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Literature on biodiesel policy

This page lists all articles published worldwide in journal, book, magazine or otherwise about biodiesel policy. Please provide us a feedback feedback if you see any error in this listing or you would like to report and articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. A review of the sustainability of Jatropha cultivation projects for biodiesel production in southern Africa: Implications for energy policy in Botswana
    Abstract

    Kgathi, D. L.; Mmopelwa, G.; Chanda, R.; Kashe, K.; Murray-Hudson, M. 2017. A review of the sustainability of Jatropha cultivation projects for biodiesel production in southern Africa: Implications for energy policy in Botswana. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 246314-324

    Jatropha camas L. biofuel development is considered a strategy for achieving energy security, climate change mitigation, foreign exchange savings and economic development. This paper reviews the experiences of some southern African countries with the impacts of Jatropha biofuel development on sustainability, with a view to providing lessons for biofuel development policy for Botswana. The review has shown that most of the large commercial plantations planned to produce jatropha seed for home consumption and export were not economically viable mainly due to low seed yield, high cost of production, delayed production and uncompetitive feedstock prices. On the other hand, smallholder-based jatropha biofuel projects were economically viable due to their low input costs. Analysis of social impacts showed that jatropha production has been associated with loss of rights to land, low compensation levels, and compromised food security where land and other production inputs were diverted from food crops to jatropha production. Positive social impacts in some countries included increased employment opportunities and incomes. Jatropha production is associated with environmental impacts such as loss of biodiversity, high water requirements and high carbon debts resulting from conversion of land. Positive environmental impacts included high energy return on investment and high GHG savings when Jatropha is cultivated on abandoned agricultural fields as revealed by research in some parts of West Africa. Policy considerations for the Government of Botswana include: providing support to biofuel projects at their early stage of development, discouraging large plantation business models until such time that research in Botswana produces high seed-yielding Jatropha varieties, introducing legal safeguards for protection of land rights of local communities, and ensuring that land-use change and high carbon debts are minimized as they have adverse impacts on biodiversity and climate change.
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  2. Exploring path dependence, policy interactions, and actor behavior in the German biodiesel supply chain
    Abstract

    Moncada, J. A.; Junginger, M.; Lukszo, Z.; Faaij, A.; Weijnen, M. 2017. Exploring path dependence, policy interactions, and actor behavior in the German biodiesel supply chain. Applied Energy. 195370-381

    Biofuel production is not cost competitive and thus requires governmental intervention. The effect of the institutional framework on the development of the biofuel sector is not yet well understood. This paper aims to analyze how biofuel production and production capacity could have evolved in Germany in the period 1992-2014. The effects of an agricultural policy intervention (liberalization of the agricultural market) and a bioenergy policy intervention (a tax on biodiesel after an initial exemption) are explored. Elements of the Modeling Agent systems based on Institutional Analysis (MAIA) framework, complex adaptive systems (CAS) theory, and Neo Institutional Economics (NIE) theory were used to conceptualize and formalize the system in an agent-based model. It was found that an early liberalization of the agricultural market led to an under-production of biodiesel; a late liberalization led to the collapse of biodiesel production. An early introduction of the biodiesel tax led to stagnation in biodiesel production and production capacity; a late introduction led to an increase in sunk costs provided that the biofuel quota is binding. Also, a lack of agents' adaptation mechanism to forecast prices led to a decrease in patterns of biodiesel production when an external shock was introduced in the system. In sum, we argue that system behavior is influenced by individual behavior which is shaped by institutions. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  3. Policy learning and policy networks in theory and practice: the role of policy brokers in the Indonesian biodiesel policy network
    Abstract

    Howlett, M.; Mukherjee, I.; Koppenjan, J. 2017. Policy learning and policy networks in theory and practice: the role of policy brokers in the Indonesian biodiesel policy network. Policy and Society. 36(2) 233-250

    This paper examines how learning has been treated, generally, in policy network theories and what questions have been posed, and answered, about this phenomenon to date. We examine to what extent network characteristics and especially the presence of various types of brokers impede or facilitate policy learning. Next, a case study of the policy network surrounding the sustainability of palm oil biodiesel in Indonesia over the past two decades is presented using social network analysis. This case study focuses on sustainability-oriented policy learning in the Indonesian biodiesel governance network and illustrates how network features and especially forms of brokerage influence learning.
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  4. Quality Assessment of Biodiesel Blends Proposed by the New Mexican Policy Framework
    Abstract

    Coronado, M. A.; Montero, G.; Garcia, C.; Valdez, B.; Ayala, R.; Perez, A. 2017. Quality Assessment of Biodiesel Blends Proposed by the New Mexican Policy Framework. Energies. 10(5)

    Nowadays, biodiesel is being promoted worldwide as a sustainable and alternative to diesel fuel. However, there is still a lack of a biodiesel market in Mexico. Hence, a new initiative to reform the Mexican biofuels framework by decree includes the production and use of biodiesel. This regulation can ensure and contribute to the development of the biodiesel market in Mexico. The initiative proposes to start from the B5.8 blend by the end of 2017 and reach the B10 by 2020. Therefore, the objective of the present work was the quality assessment of biodiesel blends proposed by the new Mexican policy framework. The techniques applied were Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis, viscosity, higher heating value, thermogravimetric analysis, refractive index, acid number, specific gravity, flash point, and copper strip corrosion based on ASTM standards. The results indicate that the biodiesel and its blends B5.8 and B10 fulfilled relevant quality specifications established in the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 standards for fuels. However, the fuel blends presented a higher heating value (HHV) diminution. The experimental HHV percentages decrease for the mandatory mixtures compared to diesel were 2.29% (B10), and 0.29% (B5.8).
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  5. Sustainability assessment to support governmental biodiesel policy in Colombia: A system dynamics model
    Abstract

    Espinoza, A.; Bautista, S.; Narvaez, P. C.; Alfaro, M.; Camargo, M. 2017. Sustainability assessment to support governmental biodiesel policy in Colombia: A system dynamics model. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1411145-1163

    Combustion of fossil fuels in the transport sector represents the second largest source of greenhouse gas emissions. For this reason, governments are fostering diversification of energy sources by creating a set of governmental environmental policies and initiatives. In this context, biofuels are expected to represent a substantial part of source diversification, but it is necessary to assess the sustainability of their market to explore its effect on economical, technological, social, political and environmental dimensions. This research presents a dynamic simulation modelling of the Colombian biodiesel market and analyzes the policy support instruments for creating and managing it. A system dynamics based model is proposed to enable decision-makers to understand the influences between the different variables that describe the system and the impact of the biodiesel government policy in Colombia. The primary focus of this paper is to establish the characteristics of each sustainability dimension for the case of study and apply the system dynamics methodology with different types of validation. Finally, the Colombian market status and a sensitivity analysis are developed. The results show that in order to support the development of this sector, it is necessary to diversify the raw materials for the production of biodiesel in the medium term, which means raw materials without competence for the primary rainforest or competition with food productive lands. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  6. The political economy of biodiesel in an era of low oil prices
    Abstract

    Naylor, R. L.; Higgins, M. M. 2017. The political economy of biodiesel in an era of low oil prices. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 77695-705

    Global biodiesel production grew by 23% per annum between 2005 and 2015, leading to a seven-fold expansion of the sector in a single decade. Rapid development in the biodiesel sector corresponded to high crude oil prices, but since mid-2014, oil prices have fallen dramatically. This paper assesses the economic and policy factors that underpinned the expansion of biodiesel, and examines the near-term prospects for biodiesel growth under conditions of low fossil fuel prices. We show that the dramatic increase in biodiesel output would not have occurred without strong policy directives, subsidies, and trade policies designed to support agricultural interests, rural economic development, energy security, and climate targets. Given the important role of policy and the political context within each country that shapes policy objectives, instruments, and priorities case studies of major biodiesel producing countries are presented as a key element of our analysis. Although the narrative of biodiesel policies in most countries conveys win-win outcomes across multiple objectives, the case studies show that support of particular constituents, such as farm lobbies or energy interests, often dominates policy action and generates large social costs. Looking out to 2020, the paper highlights risks to the biodiesel industry associated with ongoing regulatory and market uncertainties.
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  7. Biorefinery for the Production of Biodiesel, Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas Integrated with CHP from Oil Palm in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Ayodele, B. V.; Cheng, C. K. 2016. Biorefinery for the Production of Biodiesel, Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas Integrated with CHP from Oil Palm in Malaysia. Chemical Product and Process Modeling. 11(4) 305-314

