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Waste oil, Cooking oil, and High Free Fatty Acid (FFA) oil as biodiesel feedstock

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  1. Assessing biodiesel quality parameters for wastewater grown Chlorella sp.
    Abstract

    Bagul, S. Y.; Bharti, R. K.; Dhar, D. W. 2017. Assessing biodiesel quality parameters for wastewater grown Chlorella sp.. Water Science and Technology. 76(3) 719-727

    Microalgae are reported as the efficient source of renewable biodiesel which should be able to meet the global demand of transport fuels. Present study is focused on assessment of wastewater grown indigenous microalga Chlorella sp. for fuel quality parameters. This was successfully grown in secondary treated waste water diluted with tap water (25% dilution) in glass house. The microalga showed a dry weight of 0.849 g L-1 with lipid content of 27.1% on dry weight basis on 21st day of incubation. After transesterification, the yield of fatty acid methyl ester was 80.64% with major fatty acids as palmitic, linoleic, oleic and linolenic. The physical parameters predicted from empirical equations in the biodiesel showed cetane number as 56.5, iodine value of 75.5 g I-2 100 g(-1), high heating value 40.1 MJ kg(-1), flash point 135 degrees C, kinematic viscosity 4.05 mm(2) s(-1) with density of 0.86 g cm(3) and cold filter plugging point as 0.7 degrees C. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), H-1, C-13 NMR spectrum confirmed the chemical nature of biodiesel. The results indicated that the quality of biodiesel was almost as per the criterion of ASTM standards; hence, wastewater grown Chlorella sp. can be used as a promising strain for biodiesel production.
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  2. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using onsite produced purified lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa FW_SH-1: Central composite design approach
    Abstract

    Ali, C. H.; Qureshi, A. S.; Mbadinga, S. M.; Liu, J. F.; Yang, S. Z.; Mu, B. Z. 2017. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using onsite produced purified lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa FW_SH-1: Central composite design approach. Renewable Energy. 10993-100

    Increasing energy demands, decreasing fossil fuel resources, instability of crude oil prices and pollution problems have compelled to switch over bio-based fuel for transportation, for example, biodiesel. In present study, waste cooking oil (WCO) was evaluated as feedstock for biodiesel production using free lipase in liquid. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the interaction between four factors: the reaction temperature, methanol-oil molar ratio, dosage of lipase as biocatalyst and rotational speed. Using this method, the model predicted the optimal conditions reaching up to 86% FAME yield with temperature 44.2 degrees C, methanol-oil molar ratio (3.05:1), amount of lipase 0.782 g and rotation speed of 170 rpm with incubation period of 24 h. The reactions carried out under optimized conditions confirmed the validity of the model. The use of WCO in lipase catalyzed process can diminish the cost of biodiesel production and will allow lowering the direct use of edible oils to produce biodiesel instead. Thus, present study shows great practical potential to replace fossil fuel with renewable fuel (biodiesel). (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  3. Application of Flying Jet Plasma for Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Wasted Vegetable Oil
    Abstract

    Abdul-Majeed, W. S.; AAl-Thani, G. S.; Al-Sabahi, J. N. 2016. Application of Flying Jet Plasma for Production of Biodiesel Fuel from Wasted Vegetable Oil. Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing. 36(6) 1517-1531

    Biodiesel, a good partial or total substitute for petrodiesel, is a renewable clean burning fuel which can be produced from transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with an alcohol in presence of a catalyst. Since the feedstock costs in this process constitutes more than 70 % of the overall cost, use of wasted vegetable oil (i.e. consumed cooking oil) for biodiesel production is a big challenge in terms of cost reduction and environmental impacts. Nonetheless, the content of residues in the wasted vegetable oil, formed during frying, is a major drawback could be faced in this direction. In this research, we applied an unconventional design of flying jet dielectric barrier discharge plasma torch to treat several specimens of wasted cooking oil collected from different resources before transesterification. In other experiments, the jet plasma itself was used to catalyze the reaction process. The examined plasma torch was found more feasible than conventional DBD reactor design in terms of gas and power consumptions. Upon inducting plasma treatment, the transesterification process resulted in higher biodiesel yield, lower reaction time and easier product separation than the conventional path. Upon catalyzing the reaction by the sole jet plasma effect, the biodiesel content of saturated methyl esters was higher than conventional tranesterification. Also, the yield and properties were found within commercial standards.
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  4. Biodiesel Production and Fuel Properties of Three Minor Tree-Borne Seed Oils
    Abstract

    Mondal, B. 2016. Biodiesel Production and Fuel Properties of Three Minor Tree-Borne Seed Oils. Banats Journal of Biotechnology. 7(13) 5-16

    Nowadays non-edible minor oils have been considered as promising sustainable feedstock for future biodiesel production. Three tree-borne minor seed oils from Annona squamosa (AS), Bombax ceiba (BC) and Ceiba pentandra (CP) plants were studied to assess their potentiality as sources of biodiesel. The seed oils were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition. The AC seed oil was converted into biodiesel by single step NaOH catalyzed transesterification process without any pretreatment as its FFA content was below the 2 % safe limit. The BC and CP seed oils had high FFA content for which they were converted into biodiesel employing acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. The biodiesel yields under the experimental conditions for AS, BC and CP seed oils were 89.4 %, 86.2 % and 85.6 % respectively. The important fuel properties of the seed oil biodiesels such as density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cetane number, calorific value and oxidation stability were tested which revealed that most of them were close to that of diesel and also met the IS and ASTM standard specification for commercial biodiesel. The suitability of seed oil biodiesels blended with diesel was also evaluated. Oil content, biodiesel yield and fuel properties of these three tree-borne oilseeds were satisfactory, therefore, they can be considered as potential sources of biodiesel production.
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  5. Biodiesel production by methanolysis of waste lard from piglet roasting over quicklime
    Abstract

    Stojkovic, I. J.; Miladinovic, M. R.; Stamenkovic, O. S.; Bankovic-Ilic, I. B.; Povrenovic, D. S.; Veljkovic, V. B. 2016. Biodiesel production by methanolysis of waste lard from piglet roasting over quicklime. Fuel. 182454-466

    Waste lard from piglet roasting and quicklime (basically CaO) as a priceless fatty feedstock and a cheap solid catalyst, respectively were tested for the biodiesel production by methanolysis in a batch stirred reactor at moderate reaction temperatures (40-60 degrees C) for the kinetic study. For comparison, unheated and heated pork lards, as well as pure CaO, were also included in this study. The mass transfer limitation was observed in the initial period of all methanolysis reactions. The kinetic model combining the changing-and first-order reaction rate laws with respect to triacylglycerols and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), respectively was verified for all three lardy feedstocks and both catalysts. The catalytic activity of quicklime was the same as that of pure CaO. The activation energy was demonstrated to be independent of the feedstock and the catalyst (59.1 +/- 0.6 kJ/mol) but the waste lard reacted faster than the unheated and heated pork lards. At the methanol-to-lard molar ratio of 6:1, the catalyst amount of 5% (based on the lard weight) and the reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, a high FAME concentration in the final ester products (97.5%) within 60 min were achieved with the waste lard and quicklime in two consecutive batches. The same kinetic model was applicable in a continuous packed-bed tubular reactor filled with quicklime bits (2.0-3.15 mm) at the methanol-to-waste lard molar ratio of 6:1, the reaction temperature of 60 degrees C and the residence time of 1 h. Under these conditions, the biodiesel yield was 97.6%, while the FAME concentration in the biodiesel product was 96.5%. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  6. Biodiesel production from Kutkura (Meyna spinosa Roxb. Ex.) fruit seed oil: Its characterization and engine performance evaluation with 10% and 20% blends
    Abstract

    Kakati, J.; Gogoi, T. K. 2016. Biodiesel production from Kutkura (Meyna spinosa Roxb. Ex.) fruit seed oil: Its characterization and engine performance evaluation with 10% and 20% blends. Energy Conversion and Management. 121152-161

    Kutkura (Meyna spinosa Roxb.) is a plant species in the genus Meyna from the Rubiaceae family. Kutkura fruits are food items; the fruits and the leaves of the Kutkura plant are also used in traditional medicine. In this article, biodiesel produced from Kutkura fruit seed oil is characterized and compared with other tree seed based biodiesels. Oil content in Kutkura fruit seed was found 35.45%. Free fatty acid (FFA) content in the oil was 3.1%, hence base catalyzed transesterification was used directly for biodiesel production from Kutkura fruit seed oil. Kutkura fruit seed oil contained 7.187% palmitic, 5.382% stearic, 30.251% oleic and 52.553% linoleic acid. Calorific value, kinematic viscosity and density of Kutkura fruit seed oil were found 38.169 MJ/kg, 28.92 mm(2)/s and 922.5 kg/m(3) respectively. However, after transesterification, these properties improved to 39.717 MJ/kg, 5.601 mm(2)/s and 885.3 kg/m(3) respectively in case of the Kutkura fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Apart from water content, all other properties of Kutkura FAME met the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 standards. Blending of Kutkura FAME with diesel up to 20% (vol.) however reduced water content down to an acceptable level of 0.038 wt.%. The kinematic viscosity also reduced to the level of conventional diesel after blending. Further, an engine performance study with biodiesel blends (B10 and B20) showed almost similar fuel consumption rate with diesel. Engine brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was more while the smoke emission was less with B10 and B20. Thus, Kutkura fruit seed is a potential source of biodiesel and blends of Kutkura FAME up to 20% can be used for realizing better performance from the engine. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  7. Biodiesel production from non-edible plant oils
    Abstract

    Demirbas, A.; Bafail, A.; Ahmad, W.; Sheikh, M. 2016. Biodiesel production from non-edible plant oils. Energy Exploration & Exploitation. 34(2) 290-318

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based fuels derived from a variety of feedstocks, including vegetable oils, animal fats, and waste cooking oil. At present, biodiesel is mainly produced from conventionally grown edible oils such as soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, and palm. The cost of biodiesel is the main obstacle to commercialization of the product. Biodiesel produced from edible oils is currently not economically feasible. On the other hand, extensive use of edible oils for biodiesel production may lead to food crisis. These problems can be solved by using low-cost feedstocks such as non-edible oils and waste cooking oils for biodiesel production. This paper reviews numerous options of non-edible oils as the substantial feedstocks, biodiesel processing, and effect of different parameters on production of biodiesel.
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  8. Biodiesel production from oleaginous yeasts using livestock wastewater as nutrient source after phosphate struvite recovery
    Abstract

    Chung, J.; Lee, I.; Han, J. I. 2016. Biodiesel production from oleaginous yeasts using livestock wastewater as nutrient source after phosphate struvite recovery. Fuel. 186305-310

    Microbial oils, which can be converted to biodiesel, could be produced by oleaginous yeast. To reduce the overall cost, which is a limitation of heterotrophic cultivation, the livestock wastewater (LW) was examined as a feedstock. It was found that the LW needed pretreatment, and hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) was effective, surpassing sonication and shaking. The nature of HC made it possible to disintegrate cells and release nutrients like phosphorus; it also rendered ammonia stripping and struvite formation, when MgO was added. The pretreated LW with the HC supported the growth of the two yeasts: C. pseudolambica had 3.6 h of doubling time, 2.19 g/L. of DCW, and 35.3% lipid per dry mass; and I. occidentalis had 2.9 h of doubling time with 6.54 g/L of final DCW, and 28.9% lipid per dry mass. All this showed the LW could turn into a valuable resource, as long as a suitable pretreatment. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  9. Biodiesel production from Silybum marianum L. seed oil with high FFA content using sulfonated carbon catalyst for esterification and base catalyst for transesterification
    Abstract

    Fadhil, A. B.; Aziz, A. M.; Al-Tamer, M. H. 2016. Biodiesel production from Silybum marianum L. seed oil with high FFA content using sulfonated carbon catalyst for esterification and base catalyst for transesterification. Energy Conversion and Management. 108255-265

    In this research work, waste of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was converted into activated carbon and the latter was used in the preparation of a carbon acid catalyst. Waste of PET was converted into activated carbon via carbonization and steam activation, then the activated carbon was sulfonated using fuming sulfuric acid in order to produce the carbon acid catalyst. The prepared carbon acid catalyst was tested for esterification of high acid value non-edible oil, Silybum marianum L. seed oil (SMSO) via optimized protocol. Amount of the carbon acid catalyst, methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature and time were the experimental variables optimized. Esterification of SMSO with methanol using the prepared carbon acid catalyst reduced its parent acid value (20.0 mg KOH/g) to the acceptable limits for base-catalyzed transesterification (<2.0 mg KOH/g) using 6.0% w/w of the catalyst, 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 68 degrees C reaction temperature and 180 min of reaction. The performance of the catalyst was reduced gradually during its recycling and reached to 60.0% at the 5th cycle. Kinetics of esterification of SMSO using the prepared carbon acid catalyst followed pseudo first order kinetics, and the activation energy was found to be 70.98 kJ/mol. The esterified oil was converted to biodiesel through optimized base catalyzed transesterification with methanol. Biodiesel with (96.98% yield and purity of 96.69% w/w) yield was obtained using 0.80% KOH w/w, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 75 min of reaction and 600 rpm rate of stirring. The biodiesel properties were within the recommended biodiesel standards as prescribed by ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. Transesterification of the esterified oil was found to fellow first order kinetics, and the activation energy was calculated to be 17.92 kJ/mol. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  10. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oils through esterification: Catalyst screening, chemical equilibrium and reaction kinetics
    Abstract

    Neumann, K.; Werth, K.; Martin, A.; Gorak, A. 2016. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oils through esterification: Catalyst screening, chemical equilibrium and reaction kinetics. Chemical Engineering Research & Design. 10752-62

    Fatty esters provide new building-blocks for sustainable chemical and biochemical processes or can be used as biofuels. For a greener and more economic production of these esters waste cooking oils are a promising feedstock, but a pre-treatment step is required. In this step the high content of free fatty acids is reduced by an acid catalysed esterification. To further enhance the overall process efficiency, reactive distillation is favourable for the pretreatment. In order to enable a comprehensive analysis of an industrial production process, a step-by-step procedure considering lab-scale experiments and determination of important model parameters is provided. In this study the reaction kinetics of the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol forming the ester ethyl oleate is determined. Prior, a suitable catalyst matching the operating window of a reactive distillation process is identified in an experimental screening. (C) 2015 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  11. Biodiesel production from waste cooking sunflower oil and environmental impact analysis
    Abstract

    Saifuddin, M.; Boyce, A. N. 2016. Biodiesel production from waste cooking sunflower oil and environmental impact analysis. Kuwait Journal of Science. 43(3) 110-117

    Waste cooking oil offers great potential as a low cost biodiesel feedstock. Several parameters were tested for the optimum production of biodiesel and these included varying the alcohol: oil molar ratios, different catalyst concentrations, temperatures and stirring speed. For the optimum production of biodiesel, the molar ratio of alcohol to oil used was 6:1. The fatty acid methyl esters identified in the biodiesel were methyl palmitate, methyl linoleate, methyloleate and methyl stearate. The viscosity of the produced biodiesel was within the range of international ASTM standards. Engine exhaust emission tests of biodiesel showed that the carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions were lower than that of petrodiesel. The nitrogenous oxides emission and specific fuel consumption were higher than that of conventional diesel fuel. It can be concluded that biodiesel produced from waste sunflower oil can be considered as a great potential source of commercial biodiesel.
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  12. Biodiesel Production from Waste Fish for Zero Waste Concept in Remote Area of Eastern of Java, Indonesia
    Abstract

    Harsono, S. S.; Setyobudi, R. H.; Zeemani, T. 2016. Biodiesel Production from Waste Fish for Zero Waste Concept in Remote Area of Eastern of Java, Indonesia. Jurnal Teknologi. 78(4-2) 215-219

    Increasing demand fossil fuel in the world may have a good impact on biodiesel demand. Other than produced from plant oil, biodiesel can also be produced from waste fish and fish wastes. Extracted oil from both of fish waste may be turned into biodiesel to be used for ship's diesel engine or other purposes. The objective of this study is to analyze the energetic efficiency in the production of fish wastes as feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Indonesia. The biodiesel production chain is analyzed to quantify the net yield of energy and exergy and their respective degree of efficiency. The energy consumption calculation for the biodiesel production system is assessed as the sum of energy consumption in different stages in its production chain. Energy efficiency in biodiesel production can be assessed using an index for technical, economic and environmental sustainability analysis. The fish oil was separated from fish wastes using a specially designed oil extraction machine. Both direct and indirect energy and exergy flows are important parameters for evaluating the energetic efficiency of biodiesel. Further, the analysis shows that it is necessary to find ways to improve the exergy efficiency without decreasing the energy efficiency during production of biodiesel from waste fish.
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  13. Acid-catalyzed production of biodiesel over arenesulfonic SBA-15: Insights into the role of water in the reaction network
    Abstract

    Melero, J. A.; Bautista, L. F.; Morales, G.; Iglesias, J.; Sanchez-Vazquez, R. 2015. Acid-catalyzed production of biodiesel over arenesulfonic SBA-15: Insights into the role of water in the reaction network. Renewable Energy. 75425-432

    This work presents a systematic approach to understand the effect of the presence of water in highly acidic crude palm oil typical conditions of low-grade oleaginous feedstock on the performance of arene-SO3H-SBA-15 catalyst in the batch-production of biodiesel. The addition of small amounts of water (1 wt %) to the reaction medium led to a clear reduction of the observed yield to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), being this decay usually attributed to the highly hydrophilic nature of arenesulfonic acid groups, and the associated difficulties of hydrophobic substrates to access these catalytic acid sites. However, the addition of larger amounts of water -up to 10 wt%- did not cause a proportional decay in the yield to FAME, but a higher production of free fatty acids (FFA). This is attributed to the promotion of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of both starting triglycerides and formed FAME. The net result is not only a significant reduction of the final FAME yield, but also the appearance of high acid values, i.e. FFA contents, in the final biodiesel. Consequently, the overall process is simultaneously affected by transesterification, esterification and hydrolysis reactions, all of them catalyzed by Bronsted acid sites and dependent on the reaction conditions -temperature and water concentration- to different extents. Several strategies devoted to manage such behavior of sulfonic acid-modified SBA-15 catalysts in presence of water, aiming to maximize FAME yield while minimizing FFA content, have been explored: (1) minimization of the water content in the reacting media by pre-drying of feedstock and catalyst; (2) addition of molecular sieves to the reacting media as water scavengers, (3) hydrophobization of the catalyst surface to minimize the water uptake by the catalyst; and (4) use of a decreasing reaction temperature profile in order to first promote transesterification at high temperature and then reduce the temperature to keep at a minimum the hydrolysis of formed FAME. All these strategies resulted in an improvement of the catalytic performance, especially the use of a decreasing temperature profile. The results showed by the latter strategy open new possibilities and reaction pathways in which readily available, low-grade, cheap oleaginous feedstock with high water and FFA contents can be efficiently converted into biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  14. Advanced supercritical Methyl acetate method for biodiesel production from Pongamia pinnata oil
    Abstract

    Goembira, F.; Saka, S. 2015. Advanced supercritical Methyl acetate method for biodiesel production from Pongamia pinnata oil. Renewable Energy. 831245-1249

    At present, alkali-catalyzed transesterification process is widely used in biodiesel production. However, in this process up to 88% of total production cost is for the feedstock, due to the requirement of using low free fatty acid (FFA) content feedstocks that are commonly attributed to refined edible plant-oils. This work was, therefore, carried out to know the potential use of non-edible Pongamia pinnata oil in biodiesel production. Instead of using a transesterification, this work applied an interesterification process called one-step supercritical methyl acetate method under reaction condition of 300 degrees C/20 MPa/45 min/42 M ratio in methyl acetate to oil. In this glycerol-free method, 10wt% aqueous acetic acid was added as an additive to proceed the interesterification process under such reaction condition. It was found out that high FFA content in Pongamia pinnata oil did not give any adverse effect on the process as the highest yield of 96.6wt% FAME and 11.5wt% triacetin (total 108.1wt%) was achievable. Both products were miscible and their evaluation on biodiesel properties showed the compliance towards biodiesel standards. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  15. Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oils in Portugal: Alternative Collection Systems
    Abstract

    Caldeira, C.; Queiros, J.; Freire, F. 2015. Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oils in Portugal: Alternative Collection Systems. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 6(5) 771-779

    Waste Cooking Oils (WCO) have been gaining prominence as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to is potential to reduce the economic and environmental costs of biodiesel produced with biomass. However, there are various types of WCO collection with different collection efficiency and environmental impacts. The aim of this paper is to present an environmental assessment of biodiesel from WCO addressing different collection schemes in Portugal. The implications of alternative allocation approaches (no allocation, mass allocation, energy allocation and economic allocation) in the final results are also assessed. Life Cycle Impact Assessment was calculated (ReCiPe method) for: Climate Change; Terrestrial Acidification; Marine Eutrophication and Freshwater Eutrophication. WCO collection contribution for the overall impacts ranged significantly for the various collection system and impact categories. The application of different allocation approaches led to differences in the results up to 11 %. A comparison between the GHG emissions calculated for biodiesel from WCO and the typical and default values presented in the Renewable Energy Directive was performed. The GHG emission saving for biodiesel from WCO collected in Portugal ranged from 81 to 89 %.
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  16. Biodiesel Produced by Two Step Hydroprocessing of Waste Cooking Oil II. Hydrocracking of hydrotreated waste cooking oil and straight run gasoil mixture
    Abstract

    Dragomir, R. E.; Bogatu, L.; Rosca, P.; Oprescu, E. E.; Juganaru, T. 2015. Biodiesel Produced by Two Step Hydroprocessing of Waste Cooking Oil II. Hydrocracking of hydrotreated waste cooking oil and straight run gasoil mixture. Revista De Chimie. 66(4) 552-555

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO). The feedstock are hydrotreated mixtures of straight run gas oil (SRGO) with 5, 7,5, 10% WCO. The hydrotreated mixture was hydrocracked at 350 degrees C and 370 degrees C temperatures, 100 bar pressure, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 1h(-1) in the presence of industrial catalyst Co/Mo/Ni/gAl(2)O(3), The research has focused on the influence of temperature and the WCO/SRGO ratio on the yields and the physicochemical properties of the biofuel obtained. The research findings highlighted a good characteristics of biofuel that fit with the requirements of EN 590.
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  17. Biodiesel production from mixtures of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil: Optimization of fuel properties
    Abstract

    de Almeida, V. F.; Garcia-Moreno, P. J.; Guadix, A.; Guadix, E. M. 2015. Biodiesel production from mixtures of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil: Optimization of fuel properties. Fuel Processing Technology. 133152-160

    The present work studies the influence of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil as raw material on biodiesel properties. The experimental planning was executed through acid esterification (6:1 methanol to oil ratio, 1 wt.% sulfuric acid, at 60 degrees C, 1 h) followed by transesterification (9:1 methanol to oil ratio, 0.5 wt.% sodium hydroxide, at 60 degrees C for I h). Biodiesel samples showed yield higher than 82%, reaching 90% for palm oil (33.3 wt.%) and waste frying oil (66.7 wt.%) biodiesel. FAME content was higher than 92.3% and had a maximum of 98.5% for waste fish oil (333 wt.%) and palm oil (66.7 wt.%) biodiesel. Special cubic models were used to fit experimental data, and were optimized by response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization. Viscosity (4.3 mm(2)/s) and COM (2.5 degrees C) were minimized when pure fish oil was used as raw material, whereas IP maximum (22.0 h) was found for palm oil biodiesel. Multi-objective optimization evidenced that although the use of the pure oils as feedstock presented more advantages to biodiesel properties, the waste fish oil (42.1 wt.%) and waste flying oil (57.9 wt.%) mix is beneficial, if the aim is IP (20%) and COM (80%) improvement. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  18. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using KBr impregnated CaO as catalyst
    Abstract

    Mahesh, S. E.; Ramanathan, A.; Begum, K. M. M. S.; Narayanan, A. 2015. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using KBr impregnated CaO as catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 91442-450

    This research paper deals with the synthesis of a heterogeneous catalyst (KBr/CaO) from commercial calcium oxide and potassium bromide by wet impregnation method. This solid catalyst was tested for transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO). The synthesized catalyst was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. Transesterification reaction parameters were varied to obtain the maximum yield of biodiesel. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to study the effect of the process variables like methanol to oil ratio, catalyst loading and reaction time. The optimum conditions obtained using regression models were found to be 12:1 methanol: oil ratio, 3 wt% catalyst loading and 1.8 h reaction time. The composition of FAME was determined using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The performance and emission characteristics for various blends of biodiesel (B10, B20, B50 and B100) were investigated in a four stroke direct injection diesel engine. The results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency, particulate matter, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide emissions reduced with increased concentration of biodiesel in the fuel blends, whereas the specific fuel consumption, NO emissions and exhaust gas temperature increased. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  19. Agro-industrial acidic oil as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production using (1R)-(-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M. 2014. Agro-industrial acidic oil as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production using (1R)-(-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid. Chemical Engineering Science. 116223-227

    A mixture of low grade industrial oils such as acidic crude palm oil (ACPO) and sludge palm oil (SPO) was used for biodiesel production. A novel organic acid, (1R)-(-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid (10-CSA), was introduced as a catalyst for esterification reaction. 10-CSA shows high activity as a catalyst in the reduction of free fatty acid (FFA) and high conversion of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and molar ratio on FFA reduction and FAME conversion were studied. The FFA content was reduced from 8% to less than 1% under optimum conditions. The final product (biodiesel fuel) produced from treated oils (ACPO and SPO) meets international biodiesel standards. This is the first time 10-CSA has been introduced as a catalyst for esterification reaction. This catalyst can treat a wide range of acidic raw materials for biodiesel production. 10-CSA is a promising catalyst and can be used for various chemical reactions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  20. Analysis of Flue Gas Emissions Using a Semi-industrial Boiler Fueled by Biodiesel Produced from Two-stage Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Mansourpoor, M.; Shariati, A. 2014. Analysis of Flue Gas Emissions Using a Semi-industrial Boiler Fueled by Biodiesel Produced from Two-stage Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly. 28(1) 95-103

    In this work, waste cooking oil and methanol as feedstock together with sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide as catalysts were used to produce biodiesel. The physical properties of the waste cooking oil, the produced biodiesel and the purchased petrodiesel were measured using specified ASTM standards. To examine their performance and their flue gases emissions, biodiesel and petrodiesel were burnt in a wet base semi-industrial boiler. The emitted combustion gases, including CO, NOx, SO2 and CO2, were measured with a flue-gas analyzer at a wide range of air-to-fuel ratios and two levels of energy. For better reliability, all tests were repeated five times and almost no measurable differences were found in the repeat tests. The results show that produced biodiesel meets ASTM standards for flash point, heating value, specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, copper corrosion, acid number, cetane number, carbon residue, and total sulfur. These properties of biodiesel are also comparable with the petrodiesel properties. The trends of exhaust temperature and combustion efficiency of biodiesel are the same as petrodiesel at different air-to-fuel ratio. However, they are slightly lower. The CO, NOx, SO2 and CO2 emissions of biodiesel are lower than those of petrodiesel at different air-to-fuel ratios and two levels of energy.
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  21. Application of magnesium sulfate and its nanoparticles for enhanced lipid production by mixotrophic cultivation of algae using biodiesel waste
    Abstract

    Sarma, S. J.; Das, R. K.; Brar, S. K.; Le Bihan, Y.; Buelna, G.; Verma, M.; Soccol, C. R. 2014. Application of magnesium sulfate and its nanoparticles for enhanced lipid production by mixotrophic cultivation of algae using biodiesel waste. Energy. 7816-22

    CG (Crude glycerol) is one of the major wastes of biodiesel production process. It can be used as a substrate for lipid production by algae and the produced lipid can be recycled as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In order to avoid substrate inhibition, lipid production media are prepared by diluting the CG with distilled water. However, CG contains only a small amount of Mg (57.41 +/- 18 ppm) and its concentration is further decreased to around 0.57 ppm during the dilution process. Apart from having a number of roles in algal physiology, Mg is the central atom of chlorophyll. Therefore, MgSO4 was evaluated as a Mg source to supplement the CG based media used for lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris. By supplementing the process with 1 g/L of MgSO4, nearly 185.29 +/- 4.53% improvement in lipid production has been achieved. Further, application of MgSO4 nanoparticles was found to improve the lipid production by 118.23 +/- 5.67%. Interestingly, unlike MgSO4, its nanoparticles were found to enhance the lipid production at the expense of only a small amount of glycerol. Thus, application of MgSO4 nanoparticles could be a potential strategy for enhanced lipid yield. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  22. Application of zirconia modified with KOH as heterogeneous solid base catalyst to new non-edible oil for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Takase, M.; Zhang, M.; Feng, W. W.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, T.; Cobbina, S. J.; Yang, L. Q.; Wu, X. Y. 2014. Application of zirconia modified with KOH as heterogeneous solid base catalyst to new non-edible oil for biodiesel. Energy Conversion and Management. 80117-125

    This study seeks to investigate zirconia modified with KOH as heterogeneous solid base catalyst for transesterification of new non-edible, Silybum marianum (oil content 46%, FFA 0.68% and linoleic acid 65.68%) oil using methanol to biodiesel. Having screened the catalytic performance of ZrO2 loaded with different K-compounds, 32% KOH loaded on ZrO2 was chosen. The catalyst was prepared using incipient wetness impregnation method. Following drying (after impregnation) and calcination at 530 degrees C for 5 h, the catalyst was characterized by means of Hammett indicators, XRD, FTIR, SEM, TGA and N-2 adsorption desorption measurements. It was found that the yield of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was related to the catalyst base strength. The catalyst had granular and porous structures with high basicity and superior catalytic performance for the transesterification reaction. Maximum yield (90.8%) was obtained at 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 6% catalyst amount, 60 degrees C reaction temperatufe in 2 h. The catalyst maintained sustained activity after five times of usage. The oxidative stability and iodine value were the only unsuitable properties of the biodiesel (out of range) but can easily be improved. The cetane number, flash point and the cold flow properties among others were however, comparable to international standards. The study indicated that KOH(32%)/ZrO2-5 is an economically, suitable catalyst for producing biodiesel from S. marianum oil which is a potential new non-edible feedstock that can contribute positively to biodiesel industry as its biodiesel can be rated as promising alternate fuel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  23. Biodiesel conversion from high FFA crude jatropha curcas, calophyllum inophyllum and ceiba pentandra oil
    Abstract

    Silitonga, A. S.; Ong, H. C.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.; Chong, W. T. 2014. Biodiesel conversion from high FFA crude jatropha curcas, calophyllum inophyllum and ceiba pentandra oil. International Conference on Applied Energy, Icae2014. 61480-483

    Biodiesel is a renewable energy that has great potential as an alternative fuel to fossil diesel in diesel engine. The potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel is now being taken into careful consideration for the purpose of continuing biodiesel production while not negatively affecting the food issue. The crude jatropha curcas, calophyllum inophyllum and ceiba pentandra oil have free fatty acid value which is above 2%. Therefore, a pretreatment acid catalyzed esterification process is required to reduce the free fatty acid content. It was found that jatropha curcas, calophyllum inophyllum and ceiba pentandra oil at 9:1 M ratio (methanol to oil) with preheat at 60 degrees C and reaction at temperature 55 degrees C for 60 minutes in the presence of 1% KOH in order to get lower acid values (0.39 mg KOH/g, 0.45 mg KOH/g and 0.40 mg KOH/g) and obtained high methyl ester yield (98.23%, 98.53% and 97.72%). This study had shown that improvement in biodiesel properties by using two stage esterification-transesterification methods. The major fuel characteristics such as kinematic viscosity, density, flash point and calorific value of biodiesel fulfilled American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) biodiesel standards. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  24. Biodiesel from Citrullus colocynthis Oil: Sulfonic-Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Esterification of a Two-Step Process
    Abstract

    Elsheikh, Y. A.; Akhtar, F. H. 2014. Biodiesel from Citrullus colocynthis Oil: Sulfonic-Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Esterification of a Two-Step Process. Scientific World Journal.

