +/- 0.4 m s(-1), 8.0 +/- 0.2 m s(-1) and 8.5 +/- 0.5 m s(-1)). At the optimal conditions, with a roller clearance of 6.0 mm and air speed of 7.5 +/- 0.4 m s(-1), the maximum separation efficiency was 97.69%. Total shell and husk removal achieved for the stages were 100.00% and 45.46% respectively. A total of 2.40% kernels were lost. (C) 2014 IAgrE. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  77. Does the Maturity of Jatropha Curcas L. Affect the Quality and Quantity of the Yield of Oil for Biodiesel Production?
    Abstract

    Samsuri, A.; Zoveidavianpoor, M. 2014. Does the Maturity of Jatropha Curcas L. Affect the Quality and Quantity of the Yield of Oil for Biodiesel Production?. International Journal of Green Energy. 11(2) 193-205

    Biodiesel is a green and popular renewable fuel and unlike mineral diesel, produces fewer toxic emissions. Jatropha curcas Linn is a nonedible fruit that commonly used in biodiesel production. This study evaluated the impacts of Jatropha seeds maturity on quantity and quality of yield oil. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil and ethanol using natrium hydroxide as the catalyst by transesterification was performed on half-matured (yellow) and matured (black) Jatropha seeds. Experimental investigations have been carried out to examine properties and performance of Jatropha, and different blends of Jatropha oil-diesel (JOD) in comparison to a petroleum-based diesel fuel. Half-matured stage of Jatropha is shown to produces 2.5% less oil than the matured stage. The quality of the maturity stages quantified in terms of mean square error (MSE), and the matured stage showed 13% better performance in contrast to the half-matured stage. Matured stage JOD blends indicate closer performance to petroleum-based diesel and can be used as a biodiesel without engine modification.
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  78. Effect of mass transfer kinetics for maximum production of biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas oil: A mathematical approach
    Abstract

    Roy, P. K.; Datta, S.; Nandi, S.; Al Basir, F. 2014. Effect of mass transfer kinetics for maximum production of biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas oil: A mathematical approach. Fuel. 13439-44

    Alternative energy sources are supposed to be the most challenging job of today's world. Among the alternative renewable energy sources, biodiesel attracts considerable attention as an environmental friendly and green energy sources. Biodiesel can be produced from different sources but most suitable and cost effective approach goes to non-edible vegetable oil of fruits of Jatropha Curcas plant through transesterification reaction with methanol. The productivity of biodiesel preparation through transesterification reaction is mainly affected by molar ratios, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration and stirrer speed or mixing effect. Among these parameters, mixing effect through mass transfer limitations has a profound influence for optimal completion of reaction. In the present research investigation, attempts have been made to develop a mathematical model to discuss about the effect of mass transfer in different phases using variation of mixing intensity in transesterification reaction along with temperature. A control theoretic approach is applied to administer the said dynamics for the maximum production of biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  79. Environmental Impact Studies of Biodiesel Production From Jatropha curcas in India by Life Cycle Assessment
    Abstract

    Kalaivani, K.; Ravikumar, G.; Balasubramanian, N. 2014. Environmental Impact Studies of Biodiesel Production From Jatropha curcas in India by Life Cycle Assessment. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 33(4) 1340-1349

    Environmental performance of biodiesel derived from Jatropha curcas seed was studied by life cycle assessment methodology in India. This paper also compares the environmental impact of Jatropha-based biodiesel and its blends (20% and 50%) with diesel fuel. The lifecycle of Jatropha-based biodiesel production includes the stages of cultivation, oil extraction, biodiesel production, and transportation to the fuel station. The functional unit of this study was 1 ton of biodiesel production and the impact categories studied were carcinogens, respiratory organics and inorganics, climate change, radiation, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity, acidification/eutrophication, land use, mineral use, and fossil fuels. The results revealed that among all the stages, emission from soil and air caused by cultivation process of Jatropha is the largest contributors to most of environmental impact categories. The categories with greater impacts are carcinogens, ecotoxicity, respiratory inorganics, acidification, eutrophication, and land use with the percentage of 80%, 72%, 71%, 66.7%, and 63%, respectively. Comparison results of biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel showed that increase of biodiesel blends have minimal effect on the environment. Moreover, lifecycle assessment of biodiesel production has a positive contribution to climate change than the fossil fuel. The results suggest the enhanced usage of this renewable fuel in future with inclusion of further technological improvement in farming practices and production process. (c) 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 33: 1340-1349, 2014
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  80. Feasibility study of jatropha shell gasification for captive power generation in biodiesel production process from whole dry fruits
    Abstract

    Maiti, S.; Bapat, P.; Das, P.; Ghosh, P. K. 2014. Feasibility study of jatropha shell gasification for captive power generation in biodiesel production process from whole dry fruits. Fuel. 121126-132

    Jatropha curcas seeds are a promising feedstock for production of high performance biodiesel. The triglyceride-rich seeds are obtained upon de-shelling of dried fruit. In the present study, the empty shells, having calorific value of 17.2 MJ kg (1), were utilized as solid fuel in a 15 kg h (1) downdraft gasifier. Producer gas having calorific value of 5.2 MJ m (3) was obtained upon gasification, with an efficiency of 64.8% over 8 h of continuous operation. The gasifier was interfaced to a 100% producer gas engine, and continuous power generation (ca. 10 kWe) was demonstrated with overall efficiency of 24.5%. Captive power obtained in this manner would obviate the need for external sources of power for the operations of deshelling, screw pressing, oil refining, transesterification, glycerol purification and soap making in the integrated biodiesel production process, starting from whole dry fruits. The intermediate producer gas can additionally provide thermal energy for the process. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  81. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Juan, J. C.; Abdullah, N. F. B.; Nizah, M. F. R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production. Chemistry Central Journal. 8

    Background: Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO).
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  82. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Juan, J. C.; Binti Abdullah, N. F.; Nizah Mf, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production. Chem Cent J. 830

    BACKGROUND: Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO). RESULTS: The chemical characteristic, textural properties, basicity profile and leaching test of synthesized catalysts were studied by using X-ray diffraction, BET measurement, TPD-CO2 and ICP-AES analysis, respectively. Transesterification activity of solid base catalysts showed that > 90% of palm biodiesel and > 80% of Jatropha biodiesel yield under 3 wt.% of catalyst, 3 h reaction time, methanol to oil ratio of 15:1 under 65 degrees C. This indicated that other than physicochemical characteristic of catalysts; different types of natural oil greatly influence the catalytic reaction due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs). CONCLUSIONS: Among the solid base catalysts, calcium based mixed metal oxides catalysts with binary metal system (CaMgO and CaZnO) showed capability to maintain the transesterification activity for 3 continuous runs at ~ 80% yield. These catalysts render high durability characteristic in transesterification with low active metal leaching for several cycles.
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  83. Investigation of impurity tolerance and thermal stability for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds using supercritical reactive extraction
    Abstract

    Lim, S.; Lee, K. T. 2014. Investigation of impurity tolerance and thermal stability for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds using supercritical reactive extraction. Energy. 6871-79

    Supercritical reactive extraction for Jatropha curcas L seed was demonstrated to be a viable process for biodiesel production process with high yield and the elimination of separate extraction step. However, because the solid seeds were reacted directly and susceptible to impurities contamination such as water and free fatty acid (FFA), it was important to determine their effects to the extraction efficiency and FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) yield in supercritical reactive extraction. In this study, varying amounts of water (0-40 wt.%) and FFA (0-30 wt.%) were added to the supercritical reactive extraction process performed at 300 degrees C, 30 min effective reaction time, 10 MPa and 5.0 ml/g methanol to solid ratio. It was found that the supercritical reactive extraction process had a higher tolerance limit for impurities than the nonsupercritical acid-catalyzed in situ transesterification process. The former was able to withstand up to 30 wt.% of water or FFA without significantly affecting the extraction efficiency and FAME content. A time variation study on the water content showed that the forward hydrolysis of triglyceride molecules to FFA led to a higher reaction rate. Furthermore, the re-hydrolysis reaction of methyl esters to FFA would also occur under a high concentration of methyl esters and water content. A thermal stability study demonstrated that there was no obvious ester decomposition for the process at or below 300 C for a reaction time not exceeding 30 min. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  84. Measurements of surface acidity of solid catalysts for free fatty acids esterification in Jatropha curcas crude oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Corro, G.; Banuelos, F.; Vidal, E.; Cebada, S. 2014. Measurements of surface acidity of solid catalysts for free fatty acids esterification in Jatropha curcas crude oil for biodiesel production. Fuel. 115625-628

    The high content of free fatty acids (FFA) present in non-edible oils and in waste cooking oil for biodiesel production can be esterified with solid acid catalysts. The rate of the esterification reaction is related to the catalyst surface acidity. Thus a fast and accurate method for determining the solids acidity is necessary to prevent low FFA esterification yields. In this paper, the acid sites on the solid catalysts (SiO2 center dot HF and ZnO/SiO2) have been measured by the aqueous method using NaOH as titrating agent. A straight relation between the catalyst esterification and the acid sites measured by this method is found. This method is fast and easy to perform in almost all research laboratories and can provide an inexpensive way of selecting a catalyst for improved yield in the FFA esterification process. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  85. Not quite the end for Jatropha? Assessing the financial viability of biodiesel production from Jatropha in Tanzania
    Abstract

    Bryant, S. T.; Romijn, H. A. 2014. Not quite the end for Jatropha? Assessing the financial viability of biodiesel production from Jatropha in Tanzania. Energy for Sustainable Development. 23212-219

    The financial viability of biodiesel production from Jatropha is estimated under real-life African conditions. The assessment is modelled from the data of an oil producer with a social entrepreneurial business model in Tanzania. A first-round cost analysis shows that the total cost of biodiesel production including all company costs and taxes is significantly higher than Tanzanian and typical East-African market prices for diesel; however, when by-products are utilised as additional sources of revenue, biodiesel production is projected to become financially viable. While these findings are far removed from the recently hyped expectations surrounding Jatropha as an energy crop, they also do not lend support to the current widespread discrediting of Jatropha bio-energy. We conclude that Jatropha biodiesel production in SubSaharan Africa can be financially viable and socially benign, but only under certain conditions. Some conditions derive from exogenous external circumstances, while others require hard work and patience to create. (C) 2014 International Energy Initiative. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  86. Production of biodiesel from non-edible Jatropha curcas oil via transesterification using Bi2O3-La2O3 catalyst
    Abstract

    Nizah, M. F. R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Rashid, U.; Teo, S. H.; Nur, Z. A. S.; Islam, A. 2014. Production of biodiesel from non-edible Jatropha curcas oil via transesterification using Bi2O3-La2O3 catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 881257-1262

    The simultaneous esterification and transesterification of fatropha curcas oil (JCO) was carried out in the presence of Bi2O3 (1-7 wt.%) modified La2O3 catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The catalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, desorption of CO2 (TPD-CO2) and NH3 (TPD-NH3). Under the optimal reaction condition of methanol/oil molar ratio of 15:1, 2 wt.% of catalyst amount and a reaction temperature of 150 degrees C for 4 h, the highest conversion of biodiesel obtained was 93%. This catalyst maintained 87% of FAME conversion after three times of successive reuse. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  87. Production of biodiesel from Vietnamese Jatropha curcas oil by a co-solvent method
    Abstract

    Luu, P. D.; Truong, H. T.; Luu, B. V.; Pham, L. N.; Imamura, K.; Takenaka, N.; Maeda, Y. 2014. Production of biodiesel from Vietnamese Jatropha curcas oil by a co-solvent method. Bioresource Technology. 173309-316

    Biodiesel fuels (BDFs) was successfully produced from Vietnamese Jatropha curcas oil with high content of free fatty acids (FFAs) in two stages. In the first stage, the esterification process was carried out with the optimal conditions as follows; a methanol-to-FFAs molar ratio of 6:1, 1 wt% H2SO4, at a temperature of 65 degrees C, and using 30% (wt/wt) acetonitrile as co-solvent. This step reduced the concentration of FFAs in the reaction mixture from 15.93 to 2 wt% in 60 min. In the second stage, the transesterification process generated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with 99% efficiency was performed in 30 min with the optimal conditions as follows; a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 6:1, 1 wt% KOH, at a temperature of 40 degrees C, and 20% (wt/wt) acetone as co-solvent. The produced biodiesel quality meets the standards JIS K2390 and EN 14214 regarding FAME yield, FFAs and water contents. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  88. Production of Jatropha biodiesel fuel over sulfonic acid-based solid acids
    Abstract

    Chen, S. Y.; Lao-Ubol, S.; Mochizuki, T.; Abe, Y.; Toba, M.; Yoshimura, Y. 2014. Production of Jatropha biodiesel fuel over sulfonic acid-based solid acids. Bioresource Technology. 157346-350

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized platelet SBA-15 mesoporous silica with an acid capacity of 2.44 mmol H+ g-cat(-1) (shortly termed 15SA-SBA-15-p) was one-pot synthesized by co-condensation method. When applied as solid acid catalyst in synthesis of Jatropha biodiesel fuel (BDF), the 15SA-SBA-15-p catalyst showed higher activity and resistances to water and free fatty acid (FFA) than commercial sulfonic resins of Amberlyst-15 and SAC-13. For the continuous Jatropha BDF production, a steady 75-78 wt% of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content was obtained over 15SA-SBA-15-p catalyst at 150 degrees C for 75 h, whereas the Amberlyst-15 and SAC-13 catalysts were quickly deactivated due to the decomposition of thermally unstable framework and serious leaching of sulfonic acids. More importantly, the quality, stability and cold flow characteristic of Jatropha BDF synthesized by 15SA-SBA-15-p catalyst were better than those synthesized by Amberlyst-15 and SAC-13 catalysts, making the blending with petro-diesel an easy task. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  89. Production of palm and jatropha based biodiesel and investigation of palm-jatropha combined blend properties, performance, exhaust emission and noise in an unmodified diesel engine
    Abstract

    Sanjid, A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Rahman, S. M. A.; Abedin, M. J.; Palash, S. M. 2014. Production of palm and jatropha based biodiesel and investigation of palm-jatropha combined blend properties, performance, exhaust emission and noise in an unmodified diesel engine. Journal of Cleaner Production. 65295-303

    An ever increasing drift of energy consumption, unequal geographical distribution of natural wealth and the quest for low carbon fuel for a cleaner environment are sparking off the production and use of biodiesels in many countries around the globe. In this work, palm biodiesel and jatropha biodiesel were produced from the respective crude vegetable oils through transesterification, and the different physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesels have been presented, and found to be acceptable according to the ASTM standard of biodiesel specification. This paper presents experimental results of the research carried out to evaluate the BSFC, engine power, exhaust and noise emission characteristics of a combined palm and jatropha blend in a single-cylinder diesel engine at different engine speeds ranging from 1400 to 2200 rpm. Though the PBJB5 and PBJB10 biodiesels showed a slightly higher BSFC than diesel fuel, all the measured emission parameters and noise emission were significantly reduced, except for NO emission. CO emissions for PBJB5 and PBJB10 were 9.53% and 20.49% lower than for diesel fuel. By contrast, HC emissions for PBJB5 and PBJB10 were 3.69% and 7.81% lower than for diesel fuel. The sound levels produced by PBJB5 and PBJB10 were also reduced by 2.5% and 5% compared with diesel fuel due to their lubricity and damping characteristics. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  90. Rapid Jatropha-biodiesel production assisted by a microwave system and a sodium amide catalyst
    Abstract

    Lin, Y. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chen, C. E.; Yang, P. M.; Jhang, S. R. 2014. Rapid Jatropha-biodiesel production assisted by a microwave system and a sodium amide catalyst. Fuel. 135435-442

    In this study, a sodium amide (NaNH2) catalyst and a microwave heating system were used to increase Jatropha methyl ester yields, and reduce both reaction time and energy consumption. The experimental results indicate that the yield increased as the catalyst amount, reaction time, methanol-to-oil molar ratio, and temperature increased, and then decreased when the values of these parameters increased. The highest Jatropha methyl ester yield produced by operating a conventional heating system (CHS) was 95.6% when using 1.0 wt.% of a NaNH2 catalyst, a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 8, a reaction time of 7 min, and a temperature of 65 degrees C. The highest yield produced by applying microwave heating system (MW) was 96.2% when using 1.0 wt.% of a NaNH2 catalyst, a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 8, a reaction time of 90 min, and a temperature of 65 degrees C. The total amount of energy required for MW was 10 times less than that required for CHS. The experimental results indicate that MW performs more favorably and is more energy efficient compared with CHS, and offers a rapid, simple method biodiesel production. Through a proper research focus and development, Jatropha oil can become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  91. Room temperature production of jatropha biodiesel over coconut husk ash
    Abstract

    Vadery, V.; Narayanan, B. N.; Ramakrishnan, R. M.; Cherikkallinmel, S. K.; Sugunan, S.; Narayanan, D. P.; Sasidharan, S. 2014. Room temperature production of jatropha biodiesel over coconut husk ash. Energy. 70588-594

    A cost effective and efficient method for the preparation of fuel grade biodiesel by the transesterification of jatropha oil at room temperature over a coconut husk derived catalyst under mild reaction conditions without the use of any cosolvent is reported here. Catalyst is prepared by means of controlled heating of coconut husk, without any chemical treatment. The main active component over the catalyst was found to be potassium. When the reaction temperature was increased to 45 degrees C, the catalyst showed excellent performance on the transesterification of Jatropha oil in a range of methanol/oil molar ratios. The important speciality for the present catalytic systems is the comparatively low reaction temperature requirement for effective reaction. For the optimization of different reaction variables including molar ratio of the reactants, reaction time, the catalyst calcination temperatures and the catalyst/oil weight percentage, a series of transesterification reactions were conducted and the results obtained are presented here. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  92. The Production and Optimization of Biodiesel from Crude Jatropha Curcas Oil by a Two Step Process - An Indian Case Study Using Response Surface Methodology
    Abstract

    Gandhi, B. S.; Kumaran, D. S. 2014. The Production and Optimization of Biodiesel from Crude Jatropha Curcas Oil by a Two Step Process - An Indian Case Study Using Response Surface Methodology. International Journal of Green Energy. 11(10) 1084-1096

