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Biodiesel produciton from corn oil

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  1. Co-utilization of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol by Cryptococcus curvatus for lipid production
    Abstract

    Gong, Z. W.; Zhou, W. T.; Shen, H. W.; Zhao, Z. B. K.; Yang, Z. H.; Yan, J. B.; Zhao, M. 2016. Co-utilization of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol by Cryptococcus curvatus for lipid production. Bioresource Technology. 219552-558

    In the present study, synergistic effects were observed when glycerol was co-fermented with glucose and xylose for lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus. Glycerol was assimilated simultaneously with sugars at the beginning of the culture without adaption time. Furthermore, better lipid production results, i.e., lipid yield and lipid productivity of 18.0 g/100 g and 0.13 g/L/h, respectively, were achieved when cells were cultured in blends of corn stover hydrolysates and biodiesel-derived glycerol than those in the hydrolysates alone. The lipid samples had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of vegetable oils, suggesting their potential for biodiesel production. This co-utilization strategy provides an extremely simple solution to advance lipid production from both lignocelluloses and biodiesel-derived glycerol in one step. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  2. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998
    Abstract

    Souza, A. F.; Rodriguez, D. M.; Ribeaux, D. R.; Luna, M. A. C.; Silva, T. A. L. E.; Andrade, R. E. S.; Gusmao, N. B.; Campos-Takaki, G. M. 2016. Waste Soybean Oil and Corn Steep Liquor as Economic Substrates for Bioemulsifier and Biodiesel Production by Candida lipolytica UCP 0998. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 17(10)

    Almost all oleaginous microorganisms are available for biodiesel production, and for the mechanism of oil accumulation, which is what makes a microbial approach economically competitive. This study investigated the potential that the yeast Candida lipolytica UCP0988, in an anamorphous state, has to produce simultaneously a bioemulsifier and to accumulate lipids using inexpensive and alternative substrates. Cultivation was carried out using waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor in accordance with 2(2) experimental designs with 1% inoculums (10(7) cells/mL). The bioemulsifier was produced in the cell-free metabolic liquid in the late exponential phase (96 h), at Assay 4 (corn steep liquor 5% and waste soybean oil 8%), with 6.704 UEA, IE24 of 96.66%, and showed an anionic profile. The emulsion formed consisted of compact small and stable droplets (size 0.2-5 mu m), stable at all temperatures, at pH 2 and 4, and 2% salinity, and showed an ability to remove 93.74% of diesel oil from sand. The displacement oil (ODA) showed 45.34 cm(2) of dispersion (central point of the factorial design). The biomass obtained from Assay 4 was able to accumulate lipids of 0.425 g/g biomass (corresponding to 42.5%), which consisted of Palmitic acid (28.4%), Stearic acid (7.7%), Oleic acid (42.8%), Linoleic acid (19.0%), and gamma-Linolenic acid (2.1%). The results showed the ability of C. lipopytica to produce both bioemulsifier and biodiesel using the metabolic conversion of waste soybean oil and corn steep liquor, which are economic renewable sources.
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  3. Co-production of bioethanol and biodiesel from corn stover pretreated with nitric acid
    Abstract

    Kim, I.; Seo, Y. H.; Kim, G. Y.; Han, J. I. 2015. Co-production of bioethanol and biodiesel from corn stover pretreated with nitric acid. Fuel. 143285-289

    This research explores the application of glucose and xylose from corn stover pretreated with nitric acid (HNO3) for the co-production of bioethanol and biodiesel. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize HNO3 pretreatment condition including HNO3 concentration (0.2-1.0%), temperature (140-160 degrees C), and reaction time (1-10 min). The optimal reaction condition was 151.9 degrees C, 0.68% HNO3 and 2.5 min, which resulted in the highest xylose yield of 77.8% and glucan content of 57.1%. Quasi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (Q-SSF) of pretreated corn stover with Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave an ethanol concentration of 22.4 g/L, corresponding to 69.1% theoretical ethanol yield based on initial cellulose weight. In addition, Cryptococcus curvatus in hydrolysate medium showed the lipid yield (final cell weight x lipid content) of 1.04 g/L, which was higher than those in defined medium using pure xylose. Our work demonstrates that the simultaneous production of ethanol and lipid can be one potentially promising option for lignocellulose-derived fuel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  4. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly
    Abstract