    Malaysia is presently the world's largest exporter of palm oil with total production of 19.22 million tonnes of crude palm oil (CPO) in 2013. Aside CPO, by-products such as empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm kernel shell (PKS), palm kernel oil (PKO), palm kernel cake (PKC) and pressed palm fibres (PPF) are produced from the palm oil mills. These biomasses can be used as potential feedstock for the production of biofuels, biogas and bioelectricity. One of the ways to fully harness the potentials of these biomasses is by employing the biorefinery concepts where all the products and by-products from oil palm are utilized for production of valuable bio-products. In this study, technological feasibility of biorefinery for the production of biodiesel, hydrogen, Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTLs) integrated with combined heat and power (CHP) generation was investigated. Flowsheet was designed for each of the processes using Aspen HYSYS (R) v 8.0. Material balance was performed on a palm oil mill processing 250 tonnes per year of fresh fruit palm (FFP). Results from the material balance shows that 45.1 tonnes of refined bleached deodorized palm oil (RDBPO) and 52.4 tonnes of EFB were available for the production of biodiesel, hydrogen, FTLs and the CHP generation. The annual plant capacity of the biodiesel production is estimated to be 26,331.912 tonnes. The overall energy consumption of the whole process was estimated to be 36.0GJ/h. This energy demand was met with power generated from the CHP which is 792GJ/h leaving a surplus of 756GJ/h that can be sold to the grid. The process modelling and simulation of the biorefinery process shows technological feasibility of producing valuable products from oil palm.
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  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from land use change due to oil palm expansion in Thailand for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Permpool, N.; Bonnet, S.; Gheewala, S. H. 2016. Greenhouse gas emissions from land use change due to oil palm expansion in Thailand for biodiesel production. Journal of Cleaner Production. 134532-538

    Thailand depends heavily on importation of fossil oil to satisfy its energy demand. The transportation sector is an important contributor to energy demand; biofuels are therefore strongly promoted in Thailand, notably biodiesel from oil palm. According to the Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2012-2021) a biodiesel target of 5.97 million litres per day is to be achieved by 2021. This research focuses on assessing the implication of this on oil palm plantation area requirement, regions most suitable for its expansion and related greenhouse gas (GHG) implications as well as feedstock security. The investigations revealed that about 91,200 ha of land would be required for oil palm expansion to achieve the biodiesel target while also meeting other requirements for palm oil including domestic consumption, export, stock and surplus. The Eastern and Southern regions were identified as the two most suitable for oil palm cultivation with respectively 29,772 ha and 61,427 ha of mainly grassland and abandoned land. Oil palm expansion in the East would lead to overall land use change related GHG savings amounting to 47,214 tonnes CO2-eq per year. Oil palm expansion in the South would also bring GHG savings, 2.5 times higher than for the East. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  9. Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia: An economic analysis
    Abstract

    Drabik, D.; de Gorter, H.; Timilsina, G. R. 2016. Producing biodiesel from soybeans in Zambia: An economic analysis. Food Policy. 59103-109

    Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of its entire petroleum demand in the face of ample supply of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. However, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been fully investigated yet. Using an empirical model, this study analyzes the economics of meeting the biodiesel mandate using soybean oil. The study finds that meeting the biodiesel mandate would reduce social welfare, mainly because of the welfare loss to fuel consumers and net reduction in foreign exchange earnings due to soybean oil imports. However, if Zambia increases its domestic soybean supply, as well as oil yield, soybean-based biodiesel is likely to be welfare-beneficial. The country's welfare is found to be the highest under expanded soybean production and its domestic processing but with no biodiesel mandate. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  10. Future biodiesel policy designs and consumption patterns in Latvia: a system dynamics model
    Abstract

    Barisa, A.; Romagnoli, F.; Blumberga, A.; Blumberga, D. 2015. Future biodiesel policy designs and consumption patterns in Latvia: a system dynamics model. Journal of Cleaner Production. 8871-82

    Decarbonisation of transport has become central to European Union policy. Biofuels are expected to represent a substantial part of the overall strategy towards diversifying Europe's energy supplies and curbing greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective way.
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  11. Socioeconomic and environmental assessment of biodiesel crops on family farming systems in Brazil
    Abstract

    Leite, J. G. D.; Justino, F. B.; Silva, J. V.; Florin, M. J.; van Ittersum, M. K. 2015. Socioeconomic and environmental assessment of biodiesel crops on family farming systems in Brazil. Agricultural Systems. 13322-34

    In Brazil, local agricultural research agendas are increasingly challenged by the search for sustainable biodiesel crop options for family farmers, especially under semi-arid conditions. The aim of this paper is to explore the suitability of different biodiesel crops (i.e. soybean, castor bean and sunflower) through a set of environmental and socioeconomic indicators in a semi-arid (Montes Claros) and a more humid (Chapada Gaucha) municipality in the state of Minas Gerais, southeast Brazil. A technical coefficient generator (TechnoGIN) was used to assess current (maize, beans, soybean and grass seed) and alternative (castor bean and sunflower) crops grown with current and alternative production techniques. The quantification of the inputs and outputs was based on farm surveys, expert knowledge, literature and field experiments. Although castor bean and sunflower are economically competitive with maize in Montes Claros, feed and labour requirements may hinder farmers' adoption. In Chapada Gaucha, the double cropping system soybean/sunflower presented small economic gains when compared to soybean; it also increased nitrogen losses and biocide residues. We conclude that the scope for alternative and sustainable biodiesel crops on family farms is limited. Their economic benefits are small or absent, while their introduction can lead to higher environmental impacts and there may be trade-offs with food and feed availability at the farm level. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  12. Where to produce rapeseed biodiesel and why? Mapping European rapeseed energy efficiency
    Abstract

    van Duren, I.; Voinov, A.; Arodudu, O.; Firrisa, M. T. 2015. Where to produce rapeseed biodiesel and why? Mapping European rapeseed energy efficiency. Renewable Energy. 7449-59

    Rapeseed is widely used to produce biodiesel, especially in Europe. In several studies, it has been shown that there is a good potential for growing this crop across the continent. However there is still little awareness that the energy efficiency of biofuel production from rapeseed is very low, Energy efficiency can be expressed in terms of Energy Return for Energy Invested (EROEI). We mapped EROEI values for all EU countries plus Switzerland based on expected yields derived from rapeseed suitability maps. We find that EU countries produce rapeseed biofuel with EROEI values of 2.2 and lower. We suggest that plans for biofuel cropping have to be supplemented by maps of EROEI. It is not only relevant to show where rapeseed can be grown, but we should also look at where its use for bioenergy can be efficient. In the area theoretically suitable for growing rainfed rapeseed (excluding unsuitable areas and water), 37.6% of the area can produce rape methyl ester (RME) biofuel only with an energy loss. We conclude that the energy efficiency of rapeseed biodiesel is low and spatially heterogeneous, and unless there are major technological improvements in the production process, replacing fossil fuels by biofuels from rapeseed is hardly a feasible option. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  13. A detailed survey of the palm and biodiesel industry landscape in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Abdul-Manan, A. F. N.; Baharuddin, A.; Chang, L. W. 2014. A detailed survey of the palm and biodiesel industry landscape in Malaysia. Energy. 76931-941

    This paper provides a critical review of the palm biodiesel landscape in Malaysia. The palm industry is a key source of revenue for the country, where in 2009 the industry was responsible for generating 8% of the gross national income per capita. The interest in palm-based biodiesel can be traced back to the early 1980s however it was only in 2006 that Malaysia officially formulated its first National Biofuel Policy as a strategic government intervention to drive development and implementation of palm biodiesel as substitute to regular fossil-based diesel. As at January 2013, the implementation of the biodiesel mandate (at 5% concentration) has been limited to the Kiang Valley central region only. But there are plans for a much wider roll-out and at higher concentration blends in 2014. The policy in its current form assumes that all biofuels are sustainable and therefore fails to provide assurances that the fossil diesel will be replaced by a more sustainable energy source. Here it has been argued that a market-based policy approach would be better than a technology-forcing mechanism. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  14. Biodiesel value chain and access to energy in Ethiopia: Policies and business prospects
    Abstract

    Negash, M.; Riera, O. 2014. Biodiesel value chain and access to energy in Ethiopia: Policies and business prospects. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 39975-985