    Biodiesel was prepared from Citrullus colocynthis oil (CCO) via a two-step process. The first esterification step was explored in two ionic liquids (ILs) with 1,3-disulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (DSIMHSO4) and 3-methyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (MSIMHSO4). Both ILs appeared to be good candidates to replace hazardous acidic catalyst due to their exceptional properties. However, the two sulfonic chains existing in DSIMHSO4 were found to increase the acidity to the IL than the single sulfonic chain in MSIMHSO4. Based on the results, 3.6 wt% of DSIMHSO4, methanol/CCO molar ratio of 12:1, and 150 degrees C offered a final FFA conversion of 95.4% within 105 min. A 98.2% was produced via second KOH-catalyzed step in 1.0%, 6:1 molar ratio, 600 rpm, and 60 degrees C for 50 min. This new two-step catalyzed process could solve the corrosion and environmental problems associated with the current acidic catalysts.
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  25. Biodiesel production from Acrocomia aculeata acid oil by (enzyme/enzyme) hydroesterification process: Use of vegetable lipase and fermented solid as low-cost biocatalysts
    Abstract

    Aguieiras, E. C. G.; Cavalcanti-Oliveira, E. D.; de Castro, A. M.; Langone, M. A. P.; Freire, D. M. G. 2014. Biodiesel production from Acrocomia aculeata acid oil by (enzyme/enzyme) hydroesterification process: Use of vegetable lipase and fermented solid as low-cost biocatalysts. Fuel. 135315-321

    The aim of this study was to investigate a new process of enzyme/enzyme hydroesterification for biodiesel production using a low-cost acid oil (10.5 wt.% acidity) from macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) pulp as raw material. The ethyl esters were produced by the hydrolysis of the macauba oil using vegetable enzyme (VE) obtained from dormant castor seeds followed by esterification of the released free fatty acids (FFAs) with ethanol catalyzed by fermented and dry babassu cake with lipase activity from Rhizomucor miehei. The vegetable enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis produced 99.6% of FFAs after 6 h in a medium with high oil concentration (50% v/v) and without organic solvent and emulsifier. For the esterification reaction, the best result was attained with an ethanol:FFA molar ratio of 2: 1 and 15.1 U of dry fermented solid per g of FFAs at 40 degrees C, which yielded 91% of conversion after 8 h in a solvent-free system. In order to confirm the potential of the fermented solid as biocatalyst, it was confronted with the best commercial lipases and was also evaluated for its reuse. Similar conversions were obtained with the commercial lipases Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM and the fermented solid. The fermented solid was reused in successive 6-h batches for esterification reactions and conversions of over 60% were maintained for eight cycles. After two consecutive esterification reactions the resulting biodiesel met important Brazilian standards such as: density (ASTM D4052), viscosity kinematic (ASTM D445), flash point (ASTM D93), carbon residue (ASTM D4530), free glycerol and total glycerol, monoglycerides and triglycerides (ASTM D6584). The ester content was of 96.7% (esters of fatty acids of 8-18 carbons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an enzyme/enzyme hydroesterification process using low cost biocatalysts obtained from vegetable and microorganism using solvent-free media in both reactions is described for the conversion of an acid and low value oil into biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  26. Biodiesel production from algae cultivated in winter with artificial wastewater through pH regulation by acetic acid
    Abstract

    Zhu, L. D.; Hiltunen, E.; Shu, Q.; Zhou, W. Z.; Li, Z. H.; Wang, Z. M. 2014. Biodiesel production from algae cultivated in winter with artificial wastewater through pH regulation by acetic acid. Applied Energy. 128103-110

    Algae have been considered as a promising biodiesel feedstock. One of the major factors affecting large-scale algae technology application is poor wintering cultivation performance. In this study, an integrated approach is investigated combining freshwater microalgae Chlorella zofingiensis wintering cultivation in pilot-scale photobioreactors with artificial wastewater treatment. Mixotrophic culture with the addition of acetic acid (pH-regulation group) and autotrophic culture (control group) were designed, and the characteristics of algal growth, lipid and biodiesel production, and nitrogen and phosphate removal were examined. The results showed that, by using acetic acid three times per day to regulate pH at between 6.8 and 7.2, the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphate (TP) removal could be increased from 45.2% to 73.5% and from 92.2% to 100%, respectively. Higher biomass productivity of 66.94 mg L-1 day(-1) with specific growth rate of 0.260 day(-1) was achieved in the pH-regulation group. The lipid content was much higher when using acetic acid to regulate pH, and the relative lipid productivity reached 37.48 mg L-1 day(-1), The biodiesel yield in the pH-regulated group was 19.44% of dry weight, with 16-18 carbons as the most abundant composition for fatty acid methyl esters. The findings of the study prove that pH adjustment using acetic acid is efficient in cultivating C zofingiensis in wastewater in winter for biodiesel production and nutrient reduction. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  27. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater
    Abstract

    Komolafe, O.; Orta, S. B. V.; Monje-Ramirez, I.; Noguez, I. Y.; Harvey, A. P.; Ledesma, M. T. O. 2014. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater. Bioresource Technology. 154297-304

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability.
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  28. Biodiesel Production from Non-Edible Beauty Leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil: Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
    Abstract

    Jahirul, M. I.; Koh, W.; Brown, R. J.; Senadeera, W.; O'Hara, I.; Moghaddam, L. 2014. Biodiesel Production from Non-Edible Beauty Leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum) Oil: Process Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Energies. 7(8) 5317-5331

    In recent years, the beauty leaf plant (Calophyllum Inophyllum) is being considered as a potential 2nd generation biodiesel source due to high seed oil content, high fruit production rate, simple cultivation and ability to grow in a wide range of climate conditions. However, however, due to the high free fatty acid (FFA) content in this oil, the potential of this biodiesel feedstock is still unrealized, and little research has been undertaken on it. In this study, transesterification of beauty leaf oil to produce biodiesel has been investigated. A two-step biodiesel conversion method consisting of acid catalysed pre-esterification and alkali catalysed transesterification has been utilized. The three main factors that drive the biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) conversion from vegetable oil (triglycerides) were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken experimental design. The factors considered in this study were catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction temperature. Linear and full quadratic regression models were developed to predict FFA and FAME concentration and to optimize the reaction conditions. The significance of these factors and their interaction in both stages was determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The reaction conditions for the largest reduction in FFA concentration for acid catalysed pre-esterification was 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 10% (w/w) sulfuric acid catalyst loading and 75 degrees C reaction temperature. In the alkali catalysed transesterification process 7.5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1% (w/w) sodium methoxide catalyst loading and 55 degrees C reaction temperature were found to result in the highest FAME conversion. The good agreement between model outputs and experimental results demonstrated that this methodology may be useful for industrial process optimization for biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and possibly other industrial processes as well.
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  29. Biodiesel production from Stauntonia chinensis seed oil (waste from food processing): Heterogeneous catalysis by modified calcite, biodiesel purification, and fuel properties
    Abstract

    Wang, R.; Sun, L. L.; Xie, X. L.; Ma, L. Z.; Liu, Z. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Ji, N.; Xie, G. F. 2014. Biodiesel production from Stauntonia chinensis seed oil (waste from food processing): Heterogeneous catalysis by modified calcite, biodiesel purification, and fuel properties. Industrial Crops and Products. 628-13

    In the present research, the potential of Stauntonia chinensis (SC) seed oil obtained from processing waste was investigated for the first time as biodiesel feedstock, including physicochemical properties of the oil, the heterogeneous catalysis process, purification, and fuel properties. A 29.37 +/- 0.64 wt.% of oil content and 2.41 mg KOH/g of acid value was found. Under the optimised reaction conditions in the presence of modified calcite, an 88.02% of yield and a 98.90 wt.% of FAME content were achieved. According to EN 14124 (2012), SC biodiesel exhibited superior fuel properties compared to the most of other feedstock oils since it had an ideal fatty acid composition (low Cn:0 (8.06 wt.%), high Cn:1 (80.16 wt.%), and low Cn:2,3 (8.45 wt.%)). It was absolutely vital that the use of SC seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock would not compete with its use in food. In summary, SC seed oil should be recommended as a promising feedstock for biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  30. Biodiesel production from swine manure via housefly larvae (Musca domestica L.)
    Abstract

    Yang, S.; Li, Q.; Gao, Y.; Zheng, L. Y.; Liu, Z. D. 2014. Biodiesel production from swine manure via housefly larvae (Musca domestica L.). Renewable Energy. 66222-227

    Although biodiesel is a sustainable and renewable diesel fuel, the current feedstock predominantly from edible oils limits the economic feasibility of biodiesel production and thus the development of a cost-effective non-food feedstock is really essential. In this study, approximately 21.6% of crude grease was extracted from housefly (Musca domestica L) larvae reared on swine manure, and the extracted grease was evaluated for biodiesel production concerning the variables affecting the yield of acid-catalyzed production of methyl esters and the properties of the housefly larvae-based biodiesel. The optimized process of 8:1 methanol/grease (mol/mol) with 2 vol% H2SO4 reacted at 70 C for 2 h resulted in a 95.7% conversion rate from free fatty acid (FFA) into methyl esters. A 90.3% conversion rate of triglycerides (crude grease) to its esters was obtained from alkaline trans-esterification using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The major fatty acid components of this larvae grease were palmitic (29.1%), oleic (23.3%), palmitoletic (17.4%) and linoleic (17.2%). The housefly larvae-based biodiesel has reached the ASTM D6751-10 standard in density (881 kg/m(3)), viscosity (5.64 mm(2)/s), ester content (96.8%), flash point (145 degrees C), and cetane number (52). These findings suggest that the grease derived from swine manure-grown housefly larvae can be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  31. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by two-step catalytic conversion
    Abstract

    Ho, K. C.; Chen, C. L.; Hsiao, P. X.; Wu, M. S.; Huang, C. C.; Chang, J. S. 2014. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil by two-step catalytic conversion. International Conference on Applied Energy, Icae2014. 611302-1305

    The commercial biodiesel production process is very mature today, but the source of biodiesel is mostly plant oil, which has the drawback of high cost and land competition with food crops. Using waste cooking oil as feedstock for biodiesel production can avoid those problems. However, the transesterification of waste cooking oil involves some challenges. For example, waste cooking oil usually contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs), which could react with base catalyst (such as NaOH) to form soap, resulting in a decrease in biodiesel conversion efficiency. To cope with this, a two-step process, consisting of esterification with acid catalyst and follow-up transesterification with base catalyst was developed. This two-step process could lower the content of FFAs in waste cooking oil in the first step and also improve conversion of transesterification in the second step. Although homogeneous acid catalyst, such as sulfuric acid, could reach a high conversion in a short time, an extra downstream processing is required to remove the acid catalyst (e.g., water rinse). Therefore, we developed a magnetic spinel as acid solid catalyst supporter to replace homogeneous catalyst in order to simplify the overall process. In the first step, esterification of FFAs content in cooking oil was conducted using the self-made solid acid catalyst, which has similar catalytic ability to that of sulfuric acid, and is also much easier for separation. In addition, the residual lipid can be easily transesterified without any pre-treatment. The self-made spinel-supported catalyst could be regenerated by simple calcination. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  32. Acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) Kernel Oil as an Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Turkey
    Abstract

    Karabas, H. 2013. Acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) Kernel Oil as an Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Turkey. Journal of Energy Resources Technology-Transactions of the Asme. 135(1)

    The acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) kernel oil is extracted from the kernels of the acorn that is grown in Sakarya which is in the Marmara region, Turkey. Acorn kernel oil (AKO) is obtained in 10 wt. %, by solvent extraction. Acorn kernel oil is investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of a biodiesel fuel. The fatty acid profile of the oil consists primarily of oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Before processing alkalin transesterification reaction, the high free fatty acid (FFA) of the crude acorn kernel oil is decreased by using acid esterification method. Biodiesel is prepared from acorn kernel (AK) by transesterification of the acid esterified oil with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. The maximum oil to ester conversion was 90%. The viscosity of biodiesel is closer to that of diesel and the heating value is about 6.4% less than that of petroleum diesel No. 2. All of the measured properties of the produced acorn kernel oil methyl ester (AKOME) are being compared to the current quality requirements according to EN14214 and ASTM D 6751. The comparison shows that the methyl esters of acorn kernel oil could be possible used as diesel fuel replacements. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4007692]
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  33. Biodiesel from waste cooking oils via direct sonication
    Abstract

    Gude, V. G.; Grant, G. E. 2013. Biodiesel from waste cooking oils via direct sonication. Applied Energy. 109135-144

    This study investigates the effect of direct sonication in conversion of waste cooking oil into biodiesel. Waste cooking oils may cause environmental hazards if not disposed properly. However, waste cooking oils can serve as low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Ultrasonics, a non-conventional process technique, was applied to directly convert waste cooking oil into biodiesel in a single step. Ultrasonics transesterify waste cooking oils very efficiently due to increased mass/heat transfer phenomena and specific thermal/athermal effects at molecular levels. Thus, energy and chemical consumption in the overall process is greatly reduced compared to conventional biodiesel processes. Specific to this research, thermal effects of ultrasonics in transesterification reaction without external conventional heating along with effects of different ultrasonic, energy intensities and energy density are reported. Optimization of process parameters such as methanol to oil ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time are also presented. It was observed that small reactor design such as plug-flow or contact-type reactor design may improve overall ultrasonic utilization in the transesterification reaction due to increased energy density and ultrasonic intensity. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  34. Biodiesel Manufactured from Waste Cooking Oil by Alkali Transerification Reaction and Its Vehicle Application
    Abstract

    Leu, J. H. 2013. Biodiesel Manufactured from Waste Cooking Oil by Alkali Transerification Reaction and Its Vehicle Application. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 7(2) 189-193

    The pre-treatment procedure for modulation of both acid number and iodine number is the important step for biodiesel manufacture with the feedstock of waste cooking oil (including extracted fat from cooking residue). And, the relating techniques are also developed actively in Taiwan. This study is also devoted to engine application of biodiesel manufactured by transerification reaction with alkali process from waste cooking oil. The performance and pollutant emission of vehicle engine application are little different in the idle condition for the engine test of the garbage collecting trunk with PD (practical diesel), B20 (20% biodiesel mixture with diesel) and B100 (100% biodiesel). In the full loading condition, the pollutant degree is decreased obviously with the addition of biodiesel especially for full alternative B100 for PD. The CO emission is down 51%, the SOx emission is down 73%, the NOx is down 13%, and, the carbon participate emission is down 69% in this test. But, the decreasing motion horsepower (down 10%) and the increasing fuel consumption (up 11.3%) are the evidences that the above effect is focused on the healthy to the environment only.
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  35. Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris
    Abstract

    Wang, W. R.; Zhou, W. W.; Liu, J.; Li, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. K. 2013. Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris. Bioresource Technology. 13624-29

    To reduce the cost of algal-based biodiesel, a waste material from oil industry, Cyperus esculentus waste, was used as the carbon source of the oleaginous microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. It demonstrated that C vulgaris grew better in C esculentus waste hydrolysate (CEWH1) than in glucose medium under the same reducing sugar concentration. CEWH concentration influenced the cell growth and lipid production significantly. The maximum lipid productivity 438.85 mg l(-1) d(-1) was achieved at 40 g l(-1). Fed-batch culture was performed to further enhance lipid production. The maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid productivity were 20.75 g l(-1), 36.52%, and 621.53 mg l(-1) d(-1), respectively. The produced biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS and the results suggested that lipids produced from CEWH could be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  36. Biodiesel production from leather industry wastes as an alternative feedstock and its use in diesel engines
    Abstract

    Altun, S.; Yasar, F. 2013. Biodiesel production from leather industry wastes as an alternative feedstock and its use in diesel engines. Energy Exploration & Exploitation. 31(5) 759-770

    Waste leather fat is produced by the leather industry in fleshing processing and discarded as waste. These wastes can be used as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to their considerable fat content. In this work, raw fleshing oil which is a fat-originated waste of the leather industry was transesterified using methanol in the presence of an alkali catalyst to obtain biodiesel. The obtained biodiesel was then used in a four-stroke and direct injection diesel engine to evaluate the biodiesel behavior as an alternative diesel fuel, at a constant speed under variable load conditions. Blends [20 and 50% (v/v)] of biodiesel with diesel reference fuel were tested too. The emissions test results compared with diesel reference fuel showed that diesel engine fueled by biodiesel emitted significantly lower opacity and gaseous emissions than the same engine fueled by diesel reference fuel, and with very similar performance. The obtained data indicated that biodiesel from leather industry wastes is promising as an alternative fuel for diesel engines, and can be used to substitute diesel fuel in terms of performance and emission parameters without any engine modification.
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  37. Biodiesel production from soybean oil transesterification using tin oxide-supported WO3 catalysts
    Abstract

    Xie, W. L.; Wang, T. 2013. Biodiesel production from soybean oil transesterification using tin oxide-supported WO3 catalysts. Fuel Processing Technology. 109150-155

    The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was carried out using WO3/SnO2 solid as a heterogeneous acid catalyst. The effects of catalyst preparation parameters on the conversion to FAME were investigated. This WO3/SnO2 catalyst prepared by an impregnation method, with the WO3 loading amount of 30% and calcined at a temperature of 1173 K, showed the best catalytic activity. The maximum conversion to FAME of 79.2% was achieved after 5 h at 383 K when 30:1 M ratio of methanol to oil and 5 wt.% of catalyst were employed. The ability of the catalyst to esterify free fatty acids (FFAs) in feedstocks and its insensitivity to water exhibited the potential to prepare biodiesel from low-cost feedstocks. The solid catalyst can be reused for four runs without significant deactivation. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  38. Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat with low free fatty acids by an integrated catalytic process of composite membrane and sodium methoxide
    Abstract

    Shi, W. Y.; Li, J. X.; He, B. Q.; Yan, F.; Cui, Z. Y.; Wu, K. W.; Lin, L. G.; Qian, X. M.; Cheng, Y. 2013. Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat with low free fatty acids by an integrated catalytic process of composite membrane and sodium methoxide. Bioresource Technology. 139316-322

    An integrated process of catalytic composite membranes (CCMs) and sodium methoxide was developed to produce biodiesel from waste chicken fat. The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the chicken oil were converted to methyl esters by esterification with methanol using a novel sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES)/PES/non-woven fabric (NWF) CCMs in a flow-through catalytic membrane reactor. The CCM is that the NWF fibers were fully embedded in SPES/PES with a homogeneous and microporous structure. The oil obtained after esterification was carried out by transesterification of sodium methoxide. The results showed that the FFAs conversion obtained by CCMs with the acid capacity of 25.28 mmol (H+) was 92.8% at the residence time 258 s. The CCMs present a good stability during the continuous running of 500 h. The conversion of transesterification was 98.1% under the optimum conditions. The quality of the biodiesel met the international standards. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved,
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  39. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by solid acid SO42-/TiO2/La3+
    Abstract

    Wang, K.; Jiang, J. C.; Si, Z.; Liang, X. Y. 2013. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by solid acid SO42-/TiO2/La3+. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 5(5)

    A solid acid catalyst SO42-/TiO2/La3+ was prepared via sol-gel method using tetrabutyl titanate as TiO2 precursor. The catalyst simultaneously catalyzed esterification and transesterification resulting in the synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil with high content of free fatty acids as feedstock. The optimization of reaction conditions was also performed. The maximum yield of more than 90% could be obtained under the optimized conditions that catalyst amount 5 wt.% of oil, 10:1 molar ratio (methanol to oil), temperature 110 degrees C, and esterification of 1 h. The catalyst can be reused for five times by activation without observing the decrease of its catalytic performance. The final products were purified by molecular distillation and detected by GC-MS. The content of fatty acid methyl esters was 96.16%. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
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  40. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil in sub- and supercritical methanol on a zeolite Y solid acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Medina-Valtierra, J.; Ramirez-Ortiz, J. 2013. Biodiesel production from waste frying oil in sub- and supercritical methanol on a zeolite Y solid acid catalyst. Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering. 7(4) 401-407

    Waste frying oil (WFO) is a very important feedstock for obtaining biodiesel at low cost and using WFO in transesterification reactions to produce biodiesel helps eliminate local environmental problems. In this study biodiesel was produced from WFO in sub- and super-critical methanol on a zeolite Y solid acid catalyst. The procedure was optimized using a design of experiments by varying the methanol to WFO molar ratio, the reaction temperature, and the amount of catalyst. Typical biodiesel yields varied from 83 to nearly 100% with methyl esters content ranging from 1.41-1.66 mol.L-1 and typical dynamic viscosities of 22.1-8.2 cP. Gas chromatography was used to determine the molecular composition of the biodiesel. The reaction products contained over 82 wt-% methyl esters, 4.2 wt-% free acids, 13.5 wt-% monoglycerides, and 0.3 wt-% diglycerides. The transesterification of WFO with methanol around its critical temperature combined with a zeolite Yas an acid catalyst is an efficient approach for the production of biodiesel with acceptable yields.
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  41. Biodiesel from waste oils and fats
    Abstract

    Iglesias, J.; Morales, G. 2012. Biodiesel from waste oils and fats. Advances in Biodiesel Production: Processes and Technologies. (39) 154-178

    One of the main challenges that the biodiesel industry faces nowadays is that the production costs are still not competitive with conventional petrol fuels. Furthermore, biodiesel production is based on expensive edible biomass as raw material. In this way, innovative technologies are needed to produce biofuels from a wider range of biomass resources allowing a reduction of production costs while maintaining energy efficiency. Waste oleaginous feedstock represents an attractive alternative to edible fat and oils for the production of biodiesel fuel from different points of view: they are low-cost raw materials, their use supposes an environmentally friendly approach and they do not compete with food industry, avoiding social concerns. Thus, this chapter deals with the exploitation of this relatively abundant alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel.
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  42. Biodiesel From Waste Vegetable Oils
    Abstract

    Ceclan, R. E.; Pop, A.; Ceclan, M. 2012. Biodiesel From Waste Vegetable Oils. Pres 2012: 15th International Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction. 291177-1182

    The valorisation of waste and bio-waste is an important mean of the transition of European Economy to a Green Economy, essential for delivering a sustainable development and a long term growth.
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  43. Biodiesel production from rice straw and restaurant waste employing black soldier fly assisted by microbes
    Abstract

    Zheng, L. Y.; Hou, Y. F.; Li, W.; Yang, S.; Li, Q.; Yu, Z. N. 2012. Biodiesel production from rice straw and restaurant waste employing black soldier fly assisted by microbes. Energy. 47(1) 225-229

    Biodiesel has become attractive as an alternative renewable fuel, but its large-scale production has been restricted because of the high cost of feedstock. Therefore, alternative feedstock is urgently needed to enable biodiesel production from cheap raw materials. Toward this goal, a co-conversion process using BSFL (black soldier fly larvae) and microbes (Rid-X) was established to convert rice straw and RSW (restaurant solid waste) into the larval grease of black soldier fly. In this study, about 43.8 g biodiesel was produced from 2000 BSFL grown on 1000 g mixed feed of rice straw (30%) and RSW (70%) within 10 days. About 65.5% of cellulose, 56.3% of hemicellulose, 8.8% of the lignin, 91.6% of protein and 71.6% of lipid in the feed were digested and utilized for insect biomass accumulation with the aid of Rid-X. The results showed that grease from BSFL fed on rice straw and RSW was suitable for biodiesel and most of the fuel properties were corresponding to the requirements of the standard EN 14214. The new alternative method was introduced to produce biodiesel from lignocellulose abundant materials by insect and microbes, partly bypassing the complex pretreatment of lignocellulose that needed by other biofuel technologies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  44. Biodiesel Production from Sewage Sludge: New Paradigm for Mining Energy from Municipal Hazardous Material
    Abstract

    Kwon, E. E.; Kim, S.; Jeon, Y. J.; Yi, H. 2012. Biodiesel Production from Sewage Sludge: New Paradigm for Mining Energy from Municipal Hazardous Material. Environmental Science & Technology. 46(18) 10222-10228