    Li, W.; Li, Q.; Zheng, L. Y.; Wang, Y. Y.; Zhang, J. B.; Yu, Z. N.; Zhang, Y. L. 2015. Potential biodiesel and biogas production from corncob by anaerobic fermentation and black soldier fly. Bioresource Technology. 194276-282

    Bioenergy has become attractive as alternatives of gradually exhausted fossil fuel. Obtaining high grade bioenergy from lignocellulose is attractive that can gradually meet the demand. This study reported biogas and biodiesel were produced from corncob by a two-step bioprocess, biogas was produced from corncob by anaerobic fermentation, then biogas residue was converted by black soldier fly larvae, and then biodiesel was produced from larvae grease. 86.70 L biogas was obtained from 400 g corncob with the accumulation of biogas yield of 220.71 mL/g VSadded by anaerobic digestion. Besides, 3.17 g of biodiesel was produced from grease after inoculating black soldier fly larvae into 400 g biogas residue. Meanwhile, the results showed that the addition of black soldier fly larvae could be effective for the degradation of lignocellulose and the accumulation of grease. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  5. Studies on biodiesel production from DDGS-extracted corn oil at the catalysis of Novozym 435/super absorbent polymer
    Abstract

    Gu, J. H.; Xin, Z.; Meng, X.; Sun, S. Z.; Qiao, Q. G.; Deng, H. B. 2015. Studies on biodiesel production from DDGS-extracted corn oil at the catalysis of Novozym 435/super absorbent polymer. Fuel. 14633-40

    The corn oil extracted from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which has a high acid value of 41.6 mg KOH/g and a high water content of 4.5%, is used to produce biodiesel in this article. The transesterification of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and DDGS-extracted corn oil was studied at the catalysis of Novozym 435. Meanwhile, several water removal agents, which include acrylic super absorbent resin (SAP), 4A-molecular sieve, blue silica-gel and tert-butanol, were added to absorb the water during the reaction. The yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) was analyzed by GC with internal standard method. The effect of different reaction conditions (type of water absorbent, molar ratio of DMC to oil, reaction time and temperature, lipase and SAP amount) on the yield of FAMEs were also discussed. Then the highest yield of FAMEs could reach 91.0% at 60 degrees C for 18 h with molar ratio of DMC to oil 15:1, Novozym 435 amount of 20 wt% and SAP amount of 10 wt% (based on the oil mass). Finally, Novozym 435/SAP showed excellent operational stability without losing any catalytic activity after 8 cycles of repeated use, and the water absorbed by Novozym 435/SAP can be dried at mild temperature (60 degrees C). Because it is easy to be recycled, the Novozym 435/SAP has a great potential to be used in the continuous biodiesel apparatus such as the fixed bed reactor. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  6. A green approach for the production of biodiesel from fatty acids of corn deodorizer distillate
    Abstract

    Naz, S.; Kara, H.; Sherazi, S. T. H.; Aljabour, A.; Talpur, F. N. 2014. A green approach for the production of biodiesel from fatty acids of corn deodorizer distillate. Rsc Advances. 4(89) 48419-48425

    A novel alginic acid derived tin catalyst, tin alginate (Sn-Alg), was successfully synthesized, characterized and applied for methyl esterification. Initially, the amount of catalyst, methanol to fatty acid ratio and reaction time were optimized using an oleic acid standard for esterification. The optimal reaction conditions were found to be 4% catalyst, 1 : 12 oleic acid to methanol mole ratio and 2 h reaction time with 98.7% fatty acid methyl ester recovery. The capability of Sn-Alg beads to esterify the fatty acids of corn deodorizer distillate was evaluated. High recovery (97.6%) of esters was obtained after 8 cycles using reprocessed catalyst under the optimized parameters. The results of the present study indicated that based on the environmental pollution, reusability, avoiding the use of potassium or sodium hydroxides or sulphuric or phosphoric acids, and ease of catalyst separation, the solid Sn-Alg catalyst has a great potential for biodiesel production from highly free fatty acid deodorizer distillates.
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  7. Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Corn Oil with Dimethyl Carbonate Under Heterogeneous Base Catalysis Conditions Using Potassium Hydroxide
    Abstract

    Sun, S. Z.; Zhang, L. P.; Meng, X.; Ma, C.; Xin, Z. 2014. Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Corn Oil with Dimethyl Carbonate Under Heterogeneous Base Catalysis Conditions Using Potassium Hydroxide. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 50(2) 99-107