    Similar to many net oil importing Sub-Sahara African countries, Ethiopia's economy is rural and as it stands today it is far from being a fossil fuel based economy. Instead, the economy is largely powered by traditional burning of solid biomass. Despite its small share in the overall energy supply (7%), imported fuel absorbs half of Ethiopia's foreign currency earnings. The common justifications behind the development of biofuels such as energy source diversification, foreign currency saving, rural poverty alleviation through employment and technology transfers were all appealing for Ethiopian policy advisers. In 2007, mostly influenced by the global discourse, Ethiopia launched a biofuel expansion strategy and a massive ad hoc investment promotion of two biodiesel crops: castor and jatropha. In this paper, we synthesize the various biodiesel development initiatives and modes of production, and point out at the gaps in policy formulation and project implementation. Evaluating the prospect and constraints for biodiesel production in Ethiopia, we conclude that most of the prerequisites for a viable biodiesel industry still need to be met. We identify key areas and priorities to further strengthen the development of the biodiesel sector. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  15. Biodiesel's and advanced exhaust aftertreatment's combined effect on global warming and air pollution in EU road-freight transport
    Abstract

    Gilpin, G.; Hanssen, O. J.; Czerwinski, J. 2014. Biodiesel's and advanced exhaust aftertreatment's combined effect on global warming and air pollution in EU road-freight transport. Journal of Cleaner Production. 7884-93

    EU directives promoting the measures of biofuels and advanced exhaust aftertreatment systems aim to mitigate global warming and air pollution, respectively; however, in addition to these claimed benefits, what trade-off effects arise from combining these measures? Based on new-vehicle emissions data for EU road-freight transport combining RME biodiesel, selective catalytic reduction (SCR), and diesel particulate filter (DPF), we determine well-to-wheel (WTW), tank-to-wheel (TTW), and well-to-tank (WIT) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as well as the regulated emissions of NOx, PM, CO, and NMHC.
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  16. Bioenergy as a means to social and economic development in Guinea-Bissau: a proposal for a biodiesel production and use program
    Abstract

    Dos Santos, M. S.; Ianda, T. F.; Padula, A. D. 2014. Bioenergy as a means to social and economic development in Guinea-Bissau: a proposal for a biodiesel production and use program. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology. 21(6) 495-502

    Given that agro-industrial activity is widely seen as a means of promoting development and the production of bioenergy has come to be considered a means of both fostering socioeconomic development and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the production of biodiesel would appear to be a means of promoting development in developing countries. The situation of Guinea-Bissau suggests the country may benefit from a biodiesel production program. Thus, this paper uses Brazil's experience with biodiesel as a basis for proposing a framework for a Biodiesel Program in Guinea-Bissau. The proposed framework includes the following elements related to public policy, regulations, organizations and mechanisms: (i) introduction of biodiesel through the creation and implementation of laws and regulations; (ii) an Inter-ministerial Executive Committee to plan, coordinate and manage the program; (iii) promotion, incentives and support for agricultural and agro-industrial production by providing tax benefits for specific links of the chain, creating incentive programs for different oilseeds and establishing programs that support family farming; and (iv) the creation and installation of representative bodies for the stakeholders involved in the chain, such as small farmers cooperatives, national association of biodiesel producers, R&D and rural extension programs.
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  17. Economic feasibility of algal biodiesel under alternative public policies
    Abstract

    Amanor-Boadu, V.; Pfromm, P. H.; Nelson, R. 2014. Economic feasibility of algal biodiesel under alternative public policies. Renewable Energy. 67136-142

    The motivation for this research was to determine the influence of public policies on economic feasibility of producing algal biodiesel in a system that produced all its energy needs internally. To achieve this, a steady-state mass balance/unit operation system was modeled first. Open raceway technology was assumed for the production of algal feedstock, and the residual biomass after oil extraction was assumed fermented to produce ethanol for the transesterification process. The project assumed the production of 50 million gallons of biodiesel per year and using about 14% of the diesel output to supplement internal energy requirements. It sold the remainder biodiesel and ethanol as pure biofuels to maximize the rents from the renewable fuel standards quota system. Assuming a peak daily yield of 500 kg algal biomass (dry basis)/ha, the results show that production of algal biodiesel under the foregoing constraints is only economically feasible with direct and indirect public policy intervention. For example, the renewable fuel standards' tracking RIN (Renewable fuel Identification Number) system provides a treasury-neutral value for biofuel producers as does the reinstatement of the renewable fuel tax credit. Additionally, the capital costs of an integrated system are such that some form of capital cost grant from the government would support the economic feasibility of the algal biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  18. Environmentally Friendly Supply Chain Planning and Design for Biodiesel Production via Wastewater Sludge
    Abstract

    Marufuzzaman, M.; Eksioglu, S. D.; Hernandez, R. 2014. Environmentally Friendly Supply Chain Planning and Design for Biodiesel Production via Wastewater Sludge. Transportation Science. 48(4) 555-574

    This study presents mathematical models that capture the impact of different carbon-emission-related policies on the design of the biodiesel supply chain. These mathematical models identify locations and production capacities for biocrude production plants by exploring the trade-offs that exist between transportation costs, facility investments costs, and emissions. The mathematical models capture the dynamics of biomass supply and transportation costs during a predefined time horizon. We analyze the behavior of the chain under different regulatory policies such as carbon cap, carbon tax, carbon cap and trade, and carbon offset mechanisms. A number of observations are made about the impact of each policy on the supply chain performance. The models we developed are solved by using a commercial software GAMS/CPLEX. We use the state of Mississippi as the testing grounds for these models, and employ ArcGIS to visualize and validate the results from the optimization models.
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  19. GIS based simulation of the biodiesel penetration in European Union markets: The case of Greece
    Abstract

    Sidiras, D. K. 2014. GIS based simulation of the biodiesel penetration in European Union markets: The case of Greece. Biomass & Bioenergy. 65101-111

    This work deals with the investigation of the spatiotemporal distribution of the biodiesel producing local industrial units in Greece. For this purpose, a Geographical Information System (GIS) based application was used to interpret the spatiotemporal changes of the biodiesel production units. The number of these units increased from one being established in 2005 to 20 in 2013. Nineteen of them were established in Eastern Greece and only one in the western part. An S-shape equation was adapted to forecast the future biodiesel production. The 'capacity' curve levels off at 950 dam(3) y(-1) while 'distributed' biodiesel levels off at 140 dam(3) y(-1). The biodiesel 'real production' is expected to become 120 dam(3) y(-l). Finally, the externalities, the driving forces and the barriers that influence the penetration of biodiesel in the local market were investigated as well. It was found that, local biodiesel production decreases proportionately to the decreasing of the diesel consumption, keeping the biodiesel:diesel mixing ratio constant. It seems that, the Greek biodiesel market can be used as an example of the European Union (EU) market which also follows an S-shape curve. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  20. Governance of Biodiesel Production Chain: An Analysis of Palm Oil Social Arrangements
    Abstract

    Cesar, A. D.; Batalha, M. O.; Paulillo, L. F. D. 2014. Governance of Biodiesel Production Chain: An Analysis of Palm Oil Social Arrangements. Liquid Biofuels: Emergence, Development and Prospects. 27117-133

    The national program for production and use of biodiesel (PNPB) intends to include family farming in this sector. Oil Palm cultivation was deemed as ideal for social inclusion in Brazil's Northern region, and the social projects linked to this production are pilot projects, with about 185 families. This study, which can be classified as multi-case, uses exploratory bibliographic and documental research techniques as well as interviews with the agents inserted in the chain. The study analyzes the governance structure of the biodiesel production chain in Brazil regarding the social link of palm oil. In light of the transaction cost economics (TCE) theory, this chapter analyzes three key transaction attributes between family farmers and industry, namely frequency, uncertainty, and asset specificity, all classified in this study as high ranking. The institutional environment is decisive for the inclusion of palm oil farmers included by means of formal contracts. However, the biodiesel plants located in Brazil's Northern region-as well as those planning to begin this business-show trends to verticalize their agricultural activities. Thus, the social fuel seal (SCF) assumes its influence in the operating dynamics of that chain's social pillar.
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  21. High Pressure Asher (HPA-S) Decomposition of Biodiesel Samples for Elemental Analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES)
    Abstract

    Packer, A. P.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Gine, M. F.; dos Santos, E. J. 2014. High Pressure Asher (HPA-S) Decomposition of Biodiesel Samples for Elemental Analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES). Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 25(4) 743-749