    This work demonstrates that the production of biodiesel using the lipids extracted from sewage sludge (SS) could be economically feasible because of the remarkably high yield of oil and low cost of this feedstock, as compared to conventional biodiesel feedstocks. The yield of oil from SS, 980 000 L ha(-1) year(-1), is superior to those from microalgal and soybean oils, 446 and 2200 L ha(-1) year(-1), respectively. According to the case study of South Korea, the price of the lipids extracted from SS was approximately $0.03 L-1 (USD), which is lower than those of all current biodiesel feedstocks. This work also highlights the insight of a novel methodology for transforming lipids containing high amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) to biodiesel using a thermochemical process under ambient pressure in a continuous flow system. This allowed the combination of esterification of FFAs and transesterification of triglycerides into a single noncatalytic process, which led to a 98.5% +/- 0.5% conversion efficiency to FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) within 1 min in a temperature range of 350-500 degrees C. The new process for converting the lipids extracted from SS shows high potential to achieve a major breakthrough in minimizing the cost of biodiesel production owing to its simplicity and technical advantages, as well as environmental benefits.
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  45. Biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil using calcium oxide supported on activated carbon as catalyst in a fixed bed reactor
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Ksapabutr, B.; Panapoy, M.; Chaiyut, N. 2012. Biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil using calcium oxide supported on activated carbon as catalyst in a fixed bed reactor. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 29(12) 1708-1712

    A reactor has been developed to produce high quality fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from waste cooking palm oil (WCO). Continuous transesterification of free fatty acids (FFA) from acidified oil with methanol was carried out using a calcium oxide supported on activated carbon (CaO/AC) as a heterogeneous solid-base catalyst. CaO/AC was prepared according to the conventional incipient-wetness impregnation of aqueous solutions of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)(2)center dot 4H(2)O) precursors on an activated carbon support from palm shell in a fixed bed reactor with an external diameter of 60 mm and a height of 345 mm. Methanol/oil molar ratio, feed flow rate, catalyst bed height and reaction temperature were evaluated to obtain optimum reaction conditions. The results showed that the FFA conversion increased with increases in alcohol/oil molar ratio, catalyst bed height and temperature, whereas decreased with flow rate and initial water content in feedstock increase. The yield of FAME achieved 94% at the reaction temperature 60 A degrees C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 25: 1 and residence time of 8 h. The physical and chemical properties of the produced methyl ester were determined and compared with the standard specifications. The characteristics of the product under the optimum condition were within the ASTM standard. High quality waste cooking palm oil methyl ester was produced by combination of heterogeneous alkali transesterification and separation processes in a fixed bed reactor. In sum, activated carbon shows potential for transesterification of FFA.
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  46. Alkali Metal Exchanged Zeolite as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Sunflower Oil and Waste Oil: Studies in a Batch/Continuous Slurry Reactor System
    Abstract

    Borges, M. E.; Brito, A.; Hernandez, A.; Diaz, L. 2011. Alkali Metal Exchanged Zeolite as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Sunflower Oil and Waste Oil: Studies in a Batch/Continuous Slurry Reactor System. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. 9

    Biodiesel as an alternative fuel has become more important in recent times due to the increasing awareness of fossil fuel resources and the environmental benefits. The main disadvantages are its cost and availability of fats and oils resources. By collecting used frying oils and converting them to biodiesel fuel, the cost of biodiesel is significantly lowered and the negative impact of disposing used oil to environment reduced.
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  47. Animal Fat Wastes for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Feddern, V.; Cunha, A.; De Pra, M. C.; de Abreu, P. G.; dos Santos, J. I.; Higarashi, M. M.; Sulenta, M.; Coldebella, A. 2011. Animal Fat Wastes for Biodiesel Production. Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing Technologies. 45-70

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  48. Biodiesel Oil Derived from Biomass Solid Waste
    Abstract

    Selim, M. Y. E.; Haik, Y.; Al-Omari, S. A. B.; Abdulrahman, H. 2011. Biodiesel Oil Derived from Biomass Solid Waste. World Congress on Engineering, Wce 2011, Vol Iii. 2262-2267

    Oils of a significant value both as fuels as well as for cosmetic applications can be extracted from the fruits of the jojoba plant. After extracting the oil, the remains of the fruit can still be further utilized as a solid fuel in furnaces or feedstock to animals. In the present work, the solid waste jojoba remains have been processed chemically to extract more biodiesel oil. The physical and chemical properties of jojoba solid waste, before and after extracting the biofuel have been measured and presented. Also the properties of raw biofuel extracted from the solid and its methyl ester have been measured and presented. It has been shown that 10% by mass of oil can be extracted from the solid waste. The biofuel produced has been tested in a diesel engine and the solid waste has been also burnt in a furnace for more energy production.
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  49. Biodiesel Processes and Properties from Jatropha curcas L. Oil
    Abstract

    Lu, H. F.; Chen, M. Y.; Jiang, W.; Liang, B. 2011. Biodiesel Processes and Properties from Jatropha curcas L. Oil. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 5(4) 546-551

    Jatropha curcas L. oil is a promising feedstock of biodiesel. Different processes to produce biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil with different acid numbers were compared. The results showed that a pre-treatment was necessary when the crude oil contained high free fatty acids (FFAs). A two-step process including pre-esterification with acid catalyst and transesterification with alkali catalyst was used for the conversion of oil with acid number of 13.5 mg KOH/g. It achieved a high yield of biodiesel (>97%). Pretreatment with alkali refining could improve the operation of transesterification, but it led to losses of FFAs and oil. The losses increased with FFAs content. When the crude oil contained low FFAs, such as the oil with acid number of 3.1 mg KOH/g, a single transesterication process could be adopted, which achieved a biodiesel yield of 94%. The properties of biodiesel were independent of production method.
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  50. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Guerrero, C. A.; Guerrero-Romero, A.; Sierra, F. E. 2011. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil. Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing Technologies. 23-44

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  51. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Anion-Exchange Resin as Both Catalyst and Adsorbent
    Abstract

    Shibasaki-Kitakawa, N.; Tsuji, T.; Kubo, M.; Yonemoto, T. 2011. Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Anion-Exchange Resin as Both Catalyst and Adsorbent. Bioenergy Research. 4(4) 287-293

    A novel production process of biodiesel fuel was developed using an expanded-bed reactor packed with an anion-exchange resin having catalytic and adsorption abilities. Waste cooking oil was used as a cheaper feedstock, and methanol was added at the stoichiometric molar ratio of 3:1. The main constituent of the feedstock, triglyceride was completely converted to the biodiesel by the resin's catalytic ability. The impurities of the feedstock, free fatty acid, water, and dark brown pigment were removed from the product by the adsorption on the resin. In addition, the by-product glycerin was also removed from the product by the adsorption on the resin. The product eluted from the reactor was directly used for the standard tests of the biodiesel properties. The eluted product almost met the biodiesel quality standards (EN14214 in Europe and ASTM D6751 in North America). Thus, the proposed system permitted the simple production of biodiesel from the waste cooking oil without the upstream processing to remove the impurities (free fatty acid and water) and the downstream processing to remove the catalyst and by-products (glycerin and soap).
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  52. Analyzing alternative bio-waste feedstocks for potential biodiesel production using time domain (TD)-NMR
    Abstract

    Willson, R. M.; Wiesman, Z.; Brenner, A. 2010. Analyzing alternative bio-waste feedstocks for potential biodiesel production using time domain (TD)-NMR. Waste Management. 30(10) 1881-1888

    Production of biodiesel is currently limited due to lack of economically beneficial feedstocks. Suitability of municipal wastewater sludge and olive mill waste as feedstocks for biodiesel production was evaluated. The various bio-waste sources were analyzed for their oil content and fatty acid composition using conventional analyses complemented with time domain (TD)-NMR analysis. TD-NMR, a rapid non-destructive method newly applied in this field, yielded good correlations with conventional methods. Overall biodiesel yields obtained by TD-NMR analysis were 7.05% and 9.18% (dry wt) for olive mill pomace and liquid wastes, and 11.92%, 7.07%, and 4.65% (dry wt) for primary, secondary, and anaerobically stabilized sludge, respectively. Fatty acid analysis indicated fundamental suitability of these agro-industrial waste resources for biodiesel production. Evaluation of bio-waste materials by TD-NMR revealed the potential of this tool to identify waste-oil sources cost effectively and quickly, supporting expansion of a sustainable biodiesel industry in Israel and other regions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  53. Biochar based solid acid catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Dehkhoda, A. M.; West, A. H.; Ellis, N. 2010. Biochar based solid acid catalyst for biodiesel production. Applied Catalysis a-General. 382(2) 197-204

    A promising catalyst based on a biomass pyrolysis by-product, biochar, has been developed for the production of biodiesel. Two carbon-based solid acid catalysts were prepared by sulfonating pyrolysis char with concentrated or fuming sulfuric acids. Prepared catalysts were studied for their ability to catalyze transesterification of vegetable oils and esterification of free fatty acids. The catalyst sulfonated with the concentrated sulfuric acid demonstrated considerable conversion in free fatty acid esterification, while indicating limited transesterification activity. Using the stronger sulfonating reagent, fuming sulfuric acid, resulted in much higher transesterification activity. Further investigation of the latter catalyst was conducted to determine the effect of sulfonation time (5 and 15 h) and surface area on the transesterification reaction. The surface area of the biochar was increased by chemical treatment using 10 M potassium hydroxide through porosity development. The resulting four catalysts were compared for their catalytic activity. Results showed the catalyst with the highest surface area and acid density to have the highest catalytic activity for the production of biodiesel from canola oil in the presence of methanol as the reagent. Furthermore, the catalyst with the higher surface area indicated higher transesterification activity among the catalyst with similar acid densities. The effects of alcohol to oil (A:O) molar ratio, reaction time and catalyst loading on the esterification reaction catalyzed by the sulfonated biochar were also investigated. Free fatty acid (FFA) conversion increased with increasing A:O molar ratio, reaction time and catalyst loading. The catalyst has a tremendous potential to be used in a process converting a high FFA feedstock to biodiesel. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  54. Biodiesel catalysis
    Abstract

    Bart, J. C. J.; Palmeri, N.; Cavallaro, S. 2010. Biodiesel catalysis. Biodiesel Science and Technology: From Soil to Oil. (7) 322-385

    This chapter considers the various aspects of homogeneous and heterogeneous alkaline and acid catalysis of high-quality, low free fatty acids (FFAs) containing feedstocks for transformation of vegetable oils and animal fats into fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel). The influence of the most important operating variables affecting fatty acid ester yield are considered. In particular, the effects of FFAs and water on alcoholysis have been investigated. Mechanisms of alkali-and acid-catalysed reactions are described. Acid catalysis is indicated as being essential for transesterification of notoriously difficult triglyceride feedstocks with high FFA and water contents.
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  55. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas Oil
    Abstract

    Jain, S.; Sharma, M. P. 2010. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas Oil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 14(9) 3140-3147

    In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable, looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation sector, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The vegetable oils, fats, grease are the source of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Significant work has been reported on the kinetics of transesterification of edible vegetable oils but little work is reported on non-edible oils. Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstocks for biodiesel production in India and limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high FFA containing oil. The present study reports a review of kinetics of biodiesel production. The paper also reveals the results of kinetics study of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 and 50 degrees C for esterification and transesterification process, respectively, under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H(2)SO(4) and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind dealing with simplified kinetics of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried at optimum temperature of both the steps which took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  56. Biodiesel Production from Municipal Sewage Sludges
    Abstract

    Kargbo, D. M. 2010. Biodiesel Production from Municipal Sewage Sludges. Energy & Fuels. 242791-2794

    Biodiesel is a fuel comprised of monoalkyl esters traditionally derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. There is currently an unprecedented increase in interest and demand for biodiesel and other fuels derived from renewable biomass. However, pure vegetable or seed oils are expensive and constitute between 70% and 85% of the overall biodiesel production cost. Municipal sewage sludge is gaining traction in the U.S. and around the world as a lipid feedstock for biodiesel production. It is plentiful and consists of significant concentrations of lipids that can make production of biodiesel from sludge profitable. However, there are challenges to be faced by biodiesel production from waste sludge. Determining how best to collect the different fractions and treat them for maximum lipids extraction is a major challenge. To accelerate biodiesel production, cosolvents and high shear mixing have been proposed. Nevertheless, there is very little information on the cost-effective means of increasing lipid solubility. Alkali-catalyzed transesterification is much faster than acid-catalyzed transesterification and is most often used commercially. However, for lipid feedstocks with greater than 1% free fatty acids (FFAs) such as in sludge, acid catalysis followed by base catalysis is recommended because of soap formation with alkali-catalyzed transesterification and high FFA. To boost biodiesel production, it is suggested that wastewater operators utilize microorganisms that are selected for their oil-producing capabilities. This could increase biodiesel production to the 10 billion gallon mark, which is more than three times the nation's current biodiesel production capacity. The presence of pharmaceutical chemicals in sludge poses a great challenge. This requires a careful selection of treatment technologies and microbes that are selective for these pharmaceutical chemicals. Finally, biodiesel production from sludge could be very profitable in the long run. Currently, the estimated cost of production is $3.11 per gallon of biodiesel. To be competitive, this cost should be reduced to levels that are at or below the current petro diesel costs of $3.00 per gallon.
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  57. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil using heterogenous acid and alkali catalyst
    Abstract

    Zhang, J. H.; Chen, S. X.; Yang, R.; Yan, Y. Y. 2010. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil using heterogenous acid and alkali catalyst. Fuel. 89(10) 2939-2944

    Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil (ZSO) with high free fatty acids (FFA) can be used for biodiesel production by ferric sulfate-catalyzed esterification followed by transesterification using calcium oxide (CaO) as an alkaline catalyst. Acid value of ZSO with high FFA can be reduced to less than 2 mg KOH/g by one-step esterification with methanol-to-FFA molar ratio 40.91:1, ferric sulfate 9.75% (based on the weight of FFA), reaction temperature 95 degrees C and reaction time 2 h, which satisfies transesterification using an alkaline catalyst. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions for ZSO biodiesel production using CaO as a catalyst. A quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for biodiesel conversion by multiple regression analysis and verification experiments confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The optimum combination for transesterification was methanol-to-oil molar ratio 11.69:1, catalyst amount 2.52%, and reaction time 2.45 h. At this optimum condition, the conversion to biodiesel reached above 96%. This study provided a practical method to biodiesel production from raw feedstocks with high FFA with high reaction rate, less corrosion, less toxicity, and less environmental problems. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  58. Alkali-catalyzed production of biodiesel from waste frying oils
    Abstract

    Predojevic, Z. J.; Skrbic, B. D. 2009. Alkali-catalyzed production of biodiesel from waste frying oils. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society. 74(8-9) 993-1007

    The effects of the transesterification parameters on the yield and quality of the methyl esters (MEs) produced from waste frying oil (WFO) were investigated. A two-step alkali transesterification reaction followed by silica gel purification step was applied. The investigated reaction parameters were the methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1 and 9: 1), the catalyst/oil weight ratio (1.0 and 1.5 mass %) and the type of catalyst (NaOH and KOH). The physical and chemical properties of the employed feedstock and the obtained biodiesel were determined in order to investigate the effects of both the properties of the WFO and the reaction parameters on the characteristics and yields or the product. It was found that the properties of the feedstock had a determinant effect on the physical and chemical properties of the MEs, as the majority of them did not differ significantly under the studied reaction parameters. However, the reaction parameters influenced the yields of the product. Higher yields were obtained with a 1.0 than with a 1.5 mass % catalyst to oil ratio. The increasing yield with decreasing catalyst/oil ratio was more pronounced with NaOH (9.15-14.35 %) than with KOH (2.84-6.45 %). When KOH was used as the catalyst, the yields were always higher (the mean yield was 94.86 %) in comparison to those obtained with NaOH (the mean was 84.28 %). Furthermore, the efficiency of KOH in conversion of WFO to purified MEs in comparison to NaOH was even more pronounced in the case of the higher methanol/oil ratio, i.e., for the 9:1 methanol/oil ratio, the yield increase with KOH was about 2 times higher than the yield with NaOH, regardless of the applied catalyst/oil ratio.
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  59. Biodiesel production from high FFA crude rice bran oil and investigation on its properties as CI engine fuel
    Abstract

    Saravanan, S.; Nagarajan, G.; Rao, G. L. N.; Sampath, S. 2009. Biodiesel production from high FFA crude rice bran oil and investigation on its properties as CI engine fuel. International Journal of Oil Gas and Coal Technology. 2(4) 389-398

    This study is an attempt to convert high free fatty acid (FFA) crude rice bran oil (CRBO) into biodiesel and to evaluate whether the biodiesel obtained meets the biodiesel quality standards prescribed by ASTM D 6751-07b. CRBO was subjected to a two-step transesterification process using HCl and NaOH as acid and base catalyst respectively with a 15% v/v of methanol to oil ratio. This process yields crude rice bran oil methyl ester (CRBME) with an ester conversion efficiency of 60%. As the feedstock is high FFA CRBO it will contain more impurities than that of refined oils and they were removed along with the byproduct which reduced the ester conversion efficiency. It was observed that the properties like flash point, viscosity, calorific value, specific gravity, acid number and cetane number were within the prescribed limits of ASTM standard. The distillation curve of the CRBME is almost straight line and an end point temperature of 345 degrees C was obtained during the distillation of CRBME which is less than the maximum limit prescribed in the ASTM standard. Based on these experimental results it is concluded that high FFA CRBO is a potential non-edible vegetable oil for biodiesel production. [Received: March 16, 2009; Accepted: July 22, 2009]
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  60. Acid-catalyzed esterification of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil with high free fatty acids for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zhang, J. J.; Jiang, L. F. 2008. Acid-catalyzed esterification of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil with high free fatty acids for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 99(18) 8995-8998

    A technique to produce biodiesel from crude Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil (ZSO) with high free fatty acids (FFA) was developed. The acid value of ZSO was reduced to 1.16 mg KOH/g from 45.51 mg KOH/g by only one-step acid-catalyzed esterification with methanol-to-oil molar ratio 24:1, H(2)SO(4) 2%, temperature 60 degrees C and reaction time 80 min, which was selected as optimum for the acid-catalyzed esterification. During the acid-catalyzed esterification, FFA was converted into fatty acid methyl esters, which was confirmed by (1)H NMR spectrum. Compared with the other two-step pretreatment procedure, this one-step pretreatment can reduce the production cost of ZSO biodiesel. Alkaline-catalyzed transesterification converted the pretreated ZSO into ZSO biodiesel. The yield of ZSO biodiesel was above 98% determined by (1)H NMR spectrum. This study supports the use of crude ZSO as a viable and valuable raw feedstock for biodiesel production. Crown Copyright (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  61. Biodiesel production from high acid value waste frying oil catalyzed by superacid heteropolyacid
    Abstract

    Cao, F. H.; Chen, Y.; Zhai, F. Y.; Li, J.; Wang, J. H.; Wang, X. H.; Wang, S. T.; Zhu, W. M. 2008. Biodiesel production from high acid value waste frying oil catalyzed by superacid heteropolyacid. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 101(1) 93-100

    Transesterification of waste cooking oil with high acid value and high water contents using heteropolyacid H3PW12O40 center dot 6H(2)O (PW12) as catalyst was investigated. The hexahydrate form Of PW12 was found to be the most promising catalyst which exhibited highest ester yield 87% for transesterification of waste cooking oil and ester yield 97% for esterification of long-chain palmitic acid, respectively. The PW`12 acid catalyst shows higher activity under the optimized reaction conditions compared with conventional homogeneous catalyst sulfuric acid, and can easily be separated from the products by distillation of the excess methanol and can be reused more times. The most important feature of this catalyst is that the catalytic activity is not affected by the content of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the content of water in the waste cooking oil and the transesterification can occur at a lower temperature (65 degrees C, a lower methanol oil ratio (70:1) and be finished within a shorter time. The results illustrate that PW12 acid is an excellent water-tolerant and environmentally benign acid catalyst for production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2008;101: 93-100. (C) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  62. Biodiesel production from mixtures of canola oil and used cooking oil
    Abstract

    Issariyakul, T.; Kulkarni, M. G.; Meher, L. C.; Dalai, A. K.; Bakhshi, N. N. 2008. Biodiesel production from mixtures of canola oil and used cooking oil. Chemical Engineering Journal. 140(1-3) 77-85

    Used cooking oil (UCO) was mixed with canola oil at various ratios in order to make use of used cooking oil for production of biodiesel and also lower the cost of biodiesel production. Methyl and ethyl esters were prepared by means of KOH-catalyzed transesterification from the mixtures of both the oils. Water content, acid value and viscosity of most esters met ASTM standard except for ethyl esters prepared from used cooking oil. Canola oil content of at least 60% in the used cooking oil/canola oil feedstock is required in order to produce ethyl ester satisfying ASTM specifications. Although ethanolysis was proved to be more challenging, ethyl esters showed reduced crystallization temperature (-45.0 to -54.4 degrees C) as compared to methyl esters (-35.3 to -43.0 degrees C). A somewhat better low-temperature property of ester was observed at higher used cooking oil to canola oil ratio in spite of similar fatty acid compositions of both oils. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  63. Biodiesel production from oils and fats with high free fatty acids
    Abstract

    Canakci, M.; Van Gerpen, J. 2001. Biodiesel production from oils and fats with high free fatty acids. Transactions of the ASAE. 44(6) 1429-1436

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines consisting of the alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. Most of the biodiesel that is currently made uses soybean oil, methanol, and an alkaline catalyst. The high value of soybean oil as a food product makes production of a cost-effective fuel very challenging. However there are large amounts of low-cost oils and fats such as restaurant waste and animal fats that could be converted to biodiesel. The problem with processing these low cost oils and fats is that they often contain large amounts of free fatty acids (FFA) that cannot be converted to biodiesel using an alkaline catalyst. In this study, a technique is described to reduce the free fatty acids content of these feedstocks using an acid-catalyzed pretreatment to esterify the free fatty acids before transesterifying the triglycerides with an alkaline catalyst to complete the reaction. Initial process development was performed with synthetic mixtures containing 20% and 40% free fatty acids, prepared using palmitic acid. Process parameters such as the molar ratio of alcohol, type of alcohol, acid catalyst amount, reaction time, and free fatty acids level were investigated to determine the best strategy for converting the free fatty acids to usable esters. The work showed that the acid level of the high free fatty acids feedstocks could be reduced to less than 1% with a 2-step pretreatment reaction. The reaction mixture was allowed to settle between steps so that the water-containing alcohol phase could be removed. The 2-step pretreatment reaction was demonstrated with actual feedstocks, including yellow grease with 12% free fatty acids and brown grease with 33% free fatty acids. After reducing the acid levels of these feedstocks to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with an alkaline catalyst to produce fuel-grade biodiesel
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  64. Biodiesel production from waste lard using supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Shin, H. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Ryu, J. H.; Bae, S. Y. 2012. Biodiesel production from waste lard using supercritical methanol. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 61134-138

    In this study, transesterification of refined lard in supercritical methanol with no pre-treatment was performed in a temperature range of 320-350 degrees C, molar ratios of methanol to oil from 30 to 60, pressures from 15 to 25 MPa, reaction times from 5 to 20 min, and agitation speeds of 0-1000 rpm. The effects of reaction parameters were investigated to determine the optimum reaction conditions. The highest content of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMES) from refined lard was 89.91%, which was obtained at a temperature of 335 degrees C, a molar ratio of methanol to oil of 45, a pressure of 20 MPa, a reaction time of 15 min, and an agitation speed of 500 rpm. Biodiesel production from waste lard under the optimal reaction conditions was also carried out to validate the use of waste lard as a feedstock. Even though waste lard samples contain various free fatty acids and water contents, FAME contents from waste lard with no pre-treatment were found to be comparable with those from refined lard. From this result, it is concluded that waste lard can be utilized as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production using a supercritical process, thus replacing the high-cost refined vegetable oil feedstock. (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  65. Biodiesel production from waste oil feedstocks by solid acid catalysis
    Abstract

    Peng, B. X.; Shu, Q.; Wang, J. F.; Wang, G. R.; Wang, D. Z.; Han, M. H. 2008. Biodiesel production from waste oil feedstocks by solid acid catalysis. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 86(B6) 441-447

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic and biodegradable substitute for petroleum-based diesel. However, it is impractical to use refined edible oils to produce biodiesel due to its high cost and priority for food products, especially in China, while waste oils with high free fatty acids (FFAs) can be considered as the raw materials. In the present work, a solid acid catalyst comprising SO(4)(2-)/TiO(2)-SiO(2) was prepared, characterized and studied for its activity for the production of biodiesel from several low cost feedstocks with high FFAs. The solid acid catalyst can be recycled, easily removed and can simultaneously catalyze esterification and transesterification. The influence of reaction parameters was studied, and the optimized reaction parameters are reaction temperature 200 degrees C, molar ratio of methanol to oil 9:1 and catalyst concentration 3 wt.%. The catalyst showed good stability. A continuous process for biodiesel production from cheap raw feedstocks was proposed, and a 10,000-tonnes/year biodiesel production demonstration plant has been built. (c) 2008 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier BY. All rights reserved.
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  66. Biodiesel Production from Waste Oils
    Abstract

    Huynh, L. H.; Kasim, N. S.; Ju, Y. H. 2011. Biodiesel Production from Waste Oils. Biofuels: Alternative Feedstocks and Conversion Processes. 375-396

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  67. Biodiesel Production from Waste Palm Oil Catalyzed by Hierarchical ZSM-5 Supported Calcium Oxide
    Abstract

    Zein, Y. M.; Anal, A. K.; Prasetyoko, D.; Qoniah, I. 2016. Biodiesel Production from Waste Palm Oil Catalyzed by Hierarchical ZSM-5 Supported Calcium Oxide. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry. 16(1) 98-104

    Biodiesel production from waste palm oil catalyzed by hierarchical ZSM-5 supported calcium oxide was studied. The activity of CaO increased after supported on h-ZSM-5 resulting an increase in conversion from 93.17% to 95.40%. A maximum conversion of 95.40% was achieved at 6 h reaction time, 3 wt.% catalyst amount, 12: 1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 65 degrees C reaction temperature. The waste palm oil showed a high potential as a feedstock in biodiesel production in which there was no significant different in the conversion of fresh and waste palm oil. The properties of the obtained biodiesel required the limits of biodiesel specification according to ASTM D6751-08 and EN 14214 with the methyl ester content of 97.18%, the acid value of 0.24 mg KOH/g, the kinematic viscosity of 4.64 cSt and the density of 869.9 kg/m(3).
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  68. Biodiesel production potential of mixed microalgal culture grown in domestic wastewater
    Abstract

    Soydemir, G.; Keris-Sen, U. D.; Sen, U.; Gurol, M. D. 2016. Biodiesel production potential of mixed microalgal culture grown in domestic wastewater. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 39(1) 45-51

    In this study, a mixed microalgal culture grown in secondarily treated domestic wastewater effluent was investigated for biodiesel production using in situ transesterification method with conventional heating. The total lipid content of the mixed culture was found as 26.2 % +/- A 0.6 by weight of dry biomass, and 74 % of the lipids were contributed by total glycerides. In situ transesterification with conventional heating process under acidic conditions produced higher biodiesel yield with chloroform as the co-solvent (82.1 % +/- A 3.9) compared to hexane (55.3 % +/- A 3.9) under the same reaction conditions. The gas chromatography analysis showed that FAME composition was mainly composed of palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid methyl esters., and thus the mixed microalgal culture fed by domestic wastewaters has had comparable biodiesel conversion yields and FAME composition to mono-culture and pure cultures fed by synthetic culture media. Hence, this study showed that secondarily treated domestic wastewater could potentially be a suitable and sustainable medium for microalgae grown to be used as biodiesel feedstock.
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  69. Biodiesel production potential of oleaginous Rhodococcus opacusgrown on biomass gasification wastewater
    Abstract

    Goswami, L.; Namboodiri, M. M. T.; Kumar, R. V.; Pakshirajan, K.; Pugazhenthi, G. 2017. Biodiesel production potential of oleaginous Rhodococcus opacusgrown on biomass gasification wastewater. Renewable Energy. 105400-406

