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Biodiesel from canola, rapeseed or mustard oil

This page lists all articles published worldwide in journal, book, magazine or otherwise about biodiesel produciton from canola, rapeseed or mustard oi. Please provide us a feedback feedback if you see any error in this listing or you would like to report and articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of post-manufacturing waste derived from production of methyl esters from rapeseed oil
    Abstract

    Kachel-Jakubowska, M.; Matwijczuk, A.; Gagos, M. 2017. Analysis of the physicochemical properties of post-manufacturing waste derived from production of methyl esters from rapeseed oil. International Agrophysics. 31(2) 175-182

    The technology of transesterification of biodiesel obtained from many agricultural products, which are often referred to as renewable resources, yields substantial amounts of by-pro-ducts. They exhibit various properties that prompt scientific research into potential application thereof. Various spectroscopic methods, e.g. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, are being increasingly used in the research. In this paper, we present the results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectroscopy analyses of technical glycerine, distilled glycerine, and matter organic non glycerol, i.e. by-products of biodiesel production. To facilitate the spectroscopic analysis, a number of parameters were determined for all the materials, e.g. the calorific value, water content, sulphated ash content, methanol content, acidity, as well as the contents of esters, heavy metals, aldehydes, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The results indicate that the analysed products are characterised by a comparable calorific value in the range from 11.35 to 16.05 MJ kg(-1) in the case of matter organic non glycerol and technical glycerine. Observation of changes in the position of selected peaks in the range of 3700-650 cm(-1) in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method facilitates determination of the level of degradation of the analysed material. Changes in the wavelength ranges can be used for monitoring the formation of secondary oxidation products containing carbonyl groups.
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  2. Energy balance of biodiesel production from canola
    Abstract

    Silva, L. F. L. E.; Goncalves, W. M.; Maluf, W. R.; Resende, L. V.; Sarmiento, C. M.; Licursi, V.; Moretto, P. 2017. Energy balance of biodiesel production from canola. Ciencia Rural. 47(2)

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the energy balance (output/input ratio) of the canola crop for biodiesel production, under Brazilian conditions. Fossil energy expended in the production of 600kg of oil per hectare was 7,146,537kcal. The estimated energy yield per hectare was 9,930,000kcal from the production of 1,500kg ha(-1) of seeds (40% oil and 60% oil cake), which resulted in an energy balance of 1.39. Results indicated the viability of biofuel production from canola, but also showed the need to improve the technology used to increase the energy and economic balance ratios.
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  3. Production of Isopropyl and Methyl Esters from Yellow Mustard Oil/IPA Miscellas
    Abstract

    Sinichi, S.; Boocock, D. G. B.; Diosady, L. L. 2017. Production of Isopropyl and Methyl Esters from Yellow Mustard Oil/IPA Miscellas. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 94(3) 485-495

    Using an isopropyl alcohol (IPA):flour [volume:weight (ml:g)] ratio of 1.5:1 per stage of extraction resulted in an oil yield of 86.3%. The combined miscella (IPA + oil), which contained 90.6 wt% IPA, 9.8 wt% oil, and 2.1 wt% water, was used as a feedstock for biodiesel production by transesterification. Transesterification of the IPA/oil miscella dehydrated using adsorption on 4 molecular sieves with 1.2 wt% (based on oil) potassium hydroxide for 2 h at 72 A degrees C converted only 29% of the feed to esters. The addition of methanol (MeOH) resulted in an ester yield of 87%, consisting of 79% methyl ester and 7% isopropyl ester when starting with an IPA:oil:MeOH molar ratio of 146:1:30. By increasing the KOH catalyst to 3 wt%, the ester yield increased to 94%. To increase the ester yield, the miscella was pretreated with sulfuric acid. This resulted in a reduction of the IPA content, the removal of other impurities such as phospholipids, and reduction of the water mass fraction to less than 1%. When IPA was used as a cosolvent with methanol in the transesterification process, a very high ester conversion (> 99%) was achieved. The biodiesel produced was compliant with ASTM standards, showing that IPA can be used as a solvent for oil extraction from yellow mustard flour.
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  4. Production of renewable aromatic hydrocarbons via conversion of canola oil methyl ester (CME) over zinc promoted HZSM-5 catalysts
    Abstract

    Bayat, A.; Sadrameli, S. M. 2017. Production of renewable aromatic hydrocarbons via conversion of canola oil methyl ester (CME) over zinc promoted HZSM-5 catalysts. Renewable Energy. 10662-67

    The conversion of canola oil methyl ester (CME) to aromatics was studied over Zn-modified HZSM-5 catalysts. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method. Several techniques were used in characterization of the catalysts: X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, N-2 adsorption-desorption and ammonia temperature-programmed desorption. The effects of reaction temperature and Weight Hourly Space Velocity (WHSV) on the aromatics yields were investigated. The reactor was operated at atmospheric pressure, temperatures of 400 and 450 C and space velocities of 2 and 4 hr(-1). The main products were liquid hydrocarbon product (LHP), gases and water. Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis was applied to determine the BTX content of the LHP. Similar aromatic products distributions were obtained in the presence of unpromoted as well as Zn-promoted HZSM-5 catalysts. Toluene was the major aromatic compound followed by para-meta xylenes and benzene. The addition of zinc species to HZSM-5 catalyst promoted the aromatization capacity of the catalyst. The maximum aromatic yield of 42.6% was achieved at 450 C and 2h(-1) over 4Zn/ZS catalyst. (C)2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  5. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel FAME from rapeseed oil in a novel two-compartment reactor
    Abstract

    Nakayama, R.; Imai, M.; Woodley, J. M. 2017. Ultrasound-assisted production of biodiesel FAME from rapeseed oil in a novel two-compartment reactor. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 92(3) 647-655

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasonication has been proposed as a promising technique for enzymatic transesterification. In contrast, excess ultrasonication causes enzyme inactivation. This paper describes enzymatic transesterification to produce fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed oil using Callera Trans L-TM and an original two-compartment reactor. The reactor was composed of a mechanically stirred compartment (ST) and an ultrasound irradiation compartment (US). The reaction solution was recirculated between the ST and the US. The enzyme was exposed to ultrasonication only in the US. The reactor system has the option to control the direct irradiation period of ultrasonication to soluble enzyme, regulated by the mean residence time in the US.
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  6. Continuous production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil by ultrasonic assist transesterification in supercritical ethanol
    Abstract

    Mazanov, S. V.; Gabitova, A. R.; Usmanov, R. A.; Gumerov, F. M.; Labidi, S.; Ben Amar, M.; Passarello, J. P.; Kanaev, A.; Volle, F.; Le Neindre, B. 2016. Continuous production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil by ultrasonic assist transesterification in supercritical ethanol. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 118107-118

    In Europe, rapeseed is a renewable raw material which has been widely used for the production of biodiesel by various processes. The transesterification reaction of rapeseed oil with ethanol to biodiesel in supercritical fluid conditions was investigated using several heterogeneous catalysts and preliminary ultrasonic emulsification of the reaction mixture, to run the reaction at mild conditions. Phase equilibrium of fatty acids in supercritical ethanol was study to determine the operating condition in supercritical states. Transesterification experiments were carried out under a pressure of 30 MPa, with ethanol to oil molar ratio (in the range of 12:1-20:1), temperature (623 K to 653 K), and the catalyst loading level and type were the main parameters. The most important characteristics of Al2O3 support catalyst and the impregnation method with aqueous solution of metal nitrates are also described. Yields of Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester (FAEE) are reported for different ZnO/Al2O3, MgO/Al2O3, SrO/Al2O3 catalysts in different experimental conditions. The higher yield of 97.46% was obtained under the optimal conditions 623 K, 30 MPa, 12:1 ethanol/FAEE molar ratio, with SrO/Al2O3 (2 wt.% SrO) impregnated catalyst. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  7. In situ and conventional transesterification of rapeseeds for biodiesel production: The effect of direct sonication
    Abstract

    Koutsouki, A. A.; Tegou, E.; Badeka, A.; Kontakos, S.; Pomonis, P. J.; Kontominas, M. G. 2016. In situ and conventional transesterification of rapeseeds for biodiesel production: The effect of direct sonication. Industrial Crops and Products. 84399-407

    Rapeseeds were used for the production of biodiesel via alkaline transesterification. The effect of direct sonication (24kHz) during in situ and conventional transesterification was studied without the use of external heating and was compared to that of mechanical stirring (600 rpm, 60 degrees C). In the in situ transesterification the use of ultrasonication and mechanical stirring led to a similar high % FAME content (97.2 +/- 0.4 and 95.7% +/- 0.8 respectively) after 120 min. However the % yield of the extracted methyl esters using mechanical stirring was considerably lower compared to ultrasonication (37.0 and 80.6% respectively) when same conditions were applied (7.5% NaOH w/w of oil, 400:1 methanol to oil molar ratio). The kinetics study of the rapeseed oil methanolysis process via direct sonication and mechanical stirring showed that the reaction rate constant is not affected by the method of stirring under specific conditions. Properties of rapeseed biodiesel determined agree with the specifications of the European Standard EN 14214. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  8. Modeling of Biodiesel Production from Rape-Seed Oil and Methanol
    Abstract

    Chen, S. J.; Zhao, K.; Tang, Y. 2016. Modeling of Biodiesel Production from Rape-Seed Oil and Methanol. Proceedings of the 2015 International Symposium on Energy Science and Chemical Engineering (Isesce 2015). 45343-346

    A continuous process flowsheet for biodiesel production from rape seed oil under alkaline condition on a commercial scale was developed. Detailed operating conditions and equipment designs for the process were obtained. A technology assessment of the process was carried out to evaluate the technical benefits. Analysis showed that the alkali-catalyzed process using rape seed oil as the raw material required the fewest and smallest process equipment.
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  9. Optimization of infrared radiated fast and energy-efficient biodiesel production from waste mustard oil catalyzed by Amberlyst 15: Engine performance and emission quality assessments
    Abstract

    Pradhan, P.; Chakraborty, S.; Chakraborty, R. 2016. Optimization of infrared radiated fast and energy-efficient biodiesel production from waste mustard oil catalyzed by Amberlyst 15: Engine performance and emission quality assessments. Fuel. 17360-68

    A novel protocol has been explored for fast and energy-efficient biodiesel production from waste mustard oil (WMO) using infrared radiated reactor in presence of heterogeneous Amberlyst 15 catalyst. High biodiesel yield (FAME content 97.13%) was obtained from WMO via simultaneous esterification-transester ification reactions in only 0.5 h using an energy-efficient, far infrared radiation (FIR) at the derived optimal conditions predicted through Taguchi Orthogonal Design (8:1 methanol to WMO molar ratio, 6 wt.% catalyst concentration, 800 rpm impeller speed). Experimental observations at the derived optimal conditions indicated much lower FAME yield (43.82%) with conventionally heated reactor even at the expense of 4 times energy input as that of FIR promoted protocol. Promising engine performance was observed at various blends of FIR produced optimal biodiesel with commercial petro-diesel. Notably, in comparison with petro-diesel, lower exhaust temperature was observed for all blends, indicating better engine durability and lower engine depreciation. The exhaust emissions measurements indicated that CO (0.05%) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions (<0.00002) for B-100 were well below standard Euro-VI emission norms and were observed to decrease gradually with increase in biodiesel percentage in the blended fuel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  10. Plasma Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B: Production of Biodiesel from Methanolysis of Rapeseed Oil
    Abstract

    Rastian, Z.; Khodadadi, A. A.; Guo, Z.; Vahabzadeh, F.; Mortazavi, Y. 2016. Plasma Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes for Immobilization of Candida antarctica Lipase B: Production of Biodiesel from Methanolysis of Rapeseed Oil. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 178(5) 974-989

    Surface modification of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through functionalization could improve the characteristics of these nanomaterials as support for enzymes. Carboxylation of MWCNTs (MWCNT-COOH) has been carried out in this study using the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor through humidified air. The chemical method was also used for further functionalization of the MWCNT-COOH through which the amidation of the surfaces with either butylamine (MWCNT-BA) or octadecylamine (MWCNT-OA) was performed. By immobilization of Candida antarctica B lipase (CALB) on these nanoparticles, performance of the immobilized enzyme in catalyzing methanolysis of rapeseed oil was evaluated. The CALB loading on the MWCNT-BA and MWCNT-COOH was 20 mg protein/g, while the value for MWCNT-OA was 11 mg protein/g. The yield of biodiesel was determined as percentage of mass of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) produced per initial mass of the oil, and the yield value for the two of these three supports namely, MWCNT-COOH and MWCNT-BA used for the CALB immobilization was similar at about 92 %, while 86 % was the yield for the reaction catalyzed by the lipase immobilized on MWCNT-OA. Thermal stability of the immobilized CALB and the catalytic ability of the enzyme in the repeated batch experiments have also been determined.
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  11. Production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil by porcine pancreatic mediated transesterification reaction in organic solvent
    Abstract

    Kia-Kojouri, M.; Darzi, G. N.; Rupani, B.; Mohammadpour, M. 2016. Production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil by porcine pancreatic mediated transesterification reaction in organic solvent. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology. 23(3) 216-220

    Enzymatic transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol has been carried out in a batch process. Methyl ester is produced in the course of enzymatic reaction. The product is used as biofuel in diesel engine without any further post treatment. There is no serious emission of hazardous particulate matter, since raw material does not contain any impurities such sulfur dioxide. The reaction is carried out under various conditions and the desire operating parameters were determined. In this work the effects of enzyme concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, water content, type of solvent, volumetric ratio of t-butanol and reaction temperature have been investigated. Maximum methyl ester conversion of 70.32% is obtained for enzyme 6% (w/w of Oil), water 5% (v/v of oil) and methanol to oil ratio of 9:1 at 37 degrees C for 72 h. In order to identify a suitable condition for biodiesel production, different solvents have been used. The highest methyl ester conversion is observed with t-butanol as moderate polar solvent.
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  12. Production of green aromatics via catalytic cracking of Canola Oil Methyl Ester (CME) using HZSM-5 catalyst with different Si/Al ratios
    Abstract

    Bayat, A.; Sadrameli, S. M.; Towfighi, J. 2016. Production of green aromatics via catalytic cracking of Canola Oil Methyl Ester (CME) using HZSM-5 catalyst with different Si/Al ratios. Fuel. 180244-255

    This research paper has focused on the production of green aromatics from Canola Oil Methyl Ester (CME). In order to evaluate the aromatic production statistically, General Factorial Design (GFD) was utilized. HZSM-5 catalyst with two different Si/Al ratios of 50 and 80 was applied in the experiments. The effects of two operating parameters namely reaction temperature and Weight Hourly Space Velocity (WHSV) on aromatic products yield were examined. Temperature of the reaction was varied in the range of 375-500 degrees C while WHSV was either 2 or 4 h (1). CME was catalytically cracked in a tubular reactor inside a furnace using HZSM-5 catalyst. The major products were hydrocarbon liquid, gases and water. Liquid Hydrocarbon Product (LHP) was analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC) in order to determine the aromatic content specifically BTX. The results showed that the temperature and WHSV are significant parameters in production of aromatics from methyl ester. Both catalysts yielded toluene as a major aromatic compound followed by Para-Meta xylenes and benzene. It was found that HZSM-5 with lower Si/Al ratio is a promising catalyst for production of aromatics from long chain methyl esters. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  13. Biodiesel Production from Mustard Emulsion by a Combined Destabilization/Adsorption Process
    Abstract

    Tabtabaei, S.; Boocock, D. G. B.; Diosady, L. L. 2015. Biodiesel Production from Mustard Emulsion by a Combined Destabilization/Adsorption Process. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 92(8) 1205-1217

    Tetrahydrofuran, added to the oil-in-water emulsions formed by the aqueous processing of yellow mustard flour, produced oil/water/THF miscellas containing 1-2 % water. The high water content prevented the direct conversion of the system to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) through a single-phase base-catalyzed transmethylation process. Dehydration of these miscellas by adsorption on 4A molecular sieves at room temperature using either batch or continuous fixed-bed systems successfully reduced the water content to the quality standards needed for biodiesel feedstock (0.3 %). Equilibrium adsorption studies for the uptake of water from oil/THF/water miscella phases at room temperature allowed quantitative comparison of the water adsorption capacity based on the oil and THF concentrations of the miscellas. Batch contact was used to investigate the dominant parameters affecting the uptake of water including miscella composition, adsorbent dose and contact time. The adsorption of the water was strongly dependent on adsorbent dose and miscella oil concentrations. The regeneration of molecular sieves by heating under nitrogen at reduced pressure for 6 h at 275 A degrees C resulted in incomplete desorption of miscella components. The adsorption breakthrough curves in terms of flow rates, initial water and oil miscella concentrations were determined. The dehydrated miscella phases were reacted with methanol in a single-phase base-catalyzed transmethylation process with high yields (99.3 wt%) to FAME. The resulting FAME met the ASTM international standard in terms of total glycerol content and acid number.
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  14. Calcium Oxide Based Heterogeneous Catalyst Design for the Production of Methyl Esters from Canola Oil
    Abstract

    Boz, N. 2015. Calcium Oxide Based Heterogeneous Catalyst Design for the Production of Methyl Esters from Canola Oil. Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University. 30(4) 641-648