    The presence of some inorganic elements in biodiesel can compromise the fuel quality and enhance the emission of pollutants. In this context, a new procedure for biodiesel sample preparation using a high pressure asher (HPA) is presented, aiming the determination of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Sr, and Zn, in soybean, sunflower, animal fat, cotton and castor oil, by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). The digestion conditions of the HPA were optimize to digest 1.5 g of biodiesel, with HNO3 and H2O2, at a temperature of 300 degrees C and pressure of 435 psi, which considered the sample dilution factor, the total solids in solution and the acidity for ICP OES determinations. Analytes concentrations in these biodiesels were calculated using standard addition method. Detection limits from 0.05 to 0.7 mg kg(-1) were suitable to attend biodiesel quality parameters, government policy and legislations worldwide. Therefore, the proposed procedure proved to be efficient to eliminate the major organic interferences typically present in oil based samples allowing a fast, precise, interference-free and robust analytical condition for biodiesel characterization.
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  22. Producer organizations, family farms and market connection Lessons for emerging biodiesel supply chains in Brazil
    Abstract

    Leite, J. G. D.; Bijman, J.; van Ittersum, M. K.; Slingerland, M. 2014. Producer organizations, family farms and market connection Lessons for emerging biodiesel supply chains in Brazil. Outlook on Agriculture. 43(2) 101-108

    Producer organizations (POs) are often recognized as a pathway to boost rural development by enhancing farmers' access to market opportunities. Smallholder production and marketing of new crops (such as those for biodiesel feedstock) are constrained as farmers and buyers face high transaction costs. By investigating cases of POs outside the biofuel industry, the authors explore the extent to which POs could reduce transaction costs. The findings indicate that POs are capable of linking farmers effectively to markets in cases in which high value is added to farm products and/or farmers are highly specialized. However, the scope for POs in linking farmers to biodiesel markets is limited due to organization-specific characteristics, the low value added of the feedstock, plus multiple trade-offs with current farm activities.
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  23. Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives
    Abstract

    Stattman, S. L.; Mol, A. P. J. 2014. Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives. Geoforum. 54282-294

    Biofuels have been criticized in academic and activist circles not only for their environmental consequences but also for their social impacts on food availability and on small-scale family farming. Meanwhile (global) initiatives and policies have been developed to stimulate "sustainable biofuels". Brazil a frontrunner in production and use of biofuels - aimed to combine biodiesel production with rural development. The biodiesel policy implemented in 2004 had two main objectives: to advance biodiesel as a transportation fuel and to foster the social inclusion of family farmers through participation in the biodiesel chain. Although participation of family farmers was low in the beginning, it increased substantially after a 2009 policy change that gave cooperatives a more prominent role. We analyze how, why and to what extent cooperatives are involved in integrating family farmers into the biodiesel chain and what this means for the social sustainability of biodiesel, taking the northeast state of Bahia as a case study area. The findings show that through the biodiesel policy, cooperatives until then a marginal phenomenon in northern Brazil increased their membership, were empowered and contributed to the economic development of a significant group of family farmers. However, these family farmers have not been substantially included in the biodiesel production chain itself. The biodiesel policy functions as a catalyst for rural (economic) development in which the cooperatives seem to achieve what governments were unable to achieve: the integration of specific categories of family farmers into agrarian development. Subsistence family farmers, in particular, have not been able to profit from this policy-driven, "market-oriented," rural development model. Hence, it can be questioned whether this policy has made biodiesel more socially sustainable. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  24. Brazilian biodiesel: The case of the palm's social projects
    Abstract

    Cesar, A. D.; Batalha, M. O. 2013. Brazilian biodiesel: The case of the palm's social projects. Energy Policy. 56165-174

    The Brazilian biodiesel program has created great demand for biodiesel. The production of oleaginous derived biodiesel produced by small-scale farmers is a key objective of PNPB. The Social Fuel Seal is one of the instruments for achieving this goal. Five years after the mandatory implementation of program, Brazil is among the world's leading producers of biodiesel. However, the goal of the productive insertion of small-scale farmers in Brazil's less favored regions has not been fully achieved. The Brazilian government has faced difficulties to promote regional development based on PNPB, consequently not reaching the audacious goals that were set at the beginning of the program. In this context of difficulties, the productive arrangements with palm oil should be emphasized. This paper submits in detail the model developed by Agropalma - in partnership with public agencies - together with family farming in the North of the country. These social projects are taken as reference and can promote social inclusion in the country's national biodiesel productive chain. Moreover, this case can serve as an assessment tool for other countries that seek to invest in the production of biodiesel with the concern for the social production inclusion of disadvantaged small-scale family farmers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  25. Family farmers and biodiesel production: Systems thinking and multi-level decisions in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil
    Abstract

    Florin, M. J.; van Ittersum, M. K.; van de Ven, G. W. J. 2013. Family farmers and biodiesel production: Systems thinking and multi-level decisions in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Agricultural Systems. 12181-95

    This study focuses on family farmer engagement in the Brazilian national programme for Production and use of Biodiesel (PNPB). The Brazilian government has been promoting the role of family farmers as producers of biomass for biodiesel since 2004; however, fewer than expected family farmers have decided to produce biomass for biodiesel. The North of Minas Gerais is one region where a biodiesel plant has been strategically located to source castor beans grown by family farmers. The target family farm type in this region specializes in beef and/or dairy production with low input pasture (approximately 30 ha per farm), maize intercropped with beans (approximately 1 ha per farm) and sugarcane (approximately 1 ha per farm). We selected this region for a case study to explore management decisions of farmers, industry and policy makers that influence family farmer engagement with biodiesel production through cultivation of castor beans. To evaluate outcomes for family farmers engaging with the PNPB, we focused on how cultivation of castor beans impacts family farmers in terms of income levels, income stability and levels of milk production. We used an application of systems thinking known as Bayesian network modelling (BNM). BNM was chosen for its suitability to integrate different types of knowledge and to include quantitative and qualitative variables. The study was built on a body of scientific literature explaining why family farmers have not been cultivating castor beans for biodiesel production and a body of experiential knowledge of local actors (farmers, extension officers, policy makers, biodiesel manufacturers and researchers in North of Minas Gerais). The complete BNM consisted of a 'cause and effect' diagram where the strengths of the causal relationships were quantified with elicited opinions from surveyed local actors. We used the complete BNM to explore scenarios that could improve outcomes for family farmers and consequently increase their level of engagement. For example, we addressed subsidy structures of the PNPB, crop management, farm-level trade-offs and value-chain innovations. We demonstrate that decisions to support family farmer engagement with biodiesel are not singular. Engagement by family farmers requires simultaneously: improvements in technical crop management, reductions in farm-level cash constraints and innovations in the production chain such that engagement of family farmers goes beyond cultivation of one more low-value crop. Finally we discuss some methodological issues from this application of BNM to farming systems research. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  26. Optimization of biodiesel production for self-consumption: considering its environmental impacts
    Abstract

    Kaercher, J. A.; Schneider, R. D. D.; Klamt, R. A.; da Silva, W. L. T.; Schmatz, W. L.; Szarblewski, M. D.; Machado, E. L. 2013. Optimization of biodiesel production for self-consumption: considering its environmental impacts. Journal of Cleaner Production. 4674-82

    In the present study, we worked to optimize biodiesel production with a production capacity of 40 -200 L day(-1), taking into consideration the necessity of identifying and reducing the impacts of the process so as to construct appropriately scaled equipment. To analyze the impacts, we built an interactive matrix derived from the Leopold Matrix. This matrix considers the various steps in the process and attempts to minimize their impacts. The identified measures were implemented, thereby reducing the environmental impacts of biodiesel production by the equipment developed in the study. The main measures were the substitution of raw materials, equipment design modifications and the elimination of losses during the process. We highlight that the relevant results were obtained with the equipment modifications which has as a consequence a reduced long-term negative impact (20%), a minimum irreversible negative impact (5%) and an improvement of the regional and local positive impacts of 8 -40%. Replacing the methanol with ethanol there was 69.9% less negative impacts compared to the previous results with methanol. This equipment is suitable for the local production of biodiesel on family farms. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  27. Prospects and current status of B5 biodiesel implementation in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Yusoff, M. H. M.; Abdullah, A. Z.; Sultana, S.; Ahmad, M. 2013. Prospects and current status of B5 biodiesel implementation in Malaysia. Energy Policy. 62456-462