    This study examined the valorization of biomass gasification wastewater (BGWW) for lipids accumulation by Rhodococcus opacus and potential biodiesel application. Using synthetic mineral media based BGWW, the bacterium accumulated a maximum 65.8% (w/w) of lipids. 10% (v/v) inoculum size showed a more positive effect than 5% (v/v) inoculum size on both the 'chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and lipid accumulation by R. opacus. Using the raw wastewater (untreated), the bacterium accumulated 54.3% (w/w) lipid with a wastewater COD removal efficiency of 64%. However, these values were further enhanced to 62.8% (w/w) and 74%, respectively, following supplementation of the wastewater with mineral salt media in the ratio 4:1. H-1 and C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses of the accumulated lipids revealed the presence of more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the accumulated lipids showed four thermal decomposition regions each with a good stability. Transesterification of the bacterial lipids to biodiesel and its properties revealed a very good potential of the strain for the production of biodiesel from PAH containing wastewater. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  70. Biodiesel production under subcritical solvent condition using subcritical water treated whole Jatropha curcas seed kernels and possible use of hydrolysates to grow Yarrowia lipolytica
    Abstract

    Go, A. W.; Sutanto, S.; Phuong, L. T. N.; Ismadji, S.; Gunawan, S.; Ju, Y. H. 2014. Biodiesel production under subcritical solvent condition using subcritical water treated whole Jatropha curcas seed kernels and possible use of hydrolysates to grow Yarrowia lipolytica. Fuel. 12046-52

    In this work, whole Japropha curcas L. seed kernels were firstly treated in subcritical water (448 K, 2.0 MPa initial N-2, 15 min, kernel to water ratio 0.5 g g(-1)) and then the treated kernels were used in the in situ production of biodiesel using a solvent mixture of 75% methanol and 25% acetic acid. It was found that hydrolysate collected from subcritical water treatment of seed kernels contained reducing sugars and can be used to grow Yarrowia lipolytica without the need of detoxification. The in-situ (trans)esterification was successfully optimized using Taguchi design of experiments and a high yield of 101.7 and 65.1 g FAME per 100 g of extractable lipid and dry kernel, respectively could be achieved under optimized conditions (523 K, 3.0 MPa initial CO2 and 7.5 cm(3) g (-1) solvent to solid ratio). The developed process can tolerate high FFA and moisture content in feedstock. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  71. Biodiesel production using waste cooking oil: a waste to energy conversion strategy
    Abstract

    Sodhi, A. K.; Tripathi, S.; Kundu, K. 2017. Biodiesel production using waste cooking oil: a waste to energy conversion strategy. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 19(6) 1799-1807

    In this study, biodiesel was produced using waste cooking oil that was discarded as a waste in the environment. The properties of the feedstock were determined using standard ASTM methods. The transesterification process was implemented to extract the biodiesel, and this process was optimized and standardized by selecting three different parameters: molar ratio (methanol: oil), catalyst concentration (KOH) and reaction temperature. The physicochemical properties of the biodiesel so produced were tested and analyzed using gas chromatography. Biodiesel and diesel were mixed in different volumetric ratios, and the exhaust emission characteristics of the blends were determined by testing the blends on a variable compression ratio engine. The study concluded that waste cooking oil has a great potential for waste to energy process. The highest yield of 93.8% was obtained by optimizing the process. Emission characteristics of CO for B50 blend showed a downward trend while NOx emission was found to be greater for blending ratios above 10%. B10 showed the best results pertaining to lower NOx and CO emissions.
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  72. Biodiesel Production with Continuous Processing and Direct Ultrasonic Assisted
    Abstract

    Widayat; Satriadi, H.; Choirudin, F.; Fitriana, A.; Kiono, B. F. T.; Syaiful 2016. Biodiesel Production with Continuous Processing and Direct Ultrasonic Assisted. 2016 4th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (Icseea). 122-126

    Biodiesel is an alternative energy can made from renewable resources such as vegetable oils and animal fats. One of considerable resource is vegetable oil, the plant's lipid-based oils. However, the application of vegetable oil in Indonesia are mostly used for foodstuff oil (edible oil), so it's not recommended as biodiesel feedstock because it is vital for human consumption, therefore it is required a new source of low usability vegetable oil such as Waste-Cooking Oil. The application of waste-cooking oil as biodiesel feedstock can reduce waste problems too. One technology that are lately often used is Ultrasonic-Assisted Technology. The objective of this research is to develop biodiesel process with Continuous Processing and Ultrasonic-Assisted Technology. Free Fatty Acid (FFA) contents in used cooking oil was analyzed with acidi alkali metry. FFA was reduced with esterification or neutralization process up to <3wt.%. Transesterification reaction was carried out with a base catalyst continuously reaction and ultrasonic assisted. Products were separated and analyzed about density, viscosity and contents of methyl ester. The results of experiments shown that the experiments with ratio methanol to triglyceride 8:1 was better product than ratio of 4:1. Increasing flowrate (14-16 ml/.minute) caused yield of biodiesel increase to. Yield of biodiesel was obtained 75.6-78%. Characteristics of biodiesel produced in accordance with ISO biodiesels.
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  73. Biodiesel synthesis by a one-step method in a genetically engineered Escherichia coli using rice straw hydrolysate and restaurant oil wastes as raw materials
    Abstract

    Wang, B.; Lin, H.; Zhan, J.; Yang, Y.; Zhou, Q.; Zhao, Y. 2012. Biodiesel synthesis by a one-step method in a genetically engineered Escherichia coli using rice straw hydrolysate and restaurant oil wastes as raw materials. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 113(3) 531-540

    Aims To reduce the cost of biodiesel, the utilization of rice straw hydrolysate and restaurant oil wastes as the substrates for biodiesel production in a recombinant strain by a one-step method was investigated. Methods and Results A recombinant Escherichia coli pET28a (+)-PAW, which encodes enzymes for the ethanol pathway and acyltransferase, was constructed. Fermentation results in Luria-Bertani medium revealed that xylose was favourable for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) production (2.79 g l-1) by E. coli pET28a (+)-PAW. When rice straw hydrolysate and restaurant oil wastes were utilized as the monosaccharide substituent and the fatty acids substituent, 0.27 g l-1 FAEEs and 0.249 g l-1 FAEEs were obtained, respectively. 1.27 g l-1 FAEEs was obtained in the restaurant oil wastes medium supplemented by 2% sodium oleate. Conclusions The fermentation results indicated that the strain was effective in biodiesel production. The rice straw hydrolysate and restaurant oil wastes could be utilized by E. coli as the substrates for FAEE production. Significance and Impact of the Study This novel exploration might pave the way for biodiesel production from waste materials by genetically engineered microorganism.
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  74. Biodiesel synthesis combining pre-esterification with alkali catalyzed process from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate
    Abstract

    Liu, Y.; Wang, L.; Yan, Y. J. 2009. Biodiesel synthesis combining pre-esterification with alkali catalyzed process from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate. Fuel Processing Technology. 90(7-8) 857-862

    A two-step technique combining pre-esterification catalyzed by cation exchange resin with transesterification catalyzed by base alkali was developed to produce biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate (RDOD). The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the feedstock were converted to methyl esters in the pre-esterification step using a column reactor packed with cation exchange resin. The acid value of oil was reduced from the initial 97.60 mg-KOH g(-1) oil to 1.12 mg-KOH g(-1) oil under the conditions of cation exchange resin D002 catalyst packed dosage 18 wt.% (based on oil weight), oil to methanol molar ratio 1:9. reaction temperature 60 degrees C, and reaction time 4 h. The biodiesel yield by transesterification was 97.4% in 1.5 h using 0.8 wt.% KOH as catalyst and a molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:4 at 60 degrees C. The properties of RDOD biodiesel production in a packed column reactor followed by KOH catalyzed transesterification were measured up the standards of EN14214 and ASTM6751-03. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  75. Biodiesel synthesis from acid oil over large pore sulfonic acid-modified mesostructured SBA-15: Process optimization and reaction kinetics
    Abstract

    Shah, K. A.; Parikh, J. K.; Maheria, K. C. 2014. Biodiesel synthesis from acid oil over large pore sulfonic acid-modified mesostructured SBA-15: Process optimization and reaction kinetics. Catalysis Today. 23729-37

    Biodiesel synthesis from acid oil (AO) containing high free fatty acids (FFA) over pore expanded sulfonic acid functionalized mesostructured SBA-15 was studied. Reaction parameters affecting the FAME yield were optimized using Taguchi design. 99% FFA conversion was obtained under optimum conditions viz. at 100 degrees C with 4 wt.% catalyst amount and 1:15 oil to methanol ratio after 8 h. Kinetic study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo first order kinetic law. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  76. Biodiesel synthesis from the esterification of free fatty acids and alcohol catalyzed by long-chain Bronsted acid ionic liquid
    Abstract

    He, L. Q.; Qin, S. J.; Chang, T.; Sun, Y. Z.; Gao, X. R. 2013. Biodiesel synthesis from the esterification of free fatty acids and alcohol catalyzed by long-chain Bronsted acid ionic liquid. Catalysis Science & Technology. 3(4) 1102-1107

    A long-chain Bronsted acid ionic liquid (IL), 3-(N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium)propanesulfonic acid p-toluenesulfonate ([DDPA][Tos]), was prepared and characterized by FT-IR, H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR, UV/vis and TGA. The H-0 (Hammett function) value of the IL was also determined. The IL as catalyst was applied to the catalytic synthesis of biodiesel from free fatty acids (FFAs). The influencing factors, such as the type and amount of catalyst, reaction time, molar ratio of fatty acid to methanol and reaction temperature, were investigated. The results indicated that the long-chain Bronsted acid IL showed high catalytic activity and fair reusability. Esterification was accomplished under the following optimized conditions: molar ratio of alcohols to FFA at 1.5 : 1, mole fraction of ionic liquid at 10%, 60 degrees C, and 3 h. The products could be separated from the catalyst system by liquid-liquid biphase separation at room temperature with good yields of 92.5% to 96.5%. The catalyst could be reused nine times after the removal of water and alcohol. Therefore, the long-chain Bronsted acid IL has good potential for the synthesis of biodiesel from low-cost feedstocks such as waste oil and woody plant oils.
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  77. Biodiesel-Like Biofuels from Simultaneous Transesterification/Esterification of Waste Oils with a Biomass-Derived Solid Acid Catalyst
    Abstract

    Luque, R.; Clark, J. H. 2011. Biodiesel-Like Biofuels from Simultaneous Transesterification/Esterification of Waste Oils with a Biomass-Derived Solid Acid Catalyst. Chemcatchem. 3(3) 594-597

    Biodiesel is a nontoxic, sulfur-free and biodegradable petrol-fuel replacement that can be used in unmodified diesel engines pure or as a blend. Vegetable oils are the main feedstocks employed for its preparation but used vegetable oil and animal fats are currently considered one of the most attractive feedstocks for biodiesel production due to their lower market value in comparison with virgin oils alongside the fact that the material can be recycled from other industrial sectors. In this study, biodiesel-like biofuels are prepared from waste oils containing high concentrations of fatty acids, by using a family of acidic mesoporous carbonaceous materials denoted as starbon acids under both conventional heating and microwave irradiation. The solid acids are found to catalyze both the esterification of the free fatty acids in the waste oil with methanol and the transesterification of the triglycerides in the oil to give biodiesel and glycerol. starbon-SO(3)H is found to be the most active catalyst under the investigated reaction conditions from a range of solid acids including zeolites and similar sulfonated carbonaceous materials. Conversions to fatty acid methyl esters were remarkably increased under microwave irradiation compared to the conventionally heated process.
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  78. Bioplastics from waste glycerol derived from biodiesel industry
    Abstract

    Zhu, C. J.; Chiu, S.; Nakas, J. P.; Nomura, C. T. 2013. Bioplastics from waste glycerol derived from biodiesel industry. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 130(1) 1-13

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters that can be biologically synthesized by many microorganisms and engineered plants that have been investigated by microbiologists, biochemists, polymer scientists, material engineers, and medical researchers for several decades. Research on microbial production of PHAs has been extensively focused on using pure carbon sources, such as sugars and fatty acids. Practical considerations of production costs of PHAs have resulted in research efforts to use alternative renewable and inexpensive feedstocks. One potential feedstock for the production of PHA polymers is the glycerol waste byproduct of biodiesel production. The major focus of this review is the production of PHA polymers from glycerol. A review of biosynthetic pathways for PHAs production from glycerol, current production of waste glycerol in biodiesel industry, physical and mechanical properties of PHAs, and applications of PHAs in the areas of packaging industry, implant materials, drug carrier, biofuels, are covered. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 2013
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  79. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils
    Abstract

    Azocar, L.; Ciudad, G.; Heipieper, H. J.; Navia, R. 2010. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 88(3) 621-636

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts.
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  80. Bronsted-Lewis acidic ionic liquid for the "one-pot" synthesis of biodiesel from waste oil
    Abstract

    Liu, S. W.; Wang, Z. P.; Li, K. S.; Li, L.; Yu, S. T.; Liu, F. S.; Song, Z. Q. 2013. Bronsted-Lewis acidic ionic liquid for the "one-pot" synthesis of biodiesel from waste oil. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 5(2)

    Bronsted-Lewis acidic ionic liquids were employed for the preparation of biodiesel using waste oil as the feedstock. It was found that (3-sulfonic acid)-propyltriethylammonium chloroironinate [HO3S-(CH2)(3)-NEt3]Cl-FeCl3 (molar fraction of FeCl3 x = 0.67) was an efficient catalyst for the reaction, and a synergetic effect of Bronsted and Lewis acid sites enhanced the catalytic performance of ionic liquid (IL). Using the waste oil with 34.6 mg KOH/g acidic value, the yield of biodiesel was even more than 95% at 120 degrees C for 4 h. The reusability of IL was good after it was used seven times. Therefore, an efficient and environmentally friendly catalyst is provided for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste oil with high acid value by "one-pot" method. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4794959]
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  81. Carbohydrate-derived Solid Acid Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Low-Cost Feedstocks: A Review
    Abstract

    Lokman, I. M.; Rashid, U.; Yunus, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Carbohydrate-derived Solid Acid Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Low-Cost Feedstocks: A Review. Catalysis Reviews-Science and Engineering. 56(2) 187-219

    Currently, most biodiesels are produced from virgin vegetable oils using a transesterification reaction. However, there are a number of other potential cheap sources for biodiesels, such as deep-frying oils/fats and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). PFAD is a lower-value by-product of the palm oil industry and is an economical source for biodiesel production. Due to the high cost of biodiesel production, the formulation of a new method to produce a cheaper biodiesel is imperative. Low-quality feedstocks (especially PFAD) using green and highly reusable catalysts have gained popularity due to their low production cost. High free fatty acids (HFFA) in the feedstock causes problems during the biodiesel production process, especially with the use of basic heterogeneous and homogenous catalysts. Recently, the effectiveness of a solid acid catalyst to catalyze biodiesel production from HFFA feedstock has caught the attention of researchers.
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  82. Catalyst-free Ethyl Biodiesel Production from Rice Bran under Subcritical Condition
    Abstract

    Zullaikah, S.; Afifudin, R.; Amalia, R. 2015. Catalyst-free Ethyl Biodiesel Production from Rice Bran under Subcritical Condition. International Conference of Chemical and Material Engineering (Iccme) 2015: Green Technology for Sustainable Chemical Products and Processes. 1699

    In-situ ethyl biodiesel production from rice bran under subcritical water and ethanol with no catalyst was employed. This process is environmentally friendly and is very flexible in term of feedstock utilization since it can handle relatively high moisture and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. In addition, the alcohol, i.e. bioethanol, is a nontoxic, biodegradable, and green raw material when produced from non-edible biomass residues, leading to a 100% renewable biodiesel. The fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, ethyl biodiesel) are better than fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, methyl biodiesel) in terms of fuel properties, including cetane number, oxidation stability and cold flow properties. The influences of the operating variables such as reaction time (1 - 10 h), ethanol concentration (12.5 - 87.5%), and pressurizing gas (N-2 and CO2) on the ethyl biodiesel yield and purity have been investigated systematically while the temperature and pressure were kept constant at 200 degrees C and 40 bar. The optimum results were obtained at 5 h reaction time and 75% ethanol concentration using CO2 as compressing gas. Ethyl biodiesel yield and purity of 58.78% and 61.35%, respectively, were obtained using rice bran with initial FFAs content of 37.64%. FFAs level was reduced to 14.22% with crude ethyl biodiesel recovery of 95.98%. Increasing the reaction time up to 10 h only increased the yield and purity by only about 3%. Under N-2 atmosphere and at the same operating conditions (5h and 75% ethanol), ethyl biodiesel yield and purity decreased to 54.63% and 58.07%, respectively, while FFAs level was increased to 17.93% and crude ethyl biodiesel recovery decreased to 87.32%.
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  83. Catalytic applications of calcium rich waste materials for biodiesel: Current state and perspectives
    Abstract

    Shan, R.; Zhao, C.; Lv, P. M.; Yuan, H. R.; Yao, J. G. 2016. Catalytic applications of calcium rich waste materials for biodiesel: Current state and perspectives. Energy Conversion and Management. 127273-283

    The synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts from waste materials has become increasingly popular over the past two decades. Among them, Ca-based catalysts have widely been tested in the transesterification reaction because of their relatively high catalytic activity and the large amount of feedstock (calcium rich waste materials) available. Those Ca-based catalysts can be simply prepared via the high temperature calcination and using these waste materials to generate the catalyst in addition to the target product makes the system more cost effective and environmentally friendly. This review presents general information related to the recent progress in the development of various Ca-based catalysts derived from waste materials for biodiesel production. The materials described include eggshells, mollusk shells, bones, large-scale industrial wastes and so on. Meanwhile, based on this collection of data and information, the catalytic activity mechanism, future challenges and prospects of renewable resources derived catalysts are also discussed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  84. Catalytic Packed-Bed Reactor Configuration for Biodiesel Production Using Waste Oil as Feedstock
    Abstract

    Borges, M. E.; Diaz, L. 2013. Catalytic Packed-Bed Reactor Configuration for Biodiesel Production Using Waste Oil as Feedstock. Bioenergy Research. 6(1) 222-228

    Pumice, a natural porous silica material, exchanged with potassium is an efficient heterogeneous particulate catalytic material for triglycerides and free fatty acids transesterification reaction from sunflower oil and waste frying oil at low temperature. In this work, a packed-bed catalytic configuration reactor using this catalytic material was developed for biodiesel fuel production from sunflower oil and frying oil feedstock. Reactor operation variables as methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction time, and reaction temperature were studied. Results were compared with those obtained from the same transesterification reaction proceeding in a slurry batch reactor. The packed-bed catalytic reactor configuration can be useful in order to minimize catalyst mechanical damage occurring in the slurry reactor due to continuous stirring. The possibility of using a packed-bed reactor shows some advantages because the catalyst stays confined in the reactor bed and the reaction products can be easily separated, besides the mechanical stability of the catalyst particles is achieved.
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  85. Catalytic synthesis of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing feedstocks
    Abstract

    Zafiropoulos, N. A.; Ngo, H. L.; Foglia, T. A.; Samulski, E. T.; Lin, W. B. 2007. Catalytic synthesis of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing feedstocks. Chemical Communications. (35) 3670-3672

    Recyclable and reusable heterogeneous diarylammonium catalysts are highly effective in catalyzing the esterification of the free fatty acid (FFA) present in greases to methyl esters to reduce the FFA content from 12-40 wt% to 0.5-1 wt%; the resulting ester-glyceride mixture (pretreated grease) could then be readily converted to methyl esters by base-catalyzed transesterification.
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  86. Cation exchange resin catalysed biodiesel production from used cooking oil (UCO): Investigation of impurities effect
    Abstract

    Fu, J. Y.; Li, Z. B.; Xing, S. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Miao, C. L.; Lv, P. M.; Yuan, Z. H. 2016. Cation exchange resin catalysed biodiesel production from used cooking oil (UCO): Investigation of impurities effect. Fuel. 1811058-1065

    Converting used cooking oil (UCO) into biodiesel using solid acid catalysts shows good prospective for renewable and clean bio-fuel production. However, impurities (metal ion, water, etc.) contained in UCO will have effect on its biodiesel production as well as to affect the activity of solid acids. These effects were explored by selecting two UCOs and their model oils (same AV, without impurities) as feedstock, two typical kinds of cation exchange resins Amberlyst 15 and Amberlyst BD20 as solid acid catalysts. The result indicated that metal ion (Fe3+) not only showed deactivation effect on resin catalyst by cationic exchange but also exhibited catalytic activity as Lewis acid when it is in free form. The deactivation effect of water formed hydrated proton (-H3O+-SO3) on resin catalyst cannot be alleviated by increasing methanol concentration but can be reduced through increasing reaction temperature. The organic acids, highly active in catalysing esterification reaction, showed synergistic effect with cation exchange resin. Under the co-effect of organic acid (UCO-1, 0.19 mmol H+ g(-1); UCO-2, 0.12 mmol H+ g(-1)), metal ions (UCO-1, Fe: 0.6 ppm, etc.; UCO-2, Fe: 9.4 ppm, etc.) and other impurities, UCO-1/UCO-2 showed a FFA conversion of 1.2-14.1%/4.5-13.5%, compared with -4.35-9.36%/0.96-8.09% for their model oils at reaction condition of catalyst-free, 70-110 degrees C, 3 h, methanol-to-FFA molar ratio of 15:1. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  87. Characterization of Biodiesel Produced from Terminalia Seed Oil and Engine Performance Evaluation with 10% and 20% Blending
    Abstract

    KumarGogoi, T.; JyotirmoyKakati 2017. Characterization of Biodiesel Produced from Terminalia Seed Oil and Engine Performance Evaluation with 10% and 20% Blending. Proceedings of the Asme International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 2016, Vol. 6a.

    In this article, biodiesel produced from Terminalia seed oil is characterized. Oil content in Terminalia fruit seed was found to be 46.0%. Free fatty acid (FFA) content in Terminalia seed oil was 6.0%; hence a twostep acid base catalyzed transesterification process was used for producing biodiesel from the Terminalia seed oil. Terminalia seed oil contains 23.47% palmitic, 8.04% stearic 37.90% oleic and 20.97% linoleic acid. Calorific value, kinematic viscosity and density of Terminalia fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) were 39.594 MJ/kg, 5.49 mm(2)/s and 890.6 kg/m(3) respectively. Most of the fuel properties of Terminalia FAME meet ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Cetane index, fire point and pour point of Terminalia FAME were found to be 54.92, 172 C and 1 degrees C respectively. Further, an engine performance study with 10% (B10) and 20% (B20) blending of Terminalia FAME with diesel fuel shows higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), lower brake thermal efficiency (BTE), higher peak pressure and early pressure rise in case the blends compared to petroleum based diesel fuel. Terminalia seed thus could be potential feedstock for biodiesel production and its 10% blending with conventional diesel fuel could be used in engine without compromising with the engine performance.
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  88. Chemical Characterization of Jatropha curcas L. Seed Oil and Its Biodiesel by Ambient Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry
    Abstract

    Fernandes, A. M. A. P.; El-Khatib, S.; Cunha, I. B. S.; Porcari, A. M.; Eberlin, M. N.; Silva, M. J.; Silva, P. R.; Cunha, V. S.; Daroda, R. J.; Alberici, R. M. 2015. Chemical Characterization of Jatropha curcas L. Seed Oil and Its Biodiesel by Ambient Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Energy & Fuels. 29(5) 3096-3103

    Biodiesel has become increasingly attractive because of its environmental benefits and production from renewable resources. The use of Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production has attracted growing interest because it is a non-edible oil. Herein, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) was used to chemically characterize, at the molecular level, J. curcas L. oil and its biodiesel via monitoring its triacylglycerols (TAG), free fatty acids (FFA), and profiles of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The results provide further support for those obtained by the standard parameters of fuel quality. The EAST MS analysis described herein is simple, requires only a tiny droplet of the sample, and is conducted without any pre-separation or chemical manipulation steps.
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  89. Combustion characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with a waste cooking oil biodiesel mixture
    Abstract

    Can, O. 2014. Combustion characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with a waste cooking oil biodiesel mixture. Energy Conversion and Management. 87676-686

    In this study, a mixture of biodiesel fuels produced from two different kinds of waste cooking oils was blended in 5% and 10% with No. 2 diesel fuel. The biodiesel/No. 2 diesel fuel blends were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, four-stroke, natural aspirated diesel engine under four different engine loads (BMEP 0.48-0.36-0.24-0.12 MPa) and 2200 rpm engine speed. Despite of the earlier start of injection, the detailed combustion and engine performance results showed that the ignition delay with the biodiesel addition was decreased for the all engine loads with the earlier combustion timings due to higher cetane number of biodiesel fuel. Meanwhile the maximum heat release rate and the in-cylinder pressure rise rate were slightly decreased and the combustion duration was generally increased with the biodiesel addition. However, significant changings were not observed on the maximum in-cylinder pressures. In addition, it was observed that the indicated mean effective pressure values were slightly varied depending on the start of combustion timing and the center of heat release location. It was found that 5% and 10% biodiesel fuel addition resulted in slightly increment on break specific fuel consumption (up to 4%) and reduction on break thermal efficiency (up to 2.8%). The biodiesel additions also increased NOx emissions up to 8.7% and decreased smoke and total hydrocarbon emissions for the all engine loads. Although there were no significant changes on CO emissions at the low and medium engine loads, some reductions were observed at the full engine load. Also, CO2 emissions were slightly increased for the all engine loads. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  90. Comparative study of emissions from stationary engines using biodiesel made from soybean oil, palm oil and waste frying oil
    Abstract

    D'Agosto, M. D.; da Silva, M. A. V.; Franca, L. S.; de Oliveira, C. M.; Alexandre, M. O. L.; Marques, L. G. D.; Murta, A. L. S.; de Freitas, M. A. V. 2017. Comparative study of emissions from stationary engines using biodiesel made from soybean oil, palm oil and waste frying oil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 701376-1392

    This article examines the CO2 emissions from the combustion of a biodiesel-diesel blend in stationary internal combustion engines to generate electricity. Emissions were analyzed according to the feedstock used for biodiesel production-soybean oil, palm oil, waste frying oil-through the methyl and ethyl routes. The chosen blends were composed of petroleum diesel and biodiesel, with the latter accounting for 20% or 50% of the blend. The results were analyzed using the Tukey test and showed, in general, that higher engine loads led to a decrease in CO2 emissions in comparison with the standard B4 (4% biodiesel) blend mandated in Brazil. Therefore, this paper provides an original and complete approach to analyze and compare in pairs the results of CO2 emissions of different biodiesel production routes, feedstocks and engine loads in order to find the best blend option for each load level.
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  91. Comparative study of NOx emissions of biodiesel-diesel blends from soybean, palm and waste frying oils using methyl and ethyl transesterification routes
    Abstract

    da Silva, M. A. V.; Ferreira, B. L. G.; Marques, L. G. D.; Murta, A. L. S.; de Freitas, M. A. V. D. 2017. Comparative study of NOx emissions of biodiesel-diesel blends from soybean, palm and waste frying oils using methyl and ethyl transesterification routes. Fuel. 194144-156

    The research for renewable and less polluting fuels has focused on biodiesel. This fuel can derive from vegetable, animal or waste oils, and despite its potential to decrease atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases, its influence on NOx emissions is still uncertain. It is believed that biodiesel emissions, especially NOx vary depending on the feedstock, blend percentage and transesterification route. A better understanding of these factors can help choosing the best blend. In this context, this article aims at evaluating how the variation of these factors affects NOx emissions. Tests are carried out in a stationary internal combustion engine with 20% and 50% blends of methyl and ethyl esters made from soybean oil, palm oil and waste frying oil (collected in the University Campus). The analysis of the results with Tukey's test compare their means and lead to the conclusion that, when considering the route, ethyl blends have lower NOx emissions, and palm ethyl ester blends had the best results. Also when all factors are taken into account, B20 from soybean methyl ester has the lowest emissions of NOx. We recommend that future studies test the effect of antioxidants in NOx emissions, as well as test higher blend ratios. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  92. Comparative Study on Two-Step Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Production from High FFA Crude Palm Oil Using Microwave Technique and Conventional Technique
    Abstract