    A calcium oxide (CaO) supported catalysts for use in the production of methyl esters from canola oil were prepared by the impregnation of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) into the support material (CaO) at the different loading ratios of K2CO3 (K2CO3/CaO ranges by weight: 1-5 %) in aqueous solutions. Synthesized catalysts were tested in a liquid batch reactor for the transesterification of canola oil with methanol resulting in fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) at the temperature range of 298-338 K, methanol/oil ratio varying between 6/1-15/1, different catalyst loading (the range of 1-7% by weight of the amount of fat basis) and 1-8 hours of reaction duration. As a result of the experiments, of calcium oxide supported catalysts, catalyst 5% by weight K2CO3/CaO (uncalcined) was the highest conversion at the following reaction conditions: alcohol/oil: 15/1, the catalyst based on the weight of the mass of oil in the amount of 3%, reaction time: 8 hours, batch reactor; 600 rpm stirring speed, methyl ester yield: 97%, reaction temperature: 333 K. Only 5% K2CO3/CaO catalyst was calcined at oven temperature of 773 K for 3 hours. It gave lower surface area and lower triglyceride conversion comparing with uncalcined 5% K2CO3/CaO catalyst. Reusability of calcined and uncalcined 5% K2CO3/CaO catalyst was also tested for two times in the same reaction condition. A non-significant loss of activity of the catalysts implied that homogeneously and heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification reactions occurred simultaneously during the reaction time.
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  15. Characterization and application of dolomite as catalytic precursor for canola and sunflower oils for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Correia, L. M.; Campelo, N. D.; Novaes, D. S.; Cavalcante, C. L.; Cecilia, J. A.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E.; Vieira, R. S. 2015. Characterization and application of dolomite as catalytic precursor for canola and sunflower oils for biodiesel production. Chemical Engineering Journal. 26935-43

    The catalytic activity of precursor dolomite as a heterogeneous catalyst in biodiesel production has been investigated. The dolomitic material is a double calcium and magnesium carbonate, which when calcinated decomposes into CaO and MgO that are highly basic. The materials were characterized by XRD, TG-DTG, CO2-TPD, FTIR, XPS, SEM, and N-2 adsorption/desorption at -196 degrees C. The raw material was activated and used as a catalyst for the transesterification of canola and sunflower oils with methanol. The conversion of canola and sunflower oils to methyl esters was optimized, under different catalyst amount and oil/methanol ratio, and the maximum conversions were: canola (98.81 +/- 0.02 wt.%) and sunflower (96.52 +/- 0.43 wt.%). (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  16. Effect of water, organic solvent and adsorbent contents on production of biodiesel fuel from canola oil catalyzed by various lipases immobilized on epoxy-functionalized silica as low cost biocatalyst
    Abstract

    Babaki, M.; Yousefi, M.; Habibi, Z.; Mohammadi, M.; Brask, J. 2015. Effect of water, organic solvent and adsorbent contents on production of biodiesel fuel from canola oil catalyzed by various lipases immobilized on epoxy-functionalized silica as low cost biocatalyst. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 12093-99

    Enzymatic production of biodiesel from canola oil using self-made covalently immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica (CALB), Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) and Rhizomucor miehei (RML) on epoxyfunctionalized silica as low cost catalyst was investigated. In this optimization study, the effect of water, t-butanol and water adsorbent content on the yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was considered. Complete conversion to FAMEs was achieved under optimum conditions for CALB immobilized on epoxyfunctionalized silica (Silica-CALB); 30% (w/w) t-butanol by substrate weight, reaction time of 96 h, 50 degrees C and molar ratio of methanol to oil 3:1, which was added to the reaction mixture in three steps. In general by adding t-butanol to the reaction medium, the conversion of oil to FAME increased for RML immobilized on epoxy-functionalized silica (Silica-RML) and 50 wt.% t-butanol by substrate weight gave the best yield. TLL immobilized on epoxy-functionalized silica (Silica-TLL) reach to 100% yield at 10% t-butanol. Water suppresses the methanolysis reaction catalyzed by Silica-CALB but significantly increased FAME yield for Silica-TLL and Silica-RML. It was observed that at high water adsorbent amounts (more than 55%, w/w), conversion to FAME decreased possibly due to mass transfer limitation. The immobilized TLL was quite stable and can be reused for 16 cycles without significant loss in activity (95%). The immobilized preparations of RML and CALB also presented a good reusability, keeping 85% of their initial activities after 16 cycles of the reaction. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  17. Exergy analysis of canola-based biodiesel production in Belarus
    Abstract

    Antonova, Z. A.; Krouk, V. S.; Pilyuk, Y. E.; Maksimuk, Y. V.; Karpushenkava, L. S.; Krivova, M. G. 2015. Exergy analysis of canola-based biodiesel production in Belarus. Fuel Processing Technology. 138397-403

    Exergy and life cycle assessment analysis are the key issues in evaluation of the potential of energy resources. However, the results of exergy analysis of biodiesel production greatly depend on the methodological approaches to exergy calculation and the peculiarities of local environment. In the current paper, detailed exergy analysis of the production of canola-based biodiesel was performed on the basis of classical model of the environment, considering all manufacturing stages from sowing of canola seeds to receiving of final biodiesel ready for sale. The typical spring canola (Brassica napus L.), cultivated on soddy-podzolic and loamy sandy soils at the usual weather conditions in the central part of Belarus, was used in the exergy analysis. The values of standard chemical exergies of canola biomass and its derivatives were determined from bomb combustion and heat capacity calorimetry data. It was found that total input of exergies during synthesis of methyl and ethyl esters makes 30.97 and 33.28 GJ ha(-1).yr(-1), while output of chemical exergies with the target product and its concomitants (esters, glycerin and potassium dihydrogen phosphate) is equal to 27.82 and 29.19 GJ ha(-1).yr(-1) for methyl and ethyl esters respectively. Obtained results testify to the high exergetical effectiveness of biodiesel production from canola, especially when major by-products and wastes are further processed into valuable matter. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  18. Optimization of biodiesel production from Indian mustard oil by biological tri-calcium phosphate catalyst derived from turkey bone ash
    Abstract

    Chakraborty, R.; Das, S.; Bhattacharjee, S. K. 2015. Optimization of biodiesel production from Indian mustard oil by biological tri-calcium phosphate catalyst derived from turkey bone ash. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 17(2) 455-463

    Turkey bone (TB) has been converted to an efficient, reusable biological tri-calcium phosphate (BTCP) catalyst simply through air incineration, and its catalytic efficacy was investigated in the methanolysis of Indian mustard oil (Brassica nigra) for production of biodiesel. The catalyst has been meticulously characterized by XRD, FESEM, BET, BJH, TGA, and FTIR analyses. The catalyst has 4 m(2)/g specific surface area, 0.0107 cc/g pore volume with a modal pore diameter of 20.16 nm, and 5.1 mmol HCl/g catalyst basicity. Face-centered central composite design coupled with response surface methodology predicted maximum 91.22 % FAME yield at methanol to mustard oil molar ratio of 9.90:1, calcination temperature of 909.4 A degrees C, and catalyst concentration of 4.97 wt%. The product biodiesel conforms to B20 ASTM/EN specifications. Moreover, valorization of discarded TB (a municipal solid waste) through preparation of inexpensive heterogeneous BTCP catalyst for synthesis of biodiesel can craft new avenues of environmental management, paving the way toward cleaner and greener world.
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  19. Preparation of highly reusable biocatalysts by immobilization of lipases on epoxy-functionalized silica for production of biodiesel from canola oil
    Abstract

    Babaki, M.; Yousefi, M.; Habibi, Z.; Brask, J.; Mohammadi, M. 2015. Preparation of highly reusable biocatalysts by immobilization of lipases on epoxy-functionalized silica for production of biodiesel from canola oil. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 10123-31

    In the present work, lipases from Candida antarctica (CALB), Thermomyces lanuginosus (TLL) and Rhizomucor miehei (RML) were covalently immobilized on epoxy-functionalized silica. The immobilized lipases were used to produce biodiesel by transesterification of canola oil with methanol. It was found that lipases immobilized on silica provided biocatalyst derivatives with lower cost compared with the cost of commercially available Novozym 435. Thermal stability of the immobilized derivatives and the influence of methanol on the catalytic activity were also evaluated. Optimum oil to methanol ratio at 1:3 was observed for CALB and RML in biodiesel production; the corresponding fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields obtained after 96h were 68% and 45% at 50 degrees C respectively. The lipase from T. lanuginosus immobilized on epoxy-functionalized silica displayed particularly high catalytic ability regarding reaction rate and final yield. TLL also gave high FAME contents in the reaction mixture with up to 6 molar equivalents of methanol to oil (98%). The immobilized TLL was quite stable and can be reused for 16 cycles without significant loss in activity (5%). The immobilized preparations of RML and CALB also presented a good reusability, keeping 85% of their initial activities after 16 cycles of the reaction. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  20. Process sustainability of biodiesel production process from green seed canola oil using homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalysts
    Abstract

    Baroi, C.; Dalai, A. K. 2015. Process sustainability of biodiesel production process from green seed canola oil using homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalysts. Fuel Processing Technology. 133105-119

    In this study, the sustainability of homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalyzed biodiesel production process from green seed canola (GSC) is evaluated. The term "sustainability" is assessed based on four criteria, e.g. process economics, process safety, environmental impact and process energy efficiency. Based on the assessment, it is concluded that both the processes are economically profitable, when the cost of the feedstock is $ 0.35/kg. Heterogeneous add catalyzed process shows higher profitability. Comparatively, heterogeneous acid catalyzed process is a safer process and creates less environmental impact. Additionally, heterogeneous acid catalyzed process is more energy efficient and more environment friendly than homogeneous process. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  21. Reuse of rapeseed by-products from biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kricka, T.; Matin, A.; Voca, N.; Jurisic, V.; Bilandzija, N. 2015. Reuse of rapeseed by-products from biodiesel production. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research. 13(1)

    The objective of this paper is to investigate usability of rapeseed cake from biodiesel fuel production as an energy source. For this research, rapeseed was grown at the research site of the Faculty of Agriculture in Zagreb, Croatia. The investigated rapeseed cake, residue from cold pressing, was divided in two groups of samples. The first group was a mix of three varieties (Bristol, Express and Navajo), while the other group consisted of three hybrids (Artus, Baldur, Titan). The utilization of rapeseed cake for energy via two routes was evaluated; namely, utilization of rapeseed cake as (1) solid biofuel (pellets) with addition of 3% of glycerol, and (2) as substrate in anaerobic digestion (AD). In investigation of cake as solid fuel, proximate (moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon and volatile matter), ultimate (content of carbon, sulphur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen) and physical and calometry analyses (abrasion, diameter, length, density, higher and lower heating value were carried out. As for its use in AD, production of biogas during 40 days was monitored with a view of assessing the use of digested residue as fertilizer in agricultural production. Both groups of digested residues were analysed (pH, electroconductivity, moisture content, ash content, content of nitrogen and carbon, C/N ratio, content of P2O5, K2O, Ca, Mg, Na). The analysis indicated that the investigated raw material is usable as solid and gas biofuel, and digested residue as fertilizer in ecological agriculture. The two groups of samples analysed here did not show significant differences.
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  22. Study on Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed Oil through the Orthogonal Method
    Abstract

    Zhang, Y.; You, H. 2015. Study on Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed Oil through the Orthogonal Method. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(4) 422-427

    By using rapeseed oil as feedstock, methanol as esterifying agent, and sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide as the catalysts, effects of an orthogonal method on yield of biodiesel were researched. The experimental results showed that the activity of potassium hydroxide was better than that of sodium hydroxide. The best reaction temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, and ratio of methanol and rapeseed oil for sodium hydroxide were 75 degrees C, 60 min, 1.0%, and 7:1, respectively. The best reaction temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, and ratio of methanol and rapeseed oil were 65 degrees C, 90 min, 1.0%, and 7:1, respectively.
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  23. Co-production of biodiesel and hydrogen from rapeseed and Jatropha oils with sodium silicate and Ni catalysts
    Abstract

    Long, Y. D.; Fang, Z.; Su, T. C.; Yang, Q. 2014. Co-production of biodiesel and hydrogen from rapeseed and Jatropha oils with sodium silicate and Ni catalysts. Applied Energy. 1131819-1825

    Calcined sodium silicate was used to rapidly catalyze the transesterification of rapeseed and Jatropha oils to biodiesel under microwave irradiation. Biodiesel yields of 95.8% and 92.8% were achieved from rapeseed and Jatropha oils, respectively (microwave power of 400 W, methanol/oil molar ratio of 11/1, catalyst amount of 4 wt.% and reaction time of 5 min). The catalyst was recycled, and biodiesel yield reduced to 83.6% at the fourth cycle. Fresh and reused sodium silicate catalysts were charaterized by BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) surface area, XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscope) and CO2-TPD (temperature programmed desorption), and it was found that the agglomeration and leaching of basic species resulted in the loss of catalytic activity. The reused catalyst was collected and utilized for hydrothermal gasification of glycerol to hydrogen. A maximum H-2 yield of 82.8% with a concentration of 73.6% was obtained in the presence of the fourth-cycled sodium silicate and Ni catalysts at 350 degrees C. Sodium silicate was an effective catalyst for the microwave-irradiated production of biodiesel and hydrothermal production of hydrogen from by-product glycerol combined with Ni catalyst. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  24. Energy Analysis for Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed Oil
    Abstract

    Ozturk, H. H. 2014. Energy Analysis for Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed Oil. Energy Exploration & Exploitation. 32(6) 1005-1031

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy input and output for winter rapeseed cultivation and biodiesel production from rapeseed oil. The total energy use for winter rapeseed cultivation and biodiesel production proceses were 10485.04 MJ/ha and 9199.48 MJ/ha, respectively. The total energy inputs for winter rapeseed cultivation were consisted of 2599.15 MJ/ha direct energy input and 7885.89 MJ/ha indirect energy input. The total energy input was calculated as 4889.66 MJ/t for winter rapeseed cultivation. The average rapeseed and straw yield were 2144.4 kg and 1154.6 kg per hectare cultivated area, respectively. The energy output of rapeseed 56826.6 MJ/ha, if only the seed was taken into account. The output/input ratio for rapeseed cultivation was 7.30 if straw was included. The net energy production was calculated as 66085.22 MJ per hectare of cultivated area. The total energy input was 19684.52 MJ/ha for rapeseed biodiesel production. The energy consumed for the conversion of refined rapeseed oil into biofuel was 6197.32 MJ/ha, which accounted for 67.37% of the total energy consumtion of biodiesel production processes. The total energy output of rapeseed biodiesel processes was consisted of 26768.97 MJ/ha in the form of biodiesel, 4095.8 MJ/ha of in the form of rapeseed meal (cake) and 2558.99 MJ/ha in the form of glycerin. The energy ratio was 2.70 for the rapeseed biodiesel production chain. The specific energy and the energy productivity for rapeseed biodiesel production were calculated as 24.41 MJ/kg and 0.0409 kg/MJ, respectively. The net biodiesel production was 7084.45 MJ/ha, which correspond to 213.39 L biodiesel per hectare of cultivated area.
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  25. Energy efficiency for rapeseed biodiesel production in different farming systems
    Abstract

    Firrisa, M. T.; van Duren, I.; Voinov, A. 2014. Energy efficiency for rapeseed biodiesel production in different farming systems. Energy Efficiency. 7(1) 79-95

    Due to mounting concerns related to fossil fuel use and problems with their supply, the use of alternative sources of energy is increasing. One of the alternative sources is biomass and the European Union has adopted a biofuel directive that describes targets for the use of biofuels in the transport sector. The majority of biofuels produced in Europe comes from rapeseed. In this study, we focused on analyzing the efficiency of rapeseed biodiesel production. Energy efficiency in terms of Energy Return On Energy Invested (EROEI) was analyzed for two EU countries (Poland and The Netherlands) with different agro-ecological systems. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) accounted for inputs, processes and outputs of energy in the biodiesel production system. Input parameters were derived from literature as well as from farmer's interviews. The use of the outputs-straw, meal, and glycerin-were included in the LCI system boundary. The EROEI values ranged from 1.73 to 2.36 in Poland and from 2.18 to 2.60 in the Netherlands. The low number of respondents makes it risky to draw hard conclusions about these values but the patterns observed show that intensifying the production process and increasing yield bears very little or no benefit in terms of energy produced. Due to a higher amount of organic manure and consequently lower amount of artificial fertilizers used in crop growth in the Netherlands, the rapeseed biodiesel production system in the Netherlands is more efficient than in Poland. In both cases, the EROEI is quite low. More detailed spatial energy efficiency assessments are required to determine if and where sustainable production may be possible.
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  26. Monoglycerides reduction in rapeseed oil transesterification for production of high quality biodiesel
    Abstract

    Islam, M. S.; Bundy, C.; Choudhury, M. A. A. S. 2014. Monoglycerides reduction in rapeseed oil transesterification for production of high quality biodiesel. International Journal of Oil Gas and Coal Technology. 8(1) 104-116

    Monoglycerides are intermediate by products in rapeseed oil transesterification. If they are present in the bio-fuel and the bio-fuel is used in vehicles, then they can form crystal at cold climate and block fuel injection system of the vehicles. To solve this problem kinetic study of transesterification of rapeseed oil has been carried out in this study. The process variables such as reaction time, temperature, agitation speed and molar ratio of methanol to oil have been optimised to achieve a reduced level of monoglycerides formation in a batch reactor. These information have been integrated into flow through industrial scale transesterification process. Industrial processes demonstrated a steady performance with reduced level of monoglycerides. Monoglycerides level have been reduced to 0.27% (w/w) using 9:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil in about 40 min reaction time. KOH was used as a catalyst to influence transesterification. Results from this study will be helpful to reduce monoglycerides in the industrial scale transesterification process.
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  27. New approach of catalyst-free biodiesel production from canola oil in supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE)
    Abstract

    Farobie, O.; Yanagida, T.; Matsumura, Y. 2014. New approach of catalyst-free biodiesel production from canola oil in supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE). Fuel. 135172-181

    This paper reports a novel approach for biodiesel production from canola oil in supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE) without the addition of a catalyst. Using this technique, canola oil was reacted with MTBE to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and glycerol tert-butyl ether. No glycerol was obtained as a by-product in this reaction. The effects of temperature, pressure, and reaction time on product yield were investigated in supercritical MTBE. A FAME yield of 0.94 was obtained in a short reaction time of 12 min at 400 degrees C, with a molar ratio of MTBE-to-oil of 40:1, and under a pressure of 10 MPa. The kinetics of the reaction was first order, and the activation energies and pre-exponential factors were calculated from the temperature dependence of the reaction rate constants. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  28. Prediction of Optimal Conditions in the Methanolysis of Mustard Oil for Biodiesel Production Using Cost-Effective Mg-Solid Catalysts
    Abstract