    Experiments were conducted to produce biodiesel from crude Jatropha Curcas oil (CJCO) having high free fatty acid content (6.85%) in two steps. During the first step, the free fatty acid content of CJCO was reduced to 1.12% in 1 hour at 60 degrees C, using 9:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 1%w/w of oil of H2SO4. The second step was alkali catalyzed transesterification of pretreated CJCO to produce biodiesel and the factors affecting the biodiesel yield were optimized using response surface methodology. The effect of five levelthree factors and their reciprocal interactions on biodiesel yield were studied. A total of 20 experiments were designed and conducted to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst amount, and oil to methanol ratio on biodiesel yield. A second-order polynomial regression model was fitted and found adequate with R-2 of 0.9722. The model predicted that the highest yield of methyl ester would be 93.55% at the following optimized conditions: reaction temperature of 61.5 degrees C, alkali catalyst of 0.58% w/w of oil and an oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:5.93. Using these optimal factors under experimental conditions in three independent replicates, an average of 92.5 +/- 0.5% yield was achieved and the value was well within the range predicted by the model.
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  93. A global comparative review of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas using different homogeneous acid and alkaline catalysts: Study of physical and chemical properties
    Abstract

    Silitonga, A. S.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Ong, H. C.; Atabani, A. E.; Chong, W. T. 2013. A global comparative review of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas using different homogeneous acid and alkaline catalysts: Study of physical and chemical properties. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 24514-533

    Recently, jatropha curcas methyl ester (biodiesel) as a potential substitute to petrol diesel has prompted many researchers around the world to carry out extensive investigation. This is because jatropha curcas oil is non-edible that can be easily grown in a harsh environment and the seeds of jatropha curcas fruit contain 40-60% oil. In this study, free fatty acid profile of jatropha curcas oil has been determined and compared with literature studies. It is found that jatropha curcas mainly contains 13.0% palmitic acid, 44.5% oleic acid and 35.4% linoeic acid. Moreover, jatropha curcas biodiesel was produced using different acid catalysts (HCL and H2SO4) and alkaline catalysts (NaOH, KOH, CH3ONa and CH3OK). The properties of produced jatropha curcas methyl esters such as viscosity, density, flash point, cloud point, pour point, calorific value, acid value, iodine value, condradson carbon residue and sulfate ash have been determined and analyzed. Overall, the properties of jatropha curcas biodiesel were in the range which could be accepted and have met ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  94. Biodiesel production by enzymatic process using Jatropha oil and waste soybean oil
    Abstract

    Lee, J. H.; Kim, S. B.; Yoo, H. Y.; Suh, Y. J.; Kang, G. B.; Jang, W. I.; Kang, J.; Park, C.; Kim, S. W. 2013. Biodiesel production by enzymatic process using Jatropha oil and waste soybean oil. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 18(4) 703-708

    In this study, non-edible Jatropha oil and postcooking waste soybean oil were utilized for enzymatic biodiesel production. The process was optimized by using a statistical method. In addition, a novel continuous process using co-immobilized Rhizopus oryzae and Candida rugosa lipases was developed. The optimum conditions for the batch process were determined to be a reaction temperature of 45oC, an agitation speed of 250 rpm, 10 wt% of water, and 20% of immobilized lipases. A conversion of about 98% at 4 h could be achieved for biodiesel production using Jatropha oil, while a conversion of about 97% at 4 h was achieved from waste soybean oil. A packed bed reactor charged with co-immobilized lipases was employed for continuous biodiesel production from Jatropha and waste soybean oil. The reactor consisted of a jacketed glass column (ID 25 mm x 130 mm), in which a temperature of 45A degrees C was maintained by water circulation. A maximum conversion of about 80% in 24 h at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/ min was achieved with the continuous process, whereas in the two-stage continuous process, a conversion of about 90% in 72 h was attained at a flow rate of 0.1 mL/min.
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  95. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas crude oil using ZnO/SiO2 photocatalyst for free fatty acids esterification
    Abstract

    Corro, G.; Pal, U.; Tellez, N. 2013. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas crude oil using ZnO/SiO2 photocatalyst for free fatty acids esterification. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 12939-47

    We report the production of biodiesel from Mexican Jatropha Curcas crude oil (JCCO) by a two step catalytic process. The high content of free fatty acids (FFA) present in JCCO was first esterified with methanol by a photocatalytic process under UV irradiation using ZnO/SiO2 as the heterogeneous photocatalyst. The solid catalyst was found to be highly active for the heterogeneous photocatalyic esterification of FFA with methanol. The activity of the solid catalyst remained unchanged even after 10 esterification runs, indicating that the heterogeneous photocatalysis is a viable option for FFA esterification reactions for biodiesel production. Transesterification step was catalyzed by NaOH through thermal activation process. Produced biodiesel fulfills all the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. A probable reaction mechanism for the esterification process is proposed considering the generation of H+. CH3O. and R-COOH center dot on the photocatalyst surface. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  96. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil using Lemna perpusilla Torrey ash as heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Chouhan, A. P. S.; Sarma, A. K. 2013. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil using Lemna perpusilla Torrey ash as heterogeneous catalyst. Biomass & Bioenergy. 55386-389

    Refined Jatropha curcas L. oil (JCO) and methanol were used as the reactants for the transesterification reactions in a Radleys reactor in the presence of a heterogeneous ash catalyst derived from the waste aquatic plant Lerma perpusilla Torrey. Physical characterization of the catalyst showed partly crystalline behaviour and a moderate surface area 9.622 m(2) g(-1). The L. perpusilla Torrey ashes obtained from traditional combustion method were further calcined at 550 +/- 5 degrees C before use. In addition to other non-metal and metallic constitutes the ash contains 11.3% potassium which attributed to its catalytic behaviour. The cumulative mass fraction of 89.43% of the oil was converted to biodiesel at 65 +/- 5 degrees C in 5 h at 1:9 M ratio of oil to alcohol with 5% of the ash as catalyst. The biodiesel (FAME) so obtained were characterized using appropriate ASTM methods and found within the defined standard limits. The catalyst could be reused upto 3-times but there is a reduction of efficacy by about 25% for 3rd consecutive batch reaction. The activation energy was calculated for FAME and found to be 29.49 kJ mol(-1). (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  97. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase on modified attapulgite
    Abstract

    You, Q. H.; Yin, X. L.; Zhao, Y. P.; Zhang, Y. 2013. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase on modified attapulgite. Bioresource Technology. 148202-207

    Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia was immobilized on modified attapulgite by cross-linking reaction for biodiesel production with jatropha oil as feedstock. Effects of various factors on biodiesel production were studied by single-factor experiment. Results indicated that the best conditions for biodiesel preparation were: 10 g jatropha oil, 2.4 g methanol (molar ratio of oil to methanol is 1:6.6) being added at 3 h intervals, 7 wt% water, 10 wt% immobilized lipase, temperature 35 degrees C, and time 24 h. Under these conditions, the maximum biodiesel yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase retained 95% of its relative activity during the ten repeated batch reactions. The half-life time of the immobilized lipase is 731 h. Kinetics was studied and the V,a of the immobilized lipases were 6.823 mmol L-1. This immobilized lipase catalyzed process has potential industrial use for biodiesel production to replace chemical-catalyzed method. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  98. Biodiesel production from jatropha seeds: Solvent extraction and in situ transesterification in a single step
    Abstract

    Kartika, I. A.; Yani, M.; Ariono, D.; Evon, P.; Rigal, L. 2013. Biodiesel production from jatropha seeds: Solvent extraction and in situ transesterification in a single step. Fuel. 106111-117

    The objective of this study was to investigate solvent extraction and in situ transesterification in a single step to allow direct production of biodiesel from jatropha seeds. Experiments were conducted using milled jatropha seeds, and n-hexane as extracting solvent. The influence of methanol to seed ratio (2:1-6:1), amount of alkali (KOH) catalyst (0.05-0.1 mol/L in methanol), stirring speed (700-900 rpm), temperature (40-60 degrees C) and reaction time (3-5 h) was examined to define optimum biodiesel yield and biodiesel quality after water washing and drying. When stirring speed, temperature and reaction time were fixed at 700 rpm, 60 degrees C and 4 h respectively, highest biodiesel yield (80% with a fatty acid methyl ester purity of 99.9%) and optimum biodiesel quality were obtained with a methanol to seed ratio of 6:1 and 0.075 mol/L KOH in methanol. Subsequently, the influence of stirring speed, temperature and reaction time on biodiesel yield and biodiesel quality was studied, by applying the randomized factorial experimental design with ANOVA (F-test at p = 0.05), and using the optimum values previously found for methanol to seed ratio and KOH catalyst level. Most experimental runs conducted at 50 degrees C resulted to high biodiesel yields, while stirring speed and reaction time did not give significantly effect. The highest biodiesel yield (87% with a fatty acid methyl ester purity of 99.7%) was obtained with a methanol to seed ratio of 6:1, KOH catalyst of 0.075 mol/L in methanol, a stirring speed of 800 rpm, a temperature of 50 degrees C, and a reaction time of 5 h. The effects of stirring speed, temperature and reaction time on biodiesel quality were not significant. Most of the biodiesel quality obtained in this study conformed to the Indonesian Biodiesel Standard. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  99. Deacidification of Jatropha Curcas Oil by Extraction for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Liu, X. J.; Zhang, H. Y.; Ai, N.; Lu, M. Z.; Li, Y. M.; Yu, F. W.; Ji, J. B. 2013. Deacidification of Jatropha Curcas Oil by Extraction for Biodiesel Production. Advances in Energy Science and Technology, Pts 1-4. 291-294207-211

    The acid value of jatropha curcas oil is 9.41mgKOH/g. The most of fatty acids should be removed if base catalysts are adopted to catalyze the transesterification reaction for biodiesel production in case of soap formation. In this study, methanol and ethanol were adopted to extract the fatty acids in jatropha curcas oil. Then, it was catalyzed by calcium methoxide for biodiesel production. The extracted fatty acids can be used to produce biodiesel at supercritical or sulfuric acid conditions. The results indicated that the acid value of jatropha curcas oil decrease to 0.31 mgKOH/g from 9.41 mgKOH/g using ethanol extraction for 3 times at 25 C. The biodiesel yield exceeded 96% using solid base catalyst. The advantages of methanol and ethanol extractions are low oil loss and high biodiesel yield.
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  100. Exergetic analysis of a biodiesel production process from Jatropha curcas
    Abstract

    Blanco-Marigorta, A. M.; Suarez-Medina, J.; Vera-Castellano, A. 2013. Exergetic analysis of a biodiesel production process from Jatropha curcas. Applied Energy. 101218-225

    As fossil fuels are depleting day by day, it is necessary to find an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. Biodiesel is considered as an environmentally friendly renewable diesel fuel alternative. The interest in using Jatropha curcas as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel is rapidly growing. On the one hand, J. curcas' oil does not compete with the food sector due to its toxic nature and to the fact that it must be cultivated in marginal/poor soil. On the other, its price is low and stable.
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  101. Immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase for biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas L. oil
    Abstract

    Abdulla, R.; Ravindra, P. 2013. Immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase for biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas L. oil. Biomass & Bioenergy. 568-13

    The present world is in a dilemma with fast depletion of fossil fuels. So there arises a drastic need for development of biofuels to power the earth. From an environmental point of view, biodiesel has great potential as an alternative diesel fuel. In this study, lipase from Burkholderia cepacia was first cross linked with glutaraldehyde followed by entrapment in a hybrid matrix of equal proportions of alginate and kappa-carrageenan. Later, this biocatalyst was employed for biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas L. oil. The optimal conditions for processing 10 g crude Jatropha oil were: 35 degrees C, 1:10 mol ratio of oil to ethanol, 1 g water, 5.25 g immobilized lipase, 6 g RCF and 24 h reaction time. At the optimal conditions, 100% yield of fatty acid ethyl esters could be achieved. The immobilized lipase was stable and retained 73% relative transesterification activity after six cycles of reuse. This shows that the immobilized lipase in alginate/kappa-carrageenan matrix is a potential environmental friendly biocatalyst for biodiesel industry. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  102. Influence of impurities on biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. by supercritical methyl acetate process
    Abstract

    Niza, N. M.; Tan, K. T.; Lee, K. T.; Ahmad, Z. 2013. Influence of impurities on biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. by supercritical methyl acetate process. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 7973-75

    Generally, water and free fatty acid (FFA) content in oils could cause a serious problem during conventional transesterification such as saponification. Thus, without any pre-treatment, vegetable oil, especially with high FFA content, will be affected. In this study, a non-catalytic supercritical methyl acetate (SCMA) process was utilized to produce biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L oil. The effects of water and FFA content on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. The results obtained for the effects of water on the yield of biodiesel were compared with the supercritical methanol (SCM) process and conventional catalytic reaction. Results revealed that the catalytic reaction suffers from low yield with the presence of high water content in oil. Meanwhile, the yield of both the SCM and SCMA reactions were found to increase slightly with the increment of water content in the mixture. On the other hand, the results for the effect of FFA on the yield of biodiesel were compared with the SCM reaction. It was found that the presence of FFA has a negligible effect in both the SCMA and SCM reactions. These findings demonstrate that pre-treatment procedures are not necessary in the SCMA process for Jatropha oil which normally contains a high FFA content. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  103. Influences of different co-solvents in simultaneous supercritical extraction and transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seeds for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Lim, S.; Lee, K. T. 2013. Influences of different co-solvents in simultaneous supercritical extraction and transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seeds for the production of biodiesel. Chemical Engineering Journal. 221436-445

    Simultaneous supercritical extraction and transesterification (SET) process is a novel biodiesel production process for oil seeds in which the solid oil-bearing material is used as the primary reactant together with short-chain alcohol directly in supercritical condition. In this experimental work, SET process with methanol was carried out in a high-pressure batch reactor to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from Jatropha curcas L. seeds (15.0 g feed, 300 degrees C, 5.0 ml/g methanol to solid ratio and 30 min). Different types of co-solvents (pentane, heptane, toluene, tetrahydrofuran, nitrogen and carbon dioxide) with varying amount (1.0-5.0 mug for liquid and 10-50 bar for gas) were added into the process to study their influences towards the extraction efficiency, E-y and FAME yield, F-y. It was found that pentane and CO2 provided higher responses (E-y: 102.6% and 107.0%, F-y: 100.4% and 102.3%) at concentration of 1.0 ml/g and 50 bar respectively. Addition of pentane and CO2 was also discovered to lower the critical conditions of the reactant mixture and could achieve near optimum product yield at lower temperature (280 degrees C) and lower methanol to solid ratio (4.0 ml/g). Addition of appropriate co-solvents could increase the extraction rate (solid-liquid) and enhance methanol-oil inter-phase miscibility during the reaction phase. This proved that SET process can be rather promising as another alternative route for biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  104. Kinetic study of hydroxide-catalyzed methanolysis of Jatropha curcas-waste food oil mixture for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Berchmans, H. J.; Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. 2013. Kinetic study of hydroxide-catalyzed methanolysis of Jatropha curcas-waste food oil mixture for biodiesel production. Fuel. 10446-52

    Hydroxide-catalyzed methanolysis kinetic reaction model that considers the side effects of saponification of glycerides, esters and free fatty acids (FFAs) was proposed. Methanolysis of a mixture of Jatropha curcas-waste food oil that contains 1%wt FFAs under reaction temperature 50 degrees C, mixing speed 900 rpm, methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and KOH to oil mass ratio 1%wt, was accurately and completely described by the kinetic reaction model. Simulation and experiment results showed that the FFAs were neutralized by the hydroxide ion, resulting in production of water and more soap. This was undesired side reaction because it consumed more catalyst to achieve the same reaction rate. However, 1%wt FFAs content in the oil mixture and 2 h reaction time of methanolysis produced biodiesel with 97.1%wt purity. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  105. Microwave assisted biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seed by two-step in situ process: Optimization using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Jaliliannosrati, H.; Amin, N. A. S.; Talebian-Kiakalaieh, A.; Noshadi, I. 2013. Microwave assisted biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seed by two-step in situ process: Optimization using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology. 136565-573

    The synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by a two-step in situ (reactive) esterification/transesterification from Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) seeds using microwave system has been investigated. Free fatty acid was reduced from 14% to less than 1% in the first step using H2SO4 as acid catalyst after 35 min of microwave irradiation heating. The organic phase in the first step was subjected to a second reaction by adding 5 N KOH in ethanol as the basic catalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) was utilized to design the experiments and analyze the influence of process variables (particles seed size, time of irradiation, agitation speed and catalyst loading) on conversion of triglycerides (TGs) in the second step. The highest triglycerides conversion to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) was 97.29% at the optimum conditions:<0.5 mm seed size, 12.21 min irradiation time, 8.15 ml KOH catalyst loading and 331.52 rpm agitation speed in the 110 W microwave power system. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  106. One-step production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil with high-acid value in ionic liquids (vol 102, pg 6469, 2011)
    Abstract

    Guo, F.; Fang, Z.; Tian, X. F.; Long, Y. D.; Jiang, L. Q. 2013. One-step production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil with high-acid value in ionic liquids (vol 102, pg 6469, 2011). Bioresource Technology. 140447-450

    Catalytic conversion of un-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (13.8 mg KOH/g) to biodiesel was studied in ionic liquids (ILs) with metal chlorides. Several commercial ILs were used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid. It was found that 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate {[BMIm][TS]) had high catalytic activity with 93% esterification rate for oleic acid at 140 degrees C but only 63.7% Jatropha biodiesel yield at 200 degrees C. When ZnCl2 was added to [BMIm][TS], a maximum Jatropha biodiesel yield of 92.5% was achieved at 180 degrees C. Addition of metal ions supplied Lewis acidic sites in ILs promoted both esterification and transestrification reactions. It was also found that the transition metal ions performed higher catalytic activity in transestrification than the ions of Group A. Mixture of [BMIm][TS] and ZnCl2 was easily separated from products for reuse to avoid producing pollutants. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  107. Optimization of biodiesel production process from Jatropha oil using supported heteropolyacid catalyst and assisted by ultrasonic energy
    Abstract

    Badday, A. S.; Abdullah, A. Z.; Lee, K. T. 2013. Optimization of biodiesel production process from Jatropha oil using supported heteropolyacid catalyst and assisted by ultrasonic energy. Renewable Energy. 50427-432

    Application of ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production process from Jatropha oil catalyzed by activated carbon-supported tungstophosphoric acid catalyst was studied. Influences of ultrasonic energy on different process variables were elucidated. Reaction variables i.e. reaction time (10-50 min), reactants' molar ratio (5:1-25:1), ultrasonic amplitude (30-90% of the maximum sonifier power) and catalyst amount (2.5-4.5 w/w oil) were studied. A mathematical representation for biodiesel yield was successfully generated. A yield of 91% was achieved in just 40 min at a moderate ultrasonic amplitude (similar to 60%), high molar ratio (25:1) and low reaction temperature (65 degrees C). Interactions between the variables were also validated statistically. Leaching study revealed that the reaction was predominately heterogeneous in nature. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  108. Process intensification for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds: Supercritical reactive extraction process parameters study
    Abstract