    This paper addresses B5 biodiesel programs in Malaysia, global challenges on the production of palm oil. Protective measures for future efficiency as well as continued viability of this renewable energy sector are also discussed. Crude palm oil (CPO) prices are currently suppressed because of high palm oil inventory. Malaysian government has taken a pro-active step in implementing the B5 biodiesel for transportation and industrial sectors through the introduction of B5 biodiesel. The B5 Biodiesel Program which was initially targeted at selected government agencies has been fully implemented for subsidized sectors in the Central Region. The promotion of B5 development is highly attractive due to its potential local feedstock from palm oil industry and the availability of production technologies that offer opportunities for the sustainable development in energy entrepreneurships. Nationally, produced B5 will improve the access to alternative energy services and is expected to help in improving productivity and sustainability. Despite successful local B5 implementation, Malaysia is recently facing global challenges on the biodiesel production which currently remains stagnant due to weak domestic demand and uncompetitive export tax structure. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  28. A poliÌtica nacional de biodiesel e o desenvolvimento sustentaÌvel no Nordeste do Brasil
    Abstract

    Moura, Alexandrina Saldanha Sobreira de 2012. A poliÌtica nacional de biodiesel e o desenvolvimento sustentaÌvel no Nordeste do Brasil. . 282 pages

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  29. An Engineering-Economic Model for Analyzing Dairy Plug-Flow Anaerobic Digesters: Cost Structures and Policy Implications
    Abstract

    Raman, D. R.; Burns, R. T. 2012. An Engineering-Economic Model for Analyzing Dairy Plug-Flow Anaerobic Digesters: Cost Structures and Policy Implications. . 55(1) 201-209

    An Engineering-Economic Model for Analyzing Dairy Plug-Flow Anaerobic Digesters: Cost Structures and Policy Implications An Engineering-Economic Model for Analyzing Dairy Plug-Flow Anaerobic Digesters: Cost Structures and Policy Implications Treating animal wastes through anaerobic digestion (AD) yields methane-rich biogas that can be used for power generation or heating, and a nutrient-rich digestate that can be land-applied as fertilizer. Furthermore, AD reduces odors from stored and land-applied manures. Despite these benefits, AD deployment rates in the U.S. are only 5% for dairy farms identified as suitable for AD by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The objective of this study was to analyze the economic and technical limitations of farm-scale anaerobic digesters using a simple model permitting insight into the fundamental constraints on the technology. A model was developed to determine the cost of methane produced via AD based on operation size. Dairy plug-flow systems were modeled because of their well-documented economic performance, and model validation used data from AgSTAR's FarmWare program. The analysis shows that farm size is critical to make digestion-derived methane cost-competitive with natural gas. At low herd sizes (AU - Faulhaber, C. R.
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  30. Biodiesel Progress in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Irwan, S.; Yaakob, Z.; Kumar, M. N. S.; Primandari, S. R. P.; Kamarudin, S. K. 2012. Biodiesel Progress in Malaysia. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 34(23) 2139-2146

    Considering the current rate of extraction, Malaysia's crude oil reserves are expected to diminish after 20 years. The anticipated diminution of fossil fuel reserves are the main reason for the exploration of alternatives to petroleum diesel. Malaysia introduced its biofuel policy in the year 2005 with an objective to reduce the country's fuel import bill, further promoting the demand for palm oil, which is expected to be the primary commodity for biofuel production in Malaysia as well as to shore up the price of palm oil. The present review article discussed the progress of biodiesel in Malaysia with a special emphasis on the development, benefits, and policies.
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  31. Biodiesel: an Alternative to Conventional Fuel
    Abstract

    Huang, D. M.; Zhou, H. N.; Lin, L. 2012. Biodiesel: an Alternative to Conventional Fuel. 2012 International Conference on Future Energy, Environment, and Materials, Pt C. 161874-1885

    Due to the increasing awareness of the depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental issues, biodiesel became more and more attractive in the recent years. Biodiesel production is a promising and important field of research because the relevance it gains from the rising petroleum price and its environmental advantages. This paper reviews the history and recent developments of Biodiesel, including the different types of biodiesel, the characteristics, processing and economics of Biodiesel industry. The application of biodiesel in automobile industry, the challenges of biodiesel industry development and the biodiesel policy are discussed as well (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of International Materials Science Society.
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  32. Bioethanol and Biodiesel as Alternative Transportation Fuels in China: Current Status, Future Potentials, and Life Cycle Analysis
    Abstract

    Yan, X. Y. 2012. Bioethanol and Biodiesel as Alternative Transportation Fuels in China: Current Status, Future Potentials, and Life Cycle Analysis. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 34(12) 1067-1075

    China's road transport sector is expected to be a major factor affecting national and global oil availability and prices, and is a major contributor to China's greenhouse gas emission increase and urban air pollution. Reasons for bioethanol and biodiesel to be considered as promising alternatives to conventional transportation fuels in China include energy security and environmental concerns. The present article analyzes the current status and future potential of bioethanol and biodiesel development in China, as well as the energy demand and emissions for different feedstock options from a life cycle perspective.
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  33. Critical review of jatropha biodiesel promotion policies in India
    Abstract

    Kumar, S.; Chaube, A.; Jain, S. K. 2012. Critical review of jatropha biodiesel promotion policies in India. Energy Policy. 41775-781

    Jatropha, a non-edible oil seed yielding plant has been identified by the Government of India to produce biodiesel under National Biodiesel Mission. Failure of phase-I of National Biodiesel Mission and likely failure of phase-II requires critical analysis of policy frameworks related to its long term sustainability. Indian biofuel promotion policies like Biodiesel Purchase Policy and National Biofuel Policy have failed to yield any visible results. No tangible ground work is visible as of now to ensure success of various government plans and policies related to adoption of jatropha biodiesel. It is clearly evident that some serious bottlenecks are delaying the adoption of jatropha biodiesel. Present work identifies important policy bottlenecks like availability of land, non-remunerative pricing policy and state fear relating to loss of revenue in the case of zero duty regimes. This paper attempts to explore and critically analyze present policies and possible options taking into account the recent Indian experiences for successful adoption of jatropha biodiesel. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  34. Implementation policy considerations for achieving year-round operability of biodiesel programs
    Abstract

    Grasman, S. E.; Sadashivam, S. 2012. Implementation policy considerations for achieving year-round operability of biodiesel programs. Biomass & Bioenergy. 39439-448

    Implementing biodiesel in fleet vehicles has been a challenge to many agencies. Issues related to pricing, availability, fuel quality, and winter operability have made it difficult to maintain successful programs. In addition, fuel efficiency and impact on equipment are additional concerns that need to be considered. Thus, a study was undertaken to establish best practices for implementation of biodiesel programs that sought information on existing biodiesel programs, practices, and lessons learned. A list of best practices was complied, with added inputs from literature review, and prioritized using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This paper describes the study and provides specific recommended practices for ensuring fuel quality and year-round operability. The recommendations will assist with the implementation of successful biodiesel programs in both the public and private sectors. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  35. Institutional arrangements in the emerging biodiesel industry: Case studies from Minas Gerais-Brazil
    Abstract

    Watanabe, K.; Bijman, J.; Slingerland, M. 2012. Institutional arrangements in the emerging biodiesel industry: Case studies from Minas Gerais-Brazil. Energy Policy. 40381-389

    Connecting (small) family farmers to the emerging biodiesel industry requires careful design of the institutional arrangements between the producers of oil crops and the processing companies. According to institutional economics theory, the design of effective and efficient arrangements depends on production and transaction characteristics, the institutional environment, and the organizational environment supporting the transaction between producers and the industry. This paper presents a comparative study on two cases in the feedstock-for-biodiesel industry in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The two case studies represent the production and transaction system of soybeans (Glycine max L Merrill) and castor beans (Ricinus communis L). Important elements of effective and efficient institutional arrangements are farmer collective action, availability of technical and financial support, and farmer experience with particular crops. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  36. Price formation in the German biodiesel supply chain: a Markov-switching vector error-correction modeling approach
    Abstract

    Busse, S.; Brummer, B.; Ihle, R. 2012. Price formation in the German biodiesel supply chain: a Markov-switching vector error-correction modeling approach. Agricultural Economics. 43(5) 545-559