    Chakraborty, R.; Das, S.; Pradhan, P.; Mukhopadhyay, P. 2014. Prediction of Optimal Conditions in the Methanolysis of Mustard Oil for Biodiesel Production Using Cost-Effective Mg-Solid Catalysts. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(51) 19681-19689

    Optimization of process conditions for biodiesel production through methanolysis of Indian mustard oil (MO) using magnesium-impregnated, precalcined fly ash heterogeneous base catalyst has been performed, using response surface methodology based on a four-factor, three-level face-centered central composite design. A quadratic polynomial model was formulated for estimation of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester, FAME) yield by multivariate regression analysis. Optimal parametric values corresponding to maximum experimental FAME yield (i.e., 97.5 wt %) were as follows: methanol:MO molar ratio, 13.13:1; calcination temperature, 950 degrees C; catalyst concentration, 3.44 wt?%; and stirrer speed, 890 rpm. The optimal magnesium base catalyst possessed a BET specific surface area of 9.07 m(2)/g, a catalyst pore volume of 0.0255 cm(3)/g with a modal pore diameter of 6.5 nm, and appreciable (11.52 mmol HCl/g catalyst) catalyst basicity. The formulated B10 biodiesel conformed to ASTM/European specifications. Thus, the optimally prepared low-cost and reusable catalyst can craft economical avenues for fuel-grade biodiesel synthesis from mustard oil.
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  29. Production of biodiesel from unrefined canola oil using mesoporous sulfated Ti-SBA-15 catalyst
    Abstract

    Sharma, R. V.; Baroi, C.; Dalai, A. K. 2014. Production of biodiesel from unrefined canola oil using mesoporous sulfated Ti-SBA-15 catalyst. Catalysis Today. 2373-12

    The present study deals with the synthesis of mesoporous sulfated Ti-SBA-15 (with Si/Ti ratio varying from 10 to 80) and these catalysts were used for preparation of biodiesel from unrefined canola oil. The physico-chemical properties of the catalyst were analyzed by FT-IR, pyridine FT-IR, N-2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), NH3-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the sulfation of Ti-SBA-15 increases the extent of transesterification by fourfold. Taguchi methodology (L-9 orthogonal array) was used to optimize the reaction parameters such as temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst loading and reaction time towards methyl ester (biodiesel) formation through simultaneous esterification and transesterification reaction. Reaction time and temperature were found to be the most significant reaction parameters. In this study, 1 wt% catalyst yielded 91 wt% ester in 4 h when 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio was used at 200 degrees C. The catalyst was found to be reusable when studied upto 3 cycles. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  30. Production of biodiesel fuel from canola oil with dimethyl carbonate using an active sodium methoxide catalyst prepared by crystallization
    Abstract

    Kai, T.; Mak, G. L.; Wada, S.; Nakazato, T.; Takanashi, H.; Uemura, Y. 2014. Production of biodiesel fuel from canola oil with dimethyl carbonate using an active sodium methoxide catalyst prepared by crystallization. Bioresource Technology. 163360-363

    In this study, a novel method for the production of biodiesel under mild conditions using fine particles of sodium methoxide formed in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is proposed. Biodiesel is generally produced from vegetable oils by the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol. However, this reaction produces glycerol as a byproduct, and raw materials are not effectively utilized. Transesterification with DMC has recently been studied because glycerol is not formed in the process. Although solid-state sodium methoxide has been reported to be inactive for this reaction, the catalytic activity dramatically increased with the preparation of fine catalyst powders by crystallization. The transesterification of canola oil with DMC was studied using this catalyst for the preparation of biodiesel. A conversion greater than 96% was obtained at 65 degrees C for 2 h with a 3:1 M ratio of DMC and oil and 2.0 wt% catalyst. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  31. Utilization of rapeseed pellet from fatty acid methyl esters production as an energy source
    Abstract

    Ciunel, K.; Klugmann-Radziemska, E. 2014. Utilization of rapeseed pellet from fatty acid methyl esters production as an energy source. Environmental Technology. 35(2) 195-202

    Rapeseed pellet - crushed seed residue from oil extraction is a by-product of fatty acid methyl esters production process. As other types of biomass, it can either be burned directly in furnaces or processed to increase its energetic value. Biomass is renewable, abundant and has domestic usage; the sources of biomass can help the world reduce its dependence on petroleum products, fossil coal and natural gas. Energetically effective utilization of rapeseed pellet could substantially improve the economic balance of an individual household in which biodiesel for fulfilling the producer's own energetic demand is obtained. In this article, the experimental results of combusting rapeseed pellet in a calorimeter, combustion in a boiler heater and the analysis of the emissions level of different pollutants in exhaust fumes during different stages of biomass boiler operation are presented. It has been proved that the pellet, a by-product of biodiesel production, is not only a valuable substitute of animal fodder, but also an excellent renewable and environmentally friendly energy source, viable for use in household tap water heating installations.
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  32. 99 % yield biodiesel production from rapeseed oil using benzyl bromide-CaO catalyst
    Abstract

    Tang, Y.; Gu, X. F.; Chen, G. 2013. 99 % yield biodiesel production from rapeseed oil using benzyl bromide-CaO catalyst. Environmental Chemistry Letters. 11(2) 203-208

    Biofuels are sustainable fuels produced from modern biomass such as plants and algae. Biodiesel has high lubricity and ultra-low sulfur content. Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oil by transesterification. Actually, practical biodiesel production is limited by the low reaction rate of transesterification of vegetable oil with methanol catalyzed by CaO. Here we designed an efficient catalyst: benzyl bromide-modified CaO. Using benzyl bromide-modified CaO, we obtained a 99.2 % yield of fatty acid methyl esters in 3 h, compared with 35.3 % yield using commercial CaO under the same reaction conditions. The improved catalytic activity is explained by better fat diffusion to the surface of the benzyl bromide-modified CaO. The novelty of our findings is the much higher yield of our method compared to literature data on heterogeneous catalysis. In addition, the lifetime of our catalyst is excellent.
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  33. Activation of Commercial CaO for Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed Oil Using a Novel Deep Eutectic Solvent
    Abstract

    Huang, W.; Tang, S. K.; Zhao, H.; Tian, S. J. 2013. Activation of Commercial CaO for Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed Oil Using a Novel Deep Eutectic Solvent. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 52(34) 11943-11947

    A deep eutectic solvent (DES) consisting of choline chloride and glycerol (1:2 molar ratio) was prepared and used as the solvent in CaO-catalyzed transesterification of rapeseed oil to produce biodiesel. In addition to its solvent role, DES activated commercial CaO to be a catalyst for the transesterification reaction. The yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with the addition of DES reached 91.9%, while the FAME yield with no DES was only 4.0%. The commercial CaO samples before and after reaction were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM). These measurements indicate that the surface of commercial CaO is typically covered by a layer of CaCO3 and Ca(OH)(2) which inhibits the activity of CaO, while the addition of DES can eliminate this inhibiting layer leading to CaO activation.
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  34. Biodiesel production and comparison of emissions of a DI diesel engine fueled by biodiesel-diesel and canola oil-diesel blends at high idling operations
    Abstract

    Roy, M. M.; Wang, W.; Bujold, J. 2013. Biodiesel production and comparison of emissions of a DI diesel engine fueled by biodiesel-diesel and canola oil-diesel blends at high idling operations. Applied Energy. 106198-208

    Biodiesel from pure and used canola oil is produced by transesterification process in this study. Quality of biodiesel is examined according to ASTM 6751: biodiesel standards and testing methods. Important fuel properties of biodiesel, such as heating value, cetane index, viscosity, and others are also investigated. A direct injection (DI) diesel engine is tested with biodiesel-diesel and canola oil-diesel blends for performance and emissions at high idling operations. Three fuel series are examined: pure canola biodiesel, used canola biodiesel and pure canola oil series. In all the series, fuels are blended with petroleum diesel 2-20 vol.%. Engine performance is examined by measuring brake specific fuel consumption and fuel conversion efficiency. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and others are measured. Pure and used canola biodiesel blends show very similar fuel properties, engine performance and emissions. CO and HC emissions from biodiesel-diesel blends are significantly less than neat diesel fuel. Even pure canola oil up to 5% in diesel fuel can show significantly less CO emissions than that of diesel fuel. Up to 5% biodiesel and canola oil in diesel fuel, NOx emissions either can reduce or maintain similar level to that of diesel fuel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  35. Canola and rapeseed : production, processing, food quality, and nutrition
    Abstract

    Thiyam-Hollaender, Usha; Eskin, N. A. M.; Matthäus, Bertrand 2013. Canola and rapeseed : production, processing, food quality, and nutrition. . xii, 362 p.

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  36. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel Production from Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) and Rapeseed Oil Obtained under Spanish Conditions
    Abstract

    Dufour, J.; Arsuaga, J.; Moreno, J.; Torrealba, H.; Camacho, J. 2013. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel Production from Cardoon (Cynara cardunculus) and Rapeseed Oil Obtained under Spanish Conditions. Energy & Fuels. 27(9) 5280-5286

    The high demand of fuels and the problems associated with the resources depletion and environmental effects of its production have motivated the search for alternative sources. An interesting option in Spain is the cultivation of Cynara cardunculus as primary raw material of biodiesel manufacture. In this paper, the environmental feasibility of the value chain form cropping to fuel manufacture is studied for Cynara cardunculus oil (CCB) and compared to rapeseed oil (RSB) through life cycle assessment, according to the ISO Standard 14040 and using the Gabi software v4.3 as calculation tool. The functional unit selected was 1 tonne of biodiesel. The total energy consumption and the energy return on energy investment (EROEI) were calculated from energy balance. The indicators for life cycle assessment corresponding to impact categories in human health, ecosystem quality and resources depletion were estimated by means of Ecoindicator 99 method. Obtained EROEI values (calculated considering only the calorific power of the oil) indicate that the energy balance is more positive for Cynara cardunculus than for rapeseed (EROEI = 1.53 for CCB and 1.20 for RSB). Moreover, biodiesel from cardoon shows lower environmental impacts.
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  37. Efficient production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate: One-pot esterification and transesterfication with compound lipases
    Abstract

    Zhu, Z. N.; Xu, L.; Zhang, H. J.; Yan, Y. J. 2013. Efficient production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate: One-pot esterification and transesterfication with compound lipases. Advances in Energy Science and Technology, Pts 1-4. 291-294267-275

    A novel concept and efficient method for producing biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate (RODD) was developed by using compound lipases for one-pot esterification of FFA and transesterification of triglyceride with methanol in a solvent-free system. Compound lipases Novozyme435 and immobilized Pseudomonas cepacia G63 at 1:1(wt/wt) gave FAME about 96% yield under optimal conditions, being better than that with single lipase or other compound lipases. Besides, the loss rate of vitamin E was 18% much lower than that of using chemical catalyst, which shows that the compound lipases Novozyme435 and immobilized P cepacia G63 can be ideal catalysts for biodiesel production from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate.
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  38. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of biodiesel production from rapeseed in Iran
    Abstract

    Rajaeifar, M. A.; Ghobadian, B.; Heidari, M. D.; Fayyazi, E. 2013. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of biodiesel production from rapeseed in Iran. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 5(6)

    The issue of searching alternatives for diesel fuel in transport sector that is one of the largest diesel fuel consuming sectors in each country has become more attractive nowadays. In this study, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of biodiesel production from rapeseed as an alternative for diesel fuel in transport sector was assessed in terms of three main stages including agricultural crop production, transport, and industrial conversion. The results revealed that the total fossil energy input cost was calculated as 28 122.16MJ ha(-1) and the renewable energy output content (biodiesel as the final outcome) was estimated as 31 802.06MJ ha(-1). The net energy returns and the fossil energy ratio were calculated as 3679.9MJ ha(-1) and 1.13, respectively. It shows rapeseed could be a suitable energy crop for biodiesel production. CO2 emissions assessment showed that the total greenhouse gas emissions over biodiesel production life cycle were 1054.98 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) and the agricultural crop production stage ranks the first. In order to establish energy crops cultivation such as rapeseed and achieve the sustainable development, meteorological and water source availability data collected and analyzed for all the 31 provinces in Iran to generate a map of regions capable of rapeseed cultivation. The results revealed that 24 provinces among 31 provinces have a great potential for rapeseed cultivation. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
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  39. Environment-Friendly Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil: Effect of Reaction Parameters
    Abstract

    Kiriliauskaite, V.; Bendikiene, V.; Juodka, B. 2013. Environment-Friendly Biodiesel Production by Transesterification of Rapeseed Oil: Effect of Reaction Parameters. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management. 21(1) 42-51

    The huge energy demand in the industrialized world and the pollution problems caused due to the worldwide consumption of fossil fuels has made it necessary to develop alternative sources of energy. It is estimated that pure biodiesel provides over 90% reduction in unburned hydrocarbons and 75-90% reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. This results in almost total reduction in sulphur dioxide (which causes acid rains), 40-60% reduction in soot particles, 80% and 10-15% reduction in carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide emissions respectively. Reduction of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons is extremely important as many of these hydrocarbons are cancer causing and ozone-forming compounds. Biodiesel does not interfere with the carbon cycle or cause climate change (vegetables from which oils are extracted for biodiesel production remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to grow).
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  40. In-situ transesterification of rapeseed and cost indicators for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    El-Enin, S. A. A.; Attia, N. K.; El-Ibiari, N. N.; El-Diwani, G. I.; El-Khatib, K. M. 2013. In-situ transesterification of rapeseed and cost indicators for biodiesel production. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 18471-477

    In the present work the alkali in-situ transesterification of rapeseed with methanol for the production of biodiesel fuel was studied. Experiments were designed to determine how variations in molar ratio of methanol to oil in seeds, amount of alkali catalyst, time and temperature affected the yield. Good results (90%) conversion of seed lipid to fatty acid methyl ester was obtained at 0.02 N catalyst concentration, 720/1 methanol to rapeseed oil molar ratio, 1 h reaction time and 65 degrees C reaction temperature. The results were in agreement with the values measured by H-1 NMR spectroscopy. A mass balance and a preliminary feasibility study were investigated. A techno-economic analysis of the process for production of biodiesel from rapeseed with a capacity of 50,000 t/yr was presented to investigate the profitability indicators of the production capacity. The techno-economic indicators showed that total capital investment of $16,065,000, gross profit/year of $14,630,300, and percentage simple rate of return (%SRR) was 79.5% for a constant estimated price of $945/t while the specific biodiesel prices for SRR% of 10 and 50 were $722 and $850 respectively. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  41. Potential for optimized production and use of rapeseed biodiesel. Based on a comprehensive real-time LCA case study in Denmark with multiple pathways
    Abstract

    Herrmann, I. T.; Jorgensen, A.; Bruun, S.; Hauschild, M. Z. 2013. Potential for optimized production and use of rapeseed biodiesel. Based on a comprehensive real-time LCA case study in Denmark with multiple pathways. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. 18(2) 418-430

    Several factors contribute to the current increased focus on alternative fuels such as biodiesel, including an increasing awareness of the environmental impact of petrochemical (PC) oil products such as PC diesel, the continuously increasing price of PC oil, and the depletion of PC oil. For these reasons, the European Union has enacted a directive requiring each member state to ensure that the share of energy from renewable sources in transport be at least 10 % of the final consumption of energy by 2020 (The European Parliament and the Council 2009). This LCA study assesses the specific environmental impacts from the production and use of biodiesel as it is today (real-time), based on rapeseed oil and different types of alcohols, and using technologies that are currently available or will be available shortly. Different options are evaluated for the environmental improvement of production methods. The modeling of the LCA is based on a specific Danish biodiesel production facility.
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  42. The Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Oil Yield and Biodiesel Production of Canola (Brassica napus L.)
    Abstract

    Nosheen, A.; Bano, A.; Ullah, F. 2013. The Role of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Oil Yield and Biodiesel Production of Canola (Brassica napus L.). Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 35(16) 1574-1581

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effects of chemical fertilizers and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria viz. Azospirillum and Azotobacter on seed yield, oil content, and oil quality of canola (Brassica napus L.) var. Pakola pertaining to biodiesel production. Azospirillum and Azotobacter were applied as broth culture prior to sowing, while chemical fertilizers viz. urea and Diamonium phosphate were applied @ 185 Kg/hec and 160 Kg/hec, respectively. The first dose of chemical fertilizers was applied at the time of sowing, while another three doses were applied at 40 day intervals. Chemical fertilizers significantly increased number of branches plant(-1), number of siliqua branch(-1), number of seeds siliqua(-1), and total seed yield. However, significant increase in 1,000 seed weight was observed in Azospirillum treatment. Maximum increase in seed oil content was recorded in Azotobacter treatment. Chemical fertilizers and Azospirillum significantly increased seed protein content and decreased oil acid value and free fatty acid (%FFAs) content as compared to the control. Significantly lower glucosinolate and moisture content were recorded in Azotobacter treatment. Significantly higher oleic acid (C18:1) content was observed in Azospirillum treatment. Maximum alpha linolenic acid (C18:3) content was found in Azotobacter treatment. Azospirillum significantly decreased the erucic acid (cis-13-docosenoic acid, C22:1) content. The oil extracted from seeds of chemical fertilizers and Azospirillum-treated plants exhibited maximum (93 and 92%, respectively) conversion to methyl esters as a result of transesterification reaction.
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  43. Transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel production in trickle-bed reactors packed with heterogeneous Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalyst
    Abstract

    Meng, Y. L.; Tian, S. J.; Li, S. F.; Wang, B. Y.; Zhang, M. H. 2013. Transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel production in trickle-bed reactors packed with heterogeneous Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 136730-734