    Lim, S.; Lee, K. T. 2013. Process intensification for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds: Supercritical reactive extraction process parameters study. Applied Energy. 103712-720

    In a bid to increase the cost competitiveness of biodiesel production against mineral diesel, process intensification has been studied for numerous biodiesel processing technologies. Subsequently, reactive extraction or in situ transesterification is actively being explored in which the solid oil-bearing seeds are used as the reactant directly with short-chain alcohol. This eliminates separate oil extraction process and combines both extraction and transesterification in a single unit. Supercritical reactive extraction takes one step further by substituting the role of catalyst with supercritical conditions to achieve higher yield and shorter processing time. In this work, supercritical reactive extraction with methanol was carried out in a high-pressure batch reactor to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from Jatropha curcas L. seeds. Material and process parameters including space loading, solvent to seed ratio, co-solvent (n-hexane) to seed ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and mixing intensity were varied one at a time and optimized based on two responses i.e. extraction efficiency, M-extract and FAME yield, F-y. The optimum responses for supercritical reactive extraction obtained were 104.17% w/w and 99.67% w/w (relative to 100% lipid extraction with n-hexane) for M-extract and F-y respectively under the following conditions: 54.0 ml/g space loading, 5.0 ml/g methanol to seeds ratio, 300 degrees C, 9.5 MPa (Mega Pascal), 30 min reaction time and without n-hexane as co-solvent or any agitation source. This proved that supercritical reactive extraction is rather promising as another alternative for biodiesel production. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  109. Production and comparative fuel properties of biodiesel from non-edible oils: Jatropha curcas, Sterculia foetida and Ceiba pentandra
    Abstract

    Ong, H. C.; Silitonga, A. S.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Chong, W. T.; Boosroh, M. H. 2013. Production and comparative fuel properties of biodiesel from non-edible oils: Jatropha curcas, Sterculia foetida and Ceiba pentandra. Energy Conversion and Management. 73245-255

    Biodiesel production from non-edible vegetable oil is one of the effective ways to overcome the problems associated with energy crisis and environmental issues. The non-edible oils represent potential sources for future energy supply. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of crude Jatropha curcas oil (CJCO), crude Sterculia foetida oil (CSFO) and crude Ceiba pentandra oil (CCPO) and its methyl ester have been studied. The acid values of three oils were found to be 12.78 mg KOH per g, 5.11 mg KOH per g and 11.99 mg KOH per g which required acid-esterification and alkali-transesterification process. Acid value was decreased by esterification process using sulfuric acid anhydrous (H2SO4) as a catalyst and alkaline (NaOH) catalyst transesterification was carried out for the conversion of crude oil to methyl esters. The optimal conditions of FAME yield achieved for those three biodiesel were 96.75%, 97.50% and 97.72% respectively. Furthermore, the fuel properties of J. curcas methyl ester (JCME), S. foetida methyl ester (SFME) and C pentandra methyl ester (CPME) were determined and evaluated. As a result, those produced biodiesel matched and fulfilled ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Based on the results, JCME, SFME and CPME are potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  110. Production of biodiesel from non-edible Jatropha curcas oil via transesterification using Nd2O3-La2O3 catalyst
    Abstract

    Nizah, M. F. R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Hussein, M. Z. 2013. Production of biodiesel from non-edible Jatropha curcas oil via transesterification using Nd2O3-La2O3 catalyst. Advanced X-Ray Characterization Techniques. 620335-339

    Biodiesel is viewed as the most promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel since it is derived from renewable sources such as animal fats, vegetable oil and grease. Out of various vegetable oil resources for biodiesel production, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is a viable choice for biodiesel because it is non-edible and can be grown easily in a harsh environment. In this study, Nd2O3-La2O3 catalyst was prepared for transesterification of JCO with methanol, in order to evaluate its potential as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production. Under suitable transesterification condition at 210 degrees C with catalyst amount of 3 wt.%, methanolloil molar ratio of 45 and reaction time for 4 h, the conversion of JCO to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) achieved was more than 93% over Nd2O3-La2O3 catalyst.
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  111. Production of edible mushroom and degradation of antinutritional factors in jatropha biodiesel residues
    Abstract

    da Luz, J. M. R.; Paes, S. A.; Torres, D. P.; Nunes, M. D.; da Silva, J. S.; Mantovani, H. C.; Kasuya, M. C. M. 2013. Production of edible mushroom and degradation of antinutritional factors in jatropha biodiesel residues. Lwt-Food Science and Technology. 50(2) 575-580

    The elimination of antinutritional factors of the Jarropha curcas L. seed cake is important for decreasing environmental damage and adding economic value to this residue of the biodiesel industry. In this study, we analyzed the ability of Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade antinutritional factors and produce edible mushrooms using different proportions of the J. curcas seed cake as substrate. After 60 d of incubation at 25 degrees C, we observed 95% phytic acid and 85% tannins reductions, and high mushrooms productivity. There was no evidence of tannins or phytic acid in these mushrooms. Furthermore, the phorbol ester concentration observed in these mushrooms was around 1000-fold lower than that found in the nontoxic variety off. curcas. Thus, P. ostreatus can degrade the antinutritional factors found in J. curcas seed cake. The jatropha seed cake can potentially be used for mushroom production, with high nutritional value, and animal ration, after treated by P. ostreatus, adding economic value to the biodiesel residue and avoiding inadequate disposal in the environment. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  112. Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Jatropha Curgas L. Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Li, Y. X.; Yu, D. D.; Wang, Y.; Guan, X. L. 2013. Response Surface Methodology Optimization of Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Jatropha Curgas L. Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 27(6) 4284-4289

    The immobilized lipase-catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil and methanol for biodiesel production in tert-butanol was investigated The effects of different tert-butanol volume, methanol molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and immobilized lipase amount on the total conversion were systematically analyzed by response surface methodology (RSM. RSM analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The optimal conditions for the transesterification were a reaction time of 17.355 h, a reaction temperature of 34.868 degrees C, an immobilized lipase amount of 12.435 %, a methanol molar ratio of 5.282:1, a tert-butanol volume ratio of 0.577:1. The optimal predicted yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was 88.5 % and the actual value was 88.1 %. The predicted yield of fatly acid esters and the real one was very close, indicating that the RSM based on central composite design (CCD) was adaptable for a FAME study for the present transesterification system. Moreover, the infrared spectum of biodiesel showed the characteric bands of C=O, O-C-O, C=C and (CH2)n. Furthermore, GC-linked mass spectrometry showed that biodiesel was mainly composed of the methyl esters of hexadecanoic, 9,12-octadecadienoic and 9-octadecadienoic acid
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  113. Simultaneous production of high quality biodiesel and glycerin from Jatropha oil using ion-exchange resins as catalysts and adsorbent
    Abstract

    Shibasaki-Kitakawa, N.; Kanagawa, K.; Nakashima, K.; Yonemoto, T. 2013. Simultaneous production of high quality biodiesel and glycerin from Jatropha oil using ion-exchange resins as catalysts and adsorbent. Bioresource Technology. 142732-736

    The simultaneous production of high quality biodiesel and glycerin was realized by a bench-scale process using expanded-bed reactors packed with cation- and anion-exchange resins. The mixed-solution of crude Jatropha oil and methanol at a stoichiometric molar ratio was supplied to the process. The free fatty acid as well as triglyceride was completely converted to biodiesel. All by-products were adsorbed on the resin and the effluent from the process was free from them. The effluent fully met the international biodiesel standard specifications without any downstream purification processes except for removing methanol. The glycerin adsorbed on the resin was completely recovered as a transparent methanol solution during regeneration of the resin. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  114. Techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas via a supercritical methanol process
    Abstract

    Yusuf, N. N. A. N.; Kamarudin, S. K. 2013. Techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas via a supercritical methanol process. Energy Conversion and Management. 75710-717

    This paper presents the conceptual design and economic evaluation of a production of methyl esters (biodiesel) from Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) via a supercritical methanol process with glycerol as a by-product. The process consists of four major units: transesterification (PFR), methanol recovery (FT) and (DC1), recovery of glycerol (DEC), and biodiesel purification (DC2). The material and heat balance are also presented here. A biodiesel production of 40,000 tonnes-yr(-1) is taken as case study. Biodiesel obtained from supercritical transesterification with Jatropha curcas oil as feedstock resulting in high purity methyl esters (99.96%) with almost pure glycerol (96.49%) obtained as by-product. The biodiesel can be sold at USD 0.78 kg(-1), while the manufacturing and capital investment costs are in the range of USD 25.39 million-year(-1) and USD 9.41 million year(-1), respectively. This study proved that biodiesel from JCO is the least expensive with purities comparable to those found in other studies. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  115. A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of Jatropha biodiesel production in India
    Abstract

    Kumar, S.; Singh, J.; Nanoti, S. M.; Garg, M. O. 2012. A comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of Jatropha biodiesel production in India. Bioresource Technology. 110723-729

    A life cycle approach was adopted for energy, green house gas (GHG) emissions and renewability assessment for production of 1 ton of Jatropha biodiesel. Allocation and displacement approaches were applied for life cycle inventory, process energy and process GHG emission attribution to co-products. The results of process energy and GHG emission analyses revealed that the amount of process energy consumption and GHG emission in the individual stages of the life cycle assessment (LCA) were a strong function of co-product handling and irrigation. The GHG emission reduction with respect to petroleum diesel for generating 1 GJ energy varied from 40% to 107% and NER values from 1.4 to 8.0 depending upon the methodology used for energy and emission distribution between product and co-products as well as irrigation applied. However, GHG emission reduction values of 54 and 40 and NER (net energy ratio) values of 1.7 and 1.4 for irrigated and rain-fed scenarios, respectively indicate the eco-friendly nature and renewability of biodiesel even in the worst scenario where total life cycle inventory (LCI), process energy and GHG emission were allocated to biodiesel only. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  116. Antiquity, botany, origin and domestication of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a plant species with potential for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Dias, L. A. S.; Missio, R. F.; Dias, D. C. F. S. 2012. Antiquity, botany, origin and domestication of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), a plant species with potential for biodiesel production. Genetics and Molecular Research. 11(3) 2719-2728

    Jatropha curcas is a multi-purpose plant species, with many advantages for biodiesel production. Its potential oil productivity is 1.9 t/ha, beginning the fourth year after planting. Nevertheless, limitations such as high harvest cost, lack of scientific konowledge and low profitability have prevented it from being utilized commercially. In order to provide information that could be useful to improve the status of this species as a bioenergy plant, we elucidated the center of origin and the center of domestication of J. curcas (Mexico). Evidence of the antiquity of knowledge of J. curcas by Olmeca people, who lived 3500-5000 years ago, reinforces its Mexican origin. The existence of non-toxic types, which only exist in that country, along with DNA studies, also strongly suggest that Mexico is the domestication center of this species. In Brazil, the Northern region of Minas Gerais State presents types with the highest oil content. Here we propose this region as a secondary center of diversity of J. curcas.
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  117. Biodiesel Production from Crude Jatropha curcas L. Oil with Trace Acid Catalyst
    Abstract

    Liu, Y. Y.; Lu, H. F.; Jiang, W.; Li, D. S.; Liu, S. J.; Liang, B. 2012. Biodiesel Production from Crude Jatropha curcas L. Oil with Trace Acid Catalyst. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 20(4) 740-746

    Biodiesel produced from crude Jatropha curcas L. oil with trace sulfuric acid catalyst (0.02%-0.08% oil) was investigated at 135-184 degrees C. Both esterification and transesterification can be well carried out simultaneously. Factors affecting the process were investigated, which included the reaction temperature, reaction time, the molar ratio of alcohol to oil, catalyst amount, water content, free fatty acid (FFA) and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content. Under the conditions at 165 degrees C, 0.06% (by mass) H2SO4 of the oil mass, 1.6 MPa and 20 : 1 methanol/oil ratio, the yield of glycerol reached 84.8% in 2 hours. FFA and FAME showed positive effect on the transesterification in certain extent. The water mass content below 1.0% did not show a noticeable effect on transesterification. Reaction kinetics in the range of 155 degrees C to 175 degrees C was also measured.
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  118. Biodiesel Production from Low Quality Crude Jatropha Oil Using Heterogeneous Catalyst
    Abstract

    Kay, K. H.; Yasir, S. M. 2012. Biodiesel Production from Low Quality Crude Jatropha Oil Using Heterogeneous Catalyst. 2nd International Conference on Chemistry and Chemical Process (Icccp 2012). 323-27

    In this study, transesterification of low quality crude jatropha oil (acid value > 4mgKOH/g & water content > 1000ppm) to biodiesel using modified natural zeolite as a solid catalyst was carried out. The effects of various factors consist of the reaction time, molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, mass ratio of catalyst to oil and catalyst reusability were investigated. The experimental treatments of a 20: 1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, addition of 5wt% catalyst, 70 degrees C reaction temperature using low quality crude jatropha oil resulted in optimum yield in which the biodiesel content exceeded 96.5% at 6 h. Along with, the recycling experiment results showed modified natural zeolite catalyst had a long catalyst lifetime which maintained sustainable activity (at least 96.5wt% of ester content according to EN14214 limitations) even after being reused for 3 cycles on low quality raw feedstock. The present finding is potential to simplify the biodiesel production and refining process in rural area. This study simplified method of biodiesel production from low quality raw feedstocks with economic and high efficiency catalyst. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier B. V. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Asia-Pacific Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society
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  119. Bioprocessing of Jatropha curcas seed oil and deoiled seed hulls for the production of biodiesel and biogas
    Abstract

    Deeba, F.; Kumar, V.; Gautam, K.; Saxena, R. K.; Sharma, D. K. 2012. Bioprocessing of Jatropha curcas seed oil and deoiled seed hulls for the production of biodiesel and biogas. Biomass & Bioenergy. 4013-18

    Jatropha curcas seeds afford non edible oil seed source for biodiesel, therefore, production of biodiesel from this oil would avoid food versus fuel controversy. However, Jatropha seed oil contains higher amounts of free fatty acids (about 12%). Therefore this requires a two step acid-base catalyzed treatment for the trans-esterification to obtain biodiesel. However, the use of lipase enzymes affords the trans-esterification of seed oil in a single step only. Therefore, presently the research work was performed to study the trans-esterification of Jatropha seed oil by using lipase enzymes obtained from the two microbes i.e., Pseudomonas sp. and Rhizopus sp., respectively. The lipase enzyme obtained from Pseudomonas sp. was found to show more than ten times higher activity in comparison to that of Rhizopus sp. Thus, the use of Psedomonas sp. lipase also showed higher yields of biodiesel in comparison to that of Rhizopus sp. Bioprocessing of J. curcas seed oil by single step process was compared with the two step chemical process to obtain biodiesel. A comparison of the two processes has been drawn. The biodiesel obtained from the Jatropha oil seeds were characterized for physical properties like kinematic viscosity, density, flash point, pour point, acid number and water content. The residual seeds obtained after the recovery of oil were found to be good substrate for the biogasification to obtain biomethane. Bioprocesses for obtaining added value chemical from the byproduct glycerol are being developed currently. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  120. Continuous Process for Biodiesel Production in Packed Bed Reactor from Waste Frying Oil Using Potassium Hydroxide Supported on Jatropha curcas Fruit Shell as Solid Catalyst
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Chaiyut, N.; Loryuenyong, V.; Rodklum, C.; Chaikwan, T.; Kumphan, N. 2012. Continuous Process for Biodiesel Production in Packed Bed Reactor from Waste Frying Oil Using Potassium Hydroxide Supported on Jatropha curcas Fruit Shell as Solid Catalyst. Applied Sciences-Basel. 2(3) 641-653

    The transesterification of waste frying oil (WFO) with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on Jatropha curcas fruit shell activated carbon (KOH/JS) was studied. The catalyst systems were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The effects of reaction variables such as residence time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio and catalyst bed height in packed bed reactor (PBR) on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. SEM images showed that KOH was well distributed on the catalyst support. The optimum conditions for achieving the conversion yield of 86.7% consisted of a residence time of 2 h, reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 16 and catalyst bed height of 250 mm. KOH/JS could be used repeatedly five times without any activation treatment, and no significant activity loss was observed. The results confirmed that KOH/JS catalyst had a great potential to be used for industrial application in the transesterification of WFO. The fuel properties of biodiesel were also determined.
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  121. Correction: Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin
    Abstract

    Pua, F. L.; Fang, Z.; Zakaria, S.; Guo, F.; Chia, C. H. 2012. Correction: Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin. Biotechnol Biofuels. 5(1) 66

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  122. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin (vol 4, 56, 2011)
    Abstract

    Pua, F. L.; Fang, Z.; Zakaria, S.; Guo, F.; Chia, C. H. 2012. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin (vol 4, 56, 2011). Biotechnology for Biofuels. 5

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  123. Evaluation of Jatropha macrocarpa as an oil crop for biodiesel production in arid lands of the Dry Chaco, Argentina
    Abstract

    Wassner, D.; Larran, A.; Rondanini, D. 2012. Evaluation of Jatropha macrocarpa as an oil crop for biodiesel production in arid lands of the Dry Chaco, Argentina. Journal of Arid Environments. 77153-156

    Jatropha macrocarpa grows naturally in arid environments of the Dry Chaco, northwestern Argentina, where freezing winters make impossible the cultivation of other species of the genus Jatropha. This article is the first report of J. macrocarpa seed productivity aimed to quantify the reproductive performance and seed oil characteristics at different stages of fruit ripening. In addition.J. macrocarpa is evaluated as a new oil crop for biodiesel. Fruits from natural populations near La Rioja city were hand-harvested during the 2007/8 reproductive season and classified according to 7 fruit sizes, from the smallest fruits (G1) to the largest (G7 or mature). Total seed production averaged 87 +/- 8 g plant(-1) throughout the growing season. Explosive dehiscence of mature fruits produced 46% of total seed loss. Mature fruits produced individual seeds of 550 +/- 7mg with a medium-to-high seed oil concentration ranging from 36 to 40%, and biomass allocation to seeds was 36% of total fruit biomass. Fruits harvested early, at the G6 stage, were lighter and had a significantly less oil concentration. Main fatty acids in mature seeds included linoleic (50%), oleic (32%), palmitic (8.5%) and stearic (7%) acids. Biodiesel quality parameters indicated only slight differences for cetane number and iodine value with respect to European normative requirements. The acceptable oil content of J. macrocarpa shows promise to be used for biodiesel production. However, the low productivity per plant and the explosive fruit dehiscence need to be corrected substantially by breeding. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  124. Fast, easy ethanomethanolysis of Jatropha curcus oil for biodiesel production due to the better solubility of oil with ethanol in reaction mixture assisted by ultrasonication
    Abstract