    Changing linkages between agricultural and energy markets have attracted considerable attention in research and policy discussions during recent years. As one of the largest biofuel markets worldwide, the German biodiesel market is of particular interest. It has grown rapidly since the beginning of the new millennium, with this growth being driven mainly by political interventions. Vertical price transmission channels along the biodiesel supply chain are analyzed in this study. We examine the relationship between diesel and biodiesel prices, and between rapeseed oil, soy oil, and biodiesel prices between 2002 and 2008. Due to pronounced changes in market conditions and the policy framework, a regime-dependent Markov-switching vector error-correction model is used. The regimes are characterized by markedly different price adjustment behaviors. Before 2005 and from late 2007 onward, a regime characterized by the strong orientation of biodiesel prices toward diesel prices dominates. Between 2005 and 2007, biodiesel and rapeseed oil prices are mutually interdependent. Frequent switches between the regimes of the price dynamics during this period indicate a high extent of uncertainty and instability in the market.
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  37. Small-scale biodiesel production economics: a case study focus on Crete Island
    Abstract

    Skarlis, S.; Kondili, E.; Kaldellis, J. K. 2012. Small-scale biodiesel production economics: a case study focus on Crete Island. Journal of Cleaner Production. 20(1) 20-26

    Remarkable research has been carried out in the past decade in the field of biofuels in general and, more specifically, in the feasibility of their production. A number of studies have been published that focus on the viability of the investments on biodiesel production plants from a technical-economic perspective. The common characteristic of these studies is that they refer to medium to large-scale production plants. The principal aim of this study is to investigate the viability of a small-scale biodiesel production plant investment in Greece determining the factors and figures that rule the economics of such a plant. Having in mind that a small-scale plant offers greater opportunities for rural development and decentralization as well as that rural development is a focal point in the Greek economy, the financial performance of a small-scale biodiesel plant in Crete Island is analysed in the present work. It is believed that the results obtained may prove very useful in determining the technical and financial characteristics and parameters of similar production facilities. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  38. Social and techno-economical analysis of biodiesel production in Peru
    Abstract

    Quintero, J. A.; Felix, E. R.; Rincon, L. E.; Crisspin, M.; Baca, J. F.; Khwaja, Y.; Cardona, C. A. 2012. Social and techno-economical analysis of biodiesel production in Peru. Energy Policy. 43427-435

    Peru has introduced a law to promote the use of biofuels with the objective to increase employment, strengthening agriculture development, providing an economic alternative to illegal drug production. In this work, the costs of biodiesel production from oil palm and Jatropha were analyzed under different scenarios. They include the participation of associations of smallholders and commercial producers as raw material provides in biodiesel business in Peru. The scenarios considered have a strong social dimension in which they explicitly consider how productions' costs change when smallholders supply a proportion of the feedstock to the industry. Production cost profiles were generated using the chemical process simulation and economical evaluation software packages provided by Aspen Technology. Total production cost found for oil palm biodiesel production ranged between 0.23 and 0.31 USD/L and Jatropha biodiesel production costs were between 0.84 and 0.87 USD/L. These production costs were analyzed and compared to biodiesel ex-factory prices and diesel fuel production cost factors. The results suggest that including smallholders in the supply chain can be under some conditions competitive with liquid biofuel production systems that are purely large scale. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  39. Targets and results of the Brazilian Biodiesel Incentive Program - Has it reached the Promised Land?
    Abstract

    Rathmann, R.; Szklo, A.; Schaeffer, R. 2012. Targets and results of the Brazilian Biodiesel Incentive Program - Has it reached the Promised Land?. Applied Energy. 9791-100

    This study tests the assumptions that justified the establishment of the Brazilian Biodiesel Production Program (PNPB), to see whether this program has achieved its promised results. Given the connection between socioeconomic, political, technological and environmental issues, the study performs an analysis covering these different dimensions. From the socioeconomic standpoint, findings of the study show that the generation of jobs in the agricultural sector has been much lower than the expected 1.3-million-job creation figure. From the standpoint of reducing the outflow of foreign exchange because of potentially lower demand for imported diesel, the option for the methanol instead of ethanol production route has led to an increased net outflow, as the greater need to import methanol to produce biodiesel more than offsets the lesser need to import mineral diesel. Nevertheless, even though the "Promised Land" has not been reached, particularly from a socioeconomic standpoint, the premises of energy efficiency and the potential to mitigate GHG emissions appear to be on solid ground. In this respect, the input/output energy ratio of producing soy-based biodiesel and the GHG mitigation potential of pure biodiesel justify the continuing effort to improve the PNPB to achieve more promising results in relation to the other indicators. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  40. The biodiesel market and public policy: a comparative analysis of Argentina and Brazil
    Abstract

    Flexor, G. G.; Kato, K. Y. M.; Recalde, M. Y. 2012. The biodiesel market and public policy: a comparative analysis of Argentina and Brazil. Cepal Review. (108) 69-86

    This article presents a comparative case study of the institutional aspects of policymaking and the impacts that this has had on the development of the biodiesel market in Argentina and Brazil. The study draws upon an analysis of the policymaking process and, based on the available statistical evidence, discusses how this has influenced the market's development. Its findings underscore the differences between the two countries' policy objectives. In Argentina, issues relating to the supply of petrodiesel have been a crucial factor, whereas, in Brazil, the promotion of family farming has been a major objective. In Brazil, Petrobras has played a significant role, but some of the country's policy objectives in this area have not been fully met. In Argentina, the external market continues to be the driving force behind this industry.
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  41. The emergence of the biodiesel industry in Brazil: Current figures and future prospects
    Abstract

    Padula, A. D.; Santos, M. S.; Ferreira, L.; Borenstein, D. 2012. The emergence of the biodiesel industry in Brazil: Current figures and future prospects. Energy Policy. 44395-405

    The aim of the present paper is to characterize and analyze the emergence of the biodiesel industry in Brazil, and provide an assessment of the extent to which the goals established by the National Biodiesel Production and Usage Program have been reached. In relation to the goal of including biodiesel within the Brazilian energy matrix, the program can be seen to be responding dynamically and ahead of schedule. In 2010, the B5 blend was already part of the diesel consumed in Brazil, with 81% of the biodiesel coming from soybean oil and 14% from beef tallow. By contrast, the plans to diversify the feedstocks used to produce biodiesel and improve production in the poorest regions of Brazil have failed to prosper. Regarding the goal of fostering social inclusion by encouraging the participation of family-based farming, this has been partially achieved. Finally, the goal of cost-efficiently producing biodiesel is far from being achieved. The economic feasibility of the production and use of biodiesel in Brazil can be questioned since it is still strongly supported by tax incentives and production and marketing subsidies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  42. Wood-Based Biodiesel in Finland: Market-Mediated Impacts on Emissions and Costs
    Abstract

    Forsstrom, J.; Pingoud, K.; Pohjola, J.; Valsta, L.; Vilen, T.; Verkerk, H. 2012. Wood-Based Biodiesel in Finland: Market-Mediated Impacts on Emissions and Costs. Wood-Based Biodiesel in Finland: Market-Mediated Impacts on Emissions and Costs. 71-+

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  43. Biodiesel e agricultura familiar no agreste pernambucano
    Abstract

    Meneses, KaÌtia Ferreira Lima Falcão 2011. Biodiesel e agricultura familiar no agreste pernambucano. Coleção Teses e dissertações. (92) 208 pages

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  44. Interest groups, power relations, and the configuration of value chains: The case of biodiesel in India
    Abstract

    Altenburg, T. 2011. Interest groups, power relations, and the configuration of value chains: The case of biodiesel in India. Food Policy. 36(6) 742-748

    Production of biodiesel is technologically simple, and the process of value addition - from the cultivation of oilseeds to oil extraction and transesterification - is straightforward. There is, however. great variation in the socioeconomic configuration of this value chain. In some regions of India, the cultivation of tree-borne oilseeds is organised in a social forestry mode, in which poor landless people are paid to perform reforestation tasks and receive usufruct rights to collect oilseeds; in other regions, peasant cooperatives, subcontracting arrangements between farmers and transnational corporations, or large-scale plantations are promoted. There are also many different end uses and ways of processing biodiesel, from village-level projects for rural off-grid electrification to large scale processing. This article explains how five Indian states have developed biodiesel policies that reflect different political goals and favour different constituencies, reflecting the states' specific socioeconomic structures, power relations norms. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  45. Opportunities and challenges for biodiesel fuel
    Abstract

    Lin, L.; Zhou, C. S.; Vittayapadung, S.; Shen, X. Q.; Dong, M. D. 2011. Opportunities and challenges for biodiesel fuel. Applied Energy. 88(4) 1020-1031