    Abu Bakar, S.; Yusup, S.; Ahmad, M. M.; Quitain, A. T.; Sasaki, M.; Goto, M.; Uemura, Y.; Ahmad, J. 2014. Comparative Study on Two-Step Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Production from High FFA Crude Palm Oil Using Microwave Technique and Conventional Technique. Proceedings of the International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials 2012-Icpeam 2012. 91787-95

    The production of biodiesel from crude palm oil (CPO) using microwave technique is investigated and has been compared with conventional heating. Two-step biodiesel production process is applied to maximize the highest biodiesel yield in short reaction time using microwave method. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as acid catalysts is used in pre-treatment of feedstock by esterification process followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) as base catalyst for transesterification process with low methanol to oil ratio. The main purpose of the pre-treatment process is to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content of CPO from higher value of FFA content (> 6.8%) to a minimum level for biodiesel production (< 1%). Esterification and transesterification is carried out in fully instrumented and controlled microwave reactor system to get higher yield in shorter time. This two-step esterification and transesterification process showed that the maximum conversion of palm biodiesel obtained is 95.1% with the process conditions of methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 6:1, reaction temperature 65oC, reaction time 15min, and 2% (wt/wt) KOH amount using microwave method compared to conventional heating where the palm oil methyl ester (POME) yield obtained is 81% at the same conditions. The result showed that, the biodiesel production using microwave technique proved to be a fast and easy route to get high yields of biodiesel.
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  93. Comparing three options for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil
    Abstract

    Refaat, A. A.; El Sheltawy, S. T. 2008. Comparing three options for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil. Waste Management and the Environment Iv. 109133-140

    Biodiesel production is worthy of continued study and optimization of production procedures due to its environmentally beneficial attributes and its renewable nature. From a waste-management standpoint, production of biodiesel from used cooking oil is environmentally beneficial since it provides a cleaner way of disposing of these products than is typically the case. Biodiesel produced by base-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable oil is usually performed in batch reactors where the required energy is provided by heating accompanied by mechanical mixing. Using this technique, the best yield percentage was obtained using a methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, potassium hydroxide as the catalyst (M), and 65 degrees C temperature for one hour. Alternatively, ultrasonication can provide an effective way to attain the required mixing while providing the necessary activation energy. It was concluded that transesterification by low frequency ultrasound (20 kHz) offered a lot of advantages over the conventional classical procedure. It proved to be efficient (biodiesel yield up to 98-99%), as well as time and energy saving (dramatic reduction of reaction time to 5 min, compared to one hour or more using conventional batch reactor systems, and a remarkable reduction in static separation time to 25 min, compared to 8 hours). The third option studied was the application of microwave irradiation. The application of radio frequency microwave energy offered a fast, easy route to this valuable biofuel with advantages of enhancing the reaction rate and improving the separation process. The methodology allowed for the use of high FFA content feedstock, including used cooking oil, hence reducing the cost of production, which constitutes a major hurdle towards widespread commercialization of biodiesel.
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  94. Comparison of Novozyme 435 and Purolite D5081 as heterogeneous catalysts for the pretreatment of used cooking oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Haigh, K. F.; Abidin, S. Z.; Vladisavljevic, G. T.; Saha, B. 2013. Comparison of Novozyme 435 and Purolite D5081 as heterogeneous catalysts for the pretreatment of used cooking oil for biodiesel production. Fuel. 111186-193

    The catalytic performance of two types of catalysts, an ion-exchange resin, Purolite D5081 and an immobilised enzyme, Novozyme 435, was compared for the esterification pretreatment of used cooking oil (UCO) for the preparation of biodiesel. The reactions were carried out using a jacketed batch reactor with a reflux condenser. The effect of mass transfer limitations was investigated and it was shown that internal and external mass transfer limitations were negligible. An immobilised enzyme, Novozyme 435, was investigated because it has been shown to give high free fatty acids (FFAs) conversion. This catalyst has been compared to an ion-exchange resin, Purolite D5081, which was developed for the esterification of UCO for the production of biodiesel. It was found that a conversion of 94% was achieved using Purolite D5081 compared to 90% conversion with Novozyme 435. However, the optimum methanol to FFA ratio for Purolite D5081 was 98: 1 compared to 6.2:1 for Novozyme 435. In addition, it has been found that with Novozyme 435 there are side reactions which result in the formation of additional fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and FFAs at longer reaction times. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  95. Comparison of the performance of different homogeneous alkali catalysts during transesterification of waste and virgin oils and evaluation of biodiesel quality
    Abstract

    Dias, J. M.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Almeida, M. F. 2008. Comparison of the performance of different homogeneous alkali catalysts during transesterification of waste and virgin oils and evaluation of biodiesel quality. Fuel. 87(17-18) 3572-3578

    A large amount of studies might be found regarding the improvement of biodiesel production; however, there is a lack of information concerning both, the simultaneous comparison of the catalyst performance for different raw materials, and the final product quality. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate: (i) the biodiesel synthesis from waste frying oil, sunflower and soybean refined oil using KOH, NaOH and CH3ONa as catalysts; and (ii) the final product quality according to European biodiesel standard EN 14214. The results obtained showed that the use of virgin oils resulted in higher yields (reaching 97%) as compared to waste frying oils (reaching 92%). From the quality parameters, the ones that mostly depended on the reaction conditions were the kinematic viscosity and the methyl ester content (purity). Overall, KOH was less effective than the sodium based catalysts because, using KOH, purity was lower than the minimum required according to standard EN 14214 for all samples. Considering the studied feedstock, the optimum conditions which ensured that the final product was in agreement with the European biodiesel standard were: (i) 0.6 (wt%) CH3ONa for both virgin oils; (ii) 0.6 (wt%) NaOH for sunflower oil and 0.8 (wt%) for soybean oil and; (iii) 0.8 (vvt%) using both sodium based catalysts for waste frying oils. Under optimum conditions, a purity of 99.4 (wt%) could be obtained. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  96. A comparison of used cooking oils: A very heterogeneous feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Knothe, G.; Steidley, K. R. 2009. A comparison of used cooking oils: A very heterogeneous feedstock for biodiesel. Bioresource Technology. 100(23) 5796-5801

    Used cooking or frying oils are of increasing interest as inexpensive feedstock for biodiesel production. In this work, used frying oils obtained from 16 local restaurants were investigated regarding their fatty acid profile vs. the fatty acid profile of the oil or fat prior to use. The fatty acid profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Besides the fatty acid profile, the acid value and dynamic viscosity of the samples were determined. Dynamic viscosity was determined because of non-Newtonian behavior of some samples. The results indicate that oils and fats experience various degrees of increase in saturation during cooking/frying use, with the magnitude of these changes varying from sample to sample, i.e., a high degree of randomness of composition is found in used frying oil samples. Properties of the samples that were investigated were acid value and viscosity which consistently increased with use, also in a random fashion. Multiple independent samples obtained from the same restaurants indicate that there is little consistency of used cooking oil obtained from the same source. These results are discussed with regards to the potential fuel properties of biodiesel derived from these used frying oils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  97. A Complementary Biodiesel Blend from Soapnut Oil and Free Fatty Acids
    Abstract

    Chen, Y. H.; Tang, T. C.; Chiang, T. H.; Huang, B. Y.; Chang, C. Y.; Chiang, P. C.; Shie, J. L.; Franzreb, M.; Chen, L. Y. 2012. A Complementary Biodiesel Blend from Soapnut Oil and Free Fatty Acids. Energies. 5(8) 3137-3148

    Blends of biodiesels produced from soapnut oil and high-oleic free fatty acids (FFAs), which are potential non-edible oil feedstocks, were investigated with respect to their fuel properties. The soapnut oil methyl esters (SNME) had satisfactory fuel properties with the exception of its high cold filter plugging point. In contrast, the biodiesel from the FFAs had favorable fuel properties such as a low cold filter plugging point of -6 degrees C; however, it exhibits poor oxidation stability with an induction period (IP) of 0.2 h. The complementary blend of the SNME and the FFA-based biodiesel at various weight ratios was studied to improve the fuel properties. As a result, the biodiesel blend at a weight ratio of 70: 30 can successfully meet all the biodiesel specifications, except the marginal oxidation stability. Furthermore, the effectiveness of N,N'-di-sec-butyl- p-phenylenediamine at the concentration between 100 and 500 ppm on the improvement in the oxidation stability of the biodiesel blend was examined. The relationship between the IP values associated with the consumption of antioxidants in the biodiesel blends was described by first-order reaction rate kinetics. In addition, the natural logarithm of IP (ln IP) at various concentrations of antioxidant presented a linear relation with the test temperature. The IP at ambient temperature can be predicted based on the extrapolation of the temperature dependence relation.
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  98. Continuous Packed-Bed Biodiesel Polishing Using Particulate Materials
    Abstract

    Uliana, N. R.; Palliga, M.; Quadri, M. B.; Oliveira, J. V. 2017. Continuous Packed-Bed Biodiesel Polishing Using Particulate Materials. Energy & Fuels. 31(1) 627-634

    This work reports experimental data on dry-washing of biodiesel produced by enzyme-catalyzed reaction using ion exchange resins, a commercial immobilized enzyme, and a magnesium silicate adsorbent. Experiments were carried out in continuous-mode packed-bed column, varying operating temperature and pressure, and residence time toward reachihg the current specifications of the biodiesel samples tested: Besides, the amounts of free fatty acids (FFA), raw material, and products were characterized with regard to the content of monoacylglycerol (IVIAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), and triacylglycerol (TAG). It is shown that resins and the immobilized enzyme presented, to a certain extent, satisfactory results; in terms of FFA reduction, while the use of the adsorbent allowed reaching "on spec" biodiesel. It was observed that the water content dramatically affected the quality of the final product, which severely hindered one from reaching lower FFA contents. Integration of resins together with silicate adsorbent seems to be an interesting strategy for biodiesel polishing. Pilot plant tests were also conducted using the resins with replicable results from laboratoryscale assays. Results obtained in this work are relevant for the design and operation of industrial-scale plants.
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  99. A continuous process for biodiesel production in a fixed bed reactor packed with cation-exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Feng, Y. H.; Zhang, A. Q.; Li, J. X.; He, B. Q. 2011. A continuous process for biodiesel production in a fixed bed reactor packed with cation-exchange resin as heterogeneous catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 102(3) 3607-3609

    Continuous esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) from acidified oil with methanol was carried out with NKC-9 cation-exchange resin in a fixed bed reactor with an internal diameter of 25 mm and a height of 450 mm to produce biodiesel. The results showed that the FFA conversion increased with increases in methanol/oil mass ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst bed height, whereas decreased with increases in initial water content in feedstock and feed flow rate. The FFA conversion kept over 98.0% during 500 h of continuous esterification processes under 2.8:1 methanol to oleic acid mass ratio, 44.0 cm catalyst bed height, 0.62 ml/min feed flow rate and 65 degrees C reaction temperature, showing a much high conversion and operational stability. Furthermore, the loss of sulfonic acid groups from NKC-9 resin into the production was not found during continuous esterification. In sum, NKC-9 resin shows the potential commercial applications to esterification of FFA. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  100. Continuous Production of Biodiesel in Supercritical Ethanol: A Comparative Study between Refined and Used Palm Olein Oils as Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Ngamprasertsith, S.; Laetoheem, C. E.; Sawangkeaw, R. 2014. Continuous Production of Biodiesel in Supercritical Ethanol: A Comparative Study between Refined and Used Palm Olein Oils as Feedstocks. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 25(9) 1746-1753

    Biodiesel production from refined palm olein (RPO) and used palm olein (UPO) oils in supercritical ethanol was comparatively investigated in a continuous reactor. After use of RPO for chicken frying, levels of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased by 10 and 5%, respectively. The optimal conditions for both oils were 300 degrees C, 30 MPa and 30:1 ethanol:oil molar ratio at 60 min of residence time. Although the UFAs are inactive and sensitive to thermal degradation, the FFA in UPO catalyzed the reactions in supercritical ethanol at the same time. Due to the antagonistic effect of UFAs and FFA, the maximum ester content of UPO biodiesel (73%) was slightly lower than for RPO biodiesel (80%). The other compounds in resultant biodiesel were unreacted glycerides, mainly mono- and di-glycerides. Furthermore, UPO reaction reached equilibrium faster than RPO reaction due to the catalytic effect of FFA.
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  101. Continuous transesterification to produce biodiesel under HTCC/Na2SiO3/NWF composite catalytic membrane in flow-through membrane reactor
    Abstract

    Luo, Q. L.; He, B. Q.; Liang, M. Z.; Kong, A. Q.; Li, J. X. 2017. Continuous transesterification to produce biodiesel under HTCC/Na2SiO3/NWF composite catalytic membrane in flow-through membrane reactor. Fuel. 19751-57

    A novel polymer-based alkaline composite catalytic membrane (PACCM) for the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol in a flow-through mode, was prepared with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan chloride supported into polypropylene non-woven fabric by nonsolvent induced phase separation. The transesterification with a conversion of above 97.0% was achieved under the PACCMs in a membrane reactor under a molar ratio of methanol/soybean oil of 9: 1 and residence time of 3913 s at 60 degrees C. External mass-transfer resistance in the PACCM could be neglected when the flow rate was beyond 1.0 ml min(-1). The transesterification in the membrane reactor was kinetically controlled. The PACCMs showed a good catalytic activity and stability. And the PACCMs could tolerate less than 3.0 wt.% water or less than 1.5 wt.% FFA in the feedstock at which the conversion reached above 90%. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  102. Conversion of Agro-industrial Wastes by Serratia marcescens UCP/WFCC 1549 into Lipids Suitable for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Montero-Rodriguez, D.; Andrade, R. F. S.; Lima, R. A.; Silva, G. K. B.; Rubio-Ribeaux, D.; Silva, T. A.; Araujo, H. W. C.; Campos-Takaki, G. M. 2016. Conversion of Agro-industrial Wastes by Serratia marcescens UCP/WFCC 1549 into Lipids Suitable for Biodiesel Production. 5th International Symposium on Industrial Biotechnology (Ibic 2016). 49307-312

    Biodiesel has been becoming one of the most promising biofuels for global fuels market in recent years, due to the depletion of global petroleum and its increasing price. Researchers exploit oleaginous microorganisms as an alternative for biodiesel production. Currently, they are focused on reducing the production costs and searching waste materials as substrates. This study aimed to investigate the ability of Serratia marcescens UCP/WFCC 1549 to produce lipids using agro-industrial residues (cassava wastewater and waste vegetable oils), either alone or as additives of Luria Bertani (LB) medium. S. marcescens demonstrated that have good ability for growth in all media employed, mainly in LB medium supplemented with waste vegetable oils. However, the best results for lipids production were obtained in media consisting only by wastes, with values higher than 40% of lipids in biomass. In media comprising only residues, more balanced profiles of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were found, in terms of the proportion of saturated, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFAs, MUFAs and PUFAs, respectively). The best result was obtained in lipids produced in medium containing 6 % cassava wastewater (CW) and 7.5 % waste soybean oil (WSO), which had the highest percentage of MUFAs (48.09 %), in accordance with the standards for biodiesel quality. In addition, a high content of oleic acid (46.82 %) was achieved in this medium, showing S. marcescens UCP/WFCC 1549 as an oleaginous microorganism that can be used as potential feedstock for producing good quality biodiesel. Also, this work demonstrated the suitability of CW and waste vegetable oils for microbial lipids production.
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  103. Conversion of corn stover alkaline pre-treatment waste streams into biodiesel via Rhodococci
    Abstract

    Le, R. K.; Wells, T.; Das, P.; Meng, X. Z.; Stoklosa, R. J.; Bhalla, A.; Hodge, D. B.; Yuan, J. S.; Ragauskas, A. J. 2017. Conversion of corn stover alkaline pre-treatment waste streams into biodiesel via Rhodococci. Rsc Advances. 7(7) 4108-4115

    The bioconversion of second-generation cellulosic ethanol waste streams into biodiesel via oleaginous bacteria is a novel optimization strategy for biorefineries with substantial potential for rapid development. In this study, one-and two-stage alkali/alkali-peroxide pretreatment waste streams of corn stover were separately implemented as feedstocks in 96 h batch reactor fermentations with wild-type Rhodococcus opacus PD 630, R. opacus DSM 1069, and R. jostii DSM 44719T. Here we show using P-31-NMR, HPAEC-PAD, and SEC analyses, that the more rigorous and chemically-efficient two-stage chemical pretreatment effluent provided higher concentrations of solubilized glucose and lower molecular weight (similar to 70-300 g mol(-1)) lignin degradation products thereby enabling improved cellular density, viability, and oleaginicity in each respective strain. The most significant yields were by R. opacus PD 630, which converted 6.2% of organic content with a maximal total lipid production of 1.3 g L-1 and accumulated 42.1% in oils based on cell dry weight after 48 h.
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  104. Conversion of dried Aspergillus candidus mycelia grown on waste whey to biodiesel by in situ acid transesterification
    Abstract

    Kakkad, H.; Khot, M.; Zinjarde, S.; RaviKumar, A.; Kumar, V. R.; Kulkarni, B. D. 2015. Conversion of dried Aspergillus candidus mycelia grown on waste whey to biodiesel by in situ acid transesterification. Bioresource Technology. 197502-507

    This study reports optimization of the transesterification reaction step on dried biomass of an oleaginous fungus Aspergillus candidus grown on agro-dairy waste, whey. Acid catalyzed transesterification was performed and variables affecting esterification, viz., catalyst methanol and chloroform concentrations, temperature, time, and biomass were investigated. Statistical optimization of the transesterification reaction using Plackett-Burman Design showed biomass to be the predominant factor with a 12.5-fold increase in total FAME from 25.6 to 320 mg. Studies indicate that the transesterification efficiency in terms of conversion is favored by employing lower biomass loadings. A. candidus exhibited FAME profiles containing desirable saturated (30.2%), monounsaturated (31.5%) and polyunsaturated methyl esters (38.3%). The predicted and experimentally determined biodiesel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, cetane number, TAN, water content, total and free glycerol) were in accordance with international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) standards. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  105. Conversion of free fatty acids in low grade crude palm oil to methyl esters for biodiesel production using chromosulfuric acid
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Mjalli, F. S.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M.; AlNashef, I. M. 2013. Conversion of free fatty acids in low grade crude palm oil to methyl esters for biodiesel production using chromosulfuric acid. Bulgarian Chemical Communications. 45(3) 394-399

    In this study low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO) was proposed as a potential agro-industrial raw material for biodiesel production. Chromosulfuric acid was used as a new homogenous catalyst in the pre-treatment process to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content in LGCPO to the acceptable level for producing biodiesel via alkaline transesterification reaction. The results of esterification reaction showed that the FFA of LGCPO was reduced from 7.0 % to less than 1% using optimum operating conditions. The yield of the final product after the alkaline transesterification was 85% with 0.14 % FFA content and ester content 97.5% (mol mol(-1)) which meets the international standard quality specifications for biodiesel.
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  106. Conversion of lipid from food waste to biodiesel
    Abstract

    Karmee, S. K.; Linardi, D.; Lee, J.; Lin, C. S. 2015. Conversion of lipid from food waste to biodiesel. Waste Manag. 41169-73

    Depletion of fossil fuels and environmental problems are encouraging research on alternative fuels of renewable sources. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to be used as a substitute to the petroleum based diesel fuels. However, the cost of biodiesel production is high and is attributed mainly to the feedstock used which leads to the investigation of low cost feedstocks that are economically feasible. In this paper, we report on the utilization of lipid obtained from food waste as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Lipid from food waste was transesterified with methanol using base and lipase as catalysts. The maximum biodiesel yield was 100% for the base (KOH) catalyzed transesterification at 1:10M ratio of lipid to methanol in 2h at 60 degrees C. Novozyme-435 yielded a 90% FAME conversion at 40 degrees C and 1:5 lipid to methanol molar ratio in 24h. Lipid obtained from fungal hydrolysis of food waste is found to be a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  107. Conversion of lipid from food waste to biodiesel
    Abstract

    Karmee, S. K.; Linardi, D.; Lee, J.; Lin, C. S. K. 2015. Conversion of lipid from food waste to biodiesel. Waste Management. 41169-173

    Depletion of fossil fuels and environmental problems are encouraging research on alternative fuels of renewable sources. Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to be used as a substitute to the petroleum based diesel fuels. However, the cost of biodiesel production is high and is attributed mainly to the feedstock used which leads to the investigation of low cost feedstocks that are economically feasible. In this paper, we report on the utilization of lipid obtained from food waste as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Lipid from food waste was transesterified with methanol using base and lipase as catalysts. The maximum biodiesel yield was 100% for the base (KOH) catalyzed transesterification at 1:10 M ratio of lipid to methanol in 2 h at 60 degrees C. Novozyme-435 yielded a 90% FAME conversion at 40 degrees C and 1:5 lipid to methanol molar ratio in 24 h. Lipid obtained from fungal hydrolysis of food waste is found to be a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  108. Conversion of Solid Organic Wastes into Oil via Boettcherisca peregrine (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) Larvae and Optimization of Parameters for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Yang, S.; Li, Q.; Zeng, Q. L.; Zhang, J. B.; Yu, Z. I.; Liu, Z. D. 2012. Conversion of Solid Organic Wastes into Oil via Boettcherisca peregrine (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) Larvae and Optimization of Parameters for Biodiesel Production. Plos One. 7(9)

    The feedstocks for biodiesel production are predominantly from edible oils and the high cost of the feedstocks prevents its large scale application. In this study, we evaluated the oil extracted from Boettcherisca peregrine larvae (BPL) grown on solid organic wastes for biodiesel production. The oil contents detected in the BPL converted from swine manure, fermentation residue and the degreased food waste, were 21.7%, 19.5% and 31.1%, respectively. The acid value of the oil is 19.02 mg KOH/g requiring a two-step transesterification process. The optimized process of 12:1 methanol/oil (mol/mol) with 1.5% H2SO4 reacted at 70 degrees C for 120 min resulted in a 90.8% conversion rate of free fatty acid (FFA) by esterification, and a 92.3% conversion rate of triglycerides into esters by alkaline transesterification. Properties of the BPL oil-based biodiesel are within the specifications of ASTM D6751, suggesting that the solid organic waste-grown BPL could be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  109. Conversion of waste cooking oil to biodiesel using ferric sulfate and supercritical methanol processes
    Abstract

    Patil, P.; Deng, S. G.; Rhodes, J. I.; Lammers, P. J. 2010. Conversion of waste cooking oil to biodiesel using ferric sulfate and supercritical methanol processes. Fuel. 89(2) 360-364

    In this comparative study, conversion of waste cooking oil to methyl esters was carried out using the ferric sulfate and the supercritical methanol processes. A two-step transesterification process was used to remove the high free fatty acid contents in the waste cooking oil (WCO). This process resulted in a feedstock to biodiesel conversion yield of about 85-96% using a ferric sulfate catalyst. In the supercritical methanol transesterification method, the yield of biodiesel was about 50-65% in only 15 min of reaction time. The test results revealed that supercritical process method is probably a promising alternative method to the traditional two-step transesterification process using a ferric sulfate catalyst for waste cooking oil conversion. The important variables affecting the methyl ester yield during the transesterification reaction are the molar ratio of alcohol to oil, the catalyst amount and the reaction temperature. The analysis of oil properties, fuel properties and process parameter optimization for the waste cooking oil conversion are also presented. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  110. Conversion of Waste Cooking Oil to Biodiesel via Enzymatic Hydrolysis Followed by Chemical Esterification
    Abstract

    Talukder, M. M. R.; Wu, J. C.; Chua, L. P. L. 2010. Conversion of Waste Cooking Oil to Biodiesel via Enzymatic Hydrolysis Followed by Chemical Esterification. Energy & Fuels. 242016-2019

    Biodiesel (BD) is usually produced by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis of expensive edible oils. Although waste cooking oils (WCO) containing high free fatty acid (FFA) are inexpensive, they cannot be processed effectively by alkali catalysis because of the formation of soap, which reduces the BD yield and makes the downstream process complicated. A process consisting of enzymatic hydrolysis followed by chemical esterification was developed for the production of BD from WCO. The enzyme Candida rugosa lipase was used for the hydrolysis of WCO to fatty acid (FA). The complete conversion of WCO to FA was achieved after 10 h at a water to WCO ratio of 1:1 (v/v), 5 g of WCO, 5 mL of lipase-water solution (0.5 g/L), and temperature of 30 degrees C. After hydrolysis, FA was separated and converted to BD by chemical esterification using Amberlyst 15 (acidic styrene-divinylbenzene sulfonated ion-exchange resin) as a catalyst. The maximum BD yield of 99% was obtained after 2 h at a methanol to FA molar ratio of 4: l, 10 mL of FA isooctane solution (0.35 M), 1 g of Amberlyst 15, and temperature of 60 degrees C. The activity of C. rugosa lipase slightly decreased with recycling, and FA yield after five cycles was 92%. Amberlyst 15 was repeatedly used for 100 cycles without loosing its activity. The developed two-step process has a potential to be used industrially as it can tolerate feedstocks containing a wide range of FFA and water.
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  111. Conversion of waste produced by the deodorization of palm oil as feedstock for the production of biodiesel using a catalyst prepared from waste material
    Abstract

    do Nascimento, L. A. S.; Angelica, R. S.; da Costa, C. E. F.; Zamian, J. R.; da Rocha, G. N. 2011. Conversion of waste produced by the deodorization of palm oil as feedstock for the production of biodiesel using a catalyst prepared from waste material. Bioresource Technology. 102(17) 8314-8317

    The distillate produced by deodorization of palm oil (DDPO) is a waste that corresponds to 4% of the product formed in this process. DDPO is 83% free of fatty acids (FFA), making it a good material for biodiesel production. In this paper, a catalyst prepared from a waste material. Amazon flint kaolin, was used for the esterification of DDPO with methanol. Leached metakaolin treated at 950 degrees C and activated with 4 M sulfuric acid (labeled as MF9S4) offered maximum esterification activity (92.8%) at 160 degrees C with a DDPO:methanol molar ratio of 1:60 and a 4-h reaction time. The influences of reaction parameters, such as the molar ratio of the reactants, alcohol chain length, temperature, time and the presence of glycerides and unsaponifiable matter, have also been investigated. Based on the catalytic results, esterification of DDPO using MF9S4 can be a cheaper alternative for production of sustainable fuels. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  112. Conversion of wastewater organics into biodiesel feedstock through the predator-prey interactions between phagotrophic microalgae and bacteria
    Abstract

    Li, C.; Ju, L. K. 2014. Conversion of wastewater organics into biodiesel feedstock through the predator-prey interactions between phagotrophic microalgae and bacteria. Rsc Advances. 4(83) 44026-44029

    We herein report a new route of cultivating phagotrophic microalgae with wastewater for biodiesel feedstock production. A continuous-flow process has been developed, through which organic matter of wastewater is first converted into the biomass of bacteria and then the bacteria are consumed by phagotrophic microalgae for growth and lipid production.
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  113. Co-solvent ethanolysis of chicken waste: Optimization of parameters and characterization of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Fadhil, A. B.; Saeed, I. K.; Saeed, L. I.; Altamer, M. H. 2016. Co-solvent ethanolysis of chicken waste: Optimization of parameters and characterization of biodiesel. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(19) 2883-2890

    Fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) was developed from chicken waste. A blend of chicken fat and waste chicken oil was used as a feedstock for FAEE preparation via alkali-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol assisted by a co-solvent. Hexane was used as the co-solvent. The influences of alkali catalyst type and concentration, ethanol/blend molar ratio, hexane/ethanol volume ratio, temperature, time, and type of co-solvent on the yield of FAEE were investigated. The best yield of FAEE (96.94%similar to 96.78% w/w ester content) was obtained at 0.75% KOH w/w, 8:1 ethanol/blend molar ratio, 1.5:1 hexane/ethanol volume ratio, 60 degrees C temperature, and 60 min of reaction. The fuel properties of FAEE produced as well as its blends with petro diesel were within the range of those prescribed by ASTM D 6751 standards, indicating its suitability as fuel for combustion engines. It was concluded that the presence of co-solvent increased the yield of FAEE and enhanced its properties compared to FAEE produced via non-solvent processes. The process was found to follow first-order kinetics, and the activation energy was found to be 13.31 kJ/mol.
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  114. Design and control of a biodiesel production process using sugar catalyst for oil feedstock with different free fatty acid concentrations.
    Abstract