    Kumar, D.; Kumar, G.; Johari, R.; Kumar, P. 2012. Fast, easy ethanomethanolysis of Jatropha curcus oil for biodiesel production due to the better solubility of oil with ethanol in reaction mixture assisted by ultrasonication. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 19(4) 816-822

    Biodiesel was obtained by transesterification of Jatropha curcus oil with anhydrous methanol, ethanol, and various mixtures of methanol/ethanol system. The present research work ultrasonic assisted transesterification off. curcus oil was carried out in the presence of various mixtures of methanol/ethanol system and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst, keeping the molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:6. The methodology allows for the reaction to be run under atmospheric conditions. The ethanomethanolysis and ultrasonic mixing promote the rate of transesterification reaction due to the better solubility of oil with ethanol in reaction mixture and obtained methyl esters as well as ethyl esters. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  125. Feasibility study of microalgal and jatropha biodiesel production plants: Exergy analysis approach
    Abstract

    Ofori-Boateng, C.; Keat, T. L.; JitKang, L. 2012. Feasibility study of microalgal and jatropha biodiesel production plants: Exergy analysis approach. Applied Thermal Engineering. 36141-151

    The exergy analyses performed in this study are based on three thermodynamic performance parameters namely exergy destruction, exergy efficiency and thermodynamic improvement potentials. After mathematical analysis with Aspen Plus software, the results showed that 64% and 44% of the total exergy content of the input resources into microalgal methyl ester (MME) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) production plants were destroyed respectively for 1 ton of biodiesel produced. This implies that only 36% and 56% (for MME and JME production plants respectively) useful energy in the products is available to do work. The highest and lowest exergy destructions were recorded in the oil extraction units (38% and 39% of the total exergy destroyed for MME and JME plants respectively) and transesterification units (5% and 2% of total exergy destroyed for MME and JME plants respectively) respectively for 1 ton biodiesel produced. Since sustainable biodiesel production depends on cultivation of feedstock, oil extraction and transesterification processes, exergy analysis which is carried out on only the transesterification unit cannot justify the thermodynamic feasibility of the whole biodiesel production plant unless a complete thermodynamic assessment has been done for the whole plant Thus, according to this study which considers all the biodiesel production processes. MME and JME production plants are not thermodynamically feasible. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  126. Heat-integrated reactive distillation for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil
    Abstract

    Phuenduang, S.; Chatsirisook, P.; Simasatitkul, L.; Paengjuntuek, W.; Arpornwichanop, A. 2012. Heat-integrated reactive distillation for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil. 11th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering, Pts a and B. 31250-254

    Minimizing the biodiesel production cost by using inexpensive and inedible feedstock like Jatropha oil is more practical as it is readily available and also not competes with edible oils. However, Jatropha oil contains high free fatty acid content, which causes operational problems in biodiesel production via alkaline-based transesterification reaction. This study aims to design a biodiesel production process from Jatropha oil. A hydrolysis reactor is applied to convert triglyceride in Jatropha oil to fatty acid. The fatty acid obtained then reacts with methanol to produce methyl ester (biodiesel product) using an esterification process. A reactive distillation is employed to intensify reaction and separation tasks for the esterification process. In order to minimize energy consumption, the heat integration of a reactive distillation process is considered. The simulation result using a flowsheet simulator indicates that the heat-integrated reactive distillation can improve the biodiesel production by minimizing the energy requirements, compared with a conventional process.
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  127. Impacts of Jatropha-based biodiesel production on above and below-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Mozambique
    Abstract

    Rasmussen, L. V.; Rasmussen, K.; Bruun, T. B. 2012. Impacts of Jatropha-based biodiesel production on above and below-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Mozambique. Energy Policy. 51728-736

    The need to mitigate climate change makes production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Substituting fossil fuels by biodiesel produced from Jatropha curcas has gained widespread attention as Jatropha cultivation is claimed to offer green house gas emission reductions. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests into Jatropha, but whether Jatropha-based biodiesel offers carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to Jatropha. This paper provides an impact assessment of a small-scale Jatropha project in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above and below-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase Jatropha production. The results show that expansion of Jatropha production will most likely lead to the conversion of miombo forest areas to Jatropha, which implies a reduction in above and below-ground carbon stocks. The carbon debts created by the land use change can be repaid by replacing fossil fuels with Jatropha-based biodiesel. A repayment time of almost two centuries is found with optimistic estimates of the carbon debt, while the use of pessimistic values results in a repayment time that approaches the millennium. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  128. Integration of extraction and transesterification of lipid from jatropha seeds for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Lian, S.; Li, H. J.; Tang, J. Q.; Tong, D. M.; Hu, C. W. 2012. Integration of extraction and transesterification of lipid from jatropha seeds for the production of biodiesel. Applied Energy. 98540-547

    A process integrating the extraction and transesterification of lipid from jatropha kernel powder for the production of biodiesel with methanol assisted by hexane is reported in this paper. The effects of catalyst amount, reaction time, reaction temperature, and siphon tube height on the yield and characteristics of biodiesel were investigated. It was found that hexane played the role of both co-solvent and co-extractant, which enhanced the efficiency of lipid extraction and the formation of a single phase containing methanol and lipid, facilitating mass transfer. Therefore, the reaction system had liquid-flow-solid-catalyzed character. The flow velocity of extraction liquor was controlled to fit for the rate of transesterification via controlling the reaction conditions. The products containing 80.2% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) were obtained and its high heating value was 37.43 MJ/kg. In this process, the residue of kernel powder, catalyst and products were simultaneously separated. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  129. Iron Oxide Catalysts Supported on Porous Silica for the Production of Biodiesel from Crude Jatropha Oil
    Abstract

    Suzuta, T.; Toba, M.; Abe, Y.; Yoshimura, Y. 2012. Iron Oxide Catalysts Supported on Porous Silica for the Production of Biodiesel from Crude Jatropha Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 89(11) 1981-1989

    A heterogeneous catalyst, FeO (x) /SiO2, prepared by the pore-filling method, was found to be active in the transesterification of crude Jatropha oil with methanol. When the transesterification reaction was carried out with a reaction temperature of 220 A degrees C, a catalyst amount of 15 wt%, a methanol/oil molar ratio of 218:1, and a reaction time of 3 h, the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in the product exceeded 99.0 %, and met with EN standards for allowable contents of glycerine and mono-, di-, and tri-glycerides. The correlation between the FAME production activity and measured acidity of the FeO (x) /SiO2 catalysts showed that the transesterification reaction was promoted via the acidic function of these catalysts, which are less inhibited by coexisting free fatty acids in the feedstock triglycerides.
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  130. Jatropha curcas seed oil: detoxification in view of biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bondioli, P.; Rovellini, P.; Della Bella, L.; Rivolta, G. 2012. Jatropha curcas seed oil: detoxification in view of biodiesel production. Rivista Italiana Delle Sostanze Grasse. 89(3) 143-151

    Five kg of Jatropha curcas whole seed were crushed using a screw press. The extraction yield was higher than 85% of the total crude oil. After an evaluation of the total deoxy-hydroxy-phorbol esters content the oil was degummed and bleached with activated silica. After each treatment the deoxy-hydroxy-phorbol esters content decreased from an initial content of 2.32 % down to 2.16% and 1.69% respectively. The purified oil was physically neutralised in different temperature/time conditions, while residual pressure was maintained at 1 mbar. Several samples were taken during the experiments and it was possible to demonstrate that at temperatures higher than 230 degrees C it is possible to contemporarily remove both fatty acids and deoxy-hydroxy-phorbol esters from oil. A single HPLC method suitable for the evaluation of all classes of obtained products during biodiesel production was developed. Some hypotheses about the fate and transformation of the deoxy-hydroxy-phorbol esters are discussed and their degradation products evidenced. Finally four differently purified J. curcas oil samples were transformed into biodiesel. The results of deoxy-hydroxy-phorbol esters contents for both biodiesel and glycerol are reported.
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  131. Moisture sorption behaviour of jatropha seed (Jatropha curcas) as a source of vegetable oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kartika, I. A.; Yuliani, S.; Kailaku, S. I.; Rigal, L. 2012. Moisture sorption behaviour of jatropha seed (Jatropha curcas) as a source of vegetable oil for biodiesel production. Biomass & Bioenergy. 36226-233

    This research studied the moisture sorption behaviour of jatropha seed allowing the development of a model correlating the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and the free fatty acids (FFA) content as a function of water activity and EMC, respectively. Two sets of sorption-isotherm experiment were performed to describe the relationship between EMC and FFA content with water activity, for both fresh and dried seeds. The seeds were conditioned in series of saturated salts having certain water activity and stored at different temperatures (20, 30, 40 C). The nested experimental design and ANOVA (F-test at p = 0.05) were applied to study the effects of temperature and water activity on the EMC of jatropha seed.
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  132. Optimization of experimental conditions for composite biodiesel production from transesterification of mixed oils of Jatropha and Pongamia
    Abstract

    Yogish, H.; Chandrashekara, K.; Kumar, M. R. P. 2012. Optimization of experimental conditions for composite biodiesel production from transesterification of mixed oils of Jatropha and Pongamia. Heat and Mass Transfer. 48(11) 1955-1960

    India is looking at the renewable alternative sources of energy to reduce its dependence on import of crude oil. As India imports 70 % of the crude oil, the country has been greatly affected by increasing cost and uncertainty. Biodiesel fuel derived by the two step acid transesterification of mixed non-edible oils from Jatropha curcas and Pongamia (karanja) can meet the requirements of diesel fuel in the coming years. In the present study, different proportions of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, variation of Reaction time, Sulfuric acid and Reaction Temperature were adopted in order to optimize the experimental conditions for maximum biodiesel yield. The preliminary studies revealed that biodiesel yield varied widely in the range of 75-95 % using the laboratory scale reactor. The average yield of 95 % was obtained. The fuel and chemical properties of biodiesel, namely kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, density, flash point, fire point, calorific value, pH, acid value, iodine value, sulfur content, water content, glycerin content and sulfated ash values were found to be within the limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS 15607: 2005). The optimum combination of Methanol, Sodium hydroxide, Sulfuric acid, Reaction Time and Reaction Temperature are established.
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  133. Overview on the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. by using heterogenous catalysts
    Abstract

    Yusuf, N. N. A. N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Yaakob, Z. 2012. Overview on the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. by using heterogenous catalysts. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 6(3) 319-334

    Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered a future feedstock for biodiesel production because it is easily grown in harsh environments and is a non-edible crop that is not in demand as a food source. Three basic methods are used to produce biodiesel from oils/fats, namely the base-catalyzed transesterification, acid-catalyzed transesterification, and enzymatic catalysis. However, heterogeneous transesterification using a solid catalyst rather than a liquid acid or base catalyst is a more environmentally responsible way to utilize crude Jatropha oil for biodiesel production. The use of a heterogeneous catalyst also avoids neutralization and washing steps, thereby leading to a simpler and more efficient process. This paper presents an overview of the production of biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas Linnaeus (JCL) using a heterogeneous catalyst. This review also includes the current economic trend of biofuel production particularly on the production of biodiesel. Different types of conventional and advanced methods like ultrasound, microwave, membrane reactor, supercritical methanol, etc., using several types of heterogeneous catalysts like calcium oxide (CaO), sulfanated zirconia alumina (SZA) and others in the JCO biodiesel transesterification process are discussed in detail. The system design of the transesterification process via process simulation and optimization are also presented. Finally, the persistent challenges facing this process are discussed. (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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  134. Perspectives of Increasing Biodiesel Production through Introduction of Jatropha Curcas L. Into Subsistence Farming Systems: Experience from North Sumatra, Indonesia
    Abstract

    Verner, V.; Herak, D.; Simanjuntak, S.; Andert, L. 2012. Perspectives of Increasing Biodiesel Production through Introduction of Jatropha Curcas L. Into Subsistence Farming Systems: Experience from North Sumatra, Indonesia. 11th International Scientific Conference on Engineering for Rural Development, Vol 11. 417-422

    Jatropha curcas L. represents a promising oil-bearing crop particularly used for biodiesel production. The paper presents the economic analysis of Jatropha curcas L. planting among subsistence small-holders. The results are discussed with oil palm agribusiness and socioeconomic situation of target area. Environmental aspects are taken into consideration as well. Oil palm requires fertile soil, which together with the increasing demand of biofuels, strongly contributes to clash between food and energy crops and/or supports continuous deforestation while Jatropha curcas L. can be planted at a marginal, or otherwise not-used, land, since its requirements are lower comparing to oil palm, e. g., in the terms of soil quality, water supplies or skilled labour inputs. However, low purchasing price of the final product, seeds, makes Jatropha curcas L. less economically promising business for small-holders due to its long payback period and low rates of return. Simple cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is carried out in order to analyze the economic potential of planting Jatropha curcas L. under the specific natural and socioeconomic conditions of North Sumatra province, Indonesia. Different scenarios are proposed and the role of the government, small-holders and private capital are discussed. Special attention is focused on support to initial costs, which are the most important for maintaining the plantation, by development agencies or microfinance institutions, and, purchasing price increasing through the both development of market-chain as well as through contracting the farmers by state and/or private companies.
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  135. Physico-chemical screening of accessions of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Naresh, B.; Reddy, M. S.; Vijayalakshmi, P.; Reddy, V.; Devi, P. 2012. Physico-chemical screening of accessions of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production. Biomass & Bioenergy. 40155-161

    Biodiesel is an alternative environmentally friendly fuel made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats. The present report deals with screening of 14 accessions of Jatropha curcas collected from all over India to find the most suitable ones for production of Biodiesel. From the 14 accessions of J. curcas located in the plantation at Osmania University, 4 accessions were initially selected on the basis of traits like general appearance, pest resistance, seed yield and seed-oil content. Further, the seed-oil of these 4 accessions was characterized by physico-chemical analysis to identify the elite accessions for production of biodiesel. Highest 1000-seed weight (640 g) and highest percentage seed-oil content (50.16) (extracted by Soxhlet method with hexane as the solvent) was recorded in the "KM" accession. The transesterification process is affected by the presence of high free fatty acids (recorded in "MB" accession) and high moisture content (recorded in "KM" accession) of the seed-oil which also interfere with the separation of fatty esters and glycerol during production of Biodiesel. Further, high phosphorus content and iodine number (recorded in "MB" accession) interfere with conversion of seed-oil to Biodiesel. In the above context, in spite of its yield being lower, the seed-oil of the "RSAD" accession was found to be most suitable for Biodiesel production followed by "KM", "F.W.B" and "MB" accessions, since it contains lower free fatty acids, acid value, viscosity, diglycerides and iodine number. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  136. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil catalyzed by nanosized solid basic catalyst (vol 36, pg 777, 2011)
    Abstract

    Deng, X.; Fang, Z.; Liu, Y. H.; Yu, C. L. 2012. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil catalyzed by nanosized solid basic catalyst (vol 36, pg 777, 2011). Energy. 47(1) 637-640

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  137. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of Jatropha curcas shells: utilization of co-products from the biodiesel production process
    Abstract

    Visser, E. M.; Oliveira, D.; Totola, M. R.; Martins, M. A.; Guimaraes, V. M. 2012. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of Jatropha curcas shells: utilization of co-products from the biodiesel production process. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 35(5) 801-807

    Jatropha curcas has great potential as an oil crop for use in biodiesel applications, and the outer shell is rich in lignocellulose that may be converted to ethanol, giving rise to the concept of a biorefinery. In this study, two dilute pretreatments of 0.5% H2SO4 and 1.0% NaOH were performed on Jatropha shells with subsequent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated water-insoluble solids (WIS) to evaluate the effect of inhibitors in the pretreatment slurry. A cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g WIS, complimented with an excess of cellobiase (19.25 U/g), was used for SSF of either the washed WIS or the original slurry to determine the effect of inhibitors. Ethanol and glucose were monitored during SSF of 20 g of pretreated biomass. The unwashed slurry showed to have a positive effect on SSF efficiency for the NaOH-pretreated biomass. Maximum efficiencies of glucan conversion to ethanol in the WIS were 40.43% and 41.03% for the H2SO4- and NaOH-pretreated biomasses, respectively.
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  138. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of Jatropha curcas shells: utilization of co-products from the biodiesel production process
    Abstract

    Visser, E. M.; Oliveira Filho, D.; Totola, M. R.; Martins, M. A.; Guimaraes, V. M. 2012. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of Jatropha curcas shells: utilization of co-products from the biodiesel production process. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 35(5) 801-7

    Jatropha curcas has great potential as an oil crop for use in biodiesel applications, and the outer shell is rich in lignocellulose that may be converted to ethanol, giving rise to the concept of a biorefinery. In this study, two dilute pretreatments of 0.5% H(2)SO(4) and 1.0% NaOH were performed on Jatropha shells with subsequent simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the pretreated water-insoluble solids (WIS) to evaluate the effect of inhibitors in the pretreatment slurry. A cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g WIS, complimented with an excess of cellobiase (19.25 U/g), was used for SSF of either the washed WIS or the original slurry to determine the effect of inhibitors. Ethanol and glucose were monitored during SSF of 20 g of pretreated biomass. The unwashed slurry showed to have a positive effect on SSF efficiency for the NaOH-pretreated biomass. Maximum efficiencies of glucan conversion to ethanol in the WIS were 40.43% and 41.03% for the H(2)SO(4)- and NaOH-pretreated biomasses, respectively.
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  139. Technical Aspects of Variables Affecting Jatropha Methyl Ester Production - an Indian Case Study
    Abstract

    Bojan, S. G.; Chelladurai, S.; Durairaj, S. K. 2012. Technical Aspects of Variables Affecting Jatropha Methyl Ester Production - an Indian Case Study. Energy & Environment. 23(4) 619-629

    Biodiesel obtained from vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engine is becoming increasingly important. The biodiesel quality and yield are affected by the properties of the oil used. The properties of the oil vary from region to region depending on the nature of the soil in which oil crops are cultivated, agricultural practices, rainfall etc. In this study the raw oil from Jatropha Curcas seeds grown in the western Ghat section of South India was tested for its physiochemical properties to determine its suitability for biodiesel production. A bench scale, compact biodiesel processor was developed locally by the authors and biodiesel was produced from raw Jatropha Curcas oil using alkali based transesterification process. The physiochemical properties of the biodiesel produced meet the ASTM standards but the yield was comparatively low (80%v/v) because of the high free fatty acid content (13.7 mg KOH/g of oil) in the raw Jatropha Curcas oil. The brake thermal efficiency of the biodiesel produced as a fuel in a four stroke single cylinder diesel engine coupled with an electric generator (34.19%) at maximum load conditions shows the possibility of utilization of biodiesel produced as a fuel in the diesel engine.
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  140. The use of underwater high-voltage discharges to improve the efficiency of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Marousek, J.; Itoh, S.; Higa, O.; Kondo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Suwa, R.; Komiya, Y.; Tominaga, J.; Kawamitsu, Y. 2012. The use of underwater high-voltage discharges to improve the efficiency of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel production. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry. 59(6) 451-456