    We have studied the process of transesterification of corn oil with dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in the presence of a heterogeneous catalyst: potassium hydroxide (KOH). Response surface methodology was used to optimize the three transesterification variables: reaction time, dimethyl carbonate:oil ratio, and catalyst loading. The Box-Behnken design was used to study the influence of these variables on the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and an empirical model was developed. The maximum yield of FAMEs (90.9%) with low pour point (-11A degrees C) was achieved by boiling a mixture of dimethyl carbonate and the oil (mole ratio 9:1) and 16.3 wt.% catalyst (based on oil weight) for 9 hours. The kinetics of KOH-catalyzed transesterification of triglyceride (TG) and diglyceride (DG) with DMC was studied in the temperature range 65A degrees C-75A degrees C. We found that both reactions are pseudo-second order, and the activation energy for transesterification of triglycerides and diglycerides is equal respectively to 83.3 and 89.8 kJ/mol.
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  8. Production of Biogas Using Maize Silage Supplemented with Residual Glycerine from Biodiesel Manufacturing
    Abstract

    Pokoj, T.; Gusiatin, Z. M.; Bulkowska, K.; Dubis, B. 2014. Production of Biogas Using Maize Silage Supplemented with Residual Glycerine from Biodiesel Manufacturing. Archives of Environmental Protection. 40(4) 17-29

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of residual glycerine (5 and 10% w/w) from the biodiesel industry, used as a co-substrate, on biogas production from maize silage. The experiments were conducted in a laboratory-scale, single-stage anaerobic digester at 39 degrees C and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 60 d. Addition of 5% residual glycerine caused organic load rate (OLR) to increase to 1.82 compared with 1.31 g organic dry matter (ODM) L(-1)d(-1) for maize silage alone. The specific biogas production rate and biogas yield were 1.34 L L(-1)d(-1) and 0.71 L g ODM-1 respectively, i. e. 86% and 30% higher than for maize alone. Increasing the residual glycerine content to 10% increased OLR (2.01 g ODM L(-1)d(-1)), but clearly decreased the specific biogas production rate and biogas yield to 0.50 L L(-1)d(-1) and 0.13 L g ODM-1 respectively. This suggested that 10% glycerine content inhibited methanogenic bacteria and organics conversion into biogas. As a result, there was accumulation of propionic and valeric acids throughout the experiment.
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  9. The Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Corn Oil Using Snails Shells as a Catalyst
    Abstract

    El-Gendy, N. S.; Deriase, S. F.; Hamdy, A. 2014. The Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Corn Oil Using Snails Shells as a Catalyst. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(6) 623-637

    In this study, calcium oxide as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production was prepared by a simple calcination process at 800 degrees C for snails shells collected from Egyptian shorelines. D-optimal design of experiments and response surface methodology was applied to analyze the influence of four process variables; methanol:oil (M:O) molar ratio, catalyst concentration (wt%), reaction time (min), and mixing rate (rpm) on biodiesel production through transesterification of waste frying corn oil at 60 degrees C using the prepared biocatalyst. A second order quadratic model was obtained to predict the % biodiesel yield and it adequately described the studied experimental range. Based on the experimental analysis and response surface methodology study, the most suitable operational conditions for this process were: M:O, 6:1 molar ratio; catalyst concentration, 3 wt%; reaction time, 60 min; and mixing rate, 200 rpm. The corresponding predicted % yield of biodiesel was 96.76% and the experimental one was 96%. The activity of the produced green catalyst was comparable to that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435.
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  10. Production and evaluation of biodiesel and bioethanol from high oil corn using three processing routes
    Abstract

    Shi, A. M.; Du, Z. Y.; Ma, X. C.; Cheng, Y. L.; Min, M.; Deng, S. B.; Chen, P.; Li, D.; Ruan, R. 2013. Production and evaluation of biodiesel and bioethanol from high oil corn using three processing routes. Bioresource Technology. 128100-106

    Six Korea high oil (KHO) corn varieties varying in germ and endosperm size and oil content (4-21%, wet basis) were subjected to three sequential combinations of milling (M), germ separation (S), fermentation (F), and in situ transesterification (T) to produce bioethanol and biodiesel. Production parameters including saccharification, bioethanol yield, biodiesel yield and composition, and conversion rate were evaluated. The effects of the contents of germ, endosperm size, oil, and non-oil solid mass on the production parameters strongly depended on the processing routes, namely M-F-T, M-T-F, and S-T vertical bar F. The M-F-T route produced the highest bioethanol yield while the S-TIF route produced the highest biodiesel yield. The in situ transesterification reaction, if proceeded before fermentation, reduced the bioethanol yield while fermentation and/or presence of endosperm reduced the biodiesel yield. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  11. Biodiesel Production from Corn Oil via Enzymatic Catalysis with Ethanol
    Abstract