    Cheng, J. K.; Chao, C. C.; Ward, J. D.; Chien, I. L. 2014. Design and control of a biodiesel production process using sugar catalyst for oil feedstock with different free fatty acid concentrations.. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 45(1) 76-84

    This manuscript reports on the plant-wide design arid control of a biodiesel process using a sugar catalyst. This catalyst is less expensive and more environmentally friendly than the conventional catalyst because it does not have to be neutralized and there is no resulting waste salt. Also, the acid catalyst can be used for simultaneous esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) and transesterification of triglyceride because there is no concern about the formation of soap, which is a problem with the conventional base catalyst. Two issues are addressed in this work. The first one is to find the effect of FFA content in oil feed to the optimal design of this process. The second one is to investigate the operability of the proposed process. The results show that total annual cost of the plant-wide process is not significantly changed when the FFA content greater than 15 wt%. As compared to a two-step process in literature, the energy consumption per tons of biodiesel production of our proposed process gives significant 65.8% saving for an oil feed with 5 wt% FFA. Dynamic simulations demonstrate that the proposed process can accommodate production rate and feed composition changes using a decentralized plant-wide control structure. 2013 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  115. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters
    Abstract

    Ozsezen, A. N.; Canakci, M. 2011. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters. Energy Conversion and Management. 52(1) 108-116

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  116. Developing Sustainable Chemical Processes to Utilize Waste Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Jernigan, R.; Hansrote, S.; Ramey, K.; Richardson, L.; Seay, J. 2010. Developing Sustainable Chemical Processes to Utilize Waste Crude Glycerol from Biodiesel Production. Design for Energy and the Environment. 361-369

    Biodiesel is becoming increasingly important as a renewable motor fuel. However, the production of biodiesel also generates a substantial quantity of glycerol as a side product. Recent trends in biodiesel production have led to increased interest in processes utilizing this glycerol side product. Finding uses for this glycerol will not only improve the profitability of biodiesel, it also will increase the overall carbon utilization of the process. Therefore, the focus of this research is to layout the groundwork for a research program based on identifying the most cost effective routes for generating industrially important C3 compounds utilizing bio-based glycerol as a feedstock.
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  117. Development and characterization of biodiesel from shea nut butter
    Abstract

    Enweremadu, C. C.; Alamu, O. J. 2010. Development and characterization of biodiesel from shea nut butter. International Agrophysics. 24(1) 29-34

    Shea nut butter was extracted from shea nut by cold press method and was investigated as feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel yield was used to verify the optimization, while density and viscosity were chosen to serve as an indicator for the effectiveness and completeness of the ester conversion process. Based on the amount of shea butter used, the final product yield obtained was 94.55% mass and the percentage conversion of FFA in shea butter to biodiesel was 92.3% using a methanol/oil ratio of 6: 1 and 1.0% mass KOH at 60 min and 55 degrees C, respectively. The important properties of the biodiesel (density, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, pour point, cetane number, neutralization number, iodine value, methyl ester content and high heating value) were compared to those of ASTM and EN standards for biodiesel. The comparison shows that the shea butter methyl ester could be used as an alternative to diesel.
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  118. Development of eggshell derived catalyst for transesterification of used cooking oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Navajas, A.; Issariyakul, T.; Arzamendi, G.; Gandia, L. M.; Dalai, A. K. 2013. Development of eggshell derived catalyst for transesterification of used cooking oil for biodiesel production. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering. 8(5) 742-748

    The major drawback that prevents commercialization of biodiesel is the high cost of vegetable oil feedstock. In this work, used cooking oil, which is much less expensive than fresh vegetable oil, is used as an alternative raw material. Prior to transesterification reaction, esterification was conducted and catalyzed homogeneously to eliminate free fatty acid. Heterogeneous catalyst derived from cheap and easily obtained egg-shell (industrial waste) was used for transesterification reaction. A 100% ester yield was obtained at the optimized reaction conditions, which is 5h of reaction duration, 24:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 4wt% catalyst loading. (c) 2013 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  119. Double the biodiesel yield: Rearing black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, on solid residual fraction of restaurant waste after grease extraction for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Zheng, L. Y.; Li, Q.; Zhang, J. B.; Yu, Z. N. 2012. Double the biodiesel yield: Rearing black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens, on solid residual fraction of restaurant waste after grease extraction for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy. 4175-79

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative diesel fuel which has increased worldwide public interest in a number of countries including China. But the high cost of producing biodiesel from feedstock, predominately food grade oils, limited its economic feasibility. An alternative of using grease extracted from restaurant waste to produce biodiesel is a potential low cost approach. However, this approach generates a significant large quantity of solid residual fraction which required proper disposal. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of a secondary biodiesel production from the solid residual fraction of restaurant waste after typical grease extraction (SRF) employing a high fat containing insect, black soldier fly. Hermetia illucens. The SRF was sampled and fed to black soldier fly larvae. The resulting larval biomass was used for crude grease extraction by petroleum ether. The extracted crude grease was then converted into biodiesel by acid-catalyzed (1% H2SO4) esterification and alkaline-catalyzed (0.8% NaOH) transesterification. About 23.6 g larval grease-based biodiesel was produced from approximately 1000 larvae grown on 1 kg of SRF. The weight of SRF was reduced by about 61.8% after being fed by the black soldier fly larvae for 7 days. The amount of biodiesel yield from restaurant waste was nearly doubled (original restaurant waste grease, 2.7%; larval grease, 2.4%). The major methyl ester components of the biodiesel derived from black soldier fly larvae fed on SRF were oleinic acid methyl ester (27.1%), lauric acid methyl ester (23.4%), and palmitic acid methyl ester (18.2%). Most of the properties of this biodiesel met the specifications of the standard EN 14214, including density (860 kg/m(3)), viscosity (4.9 mm(2)/s), flash point (128 degrees C), cetane number (58) and ester contents (96.9%). These results indicated that black soldier fly larval biomass obtained from larvae reared on SRF could potentially be used as a non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. This approach not only enhances the efficiency of biodiesel production from restaurant waste, it also helps to better manage and significantly reduce the large quantity of solid residual fraction produced during the process of biodiesel production using restaurant waste. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  120. Dual-functionality ionic liquidmix for extraction and esterification of fatty acids as a step towards increasing the efficiency of conversion of waste cooking oils to biodiesel
    Abstract

    Grimes, S. M.; Kewcharoenwong, P. 2017. Dual-functionality ionic liquidmix for extraction and esterification of fatty acids as a step towards increasing the efficiency of conversion of waste cooking oils to biodiesel. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 92(8) 2098-2105

    BACKGROUND: The increasing value of pure vegetable oils has made the use of waste cooking oils an attractive alternative feedstock for biodiesel production but the presence of free fatty acids in the waste significantly reduces efficiency of the conversion.
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  121. Dynamical modeling for biodiesel production from grease trap wastes
    Abstract

    Aguilar-Garnica, E.; Rodriguez-Palomera, F.; Garcia-Sandoval, J. P.; Escalante, F. M. E. 2014. Dynamical modeling for biodiesel production from grease trap wastes. Chemical Engineering Science. 117396-406

    Grease trap wastes have been recently considered as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to its relatively low cost and availability. These wastes are characterized by a high content of free fatty acids (FFA) and then, its processing towards biodiesel requires an esterification. In this paper, a dynamical model for the esterification of grease trap wastes was constructed. Specifically, this process has been conducted within a continuous stirred tank reactor. Almost all the parameters contained in the dynamical model were deduced from a series of batch temperature-controlled esterification experiments and from thermodynamic essays. The rest of the model parameters have been successfully estimated by means of a proposed algorithm that combines the notion of sensitivity with the Levenberg-Marquardt procedure. This regression procedure provides the estimates in spite of load and temperature variations and processing low-cost measurements. Finally, the proposed dynamical model has been validated with the runs test. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  122. Ecological evaluation of processes based on by-products or waste from agriculture: Life cycle assessment of biodiesel from tallow and used vegetable oil
    Abstract

    Niederl, A.; Narodoslawsky, M. 2006. Ecological evaluation of processes based on by-products or waste from agriculture: Life cycle assessment of biodiesel from tallow and used vegetable oil. Feedstocks for the Future: Renewables for the Production of Chemicals and Materials. 921239-252

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an increasingly important evaluation tool for decision making and stakeholder discussion New methodological aspects arising with the application of LCA on products from renewable resources that are by-products or waste of other processes are reflected on the basis of a LCA of biodiesel from tallow (TME) and used vegetable oil (UVO) Two different impact assessment methods (Sustainable Process Index SPI and CML-method) show largely concordant results The SPI gives 'a bigger picture" of the environmental impacts and will be helpful in decision making Depending on the setting of system boundaries the ecological footprint (SPI) is between -1,2 to 4,8 m(2)a/MJ for UVO, between 0,85 to 8,3 m(2)a/MJ for TME compared to 26,1 m(2)a/MJ for fossil diesel.
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  123. Economic Aspects of Biodiesel Production from Tannery Waste Fats
    Abstract

    Kolomaznik, K.; Pecha, J.; Barinova, M.; Sanek, L. 2010. Economic Aspects of Biodiesel Production from Tannery Waste Fats. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association. 105(10) 327-333

    The present high price for biodiesel results from the high prices of it's main feedstock-soybean (USA) and canola oil (Europe). The potential profit from the utilization of low cost tannery fat wastes for biodiesel production depends on the processing costs of the pre-treatment technology; which includes their refining and esterification of free fatty acids. A suitable ratio of tetramethylammonium hydroxide, which is used as an alkali esterification agent of free fatty acids and simultaneously as a transesterification catalyst, enables making biodiesel production from tannery waste feedstock economically profitable. Optimization of the pre-treatment technology is presented using a proposed mathematical model. The final biodiesel properties can be improved by its production from the blends of the waste fats with waste oils.
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  124. Effect of alkali catalyst on biodiesel production in South Korea from mixtures of fresh soybean oil and waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Primata, M.; Seo, Y. C.; Chu, Y. H. 2013. Effect of alkali catalyst on biodiesel production in South Korea from mixtures of fresh soybean oil and waste cooking oil. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 15(2) 223-228

    Biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) and soybean oil (SO) mixture was produced by changing the alkali catalyst (NaOH) content and the WCO to SO ratio in the feedstock. All the prepared biodiesel samples satisfied the standard requirement in terms of free glycerol, density, and acid value. The minimum catalyst content and the highest WCO composition to get biodiesel from the WCO/SO mixture feedstock without ruining the biodiesel properties were 1.0 and 60 wt %, respectively. This conclusion implies that the waste cooking oil mixture, which contains 40 wt % fresh soybean oil, could be treated like the fresh soybean oil to produce biodiesel, and that this behavior would be helpful to reduce the biodiesel production cost when waste cooking oil used as feedstock. The unsaturated methyl esters such as linoleic, and oleic acid were dominant (almost 80 % w/w) in the fresh soybean oil. However the saturated methyl ester was increased due to the double bond breaking during the frying process. These results may deteriorate the biodiesel quality by changing the methyl ester composition.
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  125. Effect of Biodiesel-Derived Waste Glycerol Impurities on Biomass and 1,3-Propanediol Production of Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718
    Abstract

    Chatzifragkou, A.; Dietz, D.; Komaitis, M.; Zeng, A. P.; Papanikolaou, S. 2010. Effect of Biodiesel-Derived Waste Glycerol Impurities on Biomass and 1,3-Propanediol Production of Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 107(1) 76-84

    Aim of the present study was to assess and evaluate the impact of various kinds of impurities of biodiesel-derived raw glycerol feedstock, upon microbial growth and 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) production by Clostridium butyricum. Preliminary trials in 200-mL anaerobic bottles revealed that the presence of NaCl at a concentration of 4.5% (w/w of glycerol) in growth medium imposed an evident inhibitory effect, in contrast with phosphoric salts. However, the application of NaCl at elevated quantities during batch bioreactor experiments [up to 30% (w/w of glycerol)], did neither affect the microbial growth, nor the 1,3-PDO production. Moreover, when oleic acid was added into the growth medium at 2% (w/w of glycerol), a total preclusion of the strain was observed. In order to further investigate whether the nature of oleic acid itself or the presence of the double bond induced the inhibitory phenomenon, stearic acid was added into the medium at the same concentration (2%, w/w, of glycerol). Indeed, no inhibitory effect was observed in the fermentor, suggesting that the presence of the double bond may play a key role in the growth behavior of the microorganism. Finally, methanol effect was tested in batch and continuous bioreactor operations. Interestingly enough, the alcohol addition did not affect the microbial bioconversion of glycerol into 1,3-PDO, even when imposed at relatively high concentrations (10%, w/w, of glycerol) in batch-bioreactor operations. In continuous experiments, methanol was added when steady state had been achieved, and although in one case high concentration was added into the chemostat (5 g/L), the system re-obtained a steady state without indications of negative effect upon biomass production due to the alcohol. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2010; 107: 76-84. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  126. The Effect of Concentrations and Volumes of Methano in Reducing Free Fatty Acid Content of Used Cooking Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Julianto, T. S.; Suratmi 2017. The Effect of Concentrations and Volumes of Methano in Reducing Free Fatty Acid Content of Used Cooking Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock. International Conference on Chemistry, Chemical Process and Engineering (Ic3pe) 2017. 1823

    The research on purification of used cooking oil as biodiesel feedstock has been done. Refining was performed using methanol with varied concentrations and volumes. A total of 10 grams of used cooking oil was extracted using methanol with a variation concentration of 100%, 70%, 50% and 30%, and a variation of volume 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mL. After extraction, the free fatty acids contents of the extracted oil were analyzed. The results showed that pure methanol has the highest ability to reduce the content of free fatty acid with a percentage of reduction for 89.23%. The optimum ratio of used cooking oil and methanol is about 1:15 (v/v).
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  127. Effect of co-solvent on biodiesel production using calcium aluminium oxide as a reusable catalyst and waste vegetable oil
    Abstract

    Singh, V.; Yadav, M.; Sharma, Y. C. 2017. Effect of co-solvent on biodiesel production using calcium aluminium oxide as a reusable catalyst and waste vegetable oil. Fuel. 203360-369

    Calcium aluminium oxide (Ca2Al2O5) was synthesized via solid state method by using calcium carbonate and alumina calcined at 900 degrees C. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by TGA, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and BET. The particle size analysis and basicity test were also conducted. The catalyst was used for production of biodiesel using waste vegetable oil (WVO) as feedstock and methanol through transesterification. Acetone was used and reported as a co-solvent for the first time for synthesis of biodiesel. Effect of cosolvents on reaction parameters has been gaining concern for improvement of transesterification reaction. The reaction parameters such as weight (%) of co-solvent, molar ratio (oil: methanol), catalyst concentration, reaction time, temperature, and reusability of catalyst were studied. Highest conversion (97.98%) of biodiesel was obtained at 20 wt% of acetone, 1: 6 M ratio (oil: methanol), 1.2 wt% calcium aluminate at 55 +/- 1 degrees C for 25 min of reaction time. Calcium aluminate could be reused up to eight cycles with > 75% FAME conversion at this cycle. Composition of crude WVO and respective FAME was analysed by GCMS technique. Physico-chemical properties of FAME such as acid value, cetane number, calorific value, flash point, fire point, viscosity, density, cloud point, pour point and ash content were evaluated and were found to be within ASTM standards. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  128. The effect of flux and residence time in the production of biodiesel from various feedstocks using a membrane reactor
    Abstract

    Falahati, H.; Tremblay, A. Y. 2012. The effect of flux and residence time in the production of biodiesel from various feedstocks using a membrane reactor. Fuel. 91(1) 126-133

    Biodiesel produced from lipid sources is a clean-burning, biodegradable, nontoxic fuel that is free of aromatic hydrocarbons. Current biodiesel production processes are tedious and involve two to three reaction steps each followed by separation and purification. Process integration of reaction and separation in a single step within a membrane reactor (MR) offers several advantages over conventional reactors.
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  129. Effect of the Type of Bean, Processing, and Geographical Location on the Biodiesel Produced from Waste Coffee Grounds
    Abstract

    Jenkins, R. W.; Stageman, N. E.; Fortune, C. M.; Chuck, C. J. 2014. Effect of the Type of Bean, Processing, and Geographical Location on the Biodiesel Produced from Waste Coffee Grounds. Energy & Fuels. 28(2) 1166-1174

    Waste coffee grounds offer a viable waste feedstock for biodiesel production. Approximately 8 million tonnes of coffee are produced globally each year and contain up to 15 wt % lipid, of which the glyceride portion is predominantly made up of palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. In this investigation, the variation in the oil content, saponifiable lipids, and lipid profile according to the regional location and processing or brewing techniques was assessed. A number of key fuel properties were also investigated. The oil content for fresh coffee grounds (FCGs) ranged from 11 to 15% across the range of coffees examined. Spent coffee grounds (SCGs) had slightly reduced levels of lipid, between 7 and 13 wt %, for the coffees under investigation. The lipids contained between 0 and 40% unsaponifiable material, which could not be processed to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). For all samples, with the exception of Vietnamese coffee, the FAME profile of the resulting biodiesel was consistent; the oils contained between 35 and 40% palmitic acid, between 7 and 8% oleic acid, between 44 and 50% linolenic acid, and between 7 and 8% stearic acid, although the fuel properties were reasonably variable across the data set. The kinematic viscosity ranged between 4.0 and 5.5 mm(2) s(-1); the density ranged between 841 and 927 kg m(-3); and the pour point ranged between -1 and 16 degrees C. This variation was also observed in previous reports, suggesting that these fuel properties are not solely determined by the FAME profile but other lipid-soluble biomolecules present in the coffee biodiesel.
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  130. The effect of washing process on fuel properties in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Celik, M.; Kahraman, A.; Acaroglu, M. 2012. The effect of washing process on fuel properties in biodiesel production. Energy Education Science and Technology Part a-Energy Science and Research. 29(2) 973-978

    The importance of fuel for world's economy and politics is an undebetable truth. Rapid decrease of world's energy resources made this unrenewable energy resource strategic. Since traditional fossil energy resources are limited and greenhouse gas emissions are becoming a greater concern, research is now being directed towards the use of alternative renewable fuels that are capable of fulfilling an increasing energy demand. One of the more promising approaches is the conversion of vegetable oils (VOs) and other feedstocks, which primarily contain triglycerides (TGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), into biodiesel.The quality of biodiesel is related to the oil, catalyst type and quantity, methanol's oil/molar rate, reaction heat and time, purity and property of alcahols, production method, quality of washing phase, decomposition of glycerin and store conditions. In this study, raw biodiesel derived from refined cottonseed oil by transesterification has obtained biodiesel by washing with distillated pure water (DW) and deionizationed water (DEW). Physical-chemical properties of biodiesel and the effect of washing processes to the fuel properties are investigated.
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  131. Effect of wastewater irrigation on biodiesel quality and productivity from castor and sunflower oil seeds
    Abstract

    Tsoutsos, T.; Chatzakis, M.; Sarantopoulos, I.; Nikologiannis, A.; Pasadakis, N. 2013. Effect of wastewater irrigation on biodiesel quality and productivity from castor and sunflower oil seeds. Renewable Energy. 57211-215

    Since biofuels are capturing a significant share in the energy consumption pattern, serious concerns have been declared regarding the impacts of biofuel production on environmental quality. One environmental aspect that has gained attention, is the significant water consumption for cultivations of biofuel crops and it is strictly related to the water scarcity encountered in many regions as a result of climate change, so alternative water sources such as wastewater can be exploited. The purpose of this paper is to study the use of wastewater as irrigation feedstock for cultivations of sunflower and castor crops and to track the effect of critical parameters on oil and biodiesel quality. Parameters such as oil yield, acid value, density and viscosity were measured and it was observed that wastewater irrigation can have a positive impact on oil's quality for biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  132. Effect of Water on the Pre-Esterification of Jatropha curcas L. Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Liu, Y. Y.; Lu, H. F.; Liang, B. 2009. Effect of Water on the Pre-Esterification of Jatropha curcas L. Oil for Biodiesel Production. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 3(4) 342-347

    The pre-esterification process was used in the production of biodiesel to reduce the acidity of Jatropha curcas L. oil feedstock before the alkali catalyzed transesterification unit. The contents of water greatly affect the esterification reaction, in which sulfuric acid is often used as a catalyst. The equilibrium conversion and the kinetic data were measured. The results showed that the conversion of free fatty acid (FFA) increased rapidly with increasing molar ratio of methanol/FFA, but the increase slowed down when the molar ratio reached 10:1. Water remarkably lowered the catalytic activity of sulfuric acid due to the reduction of proton concentration and acid strength. According to the catalytic reaction routine, the protonation of carboxylic oxygen is a rate determining step and the rate is directly proportional to the proton concentration. The reaction rate can be expressed as: r = kc(FFA)
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  133. Effective Parameters on Biodiesel Production from Feather fat oil as a Cost-Effective Feedstock
    Abstract

    Abdoli, M. A.; Mohamadi, F.; Ghobadian, B.; Fayyazi, E. 2014. Effective Parameters on Biodiesel Production from Feather fat oil as a Cost-Effective Feedstock. International Journal of Environmental Research. 8(1) 139-148

    Using low-cost feedstocks such as rendered animal fats in biodiesel production willreducebiodieselexpenditures. One of the low-cost feedstocksfor biodiesel production could be the fat extracted from poultry feathers producedin slaughterhouses abundantly. This paper describes a new and environmentally friendly process for developing biodiesel production technology from feather waste produced in poultry industry. In this research the crude oil of poultry feather fat was extracted by soxhlet method using hexane as a solvent. The data resulted from gas chromatography (GC) revealed these percentages for fatty acid compositions: myristic acid (3%), palmitic acid (30%), stearic acid (22%), oleic acid (8.1%), linoleic acid (3%) and arachidonic acid (7%).In this experimental research, the effects of some parameters such as alcohol to oil molar ratio (4:1,6:1, 8:1), catalyst concentration (0.75,1 and 1.25% w/w) and the transesterification reaction time(40,60 and80min) on the percentage offatty acids conversioninto methyl ester(biodiesel) are studied. The results show increasing catalyst concentration up to 1% causes the oil to biodiesel conversion percentage having an upward trend and then adownward trend byincreasing catalyst concentration up to 1.25%. With increasing molar ratio from 4:1 to 6:1 and then 8:1, oil to biodiesel conversion percentage increased16% and2%, respectively. Ultimatelythe optimum point defined by response surface method (RSM) forproducing biodiesel from feather fat is calculated catalyst concentration of 1 wt%, 7.24:1 molar ratio and in 75 minutes resulting in conversion percentage of97.62%.
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  134. Effective synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil using betaine assisted nanoparticle heterogeneous catalyst from eggshell of Gallus domesticus
    Abstract

    Teo, S. H.; Islam, A.; Masoumi, H. R. F.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Janaun, J.; Chan, E. S.; Khaleque, M. A. 2017. Effective synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil using betaine assisted nanoparticle heterogeneous catalyst from eggshell of Gallus domesticus. Renewable Energy. 111892-905

    The recovery of waste as feedstock away from organizational limitations corresponds to a prospective supplementary revenue stream for the organization. A novel waste eggshell of Gallus domesticus derived superbasic nanocatalyst was synthesized through betaine amphoteric surfactant-assisted decomposition, adsorption and precipitation processes. By varied the duration synthesis of gel mixture, the morphology transformation from liquid-solid interconnected macro-size particles to regular spheroidal nano assemblies particles is detected. The surfactant at the liquid-solid interface facilitates the mono dispersion of nanoparticles by hindering growth of crystals. The average particle diameter of the produced superbasic nanocatalyst was in the range of 27-16 nm. The synthesized nanoparticle formation mechanism in the presence surfactant has also been addressed in this study. The catalytic activity of superbasic nanocatalyst was investigated for biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas oil KO) via glycerolysis and transesterification with methanol at atmospheric pressure. Artificial neural network (ANN) based on the genetic algorithm (GA) was applied for optimization of varied reaction parameters. It was observed that the reduction of acidity varied with varying reaction conditions. The highest fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield (97%) was obtained when the reaction was allowed to run at 60 degrees C for 300 min, while at 90 degrees C the maximal FAME yield of 98% was achieved after 120 min. The kinetic parameters of nanocatalyst were determined, and the reaction system followed pseudo first order kinetics. The results suggest that this two steps process using superbasic nanocatalyst affords a promising method to convert oils with high FFA level to biodiesel. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  135. Effects of Biodiesel Blending with Fossil Fuel on Flow Properties of Biodiesel Produced From Non-Edible Oils
    Abstract

    Kafuku, G.; Mbarawa, M. 2010. Effects of Biodiesel Blending with Fossil Fuel on Flow Properties of Biodiesel Produced From Non-Edible Oils. International Journal of Green Energy. 7(4) 434-444

    The cold flow properties of biodiesel from various feedstocks have been a challenge in adapting the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, especially in cold regions. The use of cold flow improvers for biodiesel helps using biodiesel in a wide range of temperature conditions. In this study, cold flow properties of biodiesel produced from non-edible feedstocks such as croton megalocarpus, jatropha curcas, and moringa oleifera oils were investigated. The evaluated properties were kinematic viscosity, cloud point, and pour point. Different transesterification methods were used to produce biodiesel from these feedstocks due to their difference in the level of free fatty acids (FFA). Croton and moringa oils were found with FFA levels of 1.68% and 0.6%, respectively; thus, one-step transesterification method was chosen for their methyl esters conversion. Jatropha oil was found with FFA level of 8.14% making a two-step acid-base transesterification method to be employed for its methyl esters conversion. The effect of water in the two-step acid-base transesterification process was also investigated for jatropha biodiesel production. The presence of water after acid pretreatment process of jatropha oil was found to reduce both product and methyl esters yield, the best option was to preheat the pretreated jatropha oil to 110 degrees C for 10 min to evaporate water that remain during gravity separation of methanol-water phase. Blending of biodiesels from these three feedstocks with kerosene improved their cold flow properties. The reduction of cloud and pour points from -4 degrees C and -9 degrees C to -11 degrees C and -15 degrees C, respectively, of croton biodiesel was observed when blended with 20% kerosene while cloud and pour points reduction from 1 degrees C and -2 degrees C to -7 degrees C and -12 degrees C, respectively, of jatropha biodiesel was observed when blended with 20% kerosene. Similarly, the reduction of cloud and pour points from 10 degrees C and 3 degrees C to -3 degrees C and -7 degrees C, respectively, of moringa biodiesel was observed when blended with 20% kerosene.
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  136. Efficient biodiesel production via solid superacid catalysis: a critical review on recent breakthrough
    Abstract

    Alaba, P. A.; Sani, Y. M.; Daud, W. M. A. W. 2016. Efficient biodiesel production via solid superacid catalysis: a critical review on recent breakthrough. Rsc Advances. 6(82) 78351-78368

    Biodiesel produced from triglycerides and/or free fatty acids (FFAs) by transesterification and esterification has attracted immense attention during the past decades as a biodegradable, renewable and sustainable fuel. Currently, the use of solid superacid catalysts has proved a more efficient and "green" approach due to avoidance of environmental and corrosion problems and reduced product purification procedures. However, it is less viable economically because the reusability is low due to the lack of a hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance in the reactions that involve the use of inedible feedstock with a high water content. Therefore, this study gives a critical review on recent strategies towards efficient and "green" production of biodiesel via solid superacid catalysis. The strategies discussed include alkyl-bridged organosilica moieties functionalized hybrid catalysis to improve the hydrothermal stability of superacid catalysts, pre- and in situ water removal, and process intensification via temperature profile reduction. The strategies enabled well-defined porosity and an excellent hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity balance, which suppressed deactivation by water and glycerol.
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  137. Efficient production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing waste oils using various carbohydrate-derived solid acid catalysts
    Abstract