    Fossil fuel resources are decreasing daily. As a renewable energy, biodiesel has been receiving increasing attention because of the relevance it gains from the rising petroleum price and its environmental advantages. This review highlights some of the perspectives for the biodiesel industry to thrive as an alternative fuel, while discussing opportunities and challenges of biodiesel. This review is divided in three parts. First overview is given on developments of biodiesel in past and present, especially for the different feedstocks and the conversion technologies of biodiesel industry. More specifically, an overview is given on possible environmental and social impacts associated with biodiesel production, such as food security, land change and water source. Further emphasis is given on the need for government's incentives and public awareness for the use and benefits of biodiesel, while promoting policies that will not only endorse the industry, but also promote effective land management. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  46. Prospects of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles in Malaysia and Indonesia
    Abstract

    Jayed, M. H.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Husnawan, M.; Liaquat, A. M. 2011. Prospects of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles in Malaysia and Indonesia. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(1) 220-235

    Petro diplomacy has played its role in last few decades and that makes energy security a major concern worldwide. Rapid climate change and environmental protection is another vital issue to be addressed in recent energy policies. So an alternative carbon neutral transport fuel is a must in new sustainable energy mix. Biodiesel has immense potentiality to be a part of a sustainable energy mix. In this energy scenario, Brazil's success is a role model in utilizing its agro-industry for reducing poverty, greenhouse gas emission and petro-dependency simultaneously. Brazil commercialized bioethanol in mass scale by introducing flexible fuel vehicles in market. This dedicated engine idea moralizes a new concept of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles for Malaysia and Indonesia. Southeast Asian countries, i.e. Malaysia and Indonesia is the largest producer as well as exporter of palm oil. Growing at highest yield rate among other biodiesel feedstock, palm based biodiesel is a top exported product for this region. This paper will quantify the prospects of a dedicated biodiesel engine vehicle for Malaysia and Indonesia that will initiate palm based biodiesel in fuel supply chain by leapfrogging the barriers of biodiesel utilization by boosting local automobile industry simultaneously. This article will also review on energy scenario of Malaysia and Indonesia and their renewable energy policies and challenges for coming decades. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  47. Sell or not sell biodiesel: Local competition and government measures
    Abstract

    Perdiguero, J.; Jimenez, J. L. 2011. Sell or not sell biodiesel: Local competition and government measures. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(3) 1525-1532

    The introduction of biofuels is one of the objectives of the European Union. For this reason, measures to promote the production and consumption of this product have been implemented, such as tax exemptions, fixing a minimum amount of mixture or the introduction of public transport that consume biofuels. In this paper, we test different factors that can affect the introduction of biodiesel in the Spanish gasoline market. These factors are minty the level of local competition, technical difficulties and local government action. Empirical evidence shows that a higher level of competition, more buses that consume biodiesel and a lower adjustment costs increase significantly the probability of sell biodiesel at service stations. These results show how the promotion of competition and public procurement of vehicles can improve the commercialization of biofuels. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  48. Biodiesel as a renewable energy source
    Abstract

    Bart, J. C. J.; Palmeri, N.; Cavallaro, S. 2010. Biodiesel as a renewable energy source. Biodiesel Science and Technology: From Soil to Oil. (7) 1-49

    Renewable fuels are bound to gradually replace fossil fuels. Development of biorefineries will mark the historic transition into a sustainable society in which biological feedstocks, processes and products constitute the main pillars of the economy. Energy policy facilitating the introduction of biofuels, including biodiesel, avails itself of taxation, subsidies and mandates, which are not always unquestioned. Transformation of vegetable oils to liquid fuels is achieved industrially by catalytic transesterification. Biodiesel manufacturing, as yet based mainly on rapeseed oil (Europe), soybean oil (US, Argentina, Brazil) and palm oil (South-East Asia), requires further feedstock development. Important actors in the biodiesel value chain are vegetable oil milling facilities and the crude oil industry.
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  49. Biodiesel for Future Transportation Energy Needs
    Abstract

    Demirbas, A. 2010. Biodiesel for Future Transportation Energy Needs. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 32(16) 1490-1508

    Biodiesel is a natural, renewable transportation fuel. Biodiesel is the best candidate for diesel fuels in diesel engines with no alterations. Biodiesel is a nontoxic, biodegradable alternative to petroleum diesel that substantially reduces air pollution. Biodiesel fuel typically comprises lower alkyl fatty acid (chain length C14-C22), esters of short-chain alcohols, primarily, methanol or ethanol. Methyl esters of vegetable oils have several outstanding advantages over other new-renewable and clean engine fuel alternatives. Biodiesel production using inedible vegetable oil, waste oil, and grease has become more attractive recently. The economic performance of a biodiesel plant can be determined once certain factors are identified, such as plant capacity, process technology, raw material cost, and chemical costs. The cost of biodiesel fuels varies depending on the base stock, geographic area, variability in crop production from season to season, the price of crude petroleum, and other factors. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for the future; it has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits.
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  50. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality
    Abstract

    Cesar, A. D.; Batalha, M. O. 2010. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality. Energy Policy. 38(8) 4031-4039

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  51. Economic and Social Aspects of Applying Biodiesel Fuel in Road Transport
    Abstract

    Skocibusic, M. B.; Jolic, N.; Bukljas, Z. 2010. Economic and Social Aspects of Applying Biodiesel Fuel in Road Transport. Transport System Telematics. 104243-252

    The world trend in automotive industry represents the improvement of the existing vehicle power plants and their further development as well as the use of various alternative fuels. Such tendencies should not be considered only from an entirely technical aspect, but also from the economic, social and strategic aspects of the modern society. In this sense it is necessary to give priority to biodiesel fuel. The production of biodiesel fuel has to be developed in compliance with the increasingly severe exhaust emission standards in designing and realization of road transport means. From the economic aspect at macroeconomic level, the development of biodiesel will reflect on the condition of industrial production, employment, additional inflow of financial means into agriculture and the economic development of rural areas, as well as the foreign currency reserves of a country along with the reduction in the dependence of macroeconomic parameters on the external factors.
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  52. Perspectives on biodiesel as a sustainable fuel
    Abstract

    Janaun, J.; Ellis, N. 2010. Perspectives on biodiesel as a sustainable fuel. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 14(4) 1312-1320

    The present global economy downturn affects every corner of the world including the vehicular fuel industry. This paper highlights some of the perspectives for the biodiesel industry to thrive as an alternative fuel, while discussing benefits and limitations of biodiesel. This includes the improvement of the conversion technology to achieve a sustainable process at cheaper cost, environmentally benign and cleaner emissions, diversification of products derived from glycerol, and policy and government incentives. More specifically, an overview is given on making the production process more economical by developing high conversion and low cost catalysts from renewable sources, and utilizing waste oil as feedstock. Further emphasis is given on the need for public education and awareness for the use and benefits of biodiesel, while promoting policies that will not only endorse the industry, but also promote effective land management. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  53. The Economics of Biodiesel Derived From Waste Cooking Oil in the Philippines
    Abstract

    Montefrio, M. J. F.; Obbard, J. P. 2010. The Economics of Biodiesel Derived From Waste Cooking Oil in the Philippines. Energy Sources Part B-Economics Planning and Policy. 5(4) 337-347

    This article examines the economic aspects for the production and utilization of a sustainable form of biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil (WCO) in Marikina City, Philippines. An estimated 35,000 liters of WCO per month can be recovered from the household and commercial sectors of the city. The WCO from the household sector can be recovered using a combination of disincentives via appropriate legislation, and moral and remunerative incentives that target the lower socio-economic classes. Remunerative incentives for the household sector need not be tantamount to the market value of WCO. In contrast, the commercial sector will require remunerative incentives against the competitive market value of WCO. Assuming the household sector as the only source of WCO, the cost-benefit analysis shows positive economic returns. However, external capitalization should be secured if the expected WCO recovery level is 80% or lower, unless the disbursement of remunerative incentives is deferred for at least one year.
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  54. The effect of greenhouse gas policy on the design and scheduling of biodiesel plants with multiple feedstocks
    Abstract

    Elms, R. D.; El-Halwagi, M. M. 2010. The effect of greenhouse gas policy on the design and scheduling of biodiesel plants with multiple feedstocks. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 12(5) 547-560

    With the increasing attention to the environmental impact of discharging greenhouses gases, there has been a growing public pressure to reduce the carbon footprint associated with the use of fossil fuels. In this context, one of the key strategies is the substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels such as biodiesel. The design of biodiesel production facilities has traditionally been carried out based on technical and economic criteria. Greenhouse gas (GHG) policies (e.g., carbon tax, subsidy) have the potential to significantly alter the design of these facilities, the selection of the feedstocks, and the scheduling of multiple feedstocks. The objective of this article is to develop a systematic approach to the design and scheduling of biodiesel production processes while accounting for the effect of GHG policies in addition to the technical, economic, and environmental aspects. An optimization formulation is developed to maximize the profit of the process subject to flowsheet synthesis and performance modeling equations. Furthermore, the carbon footprint is accounted for with the help of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The objective function includes a term which reflects the impact of the LCA of a feedstock and its processing to biodiesel. A multiperiod approach is used to discretize the decision-making horizon into time periods. During each period, decisions are made on the type and flowrate of the feedstocks, as well as the associated design and operating variables. A case study is solved with several scenarios of feedstocks and GHG policies.
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  55. Biodiesel in India : value chain organisation and policy options for rural development
    Abstract

    Altenburg, Tilman 2009. Biodiesel in India : value chain organisation and policy options for rural development. Studies (Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik),. (43) 139 p.