    Mata, T. M.; Sousa, I. R. B. G.; Vieira, S. S.; Caetano, N. S. 2012. Biodiesel Production from Corn Oil via Enzymatic Catalysis with Ethanol. Energy & Fuels. 26(5) 3034-3041

    This work presents experimental results on alkali and enzymatic catalysis of corn oil into biodiesel with an optimization of operating conditions and further experiments on enzyme reuse. A comparison of the alkali-catalyzed methanolysis and ethanolysis of corn oil is done, followed by the study of the enzymatic-catalyzed ethanolysis using the alcohol at different concentrations (ethanol absolute, 96%, and 70%, v/v). Results show that the best operating conditions for biodiesel production using absolute ethanol (containing no water) as reagent are an oil/alcohol molar ratio of 1:6, a catalyst/oil weight percentage of 2.8 wt %, a reaction time of 12 h, and a reaction temperature of 35 degrees C. For these conditions it was possible to obtain a reaction yield of 98.95 wt % with a fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) content of 69.2 wt %, with linoleate (C18:2) and oleate (C18:1) being the most significant esters (with relative percentages of 42.97 wt % and 22.54 wt %, respectively). Regarding the evaluation of the enzyme activity loss during reaction, it was concluded that under these conditions it is possible to reuse the enzyme four times after which there was a significant loss of the biodiesel quality according to the EN 14214:2009 standard.
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  12. Transgenic Corn Oil for Biodiesel Production Via Enzymatic Catalysis with Ethanol
    Abstract

    Mata, T. M.; Sousa, I. R. B. G.; Caetano, N. S. 2012. Transgenic Corn Oil for Biodiesel Production Via Enzymatic Catalysis with Ethanol. Ibic2012: International Conference on Industrial Biotechnology. 2719-24

    This work aims to study the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from a transgenic corn oil, through transesterification using supported enzymes as catalyst (Lipozyme TL IM from Novozymes) and ethanol as reagent. First, the corn oil was characterized for its acid value (0.26 mg KOH/g oil), iodine number (127 g iodine/100 g oil), kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C (36.27 mm(2)/s), density at 20 degrees C (919 kg/m(3)) and water content (749 mg/kg). Second, the best operating conditions to perform the transesterification reaction were determined, by testing the following experimental conditions: oil/alcohol molar ratio (1:3, 1:6 and 1:9), catalyst/oil mass ratio (2.3, 2.8 and 3.3 wt%), reaction time (8 and 12 h) and reaction temperature (35 and 45 degrees C). Results showed that although some of the quality parameters analyzed were out of the EN 14214:2009 standard limits (namely the kinematic viscosity, water content, acid value and group I metals) the best operating conditions for a good biodiesel quality (with 69.2 wt% of FAEE content) and the highest reaction yield (98.95 wt%) are an oil/alcohol molar ratio of 1: 6, a catalyst/oil mass ratio of 2.8 wt%, a reaction time of 12 h and a reaction temperature of 35 degrees C.
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  13. Biodiesel production from isolated oleaginous fungi Aspergillus sp. using corncob waste liquor as a substrate
    Abstract

    Subhash, G. V.; Mohan, S. V. 2011. Biodiesel production from isolated oleaginous fungi Aspergillus sp. using corncob waste liquor as a substrate. Bioresource Technology. 102(19) 9286-9290

    The study documented the potential of isolated filamentous fungus Aspergillus sp. as whole cell biocatalyst for biodiesel production using Sabourauds dextrose broth medium (SDBM) and corncob waste liquor (CWL) as substrates. SDBM showed improvement in both biomass production (13.6g dry weight/1000 ml) and lipid productivity (23.3%) with time. Lipid extraction was performed by direct (DIE) and indirect (IDTE) transesterification methods. DTE showed higher transesterification efficiency with broad spectrum of fatty acids profile over IDTE. CWL as substrate showed good lipid productivity (22.1%; 2 g dry biomass; 48 h) along with efficient substrate degradation. Lipids derived from both substrates depicted high fraction of saturated fatty acids than unsaturated ones. Physical characteristics of fungal based biodiesel correlated well with prescribed standards. CWL derived biodiesel showed relatively good fuel properties (acid number, 0.40 mg KOH/g of acid; iodine value, 11 g l(2)/100 g oil; density, 0.8342 g/cm(3)) than SDBM derived biodiesel. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  14. Continuous production of fatty acid methyl esters from corn oil in a supercritical carbon dioxide bioreactor
    Abstract