    Lou, W. Y.; Zong, M. H.; Duan, Z. Q. 2008. Efficient production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing waste oils using various carbohydrate-derived solid acid catalysts. Bioresource Technology. 99(18) 8752-8758

    In the present study, such carbohydrate-derived catalysts have been prepared from various carbohydrates such as D-glucose, sucrose, cellulose and starch. The catalytic and textural properties of the prepared catalysts have been investigated in detail and it was found that the starch-derived catalyst had the best catalytic performance. The carbohydrate-derived catalysts exhibited substantially higher catalytic activities for both esterification and transesterification compared to the two typical solid acid catalysts (sulphated zirconia and Niobic acid), and gave markedly enhanced yield of methyl esters in converting waste cooking oils containing 27.8 wt% high free fatty acids (FFAs) to biodiesel. In addition, under the optimized reaction conditions, the starch-derived catalyst retained a remarkably high proportion (about 93%) of its original catalytic activity even after 50 cycles of successive re-use and thus displayed very excellent operational stability. Our results clearly indicate that the carbohydrate-derived catalysts, especially the starch-derived catalyst, are highly effective, recyclable, eco-friendly and promising solid acid catalysts that are highly suited to the production of biodiesel from waste oils containing high FFAs. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  138. Efficient production of biodiesel from low-cost feedstock using zinc oleate as catalyst
    Abstract

    Reinoso, D. M.; Damiani, D. E.; Tonetto, G. M. 2015. Efficient production of biodiesel from low-cost feedstock using zinc oleate as catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology. 13426-31

    In this study, the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by the transesterification of low-cost feedstock containing 10 and 22 wt.% free fatty acid (FFA), using zinc oleate (ZnOl) as catalyst, was investigated. The performance of the ZnOl salt in the reaction medium was evaluated in terms of activity and stability in the presence of free fatty acids. At 140 degrees C and 2 h of reaction time, triglyceride conversion was 100%, FAME yield was close to 95%, and fatty acid conversion was 75.9% and 82.6% for feedstock with 10 and 22 wt.% FFA, respectively. The zinc carboxylic salt was able to catalyze simultaneously the triglyceride transesterification and the fatty acid esterification reactions with high activity and selectivity under moderate operating conditions and slight FAME and triglycerides hydrolysis. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  139. Efficient production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate: One-pot esterification and transesterfication with compound lipases
    Abstract

    Zhu, Z. N.; Xu, L.; Zhang, H. J.; Yan, Y. J. 2013. Efficient production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate: One-pot esterification and transesterfication with compound lipases. Advances in Energy Science and Technology, Pts 1-4. 291-294267-275

    A novel concept and efficient method for producing biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate (RODD) was developed by using compound lipases for one-pot esterification of FFA and transesterification of triglyceride with methanol in a solvent-free system. Compound lipases Novozyme435 and immobilized Pseudomonas cepacia G63 at 1:1(wt/wt) gave FAME about 96% yield under optimal conditions, being better than that with single lipase or other compound lipases. Besides, the loss rate of vitamin E was 18% much lower than that of using chemical catalyst, which shows that the compound lipases Novozyme435 and immobilized P cepacia G63 can be ideal catalysts for biodiesel production from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate.
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  140. Efficient synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using solid acid catalyst comprising 12-tungstosilicic acid and SBA-15
    Abstract

    Narkhede, N.; Brahmkhatri, V.; Patel, A. 2014. Efficient synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using solid acid catalyst comprising 12-tungstosilicic acid and SBA-15. Fuel. 135253-261

    Biodiesel synthesis by transesterification of low-cost feedstock, waste cooking oil was carried out over 12-tungstosilicic acid anchored to SBA-15. The effect of different reaction parameters like % loading, catalyst amount, mole ratio, time and temperature were studied for the supreme conversion. The catalyst was recycled up to four times after simple work up without notable loss in the activity. The maximum conversion (86%) was achieved for waste cooking oil with oil: alcohol ratio of 1:8 w/w, catalyst amount of 0.3 g at 65 degrees C in 8 h. The detailed kinetic studies were also performed on the esterification of oleic acid in order to evaluate the activation energy (Ea) and rate constant (k). (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  141. Efficient two-step synthesis of biodiesel from greases
    Abstract

    Ngo, H. L.; Zafiropoulos, N. A.; Foglia, T. A.; Samulski, E. T.; Lin, W. B. 2008. Efficient two-step synthesis of biodiesel from greases. Energy & Fuels. 22(1) 626-634

    Biodiesel (BD) is an alternative diesel fuel derived from both vegetable oils and animal fats. Currently, most BD is made by alkali-catalyzed transesterification of a refined oil or fat, the cost of which is the major expenditure in producing BD. Yellow and brown greases are readily available renewable fats that are less expensive and hence represent attractive feedstocks for the production of BD. The high free fatty acid (FFA) content of these feedstocks, however, makes it difficult to produce BD using base-catalyzed transesterification. In this paper, we report the use of a series of diarylammonium catalysts that are-highly effective in catalyzing the esterification of the FFA present in greases (12-40 wt % FFA). At a catalyst loading of 2-3 mol %, high conversions of FFA to esters (95-99%) were achieved by treating the greases with 5-20 equiv of methanol at 95 degrees C for 2 h. The treated greases had a final FFA content of 0.5-1 wt %. We also incorporated these diarylammonium catalysts into insoluble porous polymers via free radical-initiated polymerization. The polymer-immobilized catalysts were found to be equally effective as their homogeneous counterparts in esterifying FFA to esters and were readily recycled and reused for esterification reactions upon reactivation with triflic acid. The resulting ester-glyceride mixtures were then readily converted to total esters by base-catalyzed transesterification. This two-step protocol provides an efficient procedure for the production of biodiesel from greases.
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  142. Energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions of biodiesel production from oil derived from wastewater and wastewater sludge
    Abstract

    Zhang, X. L.; Yan, S.; Tyagi, R. D.; Surampalli, R. Y. 2013. Energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions of biodiesel production from oil derived from wastewater and wastewater sludge. Renewable Energy. 55392-403

    It has been recognized that oils derived from microorganism and wastewater sludge are comparable replacements of traditional biodiesel production feedstock, which is energy intensive and costly. Energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are essential factors to assess the feasibility of the production. This study evaluated the energy balance and GHG emissions of biodiesel production from microbial and wastewater sludge oil. The results show that energy balance and GHG emissions of biodiesel produced from microbial oil are significantly impacted by the cultivation methods and carbon source. For phototrophic microorganism (microalgae), open pond system gives 3.6 GJ higher energy gain than photo bioreactor system in per tonne biodiesel produced. For heterotrophic microorganisms, the energy balance depends on the type of carbon source. Three carbon sources including starch, cellulose, and starch industry wastewater (SIW) used in this study showed that utilization of SW as carbon source provided the most favorable energy balance. When oil extracted from municipal sludge is used for biodiesel production, the energy gain is up to 29.7 GJ per tonne biodiesel produced, which is higher than the energy gain per tonne of biodiesel produced from SIW cultivated microbes. GHG emissions study shows that biodiesel production from microbes or sludge oil is a net carbon dioxide capture process except when starch is used as raw material for microbial oil production, and the highest capture is around 40 tonnes carbon dioxide per tonne of biodiesel produced. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  143. Engine and winter road test performances of used cooking oil originated biodiesel
    Abstract

    Cetinkaya, M.; Ulusoy, Y.; Tekin, Y.; Karaosmanoglu, F. 2005. Engine and winter road test performances of used cooking oil originated biodiesel. Energy Conversion and Management. 46(7-8) 1279-1291

    Biodiesel is a renewable and environmentally friendly alternative fuel that can be used in Diesel engines with little or no modification. Low cost feedstocks, such as waste oils. used cooking oil and animal fats, are important for low cost biodiesel production. The objective of this study was to investigate the engine performance and the road performance of biodiesel fuel originated from used cooking oil in a Renault Megane automobile and four stroke, four cylinder, F9Q732 code and 75 kW Renault Megane Diesel engine in winter conditions for 7500 km road tests in urban and long distance traffic. The results were compared to those of No. 2 Diesel fuel. The results indicated that the torque and brake power output obtained during the used cooking oil originated biodiesel application were 3-5 % less then those of No. 2 Diesel fuel. The engine exhaust gas temperature at each engine speed of biodiesel was less than that of No. 2 Diesel fuel. The injection pressures of both fuels were similar. Higher values of exhaust pressures were found for No. 2 Diesel fuel at each engine speed. As a result of the No. 2 Diesel fuel application, the engine injectors were normally carbonized. After the first period, as a result of winter conditions and insufficient combustion. carbonization of the injectors was observed with biodiesel usage. As a result of the second period, since the viscosity of the biodiesel was decreased, the injectors were observed to be cleaner. Also. no carbonization was observed on the surface of the cylinders and piston heads. The catalytic converter was plugged because of the viscosity in the first period. At the second period, no problem was observed with the catalytic converter. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  144. Enhancement of biodiesel potential in cyanobacteria: using agro-industrial wastes for fuel production, properties and acetyl CoA carboxylase D (accD) gene expression of Synechocystis sp.NN
    Abstract

    Jawaharraj, K.; Karpagam, R.; Ashokkumar, B.; Pratheeba, C. N.; Varalakshmi, P. 2016. Enhancement of biodiesel potential in cyanobacteria: using agro-industrial wastes for fuel production, properties and acetyl CoA carboxylase D (accD) gene expression of Synechocystis sp.NN. Renewable Energy. 9872-77

    In this study, two freshwater cyanobacteria, Oscillatoria sp. 50A and Synechocystis sp. NN have been evaluated for biodiesel production. Among the two cyanobacteria, Synechocystis sp. NN was isolated, identified by its 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Effects of sodium bicarbonate (SBC), tannery effluent (TE), coir pith (CP) and light stress (L1) on biomass and lipid production of Synechocystis sp. NN were studied. Result showed that maximum biomass productivity of 18.7 +/- 0.9 mg/L/day (1.9 folds) was observed in TE supplemented BG-11 media than normal BG-11 media. Meantime, maximum lipid productivity of 2.6 +/- 0.4 mg/L/day (1.4 folds) was observed in CP supplemented BG-11 media than normal media. Further, fatty acid composition analyses by GC MS showed that C16, C18:1 in Oscillatoria sp. 50A and C16, C20:1, C22:1 in Synechocystis sp. NN were predominant and the fuel properties were also in accordance with the international standards. Besides gene expression of acetyl CoA carboxylase D of Synechocystis sp. NN, analyzed by RT-PCR revealed that transcripts of accD were up-regulated by 1.2-4.7 folds in different media conditions. The findings of this study showed that Synechocystis sp. NN can be utilized as a suitable feedstock that is amenable for cultivation using wastes as nutrient source. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  145. Enhancement of lipid extraction for improved biodiesel recovery from the biodiesel promising microalga Scenedesmus obliquus
    Abstract

    Abomohra, A. E. F.; Jin, W. B.; El-Sheekh, M. 2016. Enhancement of lipid extraction for improved biodiesel recovery from the biodiesel promising microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Energy Conversion and Management. 10823-29

    During the transesterification of oil feedstock for biodiesel production, the reaction primarily happens at the ester bonds where the fatty acid chains meet the glycerol. Therefore, only esterified fatty acids (EFAs) are able to be turned directly into biodiesel by transesterification. In this study, an optimized procedure for EFAs recovery from the biodiesel promising microalga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied. The effect of different solvent mixtures (ratios), extraction times, pretreatments and cell-disruption methods on intracellular EFAs and free fatty acids (FFAs) yield was examined. Using of chloroform:methanol (C:M) 2:1 for 2 h was shown to be the best solvent mixture for lipid extraction which resulted in the highest EFAs yield. Furthermore, testing of different cell-disruption methods showed that cell-disruption is not essential for lipid extraction from S. obliquus cells. Although, microwave pretreatment showed significant increase in EFAs yield with respect to overnight oven drying at 80 degrees C, all showed insignificant differences to the control. Moreover, overnight cell freezing showed 7.7% significant reduction in EFAs yield with respect to the control, while hot-water treatment for 5 min showed significant increase by 13.7%. On the other hand, overnight cell incubation, in oven or freezing, resulted in significant increase in FFAs up to 7.44 and 12.47 mg g(-1) of the dry weight, respectively. In addition, the present study showed that no pretreatment with isopropanol to inactivate the lipases is needed when hot-water pretreatment is performed. This study suggested that hot-water pretreatment not only deactivate lipases, but also enhances the EFAs recovery. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  146. Enriched hydrogen production by bioconversion of biodiesel waste supplemented with ferric citrate and its nano-spray dried particles
    Abstract

    Sarma, S. J.; Brar, S. K.; Reigner, J.; Le Bihan, Y.; Buelna, G. 2014. Enriched hydrogen production by bioconversion of biodiesel waste supplemented with ferric citrate and its nano-spray dried particles. Rsc Advances. 4(91) 49588-49594

    Increasing consumption of fossil fuels as well as the concern over pollution and global climate change has accelerated the development of the sustainable biofuel industry. Biodiesel, bioethanol and biomethane are already commercially available as alternatives of fossil fuels and the search for a more environmentally friendly biofuel, preferentially produced from non-food raw materials and capable of fulfilling the transportation energy requirement of the world for longer duration, is ongoing. In this context, biohydrogen produced from waste biomass is an ideal option. It has higher energy content compared to fossil and biofuels of equivalent mass and produces water as the only major emission during combustion. In the present investigation, crude glycerol (CG) generated as by-product of the biodiesel production process has been used as feedstock for biohydrogen production and different supplements have been evaluated for increasing the product yield. Nano-spray dried ferric citrate particles have been found to enhance the hydrogen production by 50.45%. Hydrogen production using extremely low CG concentration of 100 mg L-1 has been found to produce 22.7 mol-H-2 per kg CG; which is 2.75-fold higher than 8.25 mol-H-2 per kg CG, known for dark fermentation.
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  147. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels
    Abstract

    Hill, J.; Nelson, E.; Tilman, D.; Polasky, S.; Tiffany, D. 2006. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 103(30) 11206-10

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.
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  148. Enzymatic pretreatment of low-grade oils for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Nordblad, M.; Pedersen, A. K.; Rancke-Madsen, A.; Woodley, J. M. 2016. Enzymatic pretreatment of low-grade oils for biodiesel production. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 113(4) 754-760

    The alkaline process for making biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, or FAME) is highly efficient at the transesterification of glycerides. However, its performance is poor when it comes to using oil that contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA). The traditional approach to such feedstocks is to employ acid catalysis, which is slow and requires a large excess of methanol, or to evaporate FFA and convert that in a separate process. An attractive option would be to convert the FFA in oil feedstocks to FAME, before introducing it into the alkaline process. The high selectivity of enzyme catalysis makes it a suitable basis for such a pretreatment process. In this work, we present a characterization of the pretreatment of high-FFA rapeseed oil using immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), focused on the impact of initial FFA and methanol concentration. Based on experimental results, we have identified limitations for the process in terms of FFA concentration in the feedstock and make suggestions for process operation. It was found that, using 5% catalyst and 4% methanol at 35 degrees C, the FFA concentration could be reduced to 0.5% within an hour for feedstock containing up to 15% FFA. Further, the reaction was observed to be under kinetic control, in that the biocatalyst converts FFA (and FAME) at a much higher rate than glyceride substrates. There is thus, both a minimum and a maximum reaction time for the process to achieve the desired concentration of FFA. Finally, an assessment of process stability in a continuous packed bed system indicates that as much as 15m(3) oil could potentially be pretreated by 1kg of biocatalyst at the given process conditions. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  149. Esterification and Deacidification of a Waste Cooking Oil (TAN 68.81 mg KOH/g) for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Ding, J. C.; Xia, Z.; Lu, J. 2012. Esterification and Deacidification of a Waste Cooking Oil (TAN 68.81 mg KOH/g) for Biodiesel Production. Energies. 5(8) 2683-2691

    Oils with high content of free fatty acid (FFA) can be treated by acid esterification where an alcohol reacts with the given oil in the presence of acid catalyst. The investigated parameters include methanol to oil ratio, temperature and amount of catalyst. The optimum conditions for acid esterification which could reduce FFA content in the feedstock to less than 1.88% (acid value 3.76 mg KOH/g waste cooking oil) were 50 degrees C, 20% methanol to oil ratio (by volume) and 0.4 vol.% H2SO4 after 5 h. However, oil with an acid value of more than 1 mg KOH/g oil cannot meet the alkaline catalyzed transesterification conditions. Under the conditions of NaOH concentration 0.5 N, excess alkali 15%, 60 degrees C, 40 min, the FFA removal rate for deacidification reached 77.11% (acid value 0.86 mg KOH/g esterified oil). The acid value of deacidification product was reduced below 0.86 mg KOH/g esterified oil, thus meeting the base-catalyzed trans-esterification conditions.
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  150. Esterification of free fatty acids in non-edible oils using partially sulfonated polystyrene for biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Suresh, R.; Antony, J. V.; Vengalil, R.; Kochimoolayil, G. E.; Joseph, R. 2017. Esterification of free fatty acids in non-edible oils using partially sulfonated polystyrene for biodiesel feedstock. Industrial Crops and Products. 9566-74

    Partially sulfonated polystyrene (PSS), synthesized from expanded polystyrene waste (EPS), was used as a catalyst for free fatty acid (FFA) conversion in non-edible oils. Acidic and water absorbing properties of the PSS facilitated the catalytic action for the FFA conversion by esterification reaction. The reaction-was done on simulated acid oil (WCO) containing oleic acid and sunflower oil, and rubber seed oil (RSO). Effects of temperature, catalyst amount and alcohol to acid molar ratio were studied. FFA conversion increased with each of these factors. The advantage of this heterogeneous catalyst is that it is efficient as commercial ion exchange resin and easily removable from the reaction mixture. PSS is found to substantially reduce the acid value of WCO and RSO from 17 to 3.2 mg KOH/g and from 28.8 to 4.8 mg KOH/g respectively at 75 degrees C. The WCO and RSO with reduced acid value may be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  151. Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Used Cooking Oil Using Ion-Exchange Resins as Catalysts: An Efficient Pretreatment Method for Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Abidin, S. Z.; Haigh, K. F.; Saha, B. 2012. Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Used Cooking Oil Using Ion-Exchange Resins as Catalysts: An Efficient Pretreatment Method for Biodiesel Feedstock. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 51(45) 14653-14664

    The esterification of used cooking oil (UCO) with methanol was studied using different types of ion exchange resins, that is, Purolite D5081, Purolite D5082, and Amberlyst 36. Several catalyst characterization. analyses (elemental analysis, surface area measurement, particle size distribution analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis, true density measurement, and acid capacity analysis) have been conducted in the screening stage. Of all of the catalysts investigated, Purolite D5081 resin showed the best catalytic performance and was selected for further experimental studies. The esterification process was carried out in a jacketed stirred batch reactor for 8 h. Elimination of mass transfer resistances and the effect of catalyst loading (0.5-1.5% w/w), reaction temperature (50-65 degrees C), and methanol to UCO feed mole ratio (4:1-12:1) on the conversion of FFAs were investigated. The highest FFAs conversion was found to be 92%, at a catalyst loading of 1.25% w/w, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 6:1 methanol to UCO molar ratio, and stirring speed of 475 rpm. During the reusability study, the conversion of catalyst dropped by 8-10% after each reutilization cycle. Several experiments have been conducted through the homogeneous contribution study, and the results confirmed that both resin pore blockage and sulfur leaching are dominant factors that decrease the catalytic performance of Purolite D5081 ion exchange resin.
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  152. Esterification of Oil Adsorbed on Palm Decanter Cake into Methyl Ester using Sulfonated Rice Husk Ash as Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst
    Abstract

    Hindryawati, N.; Erwin; Maniam, G. P. 2017. Esterification of Oil Adsorbed on Palm Decanter Cake into Methyl Ester using Sulfonated Rice Husk Ash as Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst. 1st International Conference on Mathematics, Science and Computer Science (Icmsc) 2016: Sustainability and Eco Green Innovation in Tropical Studies for Global Future. 1813

    Palm Decanter cake (PDC) which is categorized as the waste from palm oil mill has been found to contain residual crude palm oil. The oil adsorbed on the PDC (PDC-oil) can be extracted and potentially used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Feedstock from waste like PDC-oil is burdened with high free fatty acids (FFAs) which make the feedstock difficult to be converted into biodiesel using basic catalyst. Therefore, in this study, a solid acid, RHA-SO3H catalyst was synthesized by sulfonating rice husk ash (RHA) with concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA-SO3H prepared was characterized with TGA, FTIR, BET, XRD, FE-SEM, and Hammett indicators (methyl red, bromophenol blue, and crystal violet). PDC was found to have about 11.3 wt. % oil recovered after 1 hour extraction using ultrasound method. The presence of sulfonate group was observed in IR spectrum, and the surface area of RHA-SO3H was reduced to 37 m(2).g(-1) after impregnation of sulfonate group. The RHA-SO3H catalyst showed that it can work for both esterification of free fatty acid which is present in PDC-oil, and transesterification of triglycerides into methyl ester. The results showed highest methyl ester content of 70.2 wt.% at optimal conditions, which was 6 wt.% catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio of 17: 1 for 5 hours at 120 degrees C.
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  153. Esterification of Oleic Acid for Biodiesel Production Catalyzed by SnCl2: A Kinetic Investigation
    Abstract

    Cardoso, A. L.; Neves, S. C. G.; da Silva, M. J. 2008. Esterification of Oleic Acid for Biodiesel Production Catalyzed by SnCl2: A Kinetic Investigation. Energies. 1(2) 79-92

    The production of biodiesel from low-cost raw materials which generally contain high amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) is a valuable alternative that would make their production costs more competitive than petroleum-derived fuel. Currently, the production of biodiesel from this kind of raw materials comprises a two-stage process, which requires an initial acid-catalyzed esterification of the FFA, followed by a base-catalyzed transesterification of the triglycerides. Commonly, the acid H2SO4 is the catalyst on the first step of this process. It must be said, however, that major drawbacks such as substantial reactor corrosion and the great generation of wastes, including the salts formed due to neutralization of the mineral acid, are negative and virtually unsurmountable aspects of this protocol. In this paper, tin(II) chloride dihydrate (SnCl2 center dot 2H(2)O), an inexpensive Lewis acid, was evaluated as catalyst on the ethanolysis of oleic acid, which is the major component of several fat and vegetable oils feedstocks. Tin chloride efficiently promoted the conversion of oleic acid into ethyl oleate in ethanol solution and in soybean oil samples, under mild reaction conditions. The SnCl2 catalyst was shown to be as active as the mineral acid H2SO4. Its use has relevant advantages in comparison to mineral acids catalysts, such as less corrosion of the reactors and as well as avoiding the unnecessary neutralization of products. Herein, the effect of the principal parameters of reaction on the yield and rate of ethyl oleate production has been investigated. Kinetic measurements revealed that the esterification of oleic acid catalyzed by SnCl2 center dot 2H(2)O is first-order in relation to both FFAs and catalyst concentration. Experimentally, it was verified that the energy of activation of the esterification reaction of oleic acid catalyzed by SnCl2 was very close those reported for H2SO4.
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  154. Estimation of Free Fatty Acid Content in Oils, Fats, and Biodiesel by (1)H NMR Spectroscopy
    Abstract

    Satyarthi, J. K.; Srinivas, D.; Ratnasamy, P. 2009. Estimation of Free Fatty Acid Content in Oils, Fats, and Biodiesel by (1)H NMR Spectroscopy. Energy & Fuels. 232273-2277

    A novel (1)H NMR method for the quantification of free fatty acid (FFA) content in vegetable oils, animal fats, and biodiesel is reported. Nonedible oils and animal fats, which are increasingly being explored as cheaper, renewable feed stocks for biodiesel production by transesterification with methanol, contain a significant amount of FFA along with other acidic impurities. The (1)H NMR spectroscopic method is found to be more accurate than the conventional titrimetric analysis for the estimation of FFA content especially in those cases where acidic entities other than the FFA are also present in the feedstock. The titrimetric methods provide a gross acid value which corresponds to that of FFA and other acidic impurities. Our NMR method provides the FFA content exclusively. In the case of refined edible oils (wherein the other acidic impurities are negligible), the results obtained from the (1)H NMR method are comparable with those from the titrimetic analysis.
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  155. Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer: A bio-based cold flow improver for waste cooking oil derived biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Cao, L. C.; Wang, J. N.; Liu, C.; Chen, Y. W.; Liu, K. J.; Han, S. 2014. Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer: A bio-based cold flow improver for waste cooking oil derived biodiesel blends. Applied Energy. 132163-167

    This study was conducted to determine the cold flow properties of biodiesel-diesel blends (waste cooking oil derived biodiesel blended with 0# diesel) with ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVAC) as the cold flow improver. The cloud point, cold filter plugging point and pour point of B20 (20 vol.% biodiesel + 80 vol.% 0# diesel) decreased by 8 degrees C, 11 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively, after 0.04 wt.% EVAC treatment. The impacts of EVAC on the kinematic viscosity, total glycerol, oxidation stability, acid value and flash point of B20 were also determined. The B20 samples treated with EVAC satisfied ASTM D6751. The crystallization behavior of the blend was investigated via differential scanning calorimetry. The crystallization rate and crystal content of B20 decreased. EVAC is therefore an effective bio-based cold flow improver for biodiesel blends. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  156. Evaluate the Waste Fatty Acid by Scientific and Technical Study to Obtain Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Barros, A. A. C.; Wust, E.; Meier, H. F. 2008. Evaluate the Waste Fatty Acid by Scientific and Technical Study to Obtain Biodiesel. Engenharia Sanitaria E Ambiental. 13(3) 255-262

    Waste fatty acid, from fatty boxes was evaluated as feedstock to obtain biodiesel in a laboratory scale. The residues were desemulsified, purified and used to obtain ethyl esters, through the transesterification with alkaline catalysis and esterification with acid catalysis reactions. The product was purified by adsorption in column of silica, and characterized by GLC with mass detector. Using this methodology the fatty residues was converted in the ethyl esters showed the scientific e technical validation of this propose. The conversion of fatty acids in ethylic esters was calculated by mass balances processes same for the highs degradation of the residue evaluates. To purify the biodiesel and glycerol obtained was necessary secondary processes to increase the qualities of this full and to use the glycerin in many industrial processes.
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  157. Evaluation and Characterization of Fats and Residual Cooking Oils for the Production of Biodiesel: A Case Study
    Abstract

    Pascacio, V. G. T.; Quintero, A. R.; Sanchez, B. T. 2016. Evaluation and Characterization of Fats and Residual Cooking Oils for the Production of Biodiesel: A Case Study. Revista Internacional De Contaminacion Ambiental. 32(3) 303-313

    The waste cooking oils and fats (WCOF) from the catering industry were systematically evaluated in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. Results pointed out that the eight restaurant types found in the city produced 174 t of WCOF/year in the following proportion: 41 % formal restaurant, 24 % fast food, 8 % taquerias, 7 % antojitos, 6 % soup kitchens, 6 % bars, 4 % gorditas and 4 % roast chicken shops. In addition, representative samples of WCOF coming from every restaurant type were characterized for biodiesel production, in terms of viscosity, oxidative stability, free fatty acid content, acid value, saponification number, moisture content and fatty acid composition. The physicochemical analysis suggests that all the WCOF produced in the city, except that coming from the fast food cooking, met the recommended free fatty acid levels and the acidity values for alkaline transesterification. Based on the population of the city an average production of 0.31 t/year of WCOF per 1000 inhabitants was estimated. Projecting this figure to the whole country of Mexico, 34.9 kt of this fuel would be obtained per year, which would avoid the emission of 92 kt/year of CO2 and contribute to reduce pollution in the country.
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  158. Evaluation as fuel diesel engine of methyl esters derived from waste animal fats
    Abstract

    Behcet, R. 2015. Evaluation as fuel diesel engine of methyl esters derived from waste animal fats. Energy Exploration & Exploitation. 33(2) 227-242