    A conventional trickle bed reactor and its modified type both packed with Ca/Al composite oxide-based alkaline catalysts were studied for biodiesel production by transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol. The effects of the methanol usage and oil flow rate on the FAME yield were investigated under the normal pressure and methanol boiling state. The oil flow rate had a significant effect on the FAME yield for the both reactors. The modified trickle bed reactor kept over 94.5% FAME yield under 0.6 mL/min oil flow rate and 91 mL catalyst bed volume, showing a much higher conversion and operational stability than the conventional type. With the modified trickle bed reactor, both transesterification and methanol separation could be performed simultaneously, and glycerin and methyl esters were separated additionally by gravity separation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  44. A life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from winter rape grown in Southern Europe
    Abstract

    Gasol, C. M.; Salvia, J.; Serra, J.; Anton, A.; Sevigne, E.; Rieradevall, J.; Gabarrell, X. 2012. A life cycle assessment of biodiesel production from winter rape grown in Southern Europe. Biomass & Bioenergy. 4071-81

    This paper analyses the viability of Brassica napus as an energy crop cultivated for producing biodiesel in southern Europe. The proposed methodology assessment combines physical variables such as grain production and agroclimate conditions with environmental analysis (LCA) in order to determine the Mediterranean agroclimates areas that could be cultivated for non-food purposes. The results obtained in a local production and distribution scenario (25 km) demonstrate that the biodiesel systems analysed have a better energy balance than diesel. Biodiesel obtained a net energy benefit of 16.25 MJ kg (1) of biodiesel or 35.10 MJ kg(-1) of biodiesel when the avoided impacts from coproducts (glycerine and rapemeal) are considered in comparison with conventional diesel. In terms of environmental performance, the biodiesel system also has less impact compared with diesel in three categories Abiotic Depletion (AD), Photochemical Oxidation (PO) and Global Warming Potential (GWP). The estimated impact reduction in the GWP category when is compared with diesel reached a minimum of 1.76 kg CO2 eq. per kg of biodiesel when emissions of the use phase are included.
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  45. Biodiesel production from crude canola oil by two-step enzymatic processes
    Abstract

    Jang, M. G.; Kim, D. K.; Park, S. C.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, S. W. 2012. Biodiesel production from crude canola oil by two-step enzymatic processes. Renewable Energy. 4299-104

    Crude canola oil (CCO) contains about 100-300 ppm of phospholipids, which have shown negative effects on biodiesel/buffer solution phase separation, resulting in low biodiesel production yield. Therefore, phospholipids should be removed before transesterification by a degumming process for efficient production of biodiesel. In this study, two-step enzymatic processes (degumming and transesterification) were carried out for the production of biodiesel from CCO. Degumming of CCO was performed using phospholipase A2 as a degumming reagent. The initial phospholipid content was reduced to less than 5 ppm by enzymatic degumming. The effects of three formulations of enzyme catalyst on the efficiency of transesterification were investigated. As a result, conversion rates of degummed CCO to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 68.56%, 70.15%, and 84.25%, respectively. Lipase formulation composed of a 1:1 (vol:vol) enzyme mixture of Rhizopus oryzae and Candida rugosa showed the best performance among those tested. In order to recover and reuse the lipase catalyst efficiently, a 1:1 enzyme mixture of R. oryzae and C. rugosa was immobilized on silica gel. The immobilized lipase was used in subsequent transesterification optimization experiments. Optimization of transesterification was performed by response surface methodology (RSM). A total of 20 experiments based on RSM were carried out, and the optimal reaction conditions appeared to be 24.4% (w/w) immobilized catalyst, 13.5% (w/w) buffer solution, and 15.8% (w/w) methanol based on oil mass. Conversion rate of degummed CCO to FAME was determined to be 88.9% under optimal conditions. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  46. Biodiesel production from rapeseed oil by various supercritical carboxylate esters
    Abstract

    Goembira, F.; Matsuura, K.; Saka, S. 2012. Biodiesel production from rapeseed oil by various supercritical carboxylate esters. Fuel. 97373-378

    Biodiesel is commonly produced from triglycerides and methanol, with glycerol as the by-product. This process has caused the overproduction of glycerol, which leads to its price devaluation and its likelihood to become a new type of waste. In this research, therefore, we explored the potential of converting rapeseed oil into fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) and triacins, instead of glycerol, by using supercritical carboxylate ester treatments in a batch-reaction system. As a result, it was found out that at reaction temperature of 350 degrees C and pressures up to 17.8 MPa, interesterifications of triglycerides with various carboxylate esters have occurred without using any catalysts under supercritical condition, producing FAAE and triacins. Among all supercritical carboxylate esters, supercritical methyl acetate showed the highest product yield, i.e., 97.7 wt%, when both FAAE and triacin were considered as the product. Additionally, the mixture of FAAE and triacin in 3:1 molar ratio exhibited no detrimental effects on biodiesel quality. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  47. Comparative kinetics of transesterification for biodiesel production from palm oil and mustard oil
    Abstract

    Issariyakul, T.; Dalai, A. K. 2012. Comparative kinetics of transesterification for biodiesel production from palm oil and mustard oil. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 90(2) 342-350

    The kinetics of palm oil and mustard oil transesterification are compared. Transesterification of palm oil and mustard oil using KOH as a catalyst was performed at various reaction temperatures ranging from 40 to 60 degrees C. The reaction steps are reversible and transesterification is favoured at elevated temperatures. The reaction step of triglyceride to diglyceride is the rate determining step (RDS) that controls kinetics of overall transesterification with activation energies of 30.2 and 26.8?kJ/mol for palm oil and mustard oil transesterification, respectively. It is found that percentage of saturated compounds play a vital role on transesterification kinetics. (c) 2011 Canadian Society for Chemical Engineering
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  48. Direct production of biodiesel from rapeseed by reactive extraction/in situ transesterification
    Abstract

    Zakaria, R.; Harvey, A. P. 2012. Direct production of biodiesel from rapeseed by reactive extraction/in situ transesterification. Fuel Processing Technology. 10253-60

    Biodiesel is a fuel derived from renewable resources such as edible and inedible oil-bearing seed, algae, and waste cooking oil. The conventional biodiesel process involves oil extraction, refining and transesterification. Alternatively, transesterification can actually be performed directly from the oil-bearing materials without prior extraction. This route which is often termed "reactive extraction" or "in situ transesterification" has the advantages of simplifying the biodiesel production process as well as potentially reducing production cost. In this study, the reactive extraction of rapeseed with methanol has been characterised. The effects of process parameters on the yield, conversion and reaction rate differ substantially from conventional transesterification due to the dependence on both extraction and reaction. The rate of ester formation is mainly affected by the catalyst concentration, temperature and particle size while the equilibrium yield largely depends on the solvent to oil molar ratio. A high yield of ester (>85%) can only be achieved at high solvent to oil molar ratios (>475:1). Parametric studies and light microscope images of reactively extracted seed suggested that reactive extraction occurs by transesterification of the oil inside the seed, followed by diffusion of the products into the bulk solvent. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  49. Effects of ultrasonification and mechanical stirring methods for the production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil
    Abstract

    Shin, J.; Kim, H.; Hong, S. G.; Kwon, S.; Na, Y. E.; Bae, S. H.; Park, W. K.; Kang, K. K. 2012. Effects of ultrasonification and mechanical stirring methods for the production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 29(4) 460-463

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of ultrasonic energy and mechanical stirring methods in bio-diesel production from rapeseed oil under base catalysis conditions. With the transesterification of rapeseed oil, the molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil was 6: 1, and the amount of catalysts added to the vegetable oil was 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0% (wt/wt). The main components of methyl esters from the transesterification of rapeseed oil were oleic acid (48.5%, C18:1) and linoleic acid (18.1%, C18:2). In addition, the optimum conditions to produce fatty acid methyl esters (96.6%) were 0.5% KOH after 25 min of ultrasonification at 40 A degrees C as compared to mechanical stirring at 60 A degrees C. The maximum conversion ratio was 75.6% with 1.0% NaOH after 40 min of ultrasonification at 40 A degrees C. These results indicate that ultrasonic energy could be a valuable tool for transesterification of fatty acids from rapeseed oil in terms of the reaction time and temperature.
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  50. Production of biodiesel catalyzed by immobilized thermomyces lanuginose lipase from canola oil: process optimization using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Akbin, M.; Gurkaya, B.; Uyar, B.; Ilgen, O.; Kapucu, N. 2012. Production of biodiesel catalyzed by immobilized thermomyces lanuginose lipase from canola oil: process optimization using response surface methodology. New Biotechnology. 29S38-S38

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  51. Statistical optimization for biodiesel production from rapeseed oil via transesterificaion in supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Shin, H. Y.; Lim, S. M.; Kang, S. C.; Bae, S. Y. 2012. Statistical optimization for biodiesel production from rapeseed oil via transesterificaion in supercritical methanol. Fuel Processing Technology. 981-5

    Biodiesel production via transesterification of rapeseed oil in supercritical methanol was performed without catalysts. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the relationships between the content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, reaction pressure, reaction time, and the molar ratio of methanol to oil. A central composite design was employed to fit the available response data to a second order polynomial RS model. The optimal conditions maximizing the content of FAMEs in the biodiesel were investigated. Results showed that the optimum processing conditions were 330 C. 210 bar, a reaction time of 16 min, and a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 50 mol/mol. The predicted response value for these conditions was 93.6% methyl esters and it was in agreement with the experimental value. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  52. The Production and Quality Assessment of Mustard Oil Biodiesel: A Cultivated Potential Oil Seed Crop
    Abstract

    Ahmad, M.; Sadia, H.; Zafar, M.; Sultana, S.; Khan, M. A.; Khan, Z. 2012. The Production and Quality Assessment of Mustard Oil Biodiesel: A Cultivated Potential Oil Seed Crop. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 34(16) 1480-1490

    Biodiesel from vegetable oil seed crops is the potential substitute for petro-diesel in the current era of every crisis. This article is confined to the transesterification of mustard oil (Brassica campestris L.) into biodiesel. The maximum biodiesel yield was 84% by using 2.5% alkali methoxide as the catalyst. The technical tools and processes used for monitoring of the transesterification reaction and characterization of biodiesel were GC-MS, H-1 NMR, (CNMR)-C-13, and FT-IR. The characteristic fuel properties of 100% mustard oil biodiesel, i.e., Kinematic viscosity @ 40 degrees C (ny) 5.775 Flash Point 110 degrees C, Pour Point -18 degrees C, Cloud Point -6.3 degrees C, Cetane number 53, and density @ 15 degrees C Kg/Lit 0.0871, were in accordance with ASTM standards. This study stated that mustard oil biodiesel is considered as a potential option for renewable energy, if mass cultivation is practiced through agriculture programs at global perspective.
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  53. Biodiesel production from canola oil using immobilized lipase
    Abstract

    Yucel, Y.; Tekeli, Y. 2011. Biodiesel production from canola oil using immobilized lipase. Energy Education Science and Technology Part a-Energy Science and Research. 27(2) 337-346

    In the present work, lipase (triacylglycerol hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) Novozyme 388 was immobilized onto celite 545 using both adsorption and covalent method. The maximum immobilization yield was obtained as 78.50% when lipase immobilized by covalent method and the highest specific activity was 5.81 U/mg protein for adsorption method. The properties of the support and immobilized derivative were evaluated by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Immobilized enzyme was used for biodiesel production by transesterification of crude canola oil and methanol. Maximum methyl esters yield was obtained as 98%. Celite 545 activated with polygluturaldehyde proved to be stable after even 10 reuses with each batch of 6 h and lost little activity when was subjected to repeated use. However, the immobilized lipase without polyglutaraldehyde on support material was lost its whole activity after five repeated reuses.
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  54. Biodiesel production from mixed soybean oil and rapeseed oil
    Abstract

    Qiu, F. X.; Li, Y. H.; Yang, D. Y.; Li, X. H.; Sun, P. 2011. Biodiesel production from mixed soybean oil and rapeseed oil. Applied Energy. 88(6) 2050-2055

    The biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) was prepared by transesterification of the mixed oil (soybean oil and rapeseed oil) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as catalyst. The effects of mole ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst amount and reaction time on the yield were studied. In order to decrease the operational temperature, a co-solvent (hexane) was added into the reactants and the conversion efficiency of the reaction was improved. The optimal reaction conditions were obtained by this experiment: methanol/oil mole ratio 5.0:1, reaction temperature 55 degrees C, catalyst amount 0.8 wt.% and reaction time 2.0 h. Under the optimum conditions, a 94% yield of methyl esters was reached similar to 94%. The structure of the biodiesel was characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy. The sulfur content of biodiesel was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma emission spectrometer (ICP), and the satisfied result was obtained. The properties of obtained biodiesel from mixed oil are close to commercial diesel fuel and is rated as a realistic fuel as an alternative to diesel. Production of biodiesel has positive impact on the utilization of agricultural and forestry products. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  55. Carbon-based solid acid catalyst from de-oiled canola meal for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Rao, B. V. S. K.; Mouli, K. C.; Rambabu, N.; Dalai, A. K.; Prasad, R. B. N. 2011. Carbon-based solid acid catalyst from de-oiled canola meal for biodiesel production. Catalysis Communications. 14(1) 20-26

    A carbon-based acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of partially carbonized de-oiled canola meal (DOCM), a by-product of canola seed processing. Partial carbonization of DOCM was carried out at 300 and 400 degrees C and the partially carbonized material prepared at 400 degrees C was steam activated to improve its surface properties. Four types of carbon catalysts were prepared using the partially carbonized material and DOCM by concentrated sulfuric acid treatment. The spectral and elemental analysis clearly indicated that the catalyst had enough acidic sites in the form of sulfonate groups having the ability to promote esterification reaction. The catalyst partially carbonized at 300 degrees C established various functional groups such as aromatic carbon atoms, phenolic-OH, COOH, and carbonyl groups on the surface as evidenced by the MAS (13)C NMR and FTIR spectra. The catalyst produced by partial carbonization at 300 degrees C followed by sulfuric acid treatment showed better performance towards esterification of oleic acid and high FFA canola oil. The maximum conversion reached 93.8% after 24 h at 65 degrees C using 1:60 mol:mol of FFA to methanol and 7.5 wt.% of catalyst to FFA. The performance of the catalyst was reduced gradually during its recycling and reached to 40.5% at the end of 4th cycle. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  56. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production
    Abstract

    Mikkola, H.; Pahkala, K.; Ahokas, J. 2011. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(1) 505-515

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  57. HIGHLY ACTIVE CaO FOR THE TRANSESTERIFICATION TO BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM RAPESEED OIL
    Abstract

    Tang, Y.; Chen, G.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Y. 2011. HIGHLY ACTIVE CaO FOR THE TRANSESTERIFICATION TO BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM RAPESEED OIL. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. 25(1) 37-42

    The catalytic performance of commercial CaO modified by trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) for transesterification of rapeseed oil and methanol to biodiesel production was studied. It was found that the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield of the modified CaO was greatly enhanced from 85.4% to 94.6% under 65 degrees C with 15: 1 molar ratios of methanol/oil by using 5 wt.% catalyst (weight to oil). The possible reason lies on promoting the absorption of grease to modified CaO surface. Both the characterization of the catalyst and the effects of various factors such as mass ratio of catalyst to oil, reaction temperature and molar ratio of methanol to oil were investigated.
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  58. Lipase immobilization and production of fatty acid methyl esters from canola oil using immobilized lipase
    Abstract

    Yucel, Y.; Demir, C.; Dizge, N.; Keskinler, B. 2011. Lipase immobilization and production of fatty acid methyl esters from canola oil using immobilized lipase. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(4) 1496-1501

    Lipase enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae (EC 3.1.1.3) was immobilized onto a micro porous polymeric matrix which contains aldehyde functional groups and methyl esters of long chain fatty acids (biodiesel) were synthesized by transesterification of crude canola oil using immobilized lipase. Micro porous polymeric matrix was synthesized from styrene divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) copolymers by using high internal phase emulsion technique and two different lipases, Lipozyme TL-100L (R) and Novozym 388 (R), were used for immobilization by both physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Biodiesel production was carried out with semi-continuous operation. Methanol was added into the reactor by three successive additions of 1:4 M equivalent of methanol to avoid enzyme inhibition. The transesterification reaction conditions were as follows: oil/alcohol molar ratio 1:4; temperature 40 degrees C and total reaction time 6 h. Lipozyme TL-100L (R) lipase provided the highest yield of fatty acid methyl esters as 92%. Operational stability was determined with immobilized lipase and it indicated that a small enzyme deactivation occurred after used repeatedly for 10 consecutive batches with each of 24 h. Since the process is yet effective and enzyme does not leak out from the polymer, the method can be proposed for industrial applications. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  59. Net energy balance of small-scale on-farm biodiesel production from canola and soybean
    Abstract

    Fore, S. R.; Porter, P.; Lazarus, W. 2011. Net energy balance of small-scale on-farm biodiesel production from canola and soybean. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(5) 2234-2244

    One necessary criterion for a biofuel to be a sustainable alternative to the petroleum fuels it displaces is a positive net energy balance. This study estimated the net energy ratio (NER), net energy balance (NEB), and net energy yield (NEY) of small-scale on-farm production of canola [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel in the upper Midwest. Direct and embodied energy inputs based on well-defined system boundaries and contemporary data were used to estimate the energy requirement of crop production, oil extraction, and biofuel processing. The NER of canola biodiesel was 1.78 compared with 2.05 for soybean biodiesel. Canola biodiesel had a NEB of 0.66 MJ MJ(-1) of biofuel compared with 0.81 MJ MJ(-1) for soybean biodiesel. The NEY of soybean biodiesel was 10,951 MJ ha(-1) less than canola biodiesel which had a NEY of 11,353 MJ ha(-1). Use of soybean as a biodiesel feedstock was more energetically efficient than canola primarily due to reduced nitrogen fertilizer requirement. In terms of energetic productivity, canola was a more productive biodiesel feedstock than soybean due to its higher oil content. A best-case scenario based on optimal feedstock yields, reduced fertilizer input, and advanced biofuel processing equipment suggested that potential gains in energetic efficiency was greater for canola than soybean. According to our results, small-scale on-farm biodiesel production using canola and soybean can be an energetically efficient way to produce energy for on-farm use. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  60. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Rapeseed Oils
    Abstract