    Underwater high-voltage discharges (3.5 kV) resulting in 4.9 kJ shock waves (5060 MPa) were studied at the laboratory scale as a Jatropha curcas L. seed disintegration method. Grinding and macerating in an excess of methanol (3.5:1) was advantageous because methanol acts both as a liquid carrier for the pressure shock waves and as a solvent that increases the efficiency of oil extraction while remaining usable for esterification. The influence of the number of shock waves and the intensity of methanol maceration on the heat values of the pressed cake are stated in detail. Soxhlet extraction demonstrated that a greater than 94% oil extraction was achieved. The increased disintegration of vacuoles rich in oil was documented by surface area analysis, mineralization kinetics analysis, and electron microscopy. The working volumes were small, and the proportion of energy inadequate compared to the yields released; however, much can be improved by upgrading the process.
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  141. Two-step Biodiesel Production from Crude Jatropha curcas L. Oil Using Ultrasonic Irradiation Assisted
    Abstract

    Worapun, I.; Pianthong, K.; Thaiyasuit, P. 2012. Two-step Biodiesel Production from Crude Jatropha curcas L. Oil Using Ultrasonic Irradiation Assisted. Journal of Oleo Science. 61(4) 165-172

    In this paper, the feasibility of crude Jatropha curcas L. oil (CJCO) as raw material to produce biodiesel under low-frequency ultrasonic irradiation (40 kHz) assisted is examined. A two-step transesterification process (acid catalyzed esterification followed by alkaline catalyzed transesterification) is employed to produce biodiesel. In the first step, the high level of free fatty acid (FFA), 12.5%, of CJCO is successfully reduced to less than 3% by acid catalyzed esterification with 15% w/w methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration 3.0% w/w, ultrasonic irradiation time 20 min at under reaction temperature 30 degrees C, which are selected as optimum conditions for the acid catalyzed esterification. Then, the second step, alkaline catalyzed transesterification is carried out as methanol to oil ratio 15% w/w, catalyst concentration 1% w/w, reaction temperature 30 degrees C and ultrasonic irradiation time 30 min. This results to high percentage of conversion to biodiesel about 98%. Comparing the results obtained under the ultrasonic irradiation in this study with those under conventional stirring conditions, ultrasonic irradiation technique significantly illustrated the higher efficiency than the conventional method, especially for the high FFA oil.
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  142. Utilization of palm empty fruit bunch for the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil
    Abstract

    Yaakob, Z.; Bin Sukarman, I. S.; Narayanan, B.; Abdullah, S. R. S.; Ismail, M. 2012. Utilization of palm empty fruit bunch for the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil. Bioresource Technology. 104695-700

    Transesterification reaction of Jatropha curcas oil with methanol was carried out in the presence of ash generated from Palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) in a heterogeneous catalyzed process. The ash was doped with KOH by impregnation to achieve a potassium level of 20 wt.%. Under optimum conditions for the EFB-catalyzed (65 degrees C, oil/methanol ratio of 15, 90 min, 20 wt.% EFB ash catalyst) and the KOH-EFB-catalyzed reactions (65 degrees C, oil/methanol ratio of 15,45 min, 15 wt.% of KOH doped EFB ash), biodiesel (>98%) with specifications higher than those stipulated by European biodiesel quality standard EN 14214 was obtained. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  143. 1,3-Propanediol production from crude glycerol from jatropha biodiesel process
    Abstract

    Hiremath, A.; Kannabiran, M.; Rangaswamy, V. 2011. 1,3-Propanediol production from crude glycerol from jatropha biodiesel process. New Biotechnology. 28(1) 19-23

    The present report describes production of 1,3-propanediol by Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 15380 from crude glycerol from jatropha biodiesel process. Optimization resulted in a yield of up to 56 g/L of 1,3-propanediol. A conversion rate of 0.85 mol 1,3-propanediol/mol of glycerol has been obtained. Downstream processing to isolate 1,3-propanediol from the fermentation broth resulted in 99.7% pure product with a recovery of 34%. The pure 1,3-propanediol was polymerized with terephthalic acid successfully to yield polytrimethylene terephthalate.
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  144. A green catalyst for biodiesel production from jatropha oil: Optimization study
    Abstract

    Yee, K. F.; Wu, J. C. S.; Lee, K. T. 2011. A green catalyst for biodiesel production from jatropha oil: Optimization study. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(5) 1739-1746

    In this study, a simple and solvent-free method was used to prepare sulfated zirconia-alumina (SZA) catalyst. Its catalytic activity was subsequently investigated for the transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. oil to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The effects of catalyst preparation parameters on the yield of FAME were investigated using Design of Experiment (DOE). Results revealed that calcination temperature has a quadratic effect while calcination duration has a linear effect on the yield of FAME. Apart from that, interaction between both variables was also found to significantly affect the yield of FAME. At optimum condition; calcination temperature and calcination duration at 490 degrees C and 4 h, respectively, an optimum FAME yield of 78.2 wt% was obtained. Characterization with XRD, IR and BET were then used to verify the characteristic of SZA catalyst with those prepared using well established method and also to describe the catalyst characteristic with its activity. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  145. A review of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas L. oil
    Abstract

    Koh, M. Y.; Ghazi, T. I. M. 2011. A review of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas L. oil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(5) 2240-2251

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. However, the limited reserve of fossil fuel has drawn the attention of many researchers to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from renewable feedstock.
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  146. Application of a Burkholderia cepacia lipase-immobilized silica monolith to batch and continuous biodiesel production with a stoichiometric mixture of methanol and crude Jatropha oil
    Abstract

    Kawakami, K.; Oda, Y.; Takahashi, R. 2011. Application of a Burkholderia cepacia lipase-immobilized silica monolith to batch and continuous biodiesel production with a stoichiometric mixture of methanol and crude Jatropha oil. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 4

    Background: The enzymatic production of biodiesel through alcoholysis of triglycerides has become more attractive because it shows potential in overcoming the drawbacks of chemical processes. In this study, we investigate the production of biodiesel from crude, non-edible Jatropha oil and methanol to characterize Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized in an n-butyl-substituted hydrophobic silica monolith. We also evaluate the performance of a lipase-immobilized silica monolith bioreactor in the continuous production of biodiesel.
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  147. Biodiesel production from crude oil of Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata by transesterification process
    Abstract

    Siddiqui, M. H.; Kumar, A.; Farooqui, A.; Kesari, K. K.; Arif, J. M. 2011. Biodiesel production from crude oil of Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata by transesterification process. International Journal of Oil Gas and Coal Technology. 4(2) 192-206

    The present study is aimed to produce biodiesel from non-edible oil sources such as crude oil of Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata by transesterification process which can occur at different temperatures (45 degrees C to 70 degrees C), depending on the oil used. For the transesterification off. curcas oil (methanol 15% of oil and 12 g NaOH/litre), the reaction was studied with different temperatures. It was found that much of the process complexity originates from contaminants in the feedstock, such as water and free fatty acids, or impurities in the final product, such as methanol, free glycerol and soap. Results shows that purified ester yields at 45 degrees C were 76% for 1 hr and 80% for 2 hr. At 50 degrees C, purified ester yields were 79% for 4 hr and 76.75% for 6 hr. In case of Pongamia pinnata, purified ester yields at 50 degrees C were 79% for 4 hr and 83% for 6 hr. Further, when the fuel was tested for its authenticity to be used in diesel engine based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), it was found that the fuel was coming within the prescribed standards. The study concludes that temperature clearly influenced the reaction rate and yield of esters. [Received: May 6,2010; Accepted: August 12, 2010]
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  148. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: a critical review
    Abstract

    Abdulla, R.; Chan, E. S.; Ravindra, P. 2011. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: a critical review. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 31(1) 53-64

    The fuel crisis and environmental concerns, mainly due to global warming, have led researchers to consider the importance of biofuels such as biodiesel. Vegetable oils, which are too viscous to be used directly in engines, are converted into their corresponding methyl or ethyl esters by a process called transesterification. With the recent debates on "food versus fuel," non-edible oils, such as Jatropha curcas, are emerging as one of the main contenders for biodiesel production. Much research is still needed to explore and realize the full potential of a green fuel from J. curcas. Upcoming projects and plantations of Jatropha in countries such as India, Malaysia, and Indonesia suggest a promising future for this plant as a potential biodiesel feedstock. Many of the drawbacks associated with chemical catalysts can be overcome by using lipases for enzymatic transesterification. The high cost of lipases can be overcome, to a certain extent, by immobilization techniques. This article reviews the importance of the J. curcas plant and describes existing research conducted on Jatropha biodiesel production. The article highlights areas where further research is required and relevance of designing an immobilized lipase for biodiesel production is discussed.
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  149. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil by catalytic and non-catalytic approaches: An overview
    Abstract

    Juan, J. C.; Kartika, D. A.; Wu, T. Y.; Hin, T. Y. Y. 2011. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil by catalytic and non-catalytic approaches: An overview. Bioresource Technology. 102(2) 452-460

    Biodiesel (fatty acids alkyl esters) is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is obtained from renewable sources such as vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil. Vegetable oils are more suitable source for biodiesel production compared to animal fats and waste cooking since they are renewable in nature. However, there is a concern that biodiesel production from vegetable oil would disturb the food market. Oil from Jatropha curcas is an acceptable choice for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and can be easily grown in a harsh environment. Moreover, alkyl esters of jatropha oil meet the standard of biodiesel in many countries. Thus, the present paper provides a review on the transesterification methods for biodiesel production using jatropha oil as feedstock. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  150. Comparison and optimisation of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil using supercritical methyl acetate and methanol
    Abstract

    Niza, N. M.; Tan, K. T.; Ahmad, Z.; Lee, K. T. 2011. Comparison and optimisation of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil using supercritical methyl acetate and methanol. Chemical Papers. 65(5) 721-729

    In this study, biodiesel has been successfully produced by transesterification using non-catalytic supercritical methanol and methyl acetate. The variables studied, such as reaction time, reaction temperature and molar ratio of methanol or methyl acetate to oil, were optimised to obtain the optimum yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Subsequently, the results for both reactions were analysed and compared via Response Surface Methodology (RSM) analysis. The mathematical models for both reactions were found to be adequate to predict the optimum yield of biodiesel. The results from the optimisation studies showed that a yield of 89.4 % was achieved for the reaction with supercritical methanol within the reaction time of 27 min, reaction temperature of 358A degrees C, and methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 44. For the reaction in the presence of supercritical methyl acetate, the optimum conditions were found to be: reaction time of 32 min, reaction temperature of 400A degrees C, and methyl acetate-to-oil molar ratio of 50 to achieve 71.9 % biodiesel yield. The differences in the behaviour of methanol and methyl acetate in the transesterification reaction are largely due to the difference in reactivity and mutual solubility of Jatropha curcas oil and methanol/methyl acetate.
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  151. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin
    Abstract

    Pua, F. L.; Fang, Z.; Zakaria, S.; Guo, F.; Chia, C. H. 2011. Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 4

    Background: Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated.
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  152. Effects of solid pre-treatment towards optimizing supercritical methanol extraction and transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seeds for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Lim, S.; Lee, K. T. 2011. Effects of solid pre-treatment towards optimizing supercritical methanol extraction and transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. seeds for the production of biodiesel. Separation and Purification Technology. 81(3) 363-370

    Experimental studies for in situ extraction and transesterification of oil seeds had been carried out recently for the process intensification of biodiesel production. As opposed to the conventional method, the solid oil seeds would be in direct contact with the transesterification reagent. Both the oil extraction and subsequent transesterification process to biodiesel will occur simultaneously. Consequently, solid pre-treatments would play a critical role to ensure that the oil seeds are in a state for optimal oil extraction. Apart from obtaining a higher yield, this could also ensure that the oil extraction phase would not bottleneck the entire in situ extraction and transesterification process. However, solid pre-treatments could be both cost and energy intensive and therefore should be carefully selected for optimum advantages. In this experimental work, ground Jatropha curcas L seeds were subjected to pre-treatments processes including de-shelling, sieving, drying and heat treatment at five different temperatures (45-105 degrees C) and two different durations (12 and 24 h) before undergoing single-step supercritical methanol extraction and transesterification. Conventional two-step extraction and transesterification was also performed as comparison to the single-step process. The effects of each pre-treatment were analyzed and optimized towards two responses (extraction and FAME yield). The highest extraction and FAME yield for the two-step and single-step processes were 66.82% w/w, 114.87% w/w and 68.50% w/w, 128.78% w/w respectively. Single-step supercritical methanol extraction and transesterification was found to be able to provide a higher extraction and FAME yield for the production of biodiesel with less pre-treatment stages and intensity as compared to the conventional two-step process. Therefore, this is a highly promising approach to reduce the high biodiesel production cost which is currently impairing the industry. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  153. Genetic evaluation of Jatropha curcas: an important oilseed for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Freitas, R. G.; Missio, R. F.; Matos, F. S.; Resende, M. D. V.; Dias, L. A. S. 2011. Genetic evaluation of Jatropha curcas: an important oilseed for biodiesel production. Genetics and Molecular Research. 10(3) 1490-1498

    Jatropha curcas, internationally and locally known, respectively, as physic nut and pinhao manso, is a highly promising species for biodiesel production in Brazil and other countries in the tropics. It is rustic, grows in warm regions and is easily cultivated. These characteristics and high-quality oil yields from the seeds have made this plant a priority for biodiesel programs in Brazil. Consequently, this species merits genetic investigations aimed at improving yields. Some studies have detected genetic variability in accessions in Africa and Asia. We have made the first genetic evaluation of J. curcas collected from Brazil. Our objective was to quantify genetic diversity and to estimate genetic parameters for growth and production traits and seed oil content. We evaluated 75 J. curcas progenies collected from Brazil and three from Cambodia. The mean oil content in the seeds was 31%, ranging from 16 to 45%. No genetic correlation between growth traits and seed oil content was found. However, high coefficients of genetic variation were found for plant height, number of branches, height of branches, and stem diameter. The highest individual narrow-sense heritabilities were found for leaf length (0.35) and width (0.34), stem diameter (0.24) and height of branches (0.21). We used a clustering algorithm to genetically identify the closest and most distant progenies, to assist in the development of new cultivars. Geographical diversity did not necessarily represent the genetic diversity among the accessions collected. These results are important for the continuity of breeding programs, aimed at obtaining cultivars with high grain yield and high oil content in seeds.
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  154. Genetic evaluation of Jatropha curcas: an important oilseed for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Freitas, R. G.; Missio, R. F.; Matos, F. S.; Resende, M. D.; Dias, L. A. 2011. Genetic evaluation of Jatropha curcas: an important oilseed for biodiesel production. Genet Mol Res. 10(3) 1490-8

    Jatropha curcas, internationally and locally known, respectively, as physic nut and pinhao manso, is a highly promising species for biodiesel production in Brazil and other countries in the tropics. It is rustic, grows in warm regions and is easily cultivated. These characteristics and high-quality oil yields from the seeds have made this plant a priority for biodiesel programs in Brazil. Consequently, this species merits genetic investigations aimed at improving yields. Some studies have detected genetic variability in accessions in Africa and Asia. We have made the first genetic evaluation of J. curcas collected from Brazil. Our objective was to quantify genetic diversity and to estimate genetic parameters for growth and production traits and seed oil content. We evaluated 75 J. curcas progenies collected from Brazil and three from Cambodia. The mean oil content in the seeds was 31%, ranging from 16 to 45%. No genetic correlation between growth traits and seed oil content was found. However, high coefficients of genetic variation were found for plant height, number of branches, height of branches, and stem diameter. The highest individual narrow-sense heritabilities were found for leaf length (0.35) and width (0.34), stem diameter (0.24) and height of branches (0.21). We used a clustering algorithm to genetically identify the closest and most distant progenies, to assist in the development of new cultivars. Geographical diversity did not necessarily represent the genetic diversity among the accessions collected. These results are important for the continuity of breeding programs, aimed at obtaining cultivars with high grain yield and high oil content in seeds.
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  155. H2SO4/CaO-Catalyzed Process for Biodiesel Production from High Acid Value Jatropha curcas Crude Oil
    Abstract

    Tsuchiya, Y.; Kaneki, Y.; Yamakoshi, Y. 2011. H2SO4/CaO-Catalyzed Process for Biodiesel Production from High Acid Value Jatropha curcas Crude Oil. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 44(7) 529-533

    Transesterification is affected by the free fatty acid (FFA) content of vegetable oils or animal fats. A two-step H2SO4/CaO-catalyzed methanolysis process has been employed for the efficient conversion of Jatropha curcas crude oil, which has an acid value greater than 30 mg KOH/g, into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The effects of H2SO4 catalyst addition, of FFA, and of the water produced as a by-product are investigated. The maximum esterification activity of the initial FFA content are obtained with 0.5-1.2 wt% H2SO4 relative to Jatropha crude oil. The esterification product is used as the substrate for a second, CaO-catalyzed, transesterification. Water usually has an adverse effect on transesterification; however, this study proves that the effect of water is negligible. Using this two-step methanolysis reaction, a FAME level greater than 96% can be obtained in the final product.
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  156. Heterogeneous catalysis for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil (JCO)
    Abstract

    Endalew, A. K.; Kiros, Y.; Zanzi, R. 2011. Heterogeneous catalysis for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil (JCO). Energy. 36(5) 2693-2700

    This work focuses on the development of heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from high free fatty acid (FFA) containing Jatropha curcas oil (KO). Solid base and acid catalysts were prepared and tested for transesterification in a batch reactor under mild reaction conditions. Mixtures of solid base and acid catalysts were also tested for single-step simultaneous esterification and transesterification. More soap formation was found to be the main problem for calcium oxide (CaO) and lithium doped calcium oxide (Li-CaO) catalysts during the reaction of jatropha oil and methanol than for the rapeseed oil (RSO). CaO with Li doping showed increased conversion to biodiesel than bare CaO as a catalyst. La(2)O(3)/ZnO, La(2)O(3)/Al(2)O(3) and La(0.1)Ca(0.9)MnO(3) catalysts were also tested and among them La(2)O(3)-ZnO showed higher activity. Mixture of solid base catalysts (CaO and Li-CaO)and solid acid catalyst (Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)) were found to give complete conversion to biodiesel in a single-step simultaneous esterification and transesterification process. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  157. Influence of various parameters on reactive extraction of Jatropha curcas L. for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kasim, F. H.; Harvey, A. P. 2011. Influence of various parameters on reactive extraction of Jatropha curcas L. for biodiesel production. Chemical Engineering Journal. 171(3) 1373-1378