    Ciftci, O. N.; Temelli, F. 2011. Continuous production of fatty acid methyl esters from corn oil in a supercritical carbon dioxide bioreactor. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 58(1) 79-87

    Continuous production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMES) from corn oil was studied in a supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) bioreactor using immobilized lipase (Novozym 435) as catalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to investigate and optimize the reaction conditions: pressure (11-35 MPa), temperature (35-63 degrees C), substrate mole ratio (methanol:corn oil 1-9) and CO(2) flow rate (0.4-3.6 L/min, measured at ambient conditions). Increasing the substrate mole ratio increased the FAME content, whereas increasing pressure decreased the FAME content. Higher conversions were obtained at higher and lower temperatures and CO(2) flow rates compared to moderate temperatures and CO(2) flow rates. The optimal reaction conditions generated from the predictive model for the maximum FAME content were 19.4 MPa, 62.9 degrees C, 7.03 substrate mole ratio and 0.72 L/min CO(2) flow rate. The optimum predicted FAME content was 98.9% compared to an actual value of 93.3 +/- 1.1% (w/w). The SC-CO(2) bioreactor packed with immobilized lipase shows great potential for biodiesel production. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  15. A Novel Method for the Production of Biodiesel from the Whole Stillage-Extracted Corn Oil
    Abstract

    Noureddini, H.; Bandlamudi, S. R. P.; Guthrie, E. A. 2009. A Novel Method for the Production of Biodiesel from the Whole Stillage-Extracted Corn Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 86(1) 83-91

    The extraction of corn oil from whole stillage and condensed distillers' solubles (CDS) with hexane and its conversion to biodiesel were investigated. The analysis of the extracted oil showed 6-8 wt.% free fatty acid (FFA) in this oil. Acid, base, acid-base, and acid-base catalyzed transesterifications with intermediate neutralization with anion exchange resin were investigated. Experiments were performed with model corn oil substrates which contained 1.0-6.0 wt.% FFA. The effect of catalyst at 0.50-1.25 wt.% was studied at a 1:8 oil/methanol molar ratio. At 6.0 wt.% FFA concentration, the acid-catalyzed scheme was slow and resulted in less than 20% yield after 4 h, while the base-catalyzed was mostly consumed by the FFA and very little conversion was achieved. The acid-base catalyzed scheme succeeded in reducing the FFA content of the oil through the acid-catalyzed stage, and yields in excess of 85% were achieved after the second stage of the reaction with a base catalyst. However, formation of water and soap prevented the separation of product phases. An alternative acid-base catalyzed scheme was examined which made use of a strong anion exchange resin to neutralize the substrate after the initial acid-catalyzed stage. This scheme resulted in the effective removal of the acid catalyst as well as the residual FFA prior to the base-catalyzed stage. The subsequent base-catalyzed stage resulted in yields in excess of 98% for a 7.0 wt.% FFA corn oil and for the corn oil extracted from CDS.
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  16. Diphenylammonium salt catalysts for microwave assisted triglyceride transesterification of corn and soybean oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Majewski, M. W.; Pollack, S. A.; Curtis-Palmer, V. A. 2009. Diphenylammonium salt catalysts for microwave assisted triglyceride transesterification of corn and soybean oil for biodiesel production. Tetrahedron Letters. 50(37) 5175-5177

    Diphenylammonium salts as catalysts for triglyceride transesterification have been investigated. Catalysts studied, such as diphenylammonium mesylate, were able to catalyze the transesterification process. Open atmosphere reactions and microwave-assisted reactions are considered and compared. Additionally, the study helps substantiate the advantage of microwave-assisted technology in organic synthesis. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  17. Opportunities ('costs) matter: A comment on Pimentel and Patzek "Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood; biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower"
    Abstract

    Wesseler, J. 2007. Opportunities ('costs) matter: A comment on Pimentel and Patzek "Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass, and wood; biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower". Energy Policy. 35(2) 1414-1416

    The energy balance for different crops reported by Pimentel and Patzek ignores opportunity costs. Including opportunity costs substantially changes the results and leads to different conclusions. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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