    Gog, A.; Chintoanu, M.; Roman, M.; Luca, E.; Irimie, F. D. 2011. Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Rapeseed Oils. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Chemia. 56(1) 17-26

    The main objective of the present work was to investigate the influence of rapeseed oil type upon the biodiesel quality. For this purpose eleven types of rapeseed oil were used to obtain biodiesel by alkaline transesterification. The produced biodiesels were examined for several physico-chemical characteristics in order to evaluate and compare their quality with the specifications for biodiesel according to the EN 14214: 2004 European standard.
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  61. Production of biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil using sodium silicate as catalyst
    Abstract

    Long, Y. D.; Guo, F.; Fang, Z.; Tian, X. F.; Jiang, L. Q.; Zhang, F. 2011. Production of biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil using sodium silicate as catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 102(13) 6884-6886

    Biodiesel and lactic acid from rapeseed oil was produced using sodium silicate as catalyst. The transesterification in the presence of the catalyst proceeded with a maximum yield of 99.6% under optimized conditions [3% (w/w) sodium silicate, methanol/oil molar ratio 9/1, reaction time 60 min, reaction temperature 60 degrees C, and stirring rate 250 rpm]. After six consecutive transesterification reactions, the catalyst was collected and used for catalysis of the conversion of glycerol to lactic acid. A maximum yield of 80.5% was achieved when the reaction was carried out at a temperature of 300 degrees C for 90 min. Thus, sodium silicate is an effective catalyst for transesterification and lactic acid production from the biodiesel by-product, glycerol. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  62. Waste of Rapeseed from Biodiesel Production as a Potential Biosorbent for Heavy Metal Ions
    Abstract

    Tofan, L.; Paduraru, C.; Volf, I.; Toma, O. 2011. Waste of Rapeseed from Biodiesel Production as a Potential Biosorbent for Heavy Metal Ions. Bioresources. 6(4) 3727-3741

    Rapeseed waste from biodiesel production was explored as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solutions under batch conditions. The optimum value of the initial pH for the sorption of both metal ions was found to be 4.5 to 5. The efficiency of Cu(II) and Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions varied from 49% to 91% and from 61% to 97%, respectively, by increasing the rapeseed waste dose from 5 to 30 g L-1. According to the evaluation using the Langmuir equation, the monolayer sorption capacity of copper (II) and cadmium (II) ions on rapeseed waste was found to be 15.43 mg g(-1) and 21.72 mg g(-1), respectively at 293 K. The batch sorption systems under study were thermodynamically characterized by means of parameters such as Delta G, Delta H, and Delta S. The kinetic parameters derived from the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order equations were calculated and compared.
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  63. Biodiesel fuel production from waste canola cooking oil as sustainable energy and environmental recycling process
    Abstract

    Hossain, A. B. M. S.; Mekhled, M. A. 2010. Biodiesel fuel production from waste canola cooking oil as sustainable energy and environmental recycling process. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 4(7) 543-549

    The increase of petroleum price and environmental problems has triggered the finding of alternative and renewable energy. Biodiesel produced by transesterification of triglycerides with alcohol, is one of the energy forms that has attracted the attention of many researchers due to various advantages associated with its usage. Waste cooking oil is considered as the most suitable material due to its readily-availability and cost-effectiveness. In this study, the transesterification of waste canola cooking oil was carried out using lower alcohol to oil molar ratios to study its feasibility. Molar ratio of methanol, types and concentrations of catalyst were selected to obtain a high quality biodiesel fuel with the specification of American Standard for Biodiesel Testing Material (ASTM D 6751) and European Norm (EN 14214). The highest biodiesel yield was obtained (49.5%) under conditions of 1: 1 volumetric oil-to-methanol weight ratio, 0.5% NaOH catalyst at 55 C reaction temperature and 250 rpm stirring speed. The results showed that biodiesel production from different oil to methanol ratio, catalyst types and concentration exhibited considerable differences. There was little difference in viscosity, acid value and chemical elements (Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, P etc.) at different parameters. The result showed that the optimal combination which could give highest production of biodiesel was transesterification carried out for 2 hours by using methanol to oil molar ratio of 1: 1 catalyzed by 0.5% sodium hydroxide and produced biodiesel can be used as fuel in diesel engine.
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  64. Biodiesel Production from Canola in Western Australia: Energy and Carbon Footprints and Land, Water, and Labour Requirements
    Abstract

    Ruslandi, F.; Wu, H. W. 2010. Biodiesel Production from Canola in Western Australia: Energy and Carbon Footprints and Land, Water, and Labour Requirements. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 49(22) 11785-11796

    This study evaluates the energy and carbon footprints and land, water, and labor requirements of biodiesel production from canola in Western Australia (WA). The results show that canola-based biodiesel leads to limited energy profit and CO, equivalent (CO(2)-e) emissions savings. Even when all byproduct are utilized, a relatively low output/input energy ratio of 1.72 and a CO(2)-e emissions savings of only 0.52 kg of CO(2)-e/L of biodiesel are obtained under the WA conditions considered in this study. A land requirement of 1.66 x 10(-3) ha/L of biodiesel means that canola-based biodiesel seems to also be limited to <2% replacement of total diesel consumption in WA's transport sector to avoid significant competition with food production for arable land. When some of the biodiesel is invested back into the production process to make the process independent of nonrenewable fuels, the competition for arable land use is even more severe, rendering it unfeasible to replace diesel fuel by the net biodiesel. Also, there would not be enough net biodiesel to support the transport activities that are usually supported by diesel fuel in the WA transport sector, and no CO(2)-e emissions savings would be achieved from replacing diesel fuel by net biodiesel. Overall, canola-based biodiesel is not sustainable to replace a significant fraction of diesel consumption in the WA transport sector. It can only play a limited role by offering some energy and CO(2)-e emissions savings and by providing immediate opportunities for introducing new transport fuels in the marketplace and developing familiarity among the consumers in our transition to a future sustainable biofuel supply.
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  65. Biodiesel Production from Greenseed Canola Oil
    Abstract

    Issariyakul, T.; Dalai, A. K. 2010. Biodiesel Production from Greenseed Canola Oil. Energy & Fuels. 244652-4658

    Greenseed canola oil is low-grade oil with a green color. Because of the high level of chlorophyll, this oil is considered as a "waste product" and cannot be used for edible purposes. In this research, biodiesel was produced from canola oil and greenseed canola oil via KOH-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, ethanol, and a mixture of methanol and ethanol. The reaction was conducted at 60 degrees C and a stirring speed of 600 rpm for 90 min. Prior to transesterification, greenseed canola oil was bleached to remove pigments using various adsorbents at different conditions. The optimum bleaching material was found to be montmorillonite K10. The pigment content was reduced from 94 to 0.5 ppm with using 7.5 wt % of this material at 60 degrees C and a stirring speed of 600 rpm for 30 min. Biodiesel derived from the treated greenseed canola oil showed an improvement in oxidative stability (induction time of 0.7 h) as compared to that derived from crude greenseed canola oil (induction time of 0.5 h). In addition, it was found that the amounts of unsaturated compounds as well as pigments contained in oil had an adverse effect on the oxidative stability of biodiesel.
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  66. Biorefining Based on Biodiesel Production: Chemical and Physical Characterisation of Reactively Extracted Rapeseed
    Abstract

    Ren, Y. L.; Harvey, A.; Zakaria, R. 2010. Biorefining Based on Biodiesel Production: Chemical and Physical Characterisation of Reactively Extracted Rapeseed. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 4(1) 79-86

    Carbohydrates, lipids and protein are the main chemical components of rapeseed (canola). Usually, lipids and their derivatives are the only useful products extracted from rapeseed. However, it is important to determine which chemical components remain in which streams after oil extraction, as the possibility of deriving additional value from these chemical components can then be investigated. Biodiesel as a "bulk chemical" is produced at large scales, typically 100 kte/yr. There are various product streams associated with the process, other than the biodiesel stream itself: mainly GRP (glycerol-rich phase), seedcake and washwater. The contents of these streams will vary with the process. One possible intensified process for biodiesel production is "reactive extraction," in which, rather than the conventional crushing and solvent extraction process to produce oil followed by reaction to biodiesel, macerated seeds are contacted directly with the methanol and catalyst to produce the biodiesel directly. This would be expected to have a marked effect on the location of the various components of the seed, as the "solvent" used (which is also the reactant) is now polar. In this paper the physical, morphological and chemical properties of the rapeseed itself during reactive extraction are investigated. The morphology and chemistry of rapeseed particles, particularly the cell structures, in the size ranges 300-500 mu m and 1000-1400 mu m was observed by means of light microscopy and SEM, with staining for lipids and carbohydrates. It was observed that the carbohydrate remains in the cell during the extraction. Lipids, as expected, were demonstrated to be largely removed, but this is a function of particle size: larger particle sizes exhibit central areas in which oil remains after extraction. This is also a function of time and morphology. Seed coat particles were chemically and morphologically unaffected by the reactive extraction process, meaning that antioxidants remain in the seed-cake, so the viability of their extraction from this phase should be investigated. Phenols were shown to be extracted from the seedcake, which may mean that the seedcake is more palatable, and that the shelf-life of the biodiesel is extended.
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  67. Design of Biodiesel Production Process from Rapeseed Oil
    Abstract

    Vlad, E.; Bildea, C. S.; Plesu, V.; Marton, G.; Bozga, G. 2010. Design of Biodiesel Production Process from Rapeseed Oil. Revista De Chimie. 61(6) 595-603

    An integrated design for biodiesel production process from rapeseed vegetable oil was developed. The process simulation software ASPEN PLUS was used as a CAPE tool. The process consists of two steps. The acid-catalyzed pre-treatment achieves total conversion of free fatty acids and partial conversion of triglycerides. This is followed by an alkali-catalyzed step where high conversion of triglycerides is achieved. Compared to other designs reported in the literature, each operation which is common to both steps is performed in one unit, leading to smaller investment cost. Moreover, the detailed composition of the rapeseed oil was taken into account. This was determined experimentally by transesterification combined with gas chromatography and IR spectroscopy. Considerations regarding the importance of the physical properties during the process simulation activity are also presented.
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  68. Hemicelluloses obtaining from rapeseed cake residue generated in the biodiesel production process
    Abstract

    Egues, I.; Alriols, M. G.; Herseczki, Z.; Marton, G.; Labidi, J. 2010. Hemicelluloses obtaining from rapeseed cake residue generated in the biodiesel production process. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 16(2) 293-298

    The processing of rapeseed oil seeds for biodiesel production generates huge amounts of lignocellulosic cake residue mainly composed by cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. In this work, the valorisation of these components, especifically the majoritary fraction, hemicelluloses, was studied. Hemicelluloses were extracted, purified and characterized by different techniques (FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and GPC). Autohydrolysis and acid hydrolysis processes were applied to obtain sugar monomers and oligomers. Glucose and xylose were the main simple sugars in the obtained hydrolysates, representing 22.7% and 40.2% of total sugars content in the autohydrolysis hydrolysates and 27.7% and 36.6% in the acid hydrolysates respectively. Arabinose, galactose and mannose were present in relatively minor quantities. (C) 2010 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  69. Impacts of alcohol type, ratio and stirring time on the biodiesel production from waste canola oil
    Abstract

    Hossain, A. B. M. S.; Boyce, A. N.; Salleh, A.; Chandran, S. 2010. Impacts of alcohol type, ratio and stirring time on the biodiesel production from waste canola oil. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 5(14) 1851-1859

    The use of alternative fuels in order to reduce the environmental impacts of diesel emissions has been extensively investigated. Trends in the regional use of biomass-derived fuels, such as alcohols, biodiesel and agricultural residues as a proposed control initiative against elevated carbon monoxide levels in urban areas have expanded to a global scale. Waste cooking oil is considered as the most suitable material due to its readily-availability and cost-effectiveness. In this study, the transesterification of waste canola cooking oil was carried out using lower alcohol to oil molar ratios to study its feasibility. Some important variables such as volumetric ratio, types of reactants and shaking time were selected to obtain a high quality biodiesel fuel with the specification of American Standard for Biodiesel Testing Material (ASTM D 6751) and European Norm (EN 14214). The highest biodiesel yield was obtained (49.5%) under conditions of 1:1 volumetric oil-to-methanol weight ratio, 0.5% NaOH catalyst at 55 C reaction temperature and 250 rpm stirring speed. The results showed that biodiesel production from different oil to methanol ratio, alcohol types and shaking time exhibited considerable differences. There was also a considerable difference of biodiesel yield produced by methanol, ethanol and 1-butanol. The biodiesel yield increased in the order of 1-butanol < ethanol
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  70. Investigation of Lipase-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production Using Ionic Liquid [BMIM][PF6] as a Co-solvent in 500 mL Jacketed Conical and Shake Flask Reactors Using Triolein or Waste Canola Oil as Substrates
    Abstract

    Ruzich, N. I.; Bassi, A. S. 2010. Investigation of Lipase-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production Using Ionic Liquid [BMIM][PF6] as a Co-solvent in 500 mL Jacketed Conical and Shake Flask Reactors Using Triolein or Waste Canola Oil as Substrates. Energy & Fuels. 243214-3222

    The production of biodiesel was investigated using a lipase-catalyzed (Novozym 435) reaction involving methyl acetate and ionic liquid [BMIM][PF6] as a co-solvent. The use of a lipase catalyst removed the need for alkali wastewater removal and treatment, and the methyl acetate and ionic liquid helped prevent deactivation and improve activity and stability of the lipase, respectively. Experiments were carried out in shake flask and jacketed conical reactors. Runs performed in shake flask reactor produced similar fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields to previous work using a small-scale reactor (83%), indicating that the reaction can achieve high yields provided that sufficient mixing between the oil and ionic liquid phases occur. The highest yield achieved in the conical reactor was 54% because of the relatively poor mixing in the reactor as a result of two phases present in the mixture. An additional benefit of using ionic liquid as a co-solvent in the process was for its ease of separation of products. Two distinct phases were present at the end of the reaction, with the ionic liquid phase containing the triacetylglycerol byproduct and any unreacted methyl acetate. The byproduct was then separated by washing with water, and the ionic liquid was removed by decantation and reused. FAMEs were also successfully produced from waste canola oil, with a 72% yield achieved in a small-scale reactor and a 30% yield in a 500 mL jacketed conical reactor.
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  71. Oxypropylation of Rapeseed Cake Residue Generated in the Biodiesel Production Process
    Abstract

    Serrano, L.; Alriols, M. G.; Briones, R.; Mondragon, I.; Labidi, J. 2010. Oxypropylation of Rapeseed Cake Residue Generated in the Biodiesel Production Process. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 49(4) 1526-1529

    The oxypropylation of rapeseed cake residue generated in the biodiesel production process was studied. The reaction was carried Out by suspending the rapeseed cake residue in propylene oxide [30/70 ratio (w/v)] in the presence of a basic catalyst (10% KOH) and heating the resulting mixture at 160 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical structure of the obtained polyol was studied by CHNS elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and other parameters such as viscosity, OH number, molecular weight (GPC), and thermal behavior (DSC, TGA) were also measured. The obtained results showed an almost total conversion of the solid substrate into a polyol with good characteristics (OH number, 610 mg of KOH/g; viscosity, 84.23 Pa center dot s; and molecular weight, 33550 g/mol) for use in polyurethane, polyether, or polyester formulations.
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  72. Process Design of Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed Oil
    Abstract

    Vlad, E.; Bildea, C. S.; Plesu, V.; Marton, G.; Bozga, G. 2010. Process Design of Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed Oil. Pres 2010: 13th International Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction. 211267-1272

    An integrated design for biodiesel production process from rapeseed vegetable oil is developed. The process simulation software ASPEN Plus version V7.0 is used as a computer aided process engineering (CAPE) tool. The process consists of two steps. The acid-catalyzed pre-treatment achieves total conversion of free fatty acids and partial conversion of triglycerides. This is followed by an alkali-catalyzed step where high conversion of triglycerides is achieved. Compared to other designs reported in the literature, each operation which is common to both steps is performed in one unit, leading to smaller investment cost. Different types of vegetable oil are studied. Among them the rapeseed oil is chosen as raw material for biodiesel production because the rapeseed oil oleic acid content is high and because it is the most common oil in Romania. Moreover, the detailed composition of the rapeseed oil is taken into account. This is determined experimentally by transesterification combined with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy.
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  73. Production of Biodiesel From Used Mustard Oil and Its Performance Analysis in Internal Combustion Engine
    Abstract

    Singh, B.; Kaur, J.; Singh, K. 2010. Production of Biodiesel From Used Mustard Oil and Its Performance Analysis in Internal Combustion Engine. Journal of Energy Resources Technology-Transactions of the Asme. 132(3)

    Decline in fossil fuel resources along with high crude oil prices generated attention toward the development of fuel from alternate sources. Such fuel should be economically attractive and performance competent in order to replace the fossil fuel. Mustard oil from Indian mustard, Brassica campestris, is commonly used for cooking in Indian households and restaurants. Cooking produces spent mustard oil waste, which is generally drained as garbage. We explored the possibility of using such spent mustard oil for making biodiesel. Transesterification of spent oil was carried out using methanol and sulfuric acid (95%) as catalysts followed by bubble washing. Clear biodiesel was obtained from esterified oil after five bubble washings. Methyl ester formations were calculated by measuring its density at 15 degrees C and viscosity at 40 degrees C and were found to be 89 g/cm(3) and 4.83 mm(2)/s, respectively. Studies on engine performance were conducted using a Prony brake internal combustion (IC) diesel engine using various blending ratios of biodiesel with commercial diesel. The fuel blends were evaluated for parameters such as speed of engine, fuel consumption, and torque against pure diesel. Brake power, specific fuel consumption, and thermal efficiency were also measured. The results indicate that dual fuel with a blend of 8% biodiesel yielded good efficiency in the IC-diesel engines without the need for making any modifications in the engine. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4002203]
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  74. Production of biodiesel from winery waste: Extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil
    Abstract