    Reactive extraction (in situ transesterification) of Jatropha curcas L (Jatropha) seeds for biodiesel production is influenced by a variety of parameters, including seeds size, agitation speed, reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst concentration and molar ratio of alcohol compare to the oil. In this study, these parameters were studied in the ranges of <0.5-4 mm seeds particle size, 200-300 rpm, agitation speed, 30-60 degrees C reaction temperature, 10-60 min reaction time, 0.1-0.2 N NaOH concentration and 100-600 molar ratio of methanol-to-oil. It was established that the smallest particle size (below 0.71 mm) resulted in the highest yield of biodiesel production. The biodiesel yield was found to be independent of intensity of the mixing once it reached 300 rpm, whereas reaction temperature did not exhibit any significant effect on the yield. It was also demonstrated that alkaline reactive extraction was complete in 20-30 min. The concentration of NaOH can affect biodiesel yield in both positive and negative way. Low concentration of NaOH (0.05 N) resulted in low yield, but at higher concentrations (0.2 N), emulsions form, due to a saponification side reaction, adversely affecting the yield. In this case, a NaOH concentration of 0.15 N produced the highest yield. It was also discovered that when the methanol-to-oil ratio reached 400, the biodiesel yield reached a constant state. The optimal conditions in this study are approximately <0.71 mm seeds particle size, 300 rpm mixing speed, 30 degrees C reaction temperature, 30 min reaction time, 0.15 N NaOH concentration and methanol:oil molar ratio of 400. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  158. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from jatropha
    Abstract

    Kaewcharoensombat, U.; Prommetta, K.; Srinophakun, T. 2011. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from jatropha. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 42(3) 454-462

    In this article, process design alternatives in biodiesel production process is investigated from an environment impacts point of view. Jatropha in Thailand was assumed as the raw material for the evaluated process. Process alternatives using two different catalysts, i.e. sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide, were design and compared in terms of environmental impact and optimum operation. Estimation of process inventories was performed using Aspen Plus (R) simulation software, while the environmental impacts were evaluated by Eco-indicator 99 in SimaPro 7. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to estimate environmental impacts in three categories: human health, ecosystem quality, and resource depletion. The results show that the process using sodium hydroxide has greater environmental impacts on human health and the ecosystem; however, resource depletion is lower. (C) 2010 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  159. Life cycle assessment of small-scale high-input Jatropha biodiesel production in India
    Abstract

    Pandey, K. K.; Pragya, N.; Sahoo, P. K. 2011. Life cycle assessment of small-scale high-input Jatropha biodiesel production in India. Applied Energy. 88(12) 4831-4839

    In the current scenario of depleting energy resources, increasing food insecurity and global warming, Jatropha has emerged as a promising energy crop for India. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle energy balance for Jatropha biodiesel production and greenhouse gas emissions from post-energy use and end combustion of biodiesel, over a period of 5 years. It's a case specific study for a small scale, high input Jatropha biodiesel system. Most of the existing studies have considered low input Jatropha biodiesel system and have used NEB (Net energy balance i.e. difference of energy output and energy input) and NER (Net energy ratio i.e. ratio of energy output to energy input) as indicators for estimating the viability of the systems. Although, many of them have shown these indicators to be positive, yet the values are very less. The results of this study, when compared with two previous studies of Jatropha, show that the values for these indicators can be increased to a much greater extent, if we use a high input Jatropha biodiesel system. Further, when compared to a study done on palm oil and Coconut oil, it was found even if the NEB and NER of biodiesel from Jatropha were lesser in comparison to those of Palm oil and Coconut oil, yet, when energy content of the co-products were also considered, Jatropha had the highest value for both the indicators in comparison to the rest two. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  160. Lithium ion impregnated calcium oxide as nano catalyst for the biodiesel production from karanja and jatropha oils
    Abstract

    Kaur, M.; Ali, A. 2011. Lithium ion impregnated calcium oxide as nano catalyst for the biodiesel production from karanja and jatropha oils. Renewable Energy. 36(11) 2866-2871

    Lithium impregnated calcium oxide has been prepared by wet impregnation method in nano particle form as supported by powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Basic strength of the same was measured by Hammett indicators. Calcium oxide impregnated with 1.75 wt% of lithium was used as solid catalyst for the transesterification karanja and jatropha oil, containing 3.4 and 8.3 wt% of free fatty acids, respectively. The reaction parameters, viz., reaction temperature, alcohol to oil molar ratio, free fatty acid contents, amount of catalyst and amount of impregnated lithium ion in calcium oxide support, have been studied to establish the most suitable condition for the transesterification reaction. The complete transesterification of karanja and jatropha oils was achieved in 1 and 2 h, respectively, at 65 degrees C, utilizing 12:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 5 wt% (catalyst/oil, w/w) of catalyst. Few physicochemical properties of the prepared biodiesel samples have been studied and compared with standard values. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  161. Methanolysis of Jatropha curcas Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Sahu, G.; Saha, S.; Maity, S.; Sen, R.; Datta, S.; Chavan, P.; Sharma, B. K.; Naik, S. N. 2011. Methanolysis of Jatropha curcas Oil for Biodiesel Production. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 23(8) 3420-3424

    The transesterification of jatropha oil with methanol to methyl ester was carried out using KNO(3)/Al(2)O(3) as a solid base catalyst. It was found that the catalyst with 35 % KNO(3) loading and calcined at 773 K showed the optimum condition. When the transesterification was carried out at 70 degrees C, with a 15:1 molar ratio of methanol to jatropha oil, a reaction time of 7 h and a catalyst amount of 6 % wt, the conversion of jatropha oil was 86 %. The catalyst was also characterized with FTIR, XRD, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, true density, particle size analyzer and SEM study.
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  162. One-step production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil with high-acid value in ionic liquids
    Abstract

    Guo, F.; Fang, Z.; Tian, X. F.; Long, Y. D.; Jiang, L. Q. 2011. One-step production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil with high-acid value in ionic liquids. Bioresource Technology. 102(11) 6469-6472

    Catalytic conversion of un-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (13.8 mg KOH/g) to biodiesel was studied in ionic liquids (ILs) with metal chlorides. Several commercial ILs were used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid. It was found that 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate ([BMIm][CH(3)SO(3)]; a Bronsted acidic IL) had the highest catalytic activity with 93% esterification rate for oleic acid at 140 degrees C but only 12% biodiesel yield at 120 degrees C. When FeCl(3) was added to [BMIm][CH(3)SO(3)], a maximum biodiesel yield of 99.7% was achieved at 120 degrees C. Because metal ions in ILs supplied Lewis acidic sites, and more of the sites could be provided by trivalent metallic ions than those of bivalent ones. It was also found that the catalytic activity with bivalent metallic ions increased with atomic radius. Mixture of [BMIm][CH(3)SO(3)] and FeCl(3) was easily separated from products for reuse to avoid producing pollutants. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  163. Pilot plant study on biodiesel production from Karanja and Jatropha oils
    Abstract

    Sahu, G.; Das, L. M.; Sharma, B. K.; Naik, S. N. 2011. Pilot plant study on biodiesel production from Karanja and Jatropha oils. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering. 6(1) 38-43

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel. This pilot plant study highlights the production of biodiesel from two nonedible oils, i.e. Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) oil and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) oil, by transesterification process with methanol using KOH as alkali catalyst. Yield percentages of biodiesel obtained and its flash point (degrees C), cloud point (degrees C), pour point (degrees C), kinematic viscosity (mm(2)/s at 40 degrees C) and other relevant fuel properties of pure and blended biodiesel were compared. The fuel properties of pure and blended biodiesel produced were found to be well within the range of ASTM specifications. The process optimization study on catalyst concentration and time to get maximum yield is presented, i.e. 1% catalyst concentration and time duration of 3 h were found to be suitable conditions to obtain the maximum yield. (C) 2010 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  164. Process optimization design for jatropha-based biodiesel production using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Yunus, R.; Juan, J. C.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2011. Process optimization design for jatropha-based biodiesel production using response surface methodology. Fuel Processing Technology. 92(12) 2420-2428

    Biodiesel of non food vegetal oil origin is gaining attention as a replacement for current fossil fuels as its non-food chain interfering manufacturing processes shall prevent food source competition which is expected to happen with current biodiesel production processes. As a result, non edible Jatropho curcas plant oil is claimed to be a highly potential feedstock for non-food origin biodiesel.CaO-MgO mixed oxide catalyst was employed in transesterification of non-edible J. curcas plant oil in biodiesel production. Response surface methodology (RSM) in conjunction with the central composite design (CCD) was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the biodiesel production process. It was found that the production of biodiesel achieved an optimum level of 93.55% biodiesel yield at the following reaction conditions: 1) Methanol/oil molar ratio: 38.67, 2) Reaction time: 3.44 h, 3) Catalyst amount: 3.70 wt.%, and 4) Reaction temperature: 115.87 degrees C. In economic point of view, transesterification of J. curcas plant oil using CaO-MgO mixed oxide catalyst requires less energy which contributed to high production cost in biodiesel production. The incredibly high biodiesel yield of 93.55% was proved to be the synergetic effect of basicity between the active components of CaO-MgO shown in the physicochemical analysis. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  165. Production and selected fuel properties of biodiesel from promising non-edible oils: Euphorbia lathyris L., Sapium sebiferum L. and Jatropha curcas L.
    Abstract

    Wang, R.; Hanna, M. A.; Zhou, W. W.; Bhadury, P. S.; Chen, Q.; Song, B. A.; Yang, S. 2011. Production and selected fuel properties of biodiesel from promising non-edible oils: Euphorbia lathyris L., Sapium sebiferum L. and Jatropha curcas L.. Bioresource Technology. 102(2) 1194-1199

    A comparative study on the composition, biodiesel production and fuel properties of non-edible oils from Euphorbia lathyris L (EL), Sapium sebiferum L (SS), and Jatropha curcas L (JC) was conducted. Under optimal conditions, the FAME content and yield of the three oils were greater than 97.5 wt.% and 84.0%, respectively. The best biodiesel was produced from EL due to its high monounsaturation (82.66 wt.%, Cn: 1), low polyunsaturation (6.49 wt.%, Cn: 2, 3) and appropriate proportion of saturated components (8.78 wt.%, Cn: 0). Namely, EL biodiesel possessed a cetane number of 59.6, an oxidation stability of 10.4 h and a cold filter plug point of -11 degrees C. However, the cetane number (40.2) and oxidative stability (0.8 h) of dewaxed SS kernel oil (DSSK) biodiesel were low due to the high polyunsaturation (72.79 wt.%). In general, the results suggest that E. lathyris L. is a promising species for biodiesel feedstock. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  166. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil catalyzed by SO42-/ZrO2 catalyst: Effect of interaction between process variables
    Abstract

    Yee, K. F.; Lee, K. T.; Ceccato, R.; Abdullah, A. Z. 2011. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil catalyzed by SO42-/ZrO2 catalyst: Effect of interaction between process variables. Bioresource Technology. 102(5) 4285-4289

    This study reports the conversion of Jatropha curcas L oil to biodiesel catalyzed by sulfated zirconia loaded on alumina catalyst using response surface methodology (RSM), specifically to study the effect of interaction between process variables on the yield of biodiesel. The transesterification process variables studied were reaction temperature, reaction duration, molar ratio of methanol to oil and catalyst loading. Results from this study revealed that individual as well as interaction between variables significantly affect the yield of biodiesel. With this information, it was found that 4 h of reaction at 150 C, methanol to oil molar ratio of 9.88 mol/mol and 7.61 wt.% for catalyst loading gave an optimum biodiesel yield of 90.32 wt.%. The fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel were characterized and it indeed met the specification for biodiesel according to ASTM D6751. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  167. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil catalyzed by nanosized solid basic catalyst
    Abstract

    Deng, X.; Fang, Z.; Liu, Y. H.; Yu, C. L. 2011. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil catalyzed by nanosized solid basic catalyst. Energy. 36(2) 777-784

    In this work, hydrotalcite-derived particles with Mg/Al molar ratio of 3/1 were synthesized by a co-precipitation method using urea as precipitating agent, subsequently with (MHT) microwave-hydrothermal treatment, and followed by calcination at 773 K for 6 h. These particles were micro-sized mixed Mg/Al oxides as characterized by SEM and AFM. But actually they were nanosized according to the calculations from XRD data. Because of their strong basicity, the nanoparticles were further used as catalyst for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil after pretreatment. Experiments were conducted with the solid basic catalyst in an ultrasonic reactor under different conditions. At the optimized condition, biodiesel yield of 95.2% was achieved, and the biodiesel properties were close to those of the German standard. The catalyst can be reused for 8 times. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  168. Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Biodiesel Production from High Ffa Jatropha Curcas Oil
    Abstract

    Bojan, S. G.; Chelladurai, S.; Durairaj, S. K. 2011. Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Biodiesel Production from High Ffa Jatropha Curcas Oil. International Journal of Green Energy. 8(6) 607-617

    In order to optimize reaction parameters of biodiesel production from high free fatty acid Jatropha curcas oil by alkali catalyst-based transesterification process, response surface methodology involving central composite design was applied. The effect of five-level three factors and their reciprocal interactions were studied. A total of 20 experiments were conducted and designed to study the effect of reaction temperature, catalyst quantity, and methanol to oil molar ratio on the biodiesel yield. A second-order polynomial regression model was fitted and found adequate with R-2 of 0.9879. The model predicted that the highest yield of methyl ester would be 81.93% at the following optimized conditions: reaction temperature of 61 degrees C, alkali catalyst of 2.06% w/w of oil, and methanol to oil molar ratio of 7.28:1. Using these optimal factors under experimental conditions in three independent replicates, an average of 80.32 +/- 0.82% yield was achieved and the value was well within the range predicted by the model.
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  169. Application of lipase from the physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) to a new hybrid (enzyme/chemical) hydroesterification process for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    de Sousa, J. S.; Cavalcanti-Oliveira, E. D.; Aranda, D. A. G.; Freire, D. M. G. 2010. Application of lipase from the physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) to a new hybrid (enzyme/chemical) hydroesterification process for biodiesel production. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 65(1-4) 133-137

    The aim of this study was to characterize a new plant enzyme (with high lipase activity) extracted from germinated physic nut seeds, and to apply this lipase to the production of biodiesel using a new process of enzyme/chemical hydroesterification. The lipase activity was detected only in the vegetable enzyme extract from germinated seeds (VEEG). Similar activities were obtained for substrates with different lengths of fatty-acid chains (111 +/- 19 U/g for tributyrin (C4:0), 106 +/- 49 U/g for tricaprylin (C8:0), and 96 +/- 4 U/g for olive oil (C18:1)). The VEEG, obtained by a controlled processes of seed germination, was able to hydrolyze a wide range of biodiesel raw materials (vegetable oils, tallow, and biodiesel waste): of these, soy and physic nut oil showed especially high hydrolysis conversion (97% FFA). The biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters) was produced by the hydrolysis of the physic nut oil using the VEEG, and subsequent esterification of the generated fatty acids with methanol by heterogeneous acid catalysis (niobic acid in pellets). The resulting biodiesel was of excellent quality, with the following properties: viscosity (5.5 mm(2)/s), ester content (97.1%), total glycerol (0.09% w/w), max. methanol (0.05% w/w), and CFPP (0 degrees C). (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  170. Biodiesel Production from Crude Sunflower Oil and Crude Jatropha Oil Using Immobilized Lipase
    Abstract

    Rattanaphra, D.; Srinophakun, P. 2010. Biodiesel Production from Crude Sunflower Oil and Crude Jatropha Oil Using Immobilized Lipase. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 43(1) 104-108

    The aim of this research was to study the immobilization of lipase on chitosan by adsorption in order to examine the use of lipase as a catalyst in the transesterification of crude sunflower oil and Jatropha oil. The highest activity of immobilized lipase was found to be 857 U/g, and it corresponded to a glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.05%, pH 7, and a temperature of 37 degrees C. On the other hand, the activity of free lipase was 2,136 U/g. The optimum conditions for the transesterification of crude sunflower oil were as follows: oil-to-methanol molar ratio, 1: 3; immobilized lipase, 100% (w/w of oil); water content, 20% (w/w of oil); shaking speed, 200 rpm; and temperature, 50 degrees C for 24 h. The maximum amount of methyl esters produced was 25%. When free lipase was used as the catalyst under the same conditions, the amount of methyl esters produced was 33%. The transesterification of Jatropha oil was also studied to compare the activities of the two types of lipases. Both types of lipases activate the tranesterification of sunflower oil more easily than the transesterification of Jatropha oil.
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  171. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas Oil
    Abstract

    Jain, S.; Sharma, M. P. 2010. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas Oil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 14(9) 3140-3147

    In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable, looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation sector, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The vegetable oils, fats, grease are the source of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Significant work has been reported on the kinetics of transesterification of edible vegetable oils but little work is reported on non-edible oils. Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstocks for biodiesel production in India and limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high FFA containing oil. The present study reports a review of kinetics of biodiesel production. The paper also reveals the results of kinetics study of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 and 50 degrees C for esterification and transesterification process, respectively, under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H(2)SO(4) and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind dealing with simplified kinetics of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried at optimum temperature of both the steps which took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  172. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: A review
    Abstract

    Parawira, W. 2010. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: A review. Scientific Research and Essays. 5(14) 1796-1808

    Biodiesel has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can be obtained from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and from animal fat. Jatropha curcas Linnaeus, a multipurpose plant, contains high amount of oil in its seeds which can be converted to biodiesel. J. curcas is probably the most highly promoted oilseed crop at present in the world. The availability and sustainability of sufficient supplies of less expensive feedstock in the form of vegetable oils, particularly J. curcas and efficient processing technology to biodiesel will be crucial determinants of delivering a competitive biodiesel. Oil contents, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition of J. curcas reported in literature are provided in this review. The fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel are comparable to those of fossil diesel and confirm to the American and European standards. The objective of this review is to give an update on the J. curcas L. plant, the production of biodiesel from the seed oil and research attempts to improve the technology of converting vegetable oil to biodiesel and the fuel properties of the Jatropha biodiesel. The technological methods that can be used to produce biodiesel are presented together with their advantages and disadvantages. The use of lipase as biotechnological solution to alkali and acid catalysis of transesterification and its advantages is discussed. There is need to carry out research on the detoxification of the seed cake to increase the benefits from J. curcas. There is also need to carry out life-cycle assessment and the environment impacts of introducing large scale plantations. There is also still a dearth of research about the influence of various cultivation-related factors and their interactions and influence on seed yield. Many other areas that need to be researched on Jatropha curcas L. are pointed out in this review.
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  173. Biodiesel production from supercritical carbon dioxide extracted Jatropha oil using subcritical hydrolysis and supercritical methylation
    Abstract