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  56. Brazilian Biodiesel Policy: Social and environmental considerations of sustainability
    Abstract

    Garcez, C. A. G.; Vianna, J. N. D. 2009. Brazilian Biodiesel Policy: Social and environmental considerations of sustainability. Energy. 34(5) 645-654

    The objective of this article is to analyze the Brazilian Biodiesel Policy (PNPB) and to identify the social and environmental aspects of sustainability that are present or absent within it. Biofuels, namely alcohol and biodiesel, have been increasing in popularity on a global scale due to their potential as alternative and renewable energy sources. Brazil, a vast country blessed with abundant natural resources and agricultural land, has emerged as a global leader in the production of biofuels. This article includes a brief analysis of the concept of sustainable development, which served as a basis to evaluate the Policy documents. Although PNPB's implementation, which began in 2004, is still within its initial stage, it was possible to identify and elaborate on the environmental and social aspects of the Policy, namely: the social inclusion of family farmers; regional development; food security; influencing the carbon and energy balance of biodiesel; promoting sustainable agricultural practices and a diversity of feedstock. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  57. Brazilian biofuels and social exclusion: established and concentrated ethanol versus emerging and dispersed biodiesel
    Abstract

    Hall, J.; Matos, S.; Severino, L.; Beltrao, N. 2009. Brazilian biofuels and social exclusion: established and concentrated ethanol versus emerging and dispersed biodiesel. Journal of Cleaner Production. 17S77-S85

    Increasing interest in biofuels trade between developed and developing countries has spurred worldwide discussions on issues such as subsidies and the 'food for fuel' crisis. One issue missing in recent discourse is the pressure exerted on developing countries to adopt large-scale mechanized farming practices to increase economic efficiencies. Such approaches often exclude small-scale farmers from participating in the emerging biofuels market, thus exacerbating poverty and social exclusion. Drawing on both qualitative and technical data, we discuss such pressures using Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel production. Pressure from international markets to become more economically efficient may contribute towards the erosion of recent schemes to encourage social benefits for small farmers in biodiesel production. We conclude with trade and policy implications. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  58. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil
    Abstract

    Abdullah, A. Z.; Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S. 2009. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil. Energy Policy. 37(12) 5440-5448

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  59. Pengembangan industri energi alternatif : studi kasus industri biodiesel
    Abstract

    Negara, Siwage Dharma; Dwiastuti, Inne; Pusat Penelitian Ekonomi (Indonesia) 2009. Pengembangan industri energi alternatif : studi kasus industri biodiesel. . x, 194 p.

    Development of biodiesel fuels industry in Indonesia; collection of articles.
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  60. Analysis of biodiesel promotion in Taiwan
    Abstract

    Huang, Y. H.; Wu, J. H. 2008. Analysis of biodiesel promotion in Taiwan. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 12(4) 1176-1186

    Biodiesel is one kind of biodegradable fuel. Substituting fossil diesel with biodiesel can reduce air emissions, increase the domestic energy supply, and create new markets for farmers. Further, generating biodiesel from energy crops cultivated on polluted farmlands can provide a solution for re-using polluted farmlands.
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  61. An analysis of biodiesel fuel from waste edible oil in Taiwan
    Abstract

    Tsai, W. T.; Lin, C. C.; Yeh, C. W. 2007. An analysis of biodiesel fuel from waste edible oil in Taiwan. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 11(5) 838-857

    Taiwan is a high energy-importing nation with more than 98% of our energy supplied by imported fuels in 2004. The diversification of kinds and sources of primary fuel is becoming vital energy issues in the country. In this regard, biomass energy like biodiesel fuel from waste edible oil is thus becoming attractive due to the environmental and energy policies for promoting sustainable development and environmental pollution mitigation in Taiwan. The objective of this paper is to present an analysis of energy utilization from waste edible oil for the diesel production in Taiwan. The description in the paper is thus summarized on current status of diesel fuel and edible oil supply and consumption, and waste edible oils, and then centered on new/revised promotion legislation/regulations especially concerning the waste- to-biodiesel in the measures of environmental protection and economic/financial incentives. Finally, we survey the first demonstration plant in the production of biodiesel from waste edible oil including process description and benefit analysis, which has started to be operated in October 2004 on an industrial scale of 3000 metric tons per year. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  62. Biodiesel: A new Oildorado?
    Abstract

    Frondel, M.; Peters, J. 2007. Biodiesel: A new Oildorado?. Energy Policy. 35(3) 1675-1684

    Guaranteeing tax reductions and exemptions, the European governments intend to increase the share of biofuels in total EU fuel consumption to 5.75% by 2010. The financial support of this EU objective is frequently justified by expected positive environmental impacts, most notably the mitigation of climate change, and by favorable employment effects in the agricultural sector. This paper investigates the environmental and economic implications of the support of rapeseed-based biodiesel as a substitute for fossil diesel. Based on a survey of recent empirical studies, we find that the energy and greenhouse gas balances of this environmental strategy are clearly positive. Yet, it appears to be unclear whether the overall environmental balance is also positive. Most importantly, though, biodiesel is not a cost-efficient emission abatement strategy. Thus, for the abatement of greenhouse gases, we recommend more efficient alternatives based on both renewable and conventional technologies. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  63. Importance of biodiesel as transportation fuel
    Abstract

    Demirbas, A. 2007. Importance of biodiesel as transportation fuel. Energy Policy. 35(9) 4661-4670

    The scarcity of known petroleum reserves will make renewable energy resources more attractive. The most feasible way to meet this growing demand is by utilizing alternative fuels. Biodiesel is defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is the best candidate for diesel fuels in diesel engines. The biggest advantage that biodiesel has over gasoline and petroleum diesel is its environmental friendliness. Biodiesel burns similar to petroleum diesel as it concerns regulated pollutants. On the other hand, biodiesel probably has better efficiency than gasoline. One such fuel for compression-ignition engines that exhibit great potential is biodiesel. Diesel fuel can also be replaced by biodiesel made from vegetable oils. Biodiesel is now mainly being produced from soybean, rapeseed and palm oils. The higher heating values (HHVs) of biodiesels are relatively high. The HHVs of biodiesels (39-41 MJ/kg) are slightly lower than that of gasoline (46 MJ/kg), petrodiesel (43 MJ/kg) or petroleum (42 MJ/kg), but higher than coal (32-37 MJ/kg). Biodiesel has over double the price of petrodiesel. The major economic factor to consider for input costs of biodiesel production is the feedstock, which is about 80% of the total operating cost. The high price of biodiesel is in large part due to the high price of the feedstock. Economic benefits of a biodiesel industry would include value added to the feedstock, an increased number of rural manufacturing jobs, an increased income taxes and investments in plant and equipment. The production and utilization of biodiesel is facilitated firstly through the agricultural policy of subsidizing the cultivation of non-food crops. Secondly, biodiesel is exempt from the oil tax. The European Union accounted for nearly 89% of all biodiesel production worldwide in 2005. By 2010, the United States is expected to become the world's largest single biodiesel market, accounting for roughly 18% of world biodiesel consumption, followed by Germany. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  64. Biodiesel energy and methane hydrate research : hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research, Development, Production, and Regulation of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, second session, on S. 1141, to amend the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to take into account newly developed renewable energy-based fuels
    Abstract

    United States, Congress 1998. Biodiesel energy and methane hydrate research : hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy Research, Development, Production, and Regulation of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, second session, on S. 1141, to amend the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to take into account newly developed renewable energy-based fuels. S hrg. (105-622) iii, 97 p.

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