    Fernandez, C. M.; Ramos, M. J.; Perez, A.; Rodriguez, J. F. 2010. Production of biodiesel from winery waste: Extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil. Bioresource Technology. 101(18) 7019-7024

    In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol and bioethanol, being the methyl and ethyl ester contents higher than 97 wt%. Finally, several in situ transesterifications were done In situ transesterification did not reach either the oil yield extraction or the alkyl ester contents but the obtained biodiesel had better oxidation stability in comparison with the conventional process (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved
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  75. Study of Biodiesel Production from Oilseed Plants Ii. Evaluation of Biodisel Production from Some Cultivars of Rapes
    Abstract

    Leonte, C.; Bulgariu, L.; Robu, B.; Robu, T.; Simioniuc, D. 2010. Study of Biodiesel Production from Oilseed Plants Ii. Evaluation of Biodisel Production from Some Cultivars of Rapes. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. 9(9) 1311-1315

    Bio-diesel is a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative fuel that can be used in Diesel engines with little or no modification. Low cost feed stocks, such as waste oils, agricultural products, are important for low cost bio-diesel production. Rape is the most appropriate agricultural culture for this purpose, mainly due to the high fat content. In this study were evaluated the performances of 3 cultivated varieties rapes compared to new commercial types. Both, cultivated varieties and commercial sorts were cultivated using usual technologies on agricultural lands from Iasi County, Romania. The performances evaluation was conducted by analyzing the fat content from seeds for each cultivated varieties and commercial sorts, correlated with seeds production on hectare and calculating the content of fat for each culture, in order to obtain the possible production of biodiesel. The results showed that the three new cultivars are more recommended for bio-diesel production due to a higher content of fat in seeds in comparison with analyzed fat content for commercial sorts. Thus, these new cultivars could be better used for bio-diesel production at industrial level.
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  76. Study on membrane reactors for biodiesel production by phase behaviors of canola oil methanolysis in batch reactors
    Abstract

    Cheng, L. H.; Yen, S. Y.; Su, L. S.; Chen, J. H. 2010. Study on membrane reactors for biodiesel production by phase behaviors of canola oil methanolysis in batch reactors. Bioresource Technology. 101(17) 6663-6668

    In comparison with the general stirring batch reactor, the membrane reactor has been reported to have higher molar ratios of methanol to oil but ultralow catalyst concentration in the biodiesel production. In this research, the methanolysis of canola oil is conducted in a stirring batch reactor in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. Based on the investigation of the effects of operating conditions, including methanol to oil molar ration, catalyst concentrations and temperatures, the time course of the reaction path for the reactant composition in the ternary phase diagram of oil-FAME-MeOH offers an effective way to understand the operation of membrane reactors in the biodiesel production. The results show that increasing the residence time of the whole reactant system within the two-phase zone is good for the separation operation through the membranes. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  77. Biodiesel production from canola oil by using lipase immobilized onto hydrophobic microporous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer
    Abstract

    Dizge, N.; Keskinler, B.; Tanriseven, A. 2009. Biodiesel production from canola oil by using lipase immobilized onto hydrophobic microporous styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 44(2-3) 220-225

    In this study, the methyl esters of the long chain fatty acids (biodiesel) were synthesized by methanolysis of canola oil by immobilized lipase. Lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus was immobilized by both physical adsorption and covalent attachment onto polyglutaraldehyde activated styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) copolymer, which is synthesized by using high internal phase emulsion (polyHIPE). Two different STY-DVB copolymers were evaluated: STY-DVB copolymer and STY-DVB copolymer containing polyglutaraldehyde (STY-DVB-PGA). Lipase from T lanuginosus was immobilized with 60% and 85% yield on the hydrophobic microporous STY-DVB and STY-DVB-PGA copolymer, respectively. Biodiesel production using the latter lipase preparation was realized by a three-step addition of methanol to avoid strong substrate inhibition. Under the optimized conditions, the maximum biodiesel yield was 97% at 50 degrees C in 24 h reaction. The immobilized enzyme retained its activity during the 10 repeated batch reactions. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  78. Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil over Zinc Oxide-Supported Catalysts
    Abstract

    Boz, N.; Sunal, O. 2009. Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil over Zinc Oxide-Supported Catalysts. Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University. 24(3) 389-395

    Zinc oxide supported catalysts were prepared by impregnation method with aqueous solutions of KOH and K(2)CO(3) and tested for the transesterification of canola oil with methanol resulting in Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) at the temperature range between 298-333 K and methanol/oil ratios of 6/1-15/1. Both catalysts, KOH and K(2)CO(3) impregnated into ZnO, were found to be the active catalysts resulting in very high conversion of triglyceride (94% and 96% respectively) for transesterification of canola oil at 333 K with methanol/oil ratio of 12/1. Methanol was found to be much more reactive than ethanol in the transesterification reaction.
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  79. Biodiesel production from rapeseed deodorizer distillate in a packed column reactor
    Abstract

    Liu, Y.; Wang, L. 2009. Biodiesel production from rapeseed deodorizer distillate in a packed column reactor. Chemical Engineering and Processing. 48(6) 1152-1156

    In this study, a technical method investigating biodiesel production in a column reactor packed with cation exchange resin from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate (RODD) was addressed. The results showed that D002 cation exchange resin presented more efficiently catalytic activity than 002CR and 732 resins in a packed column reactor. Biodiesel yield achieved over 96% under the optimal conditions: D002 resin catalyst dosage 18 wt.% (based on oil weight), oil to methanol molar ratio 1:9, reaction temperature 60 degrees C. and reaction time 4 h. When the packed resin catalyst was recovered, biodiesel yield was over 88% after 10 repeated batch cycles (40 h). The comparison of biodiesel production in a packed column reactor and catalyzed by traditional sulfuric acid from RODD was also studied. It was concluded that biodiesel synthesis in a packed column reactor would be a potential way for biodiesel production from RODD. (C) 2009 Elsevier BIN. All rights reserved.
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  80. Comparison of canola and mustard presscake from biodiesel production as protein sources for growing cattle
    Abstract

    McKinnon, J. J.; Walker, A. M. 2009. Comparison of canola and mustard presscake from biodiesel production as protein sources for growing cattle. Canadian Journal of Animal Science. 89(3) 401-408

    McKinnon, J. J. and Walker, A. M. 2009. Comparison of canola and mustard presscake from biodiesel production as protein sources for growing cattle. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 89: 401-408. Two studies were conducted to examine in situ rumen degradation kinetics of biodiesel presscake from canola (CPC) (Brassica napa) and mustard (MPC) (Brassica hirta) relative to regular canola meal (CM) and to compare the performance of cattle fed these meals as protein supplements in backgrounding diets. In the in situ trial CPC and MPC had similar (P > 0.05) rates of DM, CP, fibre and crude fat disappearance relative to canola meal. However, CPC and MPC exhibited greater (P < 0.05) soluble DM and CP fractions, while CPC had greater (P < 0.05) soluble ADF and NDF fractions than canola meal. The effective degradability of CP, ADF and NDF fractions was greater (P < 0.05) than that of canola meal. No differences (P> 0.05) in effective degradability of crude fat were observed. The feedlot trial involved 391 steers (323 +/- 24 kg) that were fed one of three experimental diets: a control diet consisting of barley silage (213 g kg(-1)) oat hulls (306 g kg(-1)), chopped straw (63 g kg(-1)), rolled barley (255 g kg(-1)) and CM (101 g kg(-1)), ora diet containing either CPC or MPC in place of CM as the protein supplement. Backgrounding performance was unaffected by treatment as no differences in DMI (P = 0.127), ADG (P = 0.679) or feed:gain (P = 0.792) were observed. Composition of gain estimated by ultrasound measurement of longissimus dorsi area and subcutaneous fat depth was unaffected by dietary treatment. It is concluded that biodiesel presscake from both canola and mustard seed provides a superior source of rumen degradable nutrients relative to CM and can be used as a protein supplement for growing cattle without any adverse affects on performance at levels up to 10% of the diet DM.
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  81. Design and Economic Analysis of the Process for Biodiesel Fuel Production from Transesterificated Rapeseed Oil Using Supercritical Methanol
    Abstract

    Lim, Y.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, Y. W.; Han, C. 2009. Design and Economic Analysis of the Process for Biodiesel Fuel Production from Transesterificated Rapeseed Oil Using Supercritical Methanol. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 48(11) 5370-5378

    A supercritical process for biodiesel fuel production is generally known to be less profitable than the alkali-catalyzed process due to high temperature and pressure requirements for the supercritical reaction. Only a few approaches have been proposed using experimental results to design a supercritical biodiesel process and to assess its profitability compared to the alkali-catalyzed process. In this study, a design for a supercritical biodiesel process was suggested and its economic performance with three different reaction conditions was simulated in the comparison with the conventional alkali-catalyzed process. It was found that the total capital cost was higher in all three cases of the supercritical process than in the alkali-catalyzed process due to the high cost of pumps, heaters, and heat exchangers. However, the total manufacturing cost of the supercritical process was lower than that of the alkali-catalyzed process due to the higher glycerol credit and the lack of a requirement for catalyst or solvent. The supercritical process can produce high-purity glycerol more easily that does not contain any water, which is unavoidable in the washing step of the alkali-catalyzed process. The higher steam cost in the supercritical process was compensated for by catalyst and solvent costs in the alkali-catalyzed process. Overall, one of the supercritical processes resulted in shorter payout time than the alkali-catalyzed process even when virgin oil was used as one of the raw materials, because the lower total manufacturing cost made up for the increased total capital cost.
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  82. Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil Using Amberlyst-26 as a Catalyst
    Abstract

    Ilgen, O.; Akin, A. N.; Boz, N. 2009. Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil Using Amberlyst-26 as a Catalyst. Turkish Journal of Chemistry. 33(2) 289-294

    The transesterification of canola oil to fatty acid methyl esters was studied using Amberlyst-26 as a solid catalyst. The influence of reaction conditions, such as the reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, amount of catalyst, effect of co-solvent, and alcohol and oil types, were determined. When the reaction was carried out at 45 degrees C with a canola oil to methanol molar ratio of 6:1, a reaction time of 1.5 h, and 3 wt.% of catalyst, oil conversion was about 67%. Methanol was much more reactive than ethanol and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in the transesterification reaction. The conversion of canola oil did not change much with the addition of tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a co-solvent; however, in the presence of n-hexane as a co-solvent in the reaction mixture, the conversion of canola oil decreased. Canola oil had the highest conversion among the other oils used, including sunflower and corn oils. All the results suggest that Amberlyst-26 cannot serve as an economical solid catalyst for the high-yield production of biodiesel from canola oil.
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  83. Pan-European regional-scale modelling of water and N efficiencies of rapeseed cultivation for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    van der Velde, M.; Bouraoui, F.; Aloe, A. 2009. Pan-European regional-scale modelling of water and N efficiencies of rapeseed cultivation for biodiesel production. Global Change Biology. 15(1) 24-37

    The energy produced from the investment in biofuel crops needs to account for the environmental impacts on soil, water, climate change and ecosystem services. A regionalized approach is needed to evaluate the environmental costs of large-scale biofuel production. We present a regional pan-European simulation of rapeseed (Brassica napus) cultivation. Rapeseed is the European Union's dominant biofuel crop with a share of about 80% of the feedstock. To improve the assessment of the environmental impact of this biodiesel production, we performed a pan-European simulation of rapeseed cultivation at a 10 x 10 km scale with Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC). The model runs with a daily time step and model input consists of spatialized meteorological measurements, and topographic, soil, land use, and farm management practices data and information. Default EPIC model parameters were calibrated based on literature. Modelled rapeseed yields were satisfactory compared with yields at regional level reported for 151 regions obtained for the period from 1995 to 2003 for 27 European Union member countries, along with consistent modelled and reported yield responses to precipitation, radiation and vapour pressure deficit at regional level. The model is currently set up so that plant nutrient stress is not occurring. Total fertilizer consumption at country level was compared with IFA/FAO data. This approach allows us to evaluate environmental pressures and efficiencies arising from and associated with rapeseed cultivation to further complete the environmental balance of biofuel production and consumption.
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  84. Process optimisation for the production of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock by a novel method of short path distillation
    Abstract

    Shao, P.; He, J. Z.; Sun, P. L.; Jiang, S. T. 2009. Process optimisation for the production of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock by a novel method of short path distillation. Biosystems Engineering. 102(3) 285-290

    Refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high production costs make it difficult for the resulting fuels to compete with petroleum-derived fuels. An effective method involving a short path distillation pretreatment followed by appropriate esterification and transesterification was proposed. A short path distillation process was developed to separate free fatty acids (FFAs) and esterified fatty acids from rapeseed soapstock (SS). Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was carried out on the process of FFA esterification catalysed by an acid catalyst (sulphuric acid) to prepare biodiesel from rapeseed SS using methanol. Methanol substrate, acid concentration and reaction time were the three important parameters investigated. RSM analysis showed close agreement between experimental and predicted values. It was found that the most effective parameter was methanol quantity, which was in agreement with the results. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the model was 99.80%. A probability value (P < 0.0001) demonstrated a very high significance for the regression model. A biodiesel yield of 96.45% was obtained when optimum conditions of catalysed biodiesel production were used. Optimum performance occurred with a methanol to oil ratio of 0.33 v/v, an acid catalyst of 1.44% v/v and a reaction time 1.42 h at 60 degrees C. Transesterification with glycerides was also carried out with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 6.3:1 and a KOH catalyst 1.0% w/v to produce biodiesel of 98% purity. (C) 2008 IAgrE. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  85. Transesterification of rapeseed oil for the production of biodiesel using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis
    Abstract

    Georgogianni, K. G.; Katsoulidis, A. K.; Pomonis, P. J.; Manos, G.; Kontominas, M. G. 2009. Transesterification of rapeseed oil for the production of biodiesel using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. Fuel Processing Technology. 90(7-8) 1016-1022

    In the present work. the transesterification reaction of rapeseed oil with methanol, in the presence of alkaline catalysts, either homogeneous (NaOH) or heterogeneous (Mg MCM-41, Mg-Al Hydrotalcite, and K+ impregnated zirconia), using low frequency ultrasonication (24 kHz) and mechanical stirring (600 rpm) for the production of biodiesel fuel was studied. Selection of heterogeneous catalysts was based on a combination of their porosity and surface basicity. Their characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The activities of the catalysts were related to their basic strength. Mg-Al hydrotalcite showed particularly the highest activity with conversion reaching 97%). The activity of ZrO(2) in the transesterification reaction increased as the catalyst was doped with more potassium cations, becoming thus more basic. Use of ultrasonication significantly accelerated the transesterification reaction compared to the use of mechanical stirring (5 h vs. 24 h).
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  86. Application of KF/MgO as a heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel from rapeseed off
    Abstract

    Wan, T.; Yu, P.; Gong, S. K.; Li, Q.; Luo, Y. B. 2008. Application of KF/MgO as a heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel from rapeseed off. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 25(5) 998-1003

    Biodiesel was synthesized from rapeseed oil by transesterification over Magnesium oxide loaded with KF. The catalytic activity strongly depends on the loading amount of KF and calcined temperature. We found that the reaction reached a 79.37% yield when the loading amount was at 35 wt% and calcined at 500 degrees C. The simply dried 30% KF/MgO at 80 degrees C was found to give equally good results from the catalyst calcined at 500 degrees C, avoiding the usual activation at high temperature. The catalysts were characterized by the Hammett indicator method, BET, TG/DTG XRD, NMR, EDS, and FT-IR. According to the instrumental analysis, the activity in the transesterification probably belonged to coordinately unsaturated F- and liberation of hydroxide during preparation. The effects of methanol/oil ratio and catalyst amounts on the conversion were also studied in this paper.
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  87. Biodiesel production from mixtures of canola oil and used cooking oil
    Abstract

    Issariyakul, T.; Kulkarni, M. G.; Meher, L. C.; Dalai, A. K.; Bakhshi, N. N. 2008. Biodiesel production from mixtures of canola oil and used cooking oil. Chemical Engineering Journal. 140(1-3) 77-85

    Used cooking oil (UCO) was mixed with canola oil at various ratios in order to make use of used cooking oil for production of biodiesel and also lower the cost of biodiesel production. Methyl and ethyl esters were prepared by means of KOH-catalyzed transesterification from the mixtures of both the oils. Water content, acid value and viscosity of most esters met ASTM standard except for ethyl esters prepared from used cooking oil. Canola oil content of at least 60% in the used cooking oil/canola oil feedstock is required in order to produce ethyl ester satisfying ASTM specifications. Although ethanolysis was proved to be more challenging, ethyl esters showed reduced crystallization temperature (-45.0 to -54.4 degrees C) as compared to methyl esters (-35.3 to -43.0 degrees C). A somewhat better low-temperature property of ester was observed at higher used cooking oil to canola oil ratio in spite of similar fatty acid compositions of both oils. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  88. Biodiesel production from transesterification of rapeseed oil using KF/Eu2O3 as a catalyst
    Abstract

    Sun, H.; Hu, K.; Lou, H.; Zheng, X. M. 2008. Biodiesel production from transesterification of rapeseed oil using KF/Eu2O3 as a catalyst. Energy & Fuels. 22(4) 2756-2760

    The transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol was carried out using a novel KF-loaded Eu2O3 catalyst. It was found that the catalyst with 15 wt % loaded KF and calcined at 873 K showed the optimum activity. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), CO2-temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), and the Hammett titration method were employed for the catalyst characterization. The results showed that the activity of the catalysts was related with their basicity. The influence of various reaction variables on the conversion was also discussed. The mechanism for the formation of basic sites and the phase change of the KF-loaded Eu2O3 catalyst with different calcination temperatures is proposed.
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  89. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from canola oil using immobilized lipase
    Abstract