    Chen, C. H.; Chen, W. H.; Chang, C. M. J.; Lai, S. M.; Tu, C. H. 2010. Biodiesel production from supercritical carbon dioxide extracted Jatropha oil using subcritical hydrolysis and supercritical methylation. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 52(2) 228-234

    This study investigates supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of triglycerides from powdered Jatropha curcas kernels followed by subcritical hydrolysis and supercritical methylation of the extracted SC-CO(2) oil to obtain a 98.5% purity level of biodiesel. Effects of the reaction temperature, the reaction time and the solvent to feed ratio on free fatty acids in the hydrolyzed oil and fatty acid esters in the methylated oil via two experimental designs were also examined. Supercritical methylation of the hydrolyzed oil following subcritical hydrolysis of the SC-CO(2) extract yielded a methylation reaction conversion of 99%. The activation energy of hydrolysis and trans-esterified reactions were 68.5 and 45.2 kJ/mole, respectively. This study demonstrates that supercritical methylation preceded by subcritical hydrolysis of the SC-CO(2) oil is a feasible two-step process in producing biodiesel from powdered Jatropha kernels. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  174. Breeding of high-oil Jatropha curcas L for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Yang, C.; Fang, Z.; Li, B.; Liu, G.; Li, J. 2010. Breeding of high-oil Jatropha curcas L for biodiesel production. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 26(11) 1514-25

    Different geographic seed sources (80) of Jatropha curcas L. were collected in South China and planted in a germplasm resource garden to study their biological and agricultural properties. The average ground diameter, tree height and crown size of two-year old plants of the 80 sources was 7.6 cm, 167 cm and 114 cm, respectively, the average 1000-seed weight was 0.676 (0.477-0.876) kg. The trees grew further to the average size of 12.6 cm diameter, 2.69 m height and 2.1 m crown at the 4th year. Among the 80 sources, six sources had higher oil yield (seed oil content of 40%-42%) and better behaving in expression of phenotype were selected for a small-scale trial of forestation to determine oil yield. Among them a provenance with outstand in expression of phenotype yielded 964.3, 2000.6 and 2858.7 kg/ha was achieved for two- three- and four-year old trees, respectively. Additionally, a new Jatropha mutant was found in the wild and hybridization experiments showed that its oil content increased by 6%.
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  175. Effect on the Use of Ultrasonic Cavitation for Biodiesel Production from Crued Jatropha Curcas L. Seed Oil with a High Content of Free Fatty Acid
    Abstract

    Worapun, I.; Pianthong, K.; Thaiyasuit, P.; Thinvongpituk, C. 2010. Effect on the Use of Ultrasonic Cavitation for Biodiesel Production from Crued Jatropha Curcas L. Seed Oil with a High Content of Free Fatty Acid. Fourth International Conference on Experimental Mechanics. 7522

    A typical way to produce biodiesel is the transesterification of plant oils. This is commonly carried out by treating the pre-extracted oil with an appropriate alcohol in the presence of an acidic or alkaline catalyst over one or two hours in a batch reactor. Because oils and methanol are not completely miscible. It has been widely demonstrated that low-frequency ultrasonic irradiation is an effective tool for emulsifying immiscible liquids. The objective of this research is to investigate the optimum conditions for biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas oil with short chain alcohols by ultrasonic cavitation (at 40 kHz frequency and 400 Watt) assisted, using two step catalyst method. Usually, the crude Jatropha curcas oil has very high free fatty acid which obstructs the transesterification reaction. As a result it provides low yield of biodiesel production. In the first step, the reaction was carried out in the presence of sulfuric acid as an acid catalyst. The product was then further transesterified with potassium hydroxide in the second step. The effects of different operating parameters such as molar ratio of reactants, catalyst quantity, and operating temperature, have been studied with the aim of process optimization. It has been observed that the mass transfer and kinetic rate enhancements were due to the increase in interfacial area and activity of the microscopic and macroscopic bubbles formed. For example, the product yield levels of more than 90% have been observed with the use of ultrasonic cavitation in about 60 minutes under room temperature operating conditions.
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  176. Energy analysis of Jatropha plantation systems for biodiesel production in Thailand
    Abstract

    Prueksakorn, K.; Gheewala, S. H.; Malakul, P.; Bonnet, S. 2010. Energy analysis of Jatropha plantation systems for biodiesel production in Thailand. Energy for Sustainable Development. 14(1) 1-5

    Jatropha curcas L. has been considered as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in several tropical countries. Two Jatropha plantation models currently being considered in Thailand, a perennial plantation for 20 years and annual harvesting, are compared vis-a-vis the energy benefits. The advantage of the perennial plantation is that fruit yield is low in the first 2 years but stabilizes after the second year; thus, the biodiesel production is maximized. On the other hand, the biodiesel yield for annual harvesting is low but substantial energy is gained from the wood which can be used for power production. The overall energy output from the annual system is about twice that of the perennial system whereas the biodiesel production is less than half. The energy values of both the systems are high and the net energy ratios as high as 6-7 indicating a substantial energy benefit. (C) 2009 International Energy Initiative. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  177. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba
    Abstract

    Martin, C.; Moure, A.; Martin, G.; Carrillo, E.; Dominguez, H.; Parajo, J. C. 2010. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba. Biomass & Bioenergy. 34(4) 533-538

    A preliminary investigation on the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds for the integral utilisation of their fractions for production of biodiesel and other products was carried out. The oil seeds considered were jatropha (Jatropha curcas), neem (Azadirachta indica), moringa (Moringa oleifera), trisperma (Aleurites trisperma), castor beans (Ricinus communis) and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The highest oil content (62.0% (w/w)) was found in trisperma seeds, but the use of that oil for biodiesel production is restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oils of castor beans and moringa contained 86.0% of ricinoleic acid and 70.6% of oleic acid, respectively, while in the oils from the other seeds no predominance of any acid was observed. According to the oil yield and to the fatty acid composition of the oil, jatropha was identified as the most promising oil seed for biodiesel production in Cuba. All the press cakes were rich in protein, the highest content (68.6%) being detected in moringa cake. The investigation revealed that the husks of neem and moringa can be considered potential substrates for ethanol production due to their high cellulose content (approximately 30%). A high concentration (4.3%) of acetyl groups was found in neem husks, what is favourable for the hydrolytic conversion of polysaccharides to simple sugars. A high protein content (15.2%) was detected in moringa husks, which is a positive feature for lowering the cost of nutrient supplementation in ethanolic fermentation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  178. Isolation of promising bacterial strains from soil and marine environment for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production utilizing Jatropha biodiesel byproduct
    Abstract

    Shrivastav, A.; Mishra, S. K.; Shethia, B.; Pancha, I.; Jain, D.; Mishra, S. 2010. Isolation of promising bacterial strains from soil and marine environment for polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production utilizing Jatropha biodiesel byproduct. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 47(2) 283-287

    PHAs are biodegradable and environmentally friendly thermoplastics. The major contributor to PHA production cost is carbon substrate cost, therefore it is desirable to produce PHA from waste/byproducts like Jatropha biodiesel byproducts.
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  179. Jatropha Curcas L. As a Source for the Production of Biodiesel in Kenya
    Abstract

    Wagutu, A. W.; Chhabra, S. C.; Thoruwa, C. L.; Thoruwa, T. F.; Mahunnah, R. L. A. 2010. Jatropha Curcas L. As a Source for the Production of Biodiesel in Kenya. Aspects of African Biodiversity. (321) 152-159

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  180. Parametric Study of Jatropha Seeds for Biodiesel Production by Reactive Extraction
    Abstract

    Kaul, S.; Porwal, J.; Garg, M. O. 2010. Parametric Study of Jatropha Seeds for Biodiesel Production by Reactive Extraction. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 87(8) 903-908

    The purpose of the present study was to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of biodiesel production by reactive extraction (in situ) of Jatropha seeds. Oil from the seeds was extracted and reacted in a single step. Experimental studies have been carried out to maximize the yield of biodiesel by varying the reaction parameters viz. seed size (< 0.85 mm to > 2.46 mm), seed/solvent ratio (w/w) (1:2.6-1:7.8) and catalyst concentration (0.05-0.1 M). Under the optimized conditions: seed size (> 2.46 mm), seed/solvent ratio (w/w) (1:7.8), catalyst concentration (0.1 M) and reaction time 1 h, approximately 98% conversion to biodiesel was achieved meeting International (ASTM) as well as National (BIS) specifications. The results were supported by HPLC analysis.
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  181. Reactive extraction and in situ esterification of Jatropha curcas L. seeds for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Shuit, S. H.; Lee, K. T.; Kamaruddin, A. H.; Yusup, S. 2010. Reactive extraction and in situ esterification of Jatropha curcas L. seeds for the production of biodiesel. Fuel. 89(2) 527-530

    Jatropha curcas L. has recently been hailed as the promising feedstock for biodiesel production as it does not compete with food sources. Conventional production of biodiesel from J. curcas L. seeds involve two main processing steps; extraction of oil and subsequent esterification/transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters ( FAME). In this study, the feasibility of in situ extraction, esterification and transesterification of J. curcas L. seeds to biodiesel was investigated. It was found that the size of the seed and reaction period effect the yield of FAME and amount of oil extracted significantly. Using seed with size less than 0.355 mm and n-hexane as co-solvent with the following reaction conditions; reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, reaction period of 24 h, methanol to seed ratio of 7.5 ml/g and 15 wt% of H(2)SO(4), the oil extraction efficiency and FAME yield can reached 91.2% and 99.8%, respectively. This single step of reactive extraction process therefore can be a potential route for biodiesel production that reduces processing steps and cost. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  182. Reactive Extraction of Jatropha curcas L. Seed for Production of Biodiesel: Process Optimization Study
    Abstract

    Shuit, S. H.; Lee, K. T.; Kamaruddin, A. H.; Yusup, S. 2010. Reactive Extraction of Jatropha curcas L. Seed for Production of Biodiesel: Process Optimization Study. Environmental Science & Technology. 44(11) 4361-4367

    Biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. seed is conventionally produced via a two-step method: extraction of oil and subsequent esterification/transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), commonly known as biodiesel. Contrarily, in this study, a single step in situ extraction, esterification and transesterification (collectively known as reactive extraction) of J. curcas L seed to biodiesel, was investigated and optimized. Design of experiments (DOE) was used to study the effect of various process parameters on the yield of FAME. The process parameters studied include reaction temperature (30-60 degrees C), methanol to seed ratio (5-20 mL/g), catalyst loading (5-30 wt %), and reaction time (1-24 h). The optimum reaction condition was then obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with central composite design (CCD). Results showed that an optimum biodiesel yield of 98.1% can be obtained under the following reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, methanol to seed ratio of 10.5 mL/g, 21.8 wt % of H(2)SO(4), and reaction period of 10 h.
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  183. Solubility of Multicomponent Systems in the Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. Oil with Methanol (vol 51, pg 1130, 2006)
    Abstract

    Zhou, H.; Li, H. F.; Liang, B. 2010. Solubility of Multicomponent Systems in the Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. Oil with Methanol (vol 51, pg 1130, 2006). Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data. 55(3) 1460-1460

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  184. Supercritical fluid reactive extraction of Jatropha curcas L. seeds with methanol: A novel biodiesel production method
    Abstract

    Lim, S.; Hoong, S. S.; Teong, L. K.; Bhatia, S. 2010. Supercritical fluid reactive extraction of Jatropha curcas L. seeds with methanol: A novel biodiesel production method. Bioresource Technology. 101(18) 7169-7172

    The novel biodiesel production technology using supercritical reactive extraction from Jatropha curcas L oil seeds in this study has a promising role to fill as a more cost-effective processing technology. Compared to traditional biodiesel production method, supercritical reactive extraction can successfully carry out the extraction of oil and subsequent esterification/transesterification process to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) simultaneously in a relatively short total operating time (45-80 min). Particle size of the seeds (0.5-2.0 mm) and reaction temperature/pressure (200-300 degrees C) are two primary factors being investigated. With 300 degrees C reaction temperature. 240 MPa operating pressure, 100 ml/g methanol to solid ratio and 2.5 ml/g of n-hexane to seed ratio, optimum oil extraction efficiency and FAME yield can reach up to 105.3% v/v and 103.5% w/w, respectively which exceeded theoretical yield calculated based on n-hexane Soxhlet extraction of Jatropha oil seeds (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.
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  185. Two-step biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas crude oil using SiO2 center dot HF solid catalyst for FFA esterification step
    Abstract

    Corro, G.; Tellez, N.; Ayala, E.; Marinez-Ayala, A. 2010. Two-step biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas crude oil using SiO2 center dot HF solid catalyst for FFA esterification step. Fuel. 89(10) 2815-2821

    A high quality biodiesel was produced from Mexican Jatropha curcas crude oil (JCCO) by a two step catalyzed process. The free fatty acids (FFA) were first esterified with methanol, catalyzed by a solid catalyst: SiO2 pretreated with HF. The catalyst showed a high number of Lewis acid surface sites, and no CO2 or H2O adsorption activity. This catalyst showed a high FFA esterification activity and high stability. After 30 esterification runs, the catalyst activity remained unchanged. During the second step, the triglycerides present in the JCCO were transesterified with methanol catalyzed by NaOH. The chromatographic analysis of the biodiesel obtained, revealed that the process proposed in this investigation led to a very high quality biodiesel, meeting the international requirements for its utilization as a fuel. The combustion gas emissions of the JCCO biodiesel were studied by FTIR spectroscopy using a laboratory combustor. These preliminary results showed low amounts of aromatic and sulfur containing compounds. However, halogenated compounds and dicyclopentadiene were also detected at the combustor exhaust. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  186. Two-step supercritical dimethyl carbonate method for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil
    Abstract

    Ilham, Z.; Saka, S. 2010. Two-step supercritical dimethyl carbonate method for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil. Bioresource Technology. 101(8) 2735-2740

    This study reports on a novel two-step process for biodiesel production consisting of hydrolysis of oils in sub-critical water and subsequent supercritical dimethyl carbonate esterification. This process found to occur optimally at the sub-critical water treatment (270 degrees C/27 MPa) for 25 min followed by a subsequent supercritical dimethyl carbonate treatment (300 degrees C/9 MPa) for 15 min to achieve a comparably high yield of fatty acid methyl esters, at more than 97 wt%. In addition, the fatty acid methyl esters being produced satisfied the international standard specifications for use as biodiesel fuel. This new process for biodiesel production offers milder reaction condition (lower temperature and lower pressure), non-acidic, non-catalytic and applicable to feedstock with high amount of free fatty acids such as crude Jatropha curcas oil. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  187. USING OF JATROPHA (Jatropha curcas L.) VEGETABLE OIL IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION
    Abstract

    Lakota, M.; Berk, P.; Stajnko, D.; Vindis, P.; Mursec, B. 2010. USING OF JATROPHA (Jatropha curcas L.) VEGETABLE OIL IN BIODIESEL PRODUCTION. Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, Proceedings. 38299-306

    The global world has decided to decrease the exhaust gases, so they initiated biofuel, which is produced from plant's oil. Among numerous plants suitable for the production of the plant's oil Jatropha curcas is not widely known, but it has man), advantages as follows: fast growth all over the world, it is very undemanding, it is used to prevent erosion. The substance of its oil is very high, it enables great yield on hectare, offers possibility of employment to millions of people who live at the edge of poverty. Therefore, is extremely interesting for developing countries. Because of insufficiency in researching of Jatropha curcas in country, we did laboratory work in Pin us factory to analyse its oil as potential alternative source in biodiesel production. We came to the conclusion that jatropha oil and soya oil are both perfectly suitable for bio-fuel even though analyses of our samples did not give the expected results. This research gave only two samples from syntheses, namely the sample in which jatropha oil was mixed with soya ungummy oil in proportion 1:1 and the sample of jatropha oil with soya ungummy oil in proportion 2:1 with 20% excess of catalyser sodium methylat. The contents of esters and other measured parameters in these samples of biodiesel corresponded to the standard SIST EN 14214 and 2003/30/ES.
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  188. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas Oil Using Potassium Carbonate as an Unsupported Catalyst
    Abstract

    Baroi, C.; Yanful, E. K.; Bergougnou, M. A. 2009. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas Oil Using Potassium Carbonate as an Unsupported Catalyst. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. 7

    Jatropha curcas (JTC) oil, an inedible vegetable oil, can be a substitute feedstock for traditional food crops in the production of environment friendly and renewable fuel (biodiesel). In the present study, unsupported potassium carbonate was used as a catalyst to provide an understanding of the catalytic activity in the transesterification reaction. Researching the potential and the behavior of potassium carbonate is very important because every biomass ash contains this compound in a significant amount. It can be extracted by using classical extraction or leaching technologies. During the biodiesel production reaction, the formation of soap as a byproduct was also monitored using the FTIR-ATR method. From this study it was observed that the transesterification of JTC oil to JTC biodiesel appeared to be complete within 15 minutes when a 5 wt% (based on the wt. of the oil) potassium carbonate, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C or a 4 wt% potassium carbonate, 9:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 60 degrees C reaction temperature were used.
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  189. Characteristics and composition of Jatropha gossypiifolia and Jatropha curcas L. oils and application for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    de Oliveira, J. S.; Leite, P. M.; de Souza, L. B.; Mello, V. M.; Silva, E. C.; Rubim, J. C.; Meneghetti, S. M. P.; Suarez, P. A. Z. 2009. Characteristics and composition of Jatropha gossypiifolia and Jatropha curcas L. oils and application for biodiesel production. Biomass & Bioenergy. 33(3) 449-453

    In this work two genus of the Jatropha family: the Jatropha gossypiifolia (JG) and Jatropha curcas L. (JC) were studied in order to delimitate their potential as raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content in wild seeds and some physical-chemical properties of the oils and the biodiesel obtained from them were evaluated. The studied physical-chemical properties of the JC and JG biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines, showing a promising economic exploitation of these raw materials in semi-arid regions. However, further agronomic studies are needed in order to improve the seed production and the crude oil properties. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  190. Effect of Water on the Pre-Esterification of Jatropha curcas L. Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Liu, Y. Y.; Lu, H. F.; Liang, B. 2009. Effect of Water on the Pre-Esterification of Jatropha curcas L. Oil for Biodiesel Production. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 3(4) 342-347