    Dizge, N.; Keskinler, B. 2008. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from canola oil using immobilized lipase. Biomass & Bioenergy. 32(12) 1274-1278

    In the present work, a novel method for immobilization of lipase within hydrophilic polyurethane foams using polyglutaraldehyde was developed for the immobilization of Thermamyces lanuginosus lipase to produce biodiesel with canola oil and methanol. The enzyme optimum conditions were not affected by immobilization and the optimum pH for free and immobilized enzyme were 6, resulting in 80% immobilization yield. Using the immobilized lipase T lanuginosus, the effects of enzyme loading, oil/alcohol molar ratio, water concentration, and temperature in the transesterification reaction were investigated. The optimal conditions for processing 20 g of refined canola oil were: 430 mu g lipase, 1:6 oil/methanol molar ratio, 0.1g water and 40 degrees C for the reactions with methanol. Maximum methyl esters yield was 90% of which enzymatic activity remained after 10 batches, when tert-butanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase. The immobilized lipase proved to be stable and lost little activity when was subjected to repeated uses. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  90. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor
    Abstract

    Cao, P. G.; Dube, M. A.; Tremblay, A. Y. 2008. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor. Biomass & Bioenergy. 32(11) 1028-1036

    High-purity fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was produced from different lipids, such as soybean oil, canola oil, a hydrogenated palm oil/palm oil blend, yellow grease, and brown grease, combined with methanol using a continuous membrane reactor. The membrane reactor combines reaction and separation in a single unit, provides continuous mixing of raw materials, and maintains a high molar ratio of methanol to lipid in the reaction loop while maintaining two phases during the reaction. It was demonstrated that the membrane reactor can be operated using a very broad range of feedstocks at highly similar operating conditions to produce FAME. The total glycerine and free glycerine contents of the FAME produced were below the ASTM D6751 standard after a single reaction step. Under essentially the same reaction conditions, a conventional batch reaction was not able to achieve the same degree of FAME purity. The effect of the fatty acid composition of the lipid feedstocks on the FAME purity was also shown. it was demonstrated that, due to the fatty acid composition, FAME from virgin soybean oil and virgin canola oil was produced in the membrane reactor within ASTM specifications even without a water washing step. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  91. Improving the sustainability of the production of biodiesel from oilseed rape in the UK
    Abstract

    Stephenson, A. L.; Dennis, J. S.; Scott, S. A. 2008. Improving the sustainability of the production of biodiesel from oilseed rape in the UK. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 86(B6) 427-440

    Owing to concerns about energy security and because of increased environmental awareness, the biofuel industry is expanding worldwide. it is therefore extremely important to be able to quantify the sustainability of biofuels in order to determine their benefits over using conventional fossil fuel derived transport fuels. This study investigates the total energy requirement and global warming potential (GWP) of the production of biodiesel from oilseed rape in the UK, using life cycle analyses. Large- and small-scale productions are compared and the sensitivity of these environmental impacts to production variables investigated. Possible changes to the processes are considered, with a view to reduce the energy requirement and global warming potential.
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  92. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel production with tert-butanol
    Abstract

    Jeong, G. T.; Park, D. H. 2008. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel production with tert-butanol. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 148(1-3) 131-139

    Biodiesel is a fatty acid alkyl ester that can be derived from any vegetable oil or animal fat via the process of transesterification. It is a renewable, biodegradable, and nontoxic fuel. In this paper, we have evaluated the efficacy of a transesterification process for rapeseed oil with methanol in the presence of an enzyme and tert-butanol, which is added to ameliorate the negative effects associated with excess methanol. The application of Novozym 435 was determined to catalyze the transesterification process, and a conversion of 76.1% was achieved under selected conditions (reaction temperature 40 degrees C, methanol/oil molar ratio 3:1, 5% (w/w) Novozym 435 based on the oil weight, water content 1% (w/w), and reaction time of 24h). It has also been determined that rapeseed oil can be converted to fatty acid methyl ester using this system, and the results of this study contribute to the body of basic data relevant to the development of continuous enzymatic processes.
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  93. Production of biodiesel through optimized alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of rapeseed oil
    Abstract

    Rashid, U.; Anwar, F. 2008. Production of biodiesel through optimized alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of rapeseed oil. Fuel. 87(3) 265-273

    Present work reports an optimized protocol for the production of biodiesel through alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of rapeseed oil. The reaction variables used were methanol/oil molar ratio (3:1-21:1), catalyst concentration (0.25-1.50%), temperature (35-65 degrees C), mixing intensity (180-600 rpm) and catalyst type. The evaluation of the transesterification process was followed by gas chromatographic analysis of the rapeseed oil fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) at different reaction times. The biodiesel with best yield and quality was produced at methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration, 1.0%; mixing intensity, 600 rpm and reaction temperature 65 degrees C. The yield of the biodiesel produced under optimal condition was 95-96%. It was noted that greater or lower the concentration of KOH or methanol than the optimal values, the reaction either did not fully occur or lead to soap formation.
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  94. Supported CaO catalysts used in the transesterification of rapeseed oil for the purpose of biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Yan, S. L.; Lu, H. F.; Liang, B. 2008. Supported CaO catalysts used in the transesterification of rapeseed oil for the purpose of biodiesel production. Energy & Fuels. 22(1) 646-651

    Supported CaO/MgO catalysts were used as the catalyst of the transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol. The supported catalyst showed a higher activity than pure CaO and was easily separated from the product mixture. The results of comparative experiments and catalyst characterization, such as XRD, CO2-TPD, BET, and AAS, showed that the activity of CaO catalysts is associated with their alkalinity. The preparation method of this catalyst was optimized, and furthermore, the reaction parameters were investigated. With the CaO/MgO catalyst so obtained, the conversion of rapeseed oil reached 92% at 64.5 degrees C. The supported basic catalyst was found to be easily contaminated by the gaseous poisons in air, such as O-2, CO2, and H2O, and as a result, a thermal treatment was required before the reaction to activate the catalyst.
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  95. FUEL 30-Biodiesel production from canola oil and waste fryer grease and conversion of glycerol to value-added liquid chemicals
    Abstract

    Dalai, A. K.; Issariyakul, T.; Kulkarni, M. G.; Pathak, K.; Meher, L. C.; Bakhshi, N. N. 2007. FUEL 30-Biodiesel production from canola oil and waste fryer grease and conversion of glycerol to value-added liquid chemicals. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 234

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  96. Investigation of biodiesel production from canola oil using Mg-Al hydrotalcite catalysts
    Abstract

    Ilgen, O.; Dincer, I.; Yildiz, M.; Alptekin, E.; Boz, N.; Canakci, M.; Akin, A. N. 2007. Investigation of biodiesel production from canola oil using Mg-Al hydrotalcite catalysts. Turkish Journal of Chemistry. 31(5) 509-514

    Biodiesel produced by the transesterification of vegetable oils is a promising alternative fuel to diesel because of limited fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns. The use of heterogeneous catalysts greatly simplifies the technological process by facilitating the separation of the post-reaction mixture. The purpose of the present work was to examine a heterogeneous catalyst, in particular, Mg-Al hydrotalcites, to produce methyl esters of canola oil. In this study, the transesterification of canola oil with methanol was studied in a heterogeneous system, using Mg-Al hydrotalcites as solid base catalysts. The results showed that methanol is the best alcohol for this reaction condition. The highest triglyceride conversion rate of 71.9% was achieved after 9 h of reaction at 60 degrees C, with a 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to canola oil and a 3 wt% catalyst with 125-150 mu m particles.
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  97. Possibilities for alkaline transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel fuel production
    Abstract

    Kopchev, V.; Pavlikianova, A.; Kopchev, P. 2007. Possibilities for alkaline transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel fuel production. Bulgarian Chemical Communications. 39(1) 20-25

    The present research work deals with the possibilities for alkaline transesterification of raw rapeseed oils with high levels of free fatty acids content and the opportunities to obtain the respective methyl esters (ME) of these oils, which are suitable for use as bio diesel fuel. The object of research are the process parameters (temperature, catalyst quantity, reaction time, molar ratio alcohol/oil), as well as the reaction between them depending on the quantity of the fatty acids. The results and the course of the process are compared based on their physical and chemical properties. We have traced the extent of secondary reactions process, leading to decrease in the yield (soap formation, hydrolysis, etc.) in the use of alkaline catalyst (potassium hydroxide). As a result of the study it has been established that a successful transesterification. of rapeseed oil with acid value 8.92 mg KOH/g is obtainable under the following reaction conditions: reaction time 30 min.; catalyst quantity 2.8% (compared to the oil mass); methyl alcohol excess of 3.6 mol (compared to the stoichiometric quantity) and a temperature of 25 degrees C.
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  98. Possibilities of decentralized oil production on family farms from rape seed for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Jejcic, V.; Poje, T.; Godesa, T. 2007. Possibilities of decentralized oil production on family farms from rape seed for biodiesel. Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering. 35329-337

    By signing the Kyoto Protocol (signed in 1998, ratified in 2002) Slovenia resolved to lower the emissions of greenhouse gases by 8 % (with regard to the situation in 1986) in the period 2008-2012. The use of biofuels is one of the measures conceived by the Strategy and Short-Term Action Plan of Decrease of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases. Alteration of the Law on Excise Duty in December 2003 determined biofuels used as engine fuels to become excise products with a 0 % excise rate. The next step to stimulate the use of biofuels was undertaken by including in the Slovene legal system the EU Directive on the Promotion of the Use of Biofuels or Other Renewable Fuels for Transport, which encourages the EU member states to increase the share of biofuels in the total use of fuels for transport to 2 % by the end of 2005 and to 5.5 % by the end of 2010. In frame of the strategic goal of Slovenia to increase the self-sufficiency rate in energy, agriculture may play an important role in the field of providing raw material for biofuels. For the present Slovene conditions (climatic conditions, production technology, price of biofuels, agricultural problems, etc.) biodizel made of plant oils or biodizel made of oil seed rape is considered to be the most appropriate fuel among the liquid biofuels made of biomass. Decentralised oil production from rape seed will be of interest for the Slovene conditions in future since quality oil can be obtained, which is a raw material for biodizel, and oil cake which is interesting as a high quality protein feed. Decentralised production may be carried out on larger farms which are dispersed throughout the country, since small production units can operate economically and environmentally friendly due to a simple and cheap technical equipment and simple working process connected with low energy use.
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  99. Rhizopus oryzae IFO 4697 whole cell catalyzed methanolysis of crude and acidified rapeseed oils for biodiesel production in tert-butanol system
    Abstract

    Li, W.; Du, W.; Liu, D. H. 2007. Rhizopus oryzae IFO 4697 whole cell catalyzed methanolysis of crude and acidified rapeseed oils for biodiesel production in tert-butanol system. Process Biochemistry. 42(11) 1481-1485

    Whole cell Rhizopus oryzae (R. oryzae) IFO4697 immobilized within biomass support particles (BSPs) was used as catalyst for biodiesel production in tert-butanol, in which the stability of the catalyst could be enhanced significantly. Different feedstocks (refined, crude and acidified rapeseed oils) were adopted further for biodiesel production in tert-butanol system and it was found that when acidified rapeseed oil was used as feedstocks, the reaction rate and final methyl ester (ME) yield were significantly higher than that of refined and crude rapeseed oil. Major differences among the aforementioned oils were found to be the contents of free fatty acid (FFA), water and phospholipids, which showed varied influences on whole cell mediated methanolysis for biodiesel production. The reaction rate increased with the increase of free fatty acid content in oils; water content had varied influence on reaction rate and biodiesel yield; using adsorbent to remove excessive water could increase biodiesel yield significantly (from 73 to 84%); it was also found interestingly that phospholipids contained in oils could increase the reaction rate to a certain extent. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  100. An energy analysis of rapeseed production for biodiesel in Croatia
    Abstract

    Filipovic, D.; Kricka, T. 2006. An energy analysis of rapeseed production for biodiesel in Croatia. Strojniski Vestnik-Journal of Mechanical Engineering. 52(10) 680-692

    Before starting with biodiesel production from rapeseed oil in Croatia, an energy analysis of the production was made. The data for the energy analysis were gathered from investigations on farms in the Slavonia region, the main arable production area in Croatia, in the period 2001 to 2003. For the calculation of energy outputs and inputs, the results of this investigation were used together with energy values from the literature. The average rapeseed yield and oil content was 3195 kg/ha and 42.5%, respectively. Considering rapeseed oil for biodiesel and meal for animal feed, the total energy outputs were 74.01 GJ/ha. Total energy inputs for the rapeseed production were 23.44 GJ/ha, and the major energy inputs were fertilizers and fuel. The energy ratio of the rapeseed production was 3.16, the net energy gain was 50.56 GJ/ha, and the energy productivity was 49.23 L/GJ. Some possibilities for energy saving in rapeseed production were also suggested. (c) 2006 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved.
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  101. Batch (one- and two-stage) production of biodiesel fuel from rapeseed oil
    Abstract

    Jeong, G. T.; Park, D. H. 2006. Batch (one- and two-stage) production of biodiesel fuel from rapeseed oil. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 131(1-3) 668-679

    Biodiesel fuel is an alternative and renewable energy source, which may help to reduce air pollution, as well as our dependence on petroleum for energy. Several processes have already been developed for the production of biodiesel. Alkali-catalyzed transesterification with short-chain alcohols, for example, generates high yields of methyl esters in short reaction times. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of batch (one- and two-stage) transesterification of rapeseed oil in the production of rapeseed methyl ester. The conversion of rapeseed oil exhibited similar reaction patterns and yields in 30- and 1-L reaction systems. Approximately 98% of the rapeseed oil was converted at 400 rpm within 20 min, under the following conditions: 1% (w/w) KOH, 1: 10 methanol molar ratio, and at 60 degrees C. In the 30- L, two-stage transesterification process, approx 98.5% of the rapeseed oil was converted at a 1: 4.5 molar ratio and 1% (w/w) KOH at 60 degrees C for 30 min (first reaction condition), and at a 1: 1 molar ratio and 0.2% (w/w) KOH at 60 degrees C for 30 min (second reaction condition).
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  102. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of rapeseed oils for biodiesel production with a novel organic solvent as the reaction medium
    Abstract

    Li, L. L.; Du, W.; Liu, D. H.; Wang, L.; Li, Z. B. 2006. Lipase-catalyzed transesterification of rapeseed oils for biodiesel production with a novel organic solvent as the reaction medium. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 43(1-4) 58-62

    tert-Butanol, as a novel reaction medium, has been adopted for lipase-catalyzed transesterification of rapeseed oil for biodiesel production, with which both the negative effects caused by excessive methanol and by-product glycerol could be eliminated. Combined use of Lipozyme TL IM and Novozym 435 was proposed further to catalyze the methanolysis and the highest biodiesel yield of 95% could be achieved under the optimum conditions (tert-butanol/oil volume ratio 1:1; methanol/oil molar ratio 4:1; 3% Lipozyme TL IM and 1% Novozym 435 based on the oil weight; temperature 35 degrees C; 130 rpm, 12 h). There was no obvious loss in lipase activity even after being repeatedly used for 200 cycles with tert-butanol as the reaction medium. Furthermore, waste oil was also explored for biodiesel production and it has been found that lipase also showed good stability in this novel system. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  103. Utilization of green seed canola oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kulkarni, M. G.; Dalai, A. K.; Bakhshi, N. N. 2006. Utilization of green seed canola oil for biodiesel production. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 81(12) 1886-1893

    Increasing percentage of green canola seed every year is a serious problem for canola growers. Chlorophyll content of this oil is very high, which makes it more susceptible to photo-oxidation and ultimately the oxidation stability of the oil is very reduced. Hence green seed canola oil is underutilized for edible purposes. The present work is an attempt to produce high-quality biodiesel from green seed canola oil and methanol, ethanol and various mixtures of methanol and ethanol using KOH as a catalyst. A mixture of alcohols improved the rate of reaction. After transesterification of green seed canola oil using KOH, the chlorophyll content of the oil was decreased substantially (from 22.1 ppm to 10.3 ppm). Characteristics of the esters prepared from green seed canola oil were well within the limits of ASTM standards. Lubricity of the green seed oil esters was excellent (20% decrease in wear scar area) when added at 1 vol% to the base fuel. Oxidation stability is crucial for long-term storage of the fuel. Oxidation stability index (OSI) of green seed esters was 4.9 h at 110 degrees C, which is much less than the European Standard (6h at 100 degrees C). The low oxidation stability of green seed esters is attributed to its higher chlorophyll (10.3 ppm) content. An attempt was also made to reduce the chlorophyll content of the oil before transesterification using activated carbon treatment, and it was observed that chlorophyll content was reduced from 22.1 to 2.2 ppm. (c) 2006 Society of Chemical Industry
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  104. A limited LCA comparing large- and small-scale production of rape methyl ester (RME) under Swedish conditions
    Abstract

    Bernesson, S.; Nilsson, D.; Hansson, P. A. 2004. A limited LCA comparing large- and small-scale production of rape methyl ester (RME) under Swedish conditions. Biomass & Bioenergy. 26(6) 545-559

    Production of rape methyl ester (RME) can be carried out with different systems solutions, in which the choice of system is usually related to the scale of the production. The purpose of this study was to analyse whether the use of a small-scale RME production system reduced the environmental load in comparison to a medium- and a large-scale system. To fulfil this purpose, a limited LCA, including air-emissions and energy requirements, was carried out for the three plant sizes. For small plants and physical allocation, the global warming potential was 40.3 g CO2-eq/MJ(fuel), the acidification potential 236 mg SO2-eq/MJ(fuel), the eutrophication potential 39.1 Mg PO43--eq/MJ(fuel), the photochemical oxidant creation potential 3.29 Mg C2H4-eq/MJ(fuel), and the energy requirement 295 kJ/MJ(fuel). It was shown that the differences in environmental impact and energy requirement between small-, medium- and large-scale systems were small or even negligible. The higher oil extraction efficiency and the more efficient use of machinery and buildings in the large-scale system were, to a certain degree, outweighed by the longer transport distances. The dominating production step was the cultivation, in which production of fertilisers, soil emissions and tractive power made major contributions to the environmental load. The results were, however, largely dependent on the method used for allocation of the environmental burden between the RME and the by-products meal and glycerine. This indicates that when different biofuels or production strategies are to be compared, it is important that the results are calculated with the same allocation strategies and system limitations. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  105. Production and characterization of bio-oil and biochar from rapeseed cake
    Abstract

    Ozcimen, D.; Karaosmanoglu, F. 2004. Production and characterization of bio-oil and biochar from rapeseed cake. Renewable Energy. 29(5) 779-787

    New and renewable fuels are the major alternatives to conventional fossil fuels. Biomass in the form of agricultural residues is becoming popular among new renewable energy sources, especially given its wide potential and abundant usage. Pyrolysis is the most important process among the thermal conversion processes of biomass. In this study, the production of bio-oil and biochar from rapeseed cake obtained by cold extraction pressing was investigated and the various characteristics of biochar and bio-oil acquired under static atmospheric conditions were identified. The biochar obtained are carbon rich, with high heating value and relatively pollution-free potential solid biofuel. The bio-oil product was presented as an environmentally friendly green biofuel candidate. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
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  106. Rapeseed and canola oil production, processing, properties and uses
    Abstract

    Gunstone, F. D. 2004. Rapeseed and canola oil production, processing, properties and uses. .

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  107. An integrated microbial/enzymatic process for production of rhamnolipids and L-(+)-rhamnose from rapeseed oil with Pseudomonas sp DSM 2874
    Abstract

    Trummler, K.; Effenberger, F.; Syldatk, C. 2003. An integrated microbial/enzymatic process for production of rhamnolipids and L-(+)-rhamnose from rapeseed oil with Pseudomonas sp DSM 2874. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 105(10) 563-571

    The object of this paper is the development of a biotechnological process for production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomoas sp. DSM 2874. The product obtained from rapeseed oil was found to be a mixture of up to four glycolipids (rhamnolipid 1 - 4), L-(+)-rhamnose and (RR)-3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy) decanoic acid. An HPLC-method was developed for identification and quantification of rhamnolipids and fatty acids, using an evaporative light scattering detector. Growing cells under nitrogen limiting conditions and resting cells were used for rhamnolipid production with triglycerides as C-source. Best results and product yields (up to 45 g l(-1) of mixtures of rhamnolipid 1 and rhamnolipid 3) were obtained using resting cells in a fed batch process with rapeseed oil as C-source. Product composition was found to be strongly dependent on the process conditions. Using the fungal enzyme Naringinase it was possible to cleave the glycosidic bond between the two rhamnose units of rhamnolipid 3, and the bond between L-(+)-rhamnose and (RR)-3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy) decanoic acid of rhamnolipid 1. The latter reaction occurred at a much lower rate. Direct addition of Naringinase to resting cells in an integrated microbial/enzymatic process was possible and resulted in an alteration of product composition from a rhamnolipid 1 and rhamnolipid 3 mixture to rhamnolipid 1 only
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  108. Application of waste activated bleaching earth containing rapeseed oil on riboflavin production in the culture of Ashbya gossypii
    Abstract

    Ming, H.; Pizarro, A. V. L.; Park, E. Y. 2003. Application of waste activated bleaching earth containing rapeseed oil on riboflavin production in the culture of Ashbya gossypii. Biotechnology Progress. 19(2) 410-417

    Waste activated bleaching earth (ABE) that contained 40% rapeseed oil and was discharged by an oil refinery plant, was used for riboflavin production in a culture of Ashbya gossypii. When 125 g/L waste ABE that contained 50 g/L rapeseed oil was added into the culture, the riboflavin concentration was 1.12 g/L, which was almost 1.6-fold as high as that of pure rapeseed oil. However, in waste ABE concentration higher than 125 g/L, the produced riboflavin concentration decreased, which was due to the difficulty in mixing due to the presence of a high amount of solid material in the culture. The surface of the waste ABE was smooth without a hitch, because of being covered with rapeseed oil. However, after the culture, the surface of the waste ABE seemed like that of new one, and the oil content was nearly zero grams per liter. The waste ABE, oily clay, and its black color gradually fade and yellow little by little, and finally the waste ABE changed to yellow powder. Of the riboflavin produced during the culture, 70% was adsorbed in the oil free waste ABE. With diluted alkali solution, extraction only two times yielded 90% recovery of riboflavin adsorbed in the waste ABE. The waste ABE containing waste vegetable oil was suitable for raw material for production of the value-added useful bioproducts, which might be a good model for reuse of the waste resource
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  109. Production of alkenyl succinic anhydrides from low-erucic and low-linolenic rapeseed oil methyl esters
    Abstract

    Quesada, J. 2003. Production of alkenyl succinic anhydrides from low-erucic and low-linolenic rapeseed oil methyl esters. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 105(6) 281-287

    Fatty acid methyl esters from low-erucic and low-linolenic rapeseed oil were used to produce alkenyl succinic anhydrides. A second-order Doehlert uniform network design was used to investigate the influence of the reaction temperature and the molar ratio between the maleic anhydride and the main unsaturated rapeseed oil methyl esters on the yield of alkenyl succinic anhydride from methyl oleate. Further subjects of investigation were the conversion of methyl oleate, the formation of side reaction products, the Gardner color of the product and its viscosity, and finally the content of maleic anhydride remaining in the medium after the reaction. Alkenyl succinic anhydride from methyl oleate was isolated by column chromatography and analyzed by IR, H-1-and C-13-NMR and MS. The optimal reaction conditions for obtaining the maximum yield of alkenyl succinic anhydride from methyl oleate in the experimental domain (80%) were 210-220 degreesC and a maleic anhydride/rapeseed oil methyl ester molar ratio of 1.5. However, the products synthesized in these conditions showed a high degree of viscosity (0.45 kg m(-1) s(-1)), a very dark color (18 Gardner color) and a high content of undesirable side products (6%), which could hinder their industrial use. A molar ratio of less than 1.5 led to a clearer and less viscous product, although with a lower alkenyl succinic anhydride content
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  110. Production of alkenyl succinic anhydrides from low-erucic and low-linolenic rapeseed oil methyl esters
    Abstract

    Quesada, J. 2003. Production of alkenyl succinic anhydrides from low-erucic and low-linolenic rapeseed oil methyl esters. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 105(6) 281-287

    Fatty acid methyl esters from low-erucic and low-linolenic rapeseed oil were used to produce alkenyl succinic anhydrides. A second-order Doehlert uniform network design was used to investigate the influence of the reaction temperature and the molar ratio between the maleic anhydride and the main unsaturated rapeseed oil methyl esters on the yield of alkenyl succinic anhydride from methyl oleate. Further subjects of investigation were the conversion of methyl oleate, the formation of side reaction products, the Gardner color of the product and its viscosity, and finally the content of maleic anhydride remaining in the medium after the reaction. Alkenyl succinic anhydride from methyl oleate was isolated by column chromatography and analyzed by IR, H-1-and C-13-NMR and MS. The optimal reaction conditions for obtaining the maximum yield of alkenyl succinic anhydride from methyl oleate in the experimental domain (80%) were 210-220 degreesC and a maleic anhydride/rapeseed oil methyl ester molar ratio of 1.5. However, the products synthesized in these conditions showed a high degree of viscosity (0.45 kg m(-1) s(-1)), a very dark color (18 Gardner color) and a high content of undesirable side products (6%), which could hinder their industrial use. A molar ratio of less than 1.5 led to a clearer and less viscous product, although with a lower alkenyl succinic anhydride content.
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  111. Production of fatty acid methyl esters from rapeseed oil and spent fat in batch operation
    Abstract

    Dittmar, T.; Dimmig, T.; Ondruschka, B.; Heyn, B.; Haupt, J.; Lauterbach, M. 2003. Production of fatty acid methyl esters from rapeseed oil and spent fat in batch operation. Chemie Ingenieur Technik. 75(5) 595-601

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  112. Production of fatty acid methyl esters from rapeseed oil and spent fat in continuous operation
    Abstract

    Dittmar, T.; Dimmig, T.; Ondruschka, B.; Heyn, B.; Haupt, J.; Lauterbach, M. 2003. Production of fatty acid methyl esters from rapeseed oil and spent fat in continuous operation. Chemie Ingenieur Technik. 75(5) 601-608

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  113. Production of fatty acid methyl esters from rapeseed oil and spent fat in continuous operation
    Abstract

    Dittmar, T.; Dimmig, T.; Ondruschka, B.; Heyn, B.; Haupt, J.; Lauterbach, M. 2003. Production of fatty acid methyl esters from rapeseed oil and spent fat in continuous operation. Chemie Ingenieur Technik. 75(5) 601-608

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  114. Production and consumption of rapeseed oil on a global scale
    Abstract

    Gunstone, F. D. 2001. Production and consumption of rapeseed oil on a global scale. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 103(7) 447-449

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  115. Biooil production from an oilseed crop: Fixed-bed pyrolysis of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
    Abstract

    Sensoz, S.; Angin, D.; Yorgun, S.; Kockar, O. M. 2000. Biooil production from an oilseed crop: Fixed-bed pyrolysis of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Energy Sources. 22(10) 891-899

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments at differ ent temperatures and heating rates have been conducted on a rapeseed sample to investigate the effect of particle size and sweep gas velocity on the product yields. The various characteristics of pyrolytic oil acquired under these conditions were identified. The maximum oil yield of 53 % was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 degreesC, a heating rate of 7 degreesC/min, and nitrogen flow rate of 100 cm(3)/min with a particle size range of 0.85-1.8 mm. The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from rapeseed was quite similar to the crude oil and shale oil
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  116. Energy- and exergy analysis of rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production under Swedish conditions
    Abstract

    Hovelius, Karolina; Hansson, Per Anders 1999. Energy- and exergy analysis of rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production under Swedish conditions. Biomass and Bioenergy. 17(4) 279-290

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  117. Energy- and exergy analysis of rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production under Swedish conditions
    Abstract

    Hovelius, K.; Hansson, P. A. 1999. Energy- and exergy analysis of rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production under Swedish conditions. Biomass & Bioenergy. 17(4) 279-290

    In this study the rape seed oil methyl ester (RME) production chain was analysed with respect to its energy- and exergy efficiencies. The differences between results from an ordinary energy analysis and an exergy analysis of the production were also quantified and discussed. The sensitivity of the results to changes in some of the most important input parameters were then analysed in order to find production strategies that increase the exergy efficiency. The study was applied to rape seed cultivation situated in southern Sweden. The rape seed oil was hot pressed in a large-scale giant, and the RME was esterfied in the same factory as that in which in the rape seed oil was pressed. Both direct and indirect energy and exergy flows used for RME production were included. The analysis showed that a large part of the energy and exergy used to produce RME was related to nitrogen fertilizers and diesel fuels. Another important conclusion was that the exergy efficiency of the production in general is higher than the energy efficiency. A third conclusion was that it is possible, by using alternative production strategies, to improve the exergy efficiency without decreasing the energy efficiency. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  118. The effect of rapeseed oil uptake on the production of erythromycin and triketide lactone by Saccharopolyspora erythraea
    Abstract

    Mirjalili, N.; Zormpaidis, V.; Leadlay, P. F.; Ison, A. P. 1999. The effect of rapeseed oil uptake on the production of erythromycin and triketide lactone by Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Biotechnology Progress. 15(5) 911-918

    Saccharopolyspora erythraea was grown in an oil-based process medium at two different laboratory scales. The initial concentration of rapeseed oil in the medium was shown not to affect the growth, while addition of oil significantly increased erythromycin A production. Increasing the agitation speed at the 2 L scale increased the growth of the culture and the production of erythromycin A but had little effect on the level of oil remaining in the fermentation. Maximum oil utilization of 50% (w/w) was obtained in both 2 and 7 L cultures. Gas chromatography analysis of the process medium showed that there was no accumulation of fatty acids and glycerides during the fermentations. The specific oil utilization by the recombinant strain of S. erythraea was significantly lower compared to the wild-type strain grown at the same scale and initial oil concentration; the recombinant strain also produced lower concentrations of the novel polyketide, triketide lactone
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  119. Production of sophorolipids in high concentration from deproteinized whey and rapeseed oil in a two stage fed batch process using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509
    Abstract

    Daniel, H. J.; Reuss, M.; Syldatk, C. 1998. Production of sophorolipids in high concentration from deproteinized whey and rapeseed oil in a two stage fed batch process using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509. Biotechnology Letters. 20(12) 1153-1156

    High concentrations of 422 g sophorolipids l(-1) were produced using a two-stage cultivation process: first deproteinized whey concentrate (DWC) containing 110 g lactose l(-1) was used for cultivation of the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509, resulting in 34 g dry weight l(-1), 20 g single-cell oil l(-1) and reducing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 159 g l(-1) to 35 g oxygen l(-1). Afterwards cells were disrupted by passing the cell suspension directly through a high pressure laboratory homogeniser. After autoclavation, the resulting crude cell extract containing the single-cell oil served as substrate for growth of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and for sophorolipid production in a second stage. When the single-cell oil was consumed, repeated feeding of 400 g rapeseed oil l(-1) was started increasing the yield of sophorolipids to 422 g l(-1). A simple technique for product isolation, sedimentation, could be used to harvest the crude sophorolipids
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  120. Production and treatment of rapeseed oil methyl esters as alternative fuels for diesel engines
    Abstract

    Cvengros, J.; Povazanec, F. 1996. Production and treatment of rapeseed oil methyl esters as alternative fuels for diesel engines. Bioresource Technology. 55(2) 145-150

    Rapeseed oil methyl esters are important alternative diesel fuels based on renewable sources. A discontinuous plant production of methyl esters (ME) is described using two-stage low-temperature transesterification of cold-pressed rapeseed oil with methanol at temperatures lip to 70 degrees C. The total methanol:acyls molar ratio is 4:3, with an Optimum distribution Of methanol between the two stages. Four percent NaOH in methanol is used as the catalyst. The final treatment of ME with phosphoric acid and ammonia provides for an exchange of ashy soap forms in ME for ashless forms, thus rendering ME non-corrosive. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.
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  121. Energy Analysis of Rape Methyl-Ester (Rme) Production from Winter Oilseed Rape
    Abstract

    Batchelor, S. E.; Booth, E. J.; Walker, K. C. 1995. Energy Analysis of Rape Methyl-Ester (Rme) Production from Winter Oilseed Rape. Industrial Crops and Products. 4(3) 193-202

    Energy ratios were calculated for production of the rapeseed-oil-based diesel substitute rape methyl ester (RME) from winter oilseed rape. The energy ratio of a biofuel can be defined as the ratio of the non-renewable energy used in its production to the energy value of the fuel and any utilised by-products, i.e, energy input:energy output. For each energy input and output, a range of energy values was calculated to account for different soil and weather conditions and variation in yield. In addition, the range of energy inputs calculated accounted for variation in published estimates of the amount of energy required for various processes. The range of inputs and outputs included values calculated for worst-case (i.e, lowest seed yield, highest pesticide applications, etc.) and best-case scenarios, and two intermediate values, which represented inputs and outputs expected under typical conditions in Scotland. From this data, energy ratios were calculated for rape methyl ester production under best-case, worst-case and intermediate scenarios, with and without the inclusion of by-products. The results indicated that RME production is sustainable under all but the worst conditions. Utilisation of rapemeal greatly improved the energy ratio, but there remained a net loss in energy under the worst-case scenario. Glycerol utilisation had relatively little effect on the energy ratio, while the use of straw resulted in a net energy gain from the production of RME under all scenarios.
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  122. Production of Hydrocarbons by Pyrolysis of Methyl-Esters from Rapeseed Oil
    Abstract

    Billaud, F.; Dominguez, V.; Broutin, P.; Busson, C. 1995. Production of Hydrocarbons by Pyrolysis of Methyl-Esters from Rapeseed Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 72(10) 1149-1154

    The pyrolysis of a mixture of methyl esters from rapeseed oil has been studied ina tubular reactor between 550 and 850 degrees C and in dilution with nitrogen. A specific device for the condensation of cracking effluents was used for the fractionated recovery of liquid and gaseous effluents, which were analyzed on-line by an infrared analyzer and by gas chromatography. The cracking products in the liquid effluent were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupling. The effects of temperature on the cracking reaction were studied for a constant residence time of 320 ms and a constant dilution rate of 13 moles of nitrogen/mole of feedstock. The principal products observed were linear 1-olefins, n-paraffins, and unsaturated methyl esters. The gas fraction also contained CO, CO2, and H-2. The middle-chain olefins (C-10-C-14 cut) and short-chain un-C saturated esters, produced with a high added value, had an optimum yield at a cracking temperature of 700 degrees C.
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  123. Farm Level and Budgetary Calculations on Production of Turnip Rapeseed Oil-Methyl-Ester (Rme) for Fuel of Diesel-Engines
    Abstract

    Sumelius, J. 1991. Farm Level and Budgetary Calculations on Production of Turnip Rapeseed Oil-Methyl-Ester (Rme) for Fuel of Diesel-Engines. Journal of Agricultural Science in Finland. 63(5) 493-502

    This paper calculates the production costs of turnip rapeseed oil-methyl-ester (RME) as a substitute for diesel fuel. Theoretical farm models, which assume that compulsory fallowing area might be used for cultivating turnip rapeseed, provide the estimated short term production costs. The necessary government support for producing RME is calculated based on the difference between the production costs of RME against the taxfree wholesale price for diesel oil. In 1990 prices, a producer price of 1.70 FIM/kg for turnip rapeseed means production costs of RME are approximately 4.28 FIM/1, or five and a half times higher than the taxfree wholesale price of diesel oil. When the realized producer price in 1990 of 4.12 FIM/kg is used, the RME production costs are 9.98 FIM/1. Thus, there is no economic basis for RME production in Finland.
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