    The pre-esterification process was used in the production of biodiesel to reduce the acidity of Jatropha curcas L. oil feedstock before the alkali catalyzed transesterification unit. The contents of water greatly affect the esterification reaction, in which sulfuric acid is often used as a catalyst. The equilibrium conversion and the kinetic data were measured. The results showed that the conversion of free fatty acid (FFA) increased rapidly with increasing molar ratio of methanol/FFA, but the increase slowed down when the molar ratio reached 10:1. Water remarkably lowered the catalytic activity of sulfuric acid due to the reduction of proton concentration and acid strength. According to the catalytic reaction routine, the protonation of carboxylic oxygen is a rate determining step and the rate is directly proportional to the proton concentration. The reaction rate can be expressed as: r = kc(FFA)
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  191. Extraction, transesterification and process control in biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas
    Abstract

    Nazir, N.; Ramli, N.; Mangunwidjaja, D.; Hambali, E.; Setyaningsih, D.; Yuliani, S.; Yarmo, M. A.; Salimon, J. 2009. Extraction, transesterification and process control in biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 111(12) 1185-1200

    Biodiesel has gained worldwide popularity as an alternative energy source due to its renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and non-flammable properties. It also has low emission profiles and is environmentally beneficial. Biodiesel can be used either in pure form or blended with conventional petrodiesel in automobiles without any major engine modifications. Various non-edible and edible oils can be used for the preparation of biodiesel. With no competition with food uses, the use of non-edible oils as alternative source for engine fuel will be important. Among the non-edible oils, such as Pongamia, Argemone and Castor, Fatropha curcas has tremendous potential for biodiesel production. F. curcas, growing mainly in tropical and sub-tropical climates across the developing world, is a multipurpose species with many attributes and considerable potentials. In this article, we review the oil extraction and characterization, the role of different catalysts on transesterification, the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production, the process control and future potential improvement of biodiesel production from,71 curcas.
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  192. Life cycle assessment for the production of biodiesel: A case study in Malaysia for palm oil versus jatropha oil
    Abstract

    Lam, M. K.; Lee, K. T.; Mohamed, A. R. 2009. Life cycle assessment for the production of biodiesel: A case study in Malaysia for palm oil versus jatropha oil. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 3(6) 601-612

    One of the most promising forms of renewable energy is biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, such as rapeseed, soybean and palm oil. Malaysia, being the world's second-largest producer of palm oil, therefore begins to align herself as the potential world producer of palm biodiesel apart from exporting palm oil as feedstock for the food and oleochemical industries. However, due to the recent food versus fuel debate, Malaysian palm oil has received a lot of negative attention especially from non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The sustainability of palm biodiesel production and environmental issues are constantly being questioned. Many quarters have even claimed that the use of non-edible oils, such as Jatropha curcas L., should be promoted rather than palm oil for biodiesel production. Therefore, this study aims to compare and validate the production of biodiesel from palm and jatropha using the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The assessment encompasses the cultivation of the crop, the oil extraction stage and finally, the biodiesel production stage. We found that to produce 1 tonne of jatropha biodiesel, the land area requirement is 118% higher than to produce 1 tonne of palm biodiesel. The energy output-to-input ratio for palm biodiesel is 2.27, slightly higher than jatropha biodiesel at 1.92. Furthermore, CO(2) sequestration for the whole life cycle chain of palm biodiesel is 20 times higher than jatropha biodiesel. All these results show the superiority and sustainability of palm oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production (C) Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons. Ltd
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  193. Preparation of Na doped SiO2 solid catalysts by the sol-gel method for the production of biodiesel from jatropha oil
    Abstract

    Akbar, E.; Binitha, N.; Yaakob, Z.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Salimon, J. 2009. Preparation of Na doped SiO2 solid catalysts by the sol-gel method for the production of biodiesel from jatropha oil. Green Chemistry. 11(11) 1862-1866

    A new solid catalyst, Na/SiO2, which have come in demand recently due to environmental concerns is prepared using the sol gel method by transesterification of jatropha oil with methanol to produce a biodiesel fatty acid methyl ester. Na/SiO2 with a loading of 50 : 50 molar ratio Na/Si, calcined at 600 degrees C exhibited the best catalytic activity for the reaction. The conversion of vegetable oil is found to be 99%. The optimum reaction conditions are achieved at the reflux temperature of methanol (65 degrees C), with a 1 : 15 molar ratio of methanol to oil and a catalyst amount of 6 wt%. The catalyst showed high activity under mild conditions and at a relatively short reaction time of 45 min.
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  194. Process optimization for biodiesel production from Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga oils
    Abstract

    Sahoo, P. K.; Das, L. M. 2009. Process optimization for biodiesel production from Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga oils. Fuel. 88(9) 1588-1594

    Petroleum sourced fuels is now widely known as non-renewable due to fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation. Renewable, carbon neutral, transport fuels are necessary for environmental and economic sustainability. Biodiesel derived from oil crops is a potential renewable and carbon neutral alternative to petroleum fuels. Chemically, biodiesel is monoalkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feed stock like vegetable oils and animal fats. It is produced by transesterification in which, oil or fat is reacted with a monohydric alcohol in presence of a catalyst. The process of transesterification is affected by the mode of reaction condition, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type of alcohol, type and amount of catalysts, reaction time and temperature and purity of reactants. In the present paper various methods of preparation of biodiesel from non-edible filtered Jatropha, (Jatropha curcas), Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) and Polanga (Calophyllum inophyllum) oil have been described. Mono esters (biodiesel) produced and blended with diesel were evaluated. The technical tools and processes for monitoring the transesterification reactions like TLC, GC and HPLC have also been used. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  195. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas and performance along with emission characteristics of an agricultural diesel engine using biodiesel
    Abstract

    Mitra, S.; Bose, P. K.; Choudhury, S. 2009. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas and performance along with emission characteristics of an agricultural diesel engine using biodiesel. Energy and Sustainability Ii. 121367-+

    The objective of the present experimental work is the production of biodiesel and to examine the effects of different blends of biodiesel with diesel on the exhaust emission and performance characteristics of an existing agricultural diesel engine and to select a suitable blend of biodiesel with diesel. The suitability of a blend of biodiesel with diesel is related with the reduction in exhaust emissions and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), together with an increase in brake thermal efficiency (BTE). Experimental work started with the production of biodiesel obtained from Jatropha curcas in our own mini biodiesel plant. Biodiesel is blended with diesel at different ratios to obtain different blends, such as B10 (10% biodiesel + 90% diesel by volume), B20, B30, B40, B50, B60, B70, B80, B90 and B100. Experimental results show that BSFC at all loads is less for blends B10 to B50 compared to that of diesel. BTE at all loads is higher for blends up to B60 compared to diesel and after B60 it is more or less the same as diesel. Engine emissions of CO, HC, and also NOx to some extent, are less for all blends from B10 to B100. Among the blends, B10 has lowest BSFC, lowest emission and highest BTE. Higher biodiesel blends can also be used with suitable modifications to arrest some NOx. The present investigation is thus directed to the on-going research towards the search for viable alternative fuels for energy security, environmental problem mitigation and sustainable development.
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  196. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil
    Abstract

    Lu, H. F.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhou, H.; Yang, Y.; Chen, M. Y.; Liang, B. 2009. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil. Computers & Chemical Engineering. 33(5) 1091-1096

    A two-step process consisting of pre-esterification and transesterification was developed to produce biodiesel from crude Jatropha curcas L oil. The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the oil were converted to methyl esters in the pre-esterification step using sulfuric acid or solid acid prepared by calcining metatitanic acid as catalysts. The acid value of oil was reduced from the initial 14 mg-KOH/g-oil to below 1.0 mg-KOH/g-oil in 2 h under the conditions of 12 wt% methanol, 1 wt% H(2)SO(4) in oil at 70 degrees C. The conversion of FFAs was higher than 97% at 90 degrees C in 2 h using 4 wt% solid acid and a molar ratio of methanol to FFAs of 20:1. Phospholipid compounds were eliminated during pre-esterification and a separate degumming operation was unnecessary. The yield of biodiesel by transesterification was higher than 98% in 20 min using 1.3% KOH as catalyst and a molar ratio of methanol to oil 6:1 at 64 degrees C. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  197. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas using Nano Materials
    Abstract

    Khan, M. B.; Bahadar, A.; Anjum, W. 2009. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas using Nano Materials. International Workshop on Advanced Material for New and Renewable Energy. 1169197-205

    Biodiesel is proving to be a viable clean energy resource for conventional fuel as well as more exotic, value added jet fuel applications. Various non edible agriculture based sources are exploited to produce biodiesel with varying degrees of conversion and properties. Systematic studies carried out to date reveal that the oil extracted from Jatropha Curcas gives best results on yield basis (2800kg oil/Hectare max). However the research is marred by the production of often undesirable and cumbersome byproducts, which needs multifarious purification steps with associated cost. Sponification step is a main hurdle in the old technology. We have made a paradigm shift by introducing nanomaterials which not only eliminate the cited side reactions/byproducts, but also yield higher conversion and lower costs. Typically we have reduced the reaction time from 90 min at 70 degrees C to a gainful 5 min at ambient temperatures. The nanomaterial has been characterized by SEM and EDS (Electron Dispersion Scanning Analysis) which clearly shows bimodal distribution of the nonmaterial employed. Further characterization study was carried out by FTIR and the results are compared with petrodiesel and standard biodiesel in the important region of 2000-4000cm(-1). Perfect matching/finger printing was achieved. In this work we also report detailed comparative elemental and flash point analysis of the Biodiesel produced via various established roots.
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  198. Prospects for Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas: A Case Study of Bangladesh Agricultural University Farm
    Abstract

    Kabir, E.; Hussain, D.; Haque, A.; Kim, K. H. 2009. Prospects for Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas: A Case Study of Bangladesh Agricultural University Farm. International Journal of Green Energy. 6(4) 381-391

    In this article, we analyzed the prospects for biodiesel production of Jatropha curcas. This study took place at Bangladesh Agricultural University farm in the Mymensingh district from October 2006 to November 2007. Branch cuttings, collected from mother plants in the Modhupur forest area of Tangail district, were planted in pits on October 2006. Our measurements then focused on plant growth, flowers per plant, fruits per plant, seeds per plant, and the physical characteristics of the Jatropha fruit. The efficiency of oil extraction from the Jatropha seed was compared between chemical and mechanical methods. The results indicated that the former approach was more effective despite its high cost. The percentage of oil content in the Jatropha seed was estimated at almost 36 wt%. Although Jatropha curcas can be utilized as a new cash crop, more research is needed to account for its potential as a biodiesel fuel.
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  199. Sharma, A.; Arora, A.; Maurya, P. K.
    Abstract

    Sharma, A.; Arora, A.; Maurya, P. K. 2009. Sharma, A.; Arora, A.; Maurya, P. K.. New Biotechnology. 25S248-S248

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  200. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas L. Oil by Transesterification with Hexane as Cosolvent
    Abstract

    Escobar, E. C.; Dernafelis, R. B.; Pham, L. J.; Florece, L. M.; Borines, M. G. 2008. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas L. Oil by Transesterification with Hexane as Cosolvent. Philippine Journal of Crop Science. 33(3) 1-13

    An attempt to speed up the production process of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil through a cosolvent-assisted transesterification reaction was performed. The NaOH-catalyzed methyl ester production aided with hexane as cosolvent was systematically optimized in terms of four process variables: cosolvent to methanol volumetric ratio, methanol to oil molar ratio, amount of catalyst with respect to the amount of oil, and reaction temperature. Reaction products were determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and quantified using the BIOSOFT Quantiscan software. Based on the legislated minimum methyl ester purity of 96.5% as criteria, the optimum cosolvent to methanol volumetric ratio was 2:5. The optimum methanol to oil molar ratio of 8:1 was the best ratio considering process economics. The optimum amount of catalyst as mass percentage of oil mass was 1%. When carried out at ambient temperatures (25-30 degrees C), the legislated minimum methyl ester purity of 96.5% may be achieved in about 10 min of reaction; at a temperature (60 degrees C) near the boiling points of both hexane and methanol, the legislated minimum methyl ester purity can be achieved in only about 7 min of reaction, i.e. way below the usual 1 hr reaction period in conventional transesterification methods. Fuel properties (flashpoint, kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C, sulfated ash, copper strip corrosion, cloud point, free glycerin, and total glycerin) of biodiesel produced using the optimum process variables meet the requirements of the Philippine National Standards (PNS) for biodiesel.
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  201. Biodiesel Production from Non-edible Oils of Jatropha and Karanj for Utilization in Electrical Generator
    Abstract

    Kalbande, S. R.; More, G. R.; Nadre, R. G. 2008. Biodiesel Production from Non-edible Oils of Jatropha and Karanj for Utilization in Electrical Generator. Bioenergy Research. 1(2) 170-178

    The biodiesel processor was developed for the production of biodiesel from non-edible oil of jatropha and karanj. The newly developed biodiesel processor is suitable for farmers in village level biodiesel production. The biodiesel processor was capable of producing 15 kg biodiesel per batch in 1.5 h at reaction temperature of 60 degrees C. The biodiesel was produced from raw jatropha and karanj oil, and its blends with diesel were tested for power generation in a 7.5-kVA diesel engine generator set. The fuel properties, namely, kinematic viscosity and specific gravity, were found within the limits of Bureau of Indian Standards specifications. The overall efficiency of the generator for 4,500 W loading condition of jatropha- and karanj-biodiesel-blended fuel were recorded in the range of 21-23% and 24-27%, respectively. The overall efficiency of the generator for 6,000 W loading conditions was improved for jatropha and karanj biodiesel blends and were found in the range of 31-33% and 33-39%, respectively. Biodiesel blends B80 and pure biodiesel of karanj produced more power, and maximum overall efficiency was recorded as compared with diesel fueled generator. The overall efficiency on jatropha-biodiesel-blended fuel were found less than the diesel-fueled generator. The biodiesel processor based on alkali-catalyzed transesterification process can be used for quality biodiesel production from edible and non-edible vegetable oils. This processor can be integrated with rural energy system for domestic and small-scale industrial unit for biodiesel production.
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  202. Egyptian Jatropha Oil Extraction for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Hawash, S.; Kamal, N.; El Diwani, G. 2008. Egyptian Jatropha Oil Extraction for Biodiesel Production. Afinidad. 65(538) 470-474

    Biodiesel is the most desirable biofuel economically and technically and it can be made from any vegetable oil. In EGYPT jatropha oil seems to be the best source for biodiesel production because jatropha tree is easily growing and easily propagated.
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  203. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil: A comparative study of immobilized-whole cell and commercial lipases as a biocatalyst
    Abstract

    Tamalampudi, S.; Talukder, M. R.; Hama, S.; Numata, T.; Kondo, A.; Fukuda, H. 2008. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil: A comparative study of immobilized-whole cell and commercial lipases as a biocatalyst. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 39(1) 185-189

    The large percentage of biodiesel fuel (BDF) cost associated with feedstock oil and enzyme. In order to reduce the cost of BDF production, the lipase producing whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) immobilized onto biomass support particles (BSPs) was used for the production of BDF from relatively low cost non-edible oil from the seeds of Jatropha curcas. The activity of ROL was compared with that of commercially available most effective lipase (Novozym 435). Different alcohols as a hydroxyl donor are tested, and methanolysis of Jatropha oil progresses faster than other alcoholysis regardless of lipases used. The maximum methyl esters content in the reaction mixture reaches 80 wt.% after 60 h using ROL, whereas it is 76% after 90 It using Novozym 435. Both the lipases can be used for repeated batches and both lipases exhibit more than 90% of their initial activities after five cycles. Our results suggest that whole-cell ROL immobilized on BSP is a promising biocatalyst for producing BDF from oil. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  204. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas by Microwave Irradiation
    Abstract

    Yaakob, Z.; Sukarman, I. S.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Abdullah, S. R. S.; Mohamed, F. 2008. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas by Microwave Irradiation. Res 08: Proceedings of the 2nd Wseas/Iasme International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources. 235-+

    Biodiesel is an potential fuel for diesel engine and is in demand nowdays due to several factors including price stability, limited reserve of carbon fuel, and environmental issue. Jatropha is one of the potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to its high oil content (about 40 - 65 %). It is nonedible, therefore it will not compete with food for fuel. In this study, transesterification process is chosen to transform Jatropha crude oil to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) or biodiesel. The transesterification was carried out using microwave irradiation with homogenous catalyst. Effects of various parameters such as catalyst ratio of (24%) NaOH, reaction time (3-9 minutes) and solvent molarity ratio (1:16, 24 and 30) on conversion have been studied. The FAME conversion was determined using gas chromatography following the ASTM D 6584 method. Compare with the conventional heating method, the process using microwaves irradiation has effectively shortened the reaction time. The optimum FAME production conversion is 86.3%.
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  205. Biotechnological intervention in jatropha for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Nambisan, P. 2007. Biotechnological intervention in jatropha for biodiesel production. Current Science. 93(10) 1347-1348

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  206. Repeated use of methanol and sulfuric acid to pretreat jatropha oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Wang, Z. M.; Wu, C. Z.; Yuan, Z. H.; Lee, J. S.; Park, S. C. 2007. Repeated use of methanol and sulfuric acid to pretreat jatropha oil for biodiesel production. Proceedings of Ises Solar World Congress 2007: Solar Energy and Human Settlement, Vols I-V. 2413-2417

    Large-scale plantation of jatropha will provide low-cost and reliable feedstock for biodiesel production, but jatropha oil has the tendency to degrade so that it often contains excessive free fatty acid (FFA). In this study, an efficient method was developed by repeated use of the mixture of methanol and sulfuric acid for the pretreatment of jatropha oil with an acid value of 10.4 mg KOH/g. A quadratic polynomial model was established by investigating the effect of water content on the conversion of FFA, while the molar ratio of methanol to FFA was 270:1 and the weight ratio of sulfuric acid to jatropha oil was 1.6%. This model was proved to be valid when the mixture of methanol and sulfuric acid had been used for twenty times. Total sulfuric acid and methanol used for these twenty experiments was 0.21% and 21% respectively, based on the weight of pretreated jatropha oil. Average reaction time of them was 26min; acid values of the pretreated jatropha oil were about 0.6 mg KOH/g, water contents of it were no more than 0.07%. Biodiesel with an ester content of 98.6% was produced through the following alkaline catalyzed biodiesel production process.
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