    The purpose of this study is to convert waste animal fats, which are harmful to the environment and human health, into biodiesel fuel and to investigate the using of biodiesel as fuel in diesel engines. For this reason, fish fat methyl ester (FFME) and chicken fat methyl ester (CFME) have been produced by transesterification method from fish fat and chicken fat. After that, methyl esters have been used as fuel in a single-cylinder, four stroke, direct injection and air-cooled diesel engine; and the effects of fuels on engine performance and exhaust emissions have been comparatively investigated with standard diesel fuel (D2). Engine tests show that the performance parameters of biodiesel fuels do not differ greatly from those of the diesel fuel. Slight power losses, combined with an increase in the fuel consumption, are experienced with the animal fat based biodiesel fuels. On the other hand, exhaust emissions (HC and CO) of FFME and CFME fuels were lower than those of diesel fuel. Taken into account of good fuel combustion characteristics and positive effects on the environment, it can be concluded that FFME and CFME fuels can be used as an alternative to diesel fuel.
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  159. Evaluation of catalytic activity of two functionalized imidazolium ionic liquids for biodiesel fuel production by a two-stage process
    Abstract

    Elsheikh, Y. A.; Man, Z.; Bustam, A.; Yusup, S.; Akhtar, F. H.; Mohamed, I. K. 2014. Evaluation of catalytic activity of two functionalized imidazolium ionic liquids for biodiesel fuel production by a two-stage process. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 89(7) 998-1006

    BACKGROUND: Today commercial biodiesel processes use mainly homogeneous alkali catalysts when the feedstock is from refined oil with low FFA content. However, acidic catalysts become important when dealing with cheap feedstock that contains high amounts of FFA (>0.5%), such as crude oils and waste oils. Unfortunately, acid catalyst requires extensive and expensive purification steps for recovery from the valuable esters. Hence this study investigated the production of biodiesel from crude palm oil (CPO) containing high FFA content by a two-stage ionic liquid-KOH catalyzed process. To evaluate their catalytic activities, two functionalized imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) with different anions were tested for esterifying the FFA.
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  160. Evaluation of leather industry wastes as a feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Alptekin, E.; Canakci, M.; Sanli, H. 2012. Evaluation of leather industry wastes as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Fuel. 95(1) 214-220

    In this study, animal fat obtained from leather industry fleshing wastes was used to produce methyl ester. The acid value of the fleshing oil was 24.30 mg KOH g (1) which corresponds to FFA level of about 12.15%. Therefore, it was needed to perform a pretreatment to the fleshing oil. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for pretreatment reactions. The variables affecting the FFA level including alcohol molar ratio and catalyst amount were investigated by using the fleshing oil. After reducing the FFA level of the fleshing oil to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium methoxide and sodium methoxide were used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The effects of catalyst type, catalyst amount and alcohol molar ratio on the fuel properties of produced methyl esters were investigated. The measured fuel properties of the fleshing oil methyl ester (FOME) were compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to results, the cold flow properties of FOME should be improved and the sulfur content of FOME should be investigated in detail. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  161. Evaluation of Two-Step Reaction and Enzyme Catalysis Approaches for Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds
    Abstract

    Burton, R.; Fan, X. H.; Austic, G. 2010. Evaluation of Two-Step Reaction and Enzyme Catalysis Approaches for Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds. International Journal of Green Energy. 7(5) 530-536

    Currently, the biodiesel industry is investigating non-food crops with high oil content. The industry is also evaluating oil sources from deeper into the industrial or commercial waste streams. Spent coffee grounds could be a feedstock that qualifies for both as a non-food crop and a waste product. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using coffee oil extracted from spent coffee grounds as raw material to produce ASTM standard biodiesel. The two biodiesel production methods that were used are acid-catalyzed esterification followed by alkali-catalyzed transesterification and lipase catalyzed transesterification. It was found that the high level of free fatty acids (FFA) in the coffee oil was reduced from 16.3% to 2.64% by acid-catalyzed esterification with 40/1 molar ratio of methanol to FFA in the presence of 5% (v/v, based on FFA) hydrochloric acid. However, poor conversion was obtained for the further alkali-catalyzed transesterification. In comparison, 98.5% conversion was achieved by using enzymatic catalysis, demonstrating the feasibility of using this approach to process low quality coffee oil from spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production.
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  162. Evaluation of Waste Process Grease as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Marx, S.; Venter, R. 2014. Evaluation of Waste Process Grease as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 5(1) 75-86

    Awareness of the depletion of fossil energy reserves, the rising demand for energy in the world and the problems associated with the burning of fossil fuel encourage researchers to find alternative energy sources, such as biodiesel. The use of inedible and waste oils as feedstock for biodiesel production is an important way of converting waste into valuable energy products. In this study, waste process grease (WPG) was used to produce biodiesel via two processing routes. The traditional two-step alkaline catalyzed transesterification method (route 1) produced biodiesel that did not conform to the SANS1935 biodiesel standard of South Africa with regard to sulfur and phosphorous levels. The WPG in the second process route was modified by saponification with aqueous sodium hydroxide followed by acidulation with hydrochloric acid to be purified by means of column chromatography. A hydrophobic resin with methanol as the mobile phase was used to reduce the non-polar sulfur from the grease. The crude biodiesel produced by means of acid esterification using sulfuric acid as catalyst was purified using silica gel with hexane as the mobile phase. The sulfur level in the biodiesel was reduced to a low enough level to conform to the SANS1935 standard for biodiesel production. It was shown with this study that waste process grease from the metal working industry can be used to produce biodiesel that conforms to the SANS 1935 specification for sulfur and is suitable to be used in biodiesel blending. A preliminary economic assessment shows that owed to the complexity of the second process route, biodiesel produced by this process is not economically viable given the current petroleum diesel prices. With the rising trend in crude oil prices and the limited supply of feedstock for biodiesel, WPG is anticipated to become a viable feedstock for biodiesel production in future.
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  163. Exergy Evaluation of Biodiesel Production Process from Euphorbia Lathyris
    Abstract

    Ruiz-de la Cruz, I.; Orozco-Munoz, A.; Bonilla-Correa, D.; Peralta-Ruiz, Y. 2015. Exergy Evaluation of Biodiesel Production Process from Euphorbia Lathyris. Icheap12: 12th International Conference on Chemical & Process Engineering. 43535-540

    At present, studies on the various sources of biodiesel are quite noticeable, due to the reduction of emissions of air pollutants. Research on the advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel establish that higher cetane number, improves the combustion process allowing increasing the compression ratio of the engine. Less sulfur content is safer to store and transport. However, when compared to conventional fuels, it presents costlier production process which also depends on the type of selected raw material.
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  164. Expanded polystyrene waste application for improving biodiesel environmental performance parameters from life cycle assessment point of view
    Abstract

    Rajaeifar, M. A.; Abdi, R.; Tabatabaei, M. 2017. Expanded polystyrene waste application for improving biodiesel environmental performance parameters from life cycle assessment point of view. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 74278-298

    The present study was primarily aimed at reviewing recent studies on biodiesel production as well as the application of various biodiesel additives including their life cycle assessment studies. More specifically, major factors affecting engine performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel were highlighted and discussed. Accordingly, when using biodiesel, variations in fuel properties (e.g., feedstock, blend percentage, density, cetane number, viscosity, transesterification route, etc.), engine characteristics, as well as the operating conditions (e.g., load percentage, driving cycles, etc.) could significantly change engine performance and emission properties. Moreover, the application of different additives used for improving the combustion process including antioxidant additives, oxygenated additives, cold flow improver additives, metallic- and non-metallic based additives, water, and polymeric-based additives, was investigated. In the subsequent section, life cycle assessment (LCA) studies conducted on biodiesel and biodiesel additives were explored. Finally, since no study was reported on the LCA of polymeric wastes as fuel additives, the environmental burdens of expanded polystyrene (EPS) dissolution in waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel were also scrutinized herein and consequently the best scenario for sustainable EPS-WCO biodiesel consumption was proposed.
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  165. Experimental assessment of electrolysis method in production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using zeolite/chitosan catalyst with a focus on waste biorefinery
    Abstract

    Fereidooni, L.; Mehrpooya, M. 2017. Experimental assessment of electrolysis method in production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using zeolite/chitosan catalyst with a focus on waste biorefinery. Energy Conversion and Management. 147145-154

    Used waste cooking oil (WCO) or frying oils are being considered as rich sources of economical feedstock for biodiesel production. To carry out the process of trans-esterification of WCO to methyl esters (biodiesel), zeolite/chitosan/KOH composite was used as solid heterogeneous catalysts. The composite was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. It was found that the treatment of the natural zeolite (clinoptilolite zeolite) with KOH significantly decreased its silica content by desilication and increased its K+ content by formation of hydroxylpotaslite. Electrolysis method (EM) is used as an applicable technology for recovery of energy and resources during waste treatment. Theoretically, EM can convert any biodegradable waste into H-2, O-2, biofuels, as well as other by-products such as glycerol. However, the system efficacy can vary significantly under different circumstances. The conversion of biodiesel from WCO was obtained for 1 wt.% catalyst concentration and alcohol/oil ratio of 1:7 at 40 V in the presence of water as 2 wt.% of the whole solution in 3 h, produced 93% yield. The optimum conversion process was achieved as a result of using co-solvent as acetone. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Viscosity characterization were used the assessing techniques for detection of WCO and biodiesel. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  166. Experimental assessment of non-edible candlenut biodiesel and its blend characteristics as diesel engine fuel
    Abstract

    Imdadul, H. K.; Zulkifli, N. W.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Kamruzzaman, M.; Rashed, M. M.; Rashedul, H. K.; Alwi, A. 2017. Experimental assessment of non-edible candlenut biodiesel and its blend characteristics as diesel engine fuel. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 24(3) 2350-2363

    Exploring new renewable energy sources as a substitute of petroleum reserves is necessary due to fulfilling the oncoming energy needs for industry and transportation systems. In this quest, a lot of research is going on to expose different kinds of new biodiesel sources. The non-edible oil from candlenut possesses the potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The present study aims to produce biodiesel from crude candlenut oil by using two-step transesterification process, and 10%, 20%, and 30% of biodiesel were mixed with diesel fuel as test blends for engine testing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC) were performed and analyzed to characterize the biodiesel. Also, the fuel properties of biodiesel and its blends were measured and compared with the specified standards. The thermal stability of the fuel blends was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scan calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Engine characteristics were measured in a Yanmar TF120M single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Biodiesel produced from candlenut oil contained 15% free fatty acid (FFA), and two-step esterification and transesterification were used. FTIR and GC remarked the biodiesels' existing functional groups and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition. The thermal analysis of the biodiesel blends certified about the blends' stability regarding thermal degradation, melting and crystallization temperature, oxidative temperature, and storage stability. The brake power (BP), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the biodiesel blends decreased slightly with an increasing pattern of nitric oxide (NO) emission. However, the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxides (CO) of biodiesel blends were found decreased.
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  167. Experimental assessment of non-edible candlenut biodiesel and its blend characteristics as diesel engine fuel
    Abstract

    Imdadul, H. K.; Zulkifli, N. W. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Kamruzzaman, M.; Rashed, M. M.; Rashedul, H. K.; Alwi, A. 2017. Experimental assessment of non-edible candlenut biodiesel and its blend characteristics as diesel engine fuel. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 24(3) 2350-2363

    Exploring new renewable energy sources as a substitute of petroleum reserves is necessary due to fulfilling the oncoming energy needs for industry and transportation systems. In this quest, a lot of research is going on to expose different kinds of new biodiesel sources. The non-edible oil from candlenut possesses the potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The present study aims to produce biodiesel from crude candlenut oil by using two-step transesterification process, and 10%, 20%, and 30% of biodiesel were mixed with diesel fuel as test blends for engine testing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC) were performed and analyzed to characterize the biodiesel. Also, the fuel properties of biodiesel and its blends were measured and compared with the specified standards. The thermal stability of the fuel blends was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scan calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Engine characteristics were measured in a Yanmar TF120M single cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Biodiesel produced from candlenut oil contained 15% free fatty acid (FFA), and two-step esterification and transesterification were used. FTIR and GC remarked the biodiesels' existing functional groups and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) composition. The thermal analysis of the biodiesel blends certified about the blends' stability regarding thermal degradation, melting and crystallization temperature, oxidative temperature, and storage stability. The brake power (BP), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) of the biodiesel blends decreased slightly with an increasing pattern of nitric oxide (NO) emission. However, the hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxides (CO) of biodiesel blends were found decreased.
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  168. An experimental investigation of biodiesel synthesis from waste canola oil using supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Lee, S.; Posarac, D.; Ellis, N. 2012. An experimental investigation of biodiesel synthesis from waste canola oil using supercritical methanol. Fuel. 91(1) 229-237

    Synthesis of biodiesel from waste canola oil using supercritical methanol is investigated under relatively moderate reaction conditions (240-270 degrees C/10 MPa) with residence time of 15-45 min and methanol to oil weight ratio of 1:1, 1.5:1 or 2:1. The effects of reaction conditions on the biodiesel yield were studied using design of experiments (DOE). The results showed that reaction time, temperature, and their interaction were the most significant factors on the yield. The highest biodiesel yield of 102% was achieved at 270 degrees C, 10 MPa, and methanol/oil weight ratio of 2 for 45 min reaction time. The GC-MS analysis of the reaction products showed that the by-product, glycerol, further reacted with methanol, generating methyl ethers of glycerol. Further confirmation of this side reaction was obtained by reacting glycerol and methanol at 270 degrees C/10 MPa for 15, 30, and 45 min. The experimental results showed these reactions could positively affect the overall biodiesel yield by providing oxygenated compounds such as 3-methoxy-1,2-propanediol, dimethoxymethane, and 2,2-dimethoxypropane as well as methyl palmitate and methyl oleate. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  169. Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Raw Materials Degradation on Performance, Combustion and Emissions of a Single Cylinder Engine Running on Biodiesel from Waste Lipids
    Abstract

    Awad, S.; Loubar, K.; Tazerout, M. 2014. Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Raw Materials Degradation on Performance, Combustion and Emissions of a Single Cylinder Engine Running on Biodiesel from Waste Lipids. Papers of the 22nd European Biomass Conference: Setting the Course for a Biobased Economy. 1173-1181

    In this paper, a single cylinder air cooled for strokes direct injection diesel engine was used to compare biodiesel from fat trap grease (AFRBD) with biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCOBD) and with diesel fuel. The main difference between both biodiesel samples resides in the presence of short chain and branched methyl esters on AFRBD, and in its lower non saturated fatty acids content. Comparison was based on engine performance, combustion parameters and emissions. AFRBD resulted on a slight drop of brake power at 1500 rpm but it increased engine efficiency at full load. Biodiesel reduced polluting emissions of the engine as compared to diesel fuel. WCOBD recorded higher reduction of unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and particulate matter emissions but it increased the nitric oxides emissions. AFRBD has the advantage of reducing all pollutant emissions, including nitric oxides.
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  170. Exploring a promising feedstock for biodiesel production in Mediterranean countries: A study on free fatty acid esterification of olive pomace oil
    Abstract

    Che, F.; Sarantopoulos, I.; Tsoutsos, T.; Gekas, V. 2012. Exploring a promising feedstock for biodiesel production in Mediterranean countries: A study on free fatty acid esterification of olive pomace oil. Biomass & Bioenergy. 36427-431

    Olive pomace oil is a non edible by-product stream from olive oil production process with low acquisition cost, appropriate for supporting biodiesel production in the Mediterranean countries. The main goal of this paper is to present experimental procedures carried out to optimize experimentally the pretreatment process for this feedstock in order to convert free fatty acids (FFA) to their respective methyl esters. Thus, an acid esterification process with sulfuric acid as catalyst was employed and evaluated for different acid-to-oil and methanol-to-oil ratios over the process time. The initial results are showing that olive kernel oil can be efficiently processed in order to decrease the free fatty acid concentration and improve the biodiesel potential of this feedstock. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  171. Extrication of biodiesel feedstock from early stage of food waste liquefaction
    Abstract

    Redzwan, G.; Amin, M. M.; Zulkarnain, N. N.; Abu Mansor, M. R.; Annuar, M. S. M.; Ilham, Z. 2017. Extrication of biodiesel feedstock from early stage of food waste liquefaction. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 19(2) 676-681

    Biodiesel is commonly produced from vegetable oils, mostly edible and more expensive than petroleum diesel. By considering the cost of the conversion processes, cheap feedstock such as triglycerides and fatty acids (FA) extracted from early stage of food waste liquefaction has become a better choice than vegetable oils, as it could provide high yield of biodiesel without any compromise to food supply and other resources. In this study, FA from early stage of food waste liquefaction was extracted and tested for use as feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. The raw material was not pretreated but extraction was done by dry and wet methods. It was found that wet method could minimized the lost of short and medium-chained FA as well as reducing the number of steps required, thus, yielding higher amount of FA as feedstock. The effects of mixing, methanol ratio, reaction time and catalyst content were investigated for the acid-catalyzed esterification. The maximum biodiesel conversion obtained was 97.4 %.
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  172. Facile Biodiesel Synthesis from Free Fatty Acids and Alcohol Promoted by So(3)H-Functionalized Ionic Liquid
    Abstract

    Wang, B.; Zhou, S. A.; Sun, R. C. 2010. Facile Biodiesel Synthesis from Free Fatty Acids and Alcohol Promoted by So(3)H-Functionalized Ionic Liquid. Research Progress in Paper Industry and Biorefinery (4th Isetpp), Vols 1-3. 1316-1319

    A SO(3)H-functionalized ionic liquid, 1-(4-sulfonic acid) butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([BSMim]HSO(4)), could efficiently catalyze biodiesel synthesis from esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) with alcohols using oleic acid and methanol as model substrates, and the yields of methyl oleate could be obtained from 62.5 to 99.9%. FFAs esters could be also isolated from ionic liquid phase through simple decantation due to the biphasic system formed after reaction completion. This method combined the use of a friendly benign acid catalyst with an excellent product separation methodology, which are in line with the demand of the industrial production of biodiesel from the waste low-cost feedstocks.
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  173. Fatty acid methyl ester production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by CuO-CeO2/NiO mixed oxides
    Abstract

    Hussain, S. T.; Ahmed, W.; Saeed, M.; Ali, S. D.; Asma, M. 2013. Fatty acid methyl ester production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by CuO-CeO2/NiO mixed oxides. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 5(2)

    The diminution of edible oils and increasing cost of edible oils and biodiesel have gained the interest of many researchers for non-edible oils as biodiesel feed stock. The major hurdle in the commercialization of biodiesel is the high cost of feedstock. Due to fast mushrooming of fast food centers, waste cooking oil is one of the most economical feedstock available for the biodiesel production. The high free fatty acid contents and moisture in the waste cooking oil hinders the homogenous transesterification for the commercial purposes. Mixed oxides of Cu with Ni and Ce were synthesized by co-precipitation method and their efficacy for the production of biodiesel from the waste cooking oil was inspected. The acid catalyzed heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking oil was performed in the sealed container. It was also interesting to mention that no pretreatment was executed for the waste cooking oil conversion to biodiesel. It was investigated that mixed oxide catalyst CuO-CeO2 proved to be the potential candidate in pilot scale biodiesel production from waste cooking oil having about 92% conversion rate. Comprehensive chemical analysis of biodiesel including NMR, GC-MS, and FT-IR supports our result. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4794437]
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  174. Fatty acid methyl esters from soapstocks with potential use as biodiesel
    Abstract

    Li, Y.; Zhang, X. D.; Sun, L. 2010. Fatty acid methyl esters from soapstocks with potential use as biodiesel. Energy Conversion and Management. 51(11) 2307-2311

    Refined vegetable oils are the main feedstocks for biodiesel production presently. However, the source and price of refined vegetable oils always restrict the development of biodiesel industry in many regions. Large amount of cheap soapstocks (SSs) are currently available in oil refining process, which may provide potential feedstocks reservoir. In this paper, one technical route involving acidification, separation of free fatty acids (FFAs) and glycerides through molecular distillation, followed by esterification and transesterification, respectively, was proposed for effective conversion of SSs. The acid oil obtained from acidification of SSs was distilled at 180 degrees C to isolate FFAs and glycerides. Esterification was then catalyzed by solid superacid catalyst, SO(4)(2-)/ZrO(2)-TiO(2)/La(3+), with a methanol to oil ratio of 15:1, catalyst amount of 5 wt.% and reaction time 4 h at 60 degrees C. The conversion efficiency could reach 98.02%. Transesterification with glycerides was also carried out with methanol to oil molar ratio of 5:1 and catalyst (sodium methoxide) amount of 0.6% and reaction time 0.5 h at 55 degrees C. The conversion efficiency could reach 97.25%. Purification of transesterification products was operated at the evaporating temperature of 120 degrees C. The content of FAME in the distillate was above 95% analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  175. Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Gui, M. M.; Lee, K. T.; Bhatia, S. 2008. Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as biodiesel feedstock. Energy. 33(11) 1646-1653

    Biodiesel has high potential as a new and renewable energy source in the future, as a substitution fuel for petroleum-derived diesel and can be used in existing diesel engine without modification. Currently, more than 95% of the world biodiesel is produced from edible oil which is easily available on large scale from the agricultural industry. However, continuous and large-scale production of biodiesel from edible oil without proper planning may cause negative impact to the world, such as depletion of food supply leading to economic imbalance. A possible solution to overcome this problem is to use non-edible oil or waste edible oil (WEO). In this context, the next question that comes in mind would be if the use of non-edible oil overcomes the short-comings of using edible oil. Apart from that, if WEO were to be used, is it sufficient to meet the demand of biodiesel. All these issues will be addressed in this paper by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of using edible oil vs. non-edible vs. WEO as feedstock for biodiesel production. The discussion will cover various aspects ranging from oil composition, oil yield, economics, cultivation requirements, land availability and also the resources availability. Finally, a proposed solution will be presented. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  176. Feasibility of triacyiglycerol production for biodiesel, utilizing Rhodococcus opacus as a biocatalyst and fishery waste as feedstock
    Abstract

    Palmer, J. D.; Brigham, C. J. 2016. Feasibility of triacyiglycerol production for biodiesel, utilizing Rhodococcus opacus as a biocatalyst and fishery waste as feedstock. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 56922-928

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be produced via bacterial fermentation by the oleaginous Gram-positive microorganism Rhodococcus opacus strain PD630 in regulated, nutrient-deprived conditions with sufficient carbon supply. Microbially produced TAGs may be further refined via transesterification into biodiesel and glycerol, with 3 mole of biodiesel and 1 mole of glycerol produced from every 1 mole of TAG by chemical conversion. Large-scale industrial production of biodiesel has been conducted for over a decade, yet microbially derived biodiesel has been, up to this point, absent from the biodiesel market. The use of a novel feedstock, chitin, from New England fishery waste may present a viable, cost-effective, unexplored carbon feedstock source for local biodiesel development. Availability and implementation of chitin as a feedstock, along with analysis of potential fuel characteristics, yield promising results for future industrial development of biodiesel production from R. opacus PD630 TAGs in regional locations with large lobster, shrimp, and crab harvesting operations around the world. With declining resources of fossil fuels and increased societal awareness of carbon emissions and climate change, an analytical review of this nature is critically relevant. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  177. Feasibility of using brewery wastewater for biodiesel production and nutrient removal by Scenedesmus dimorphus
    Abstract

    Lutzu, G. A.; Zhang, W.; Liu, T. 2016. Feasibility of using brewery wastewater for biodiesel production and nutrient removal by Scenedesmus dimorphus. Environ Technol. 37(12) 1568-81

    This work investigates the potential use of a brewery wastewater as a medium for the cultivation of the oleaginous species Scenedesmus dimorphus with the double aim of removing nutrients and to produce biomass as feedstock for biodiesel. For this purpose, effects of nitrogen (61.8-247 mg L(-1)), phosphorous (1.4-5.5 mg L(-1)), and iron (1.5-6 mg L(-1)) concentrations on growth, nutrients uptake, lipid accumulation, and fatty acids profile of this microalga were investigated. Results showed that brewery wastewater can be used as a culture medium even if nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations should have been modified to improve both biomass (6.82 g L(-1)) and lipid accumulation (44.26%). The analysis revealed a C16-C18 composition of 93.47% fatty acids methyl esters with a relative high portion of unsaturated ones (67.24%). High removal efficiency (>99%) for total nitrogen and total phosphorous and a reduction of up to 65% in chemical oxygen demand were achieved, respectively. The final microalgae biomass, considering its high lipid content as well as its compliance with the standards for the quality of biodiesel, and considering also the high removal efficiencies obtained for macronutrients and organic carbon, makes the brewery wastewater a viable option as a priceless medium for the cultivation of microalgae.
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  178. Feasibility of using brewery wastewater for biodiesel production and nutrient removal by Scenedesmus dimorphus
    Abstract

    Lutzu, G. A.; Zhang, W.; Liu, T. Z. 2016. Feasibility of using brewery wastewater for biodiesel production and nutrient removal by Scenedesmus dimorphus. Environmental Technology. 37(12) 1568-1581

    This work investigates the potential use of a brewery wastewater as a medium for the cultivation of the oleaginous species Scenedesmus dimorphus with the double aim of removing nutrients and to produce biomass as feedstock for biodiesel. For this purpose, effects of nitrogen (61.8-247 mg L-1), phosphorous (1.4-5.5 mg L-1), and iron (1.5-6 mg L-1) concentrations on growth, nutrients uptake, lipid accumulation, and fatty acids profile of this microalga were investigated.
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  179. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste
    Abstract

    Leong, S. Y.; Kutty, S. R. M.; Malakahmad, A.; Tan, C. K. 2016. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste. Waste Management. 4784-90

    Hermetic illucens larvae by nature are a decomposer which fed on organic wastes. This study explores the potential of producing biodiesel using lipids from H. illucens larvae. Three types of organic wastes (sewage sludge, fruit waste and palm decanter cake from oil palm mill) were selected based on considerable generation and disposal concern in the area of study as well as lack of investigations as feed for Hermetia illucens larvae in current literatures. Growth rate of the larvae was determined with studying the changes in the biomass per day. H. illucens larvae fed with fruit waste and palm decanter cake have shown growth rates of 0.52 +/- 0.02 and 0.23 +/- 0.09 g d(-1), respectively. No positive sign of growth were observed in the larvae fed with treated sewage sludge (-0.04 +/- 0.01 g d(-1)). Biodiesel as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized by transesterification of the larvae lipid using sulphuric acid as catalyst in methanol. FAME produced was ascertained using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The main compositions of fatty acid were found to be C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1n9c. Fatty acid composition of C12:0 fed with fruit waste, sewage sludge and palm decanter was found to be most abundant in the larvae lipid. The amount of C12:0 obtained was 76.13%, 58.31% and 48.06%, respectively. In addition, fatty acid of C16:0 was attained at 16.48% and 25.48% fed with sewage sludge and palm decanter, respectively. Based on the findings, FAME derived from larvae lipids is feasible to be used for biodiesel production.(c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  180. Feedstock and process influence on biodiesel produced from waste sewage sludge
    Abstract

    Capodaglio, A. G.; Callegari, A. 2017. Feedstock and process influence on biodiesel produced from waste sewage sludge. J Environ Manage.

    Disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most important issues in wastewater treatment throughout Europe, as EU sludge production, estimated at 9.5 million tons dry weight in 2005, is expected to approach 13 million tons in 2020. While sludge disposal costs may constitute 30-50% of the total operation costs of wastewater treatment processes, waste sewage sludge still contains resources that may be put to use, like nutrients and energy, that can be recovered through a variety of approaches. Research has shown that waste sewage sludge can be a valuable and very productive feedstock for biodiesel generation, containing lipids (the fats from which biofuels are extracted) in amounts that would require large areas cultivated with typical biodiesel feedstock, to produce, and at a much lower final cost. Several methods have been tested for the production of biodiesel from sewage sludge. To date, among the most efficient such process is pyrolysis, and in particular Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis (MAP), under which process conditions are more favorable in energetic and economic terms. Sludge characteristics are very variable, depending on the characteristics of the wastewater-generating service area and on the wastewater treatment process itself. Each sludge can be considered a unique case, and as such experimental determination of the optimal biodiesel yields must be conducted on a case-by-case basis. In addition to biodiesel, other pyrolysis products can add to the energetic yield of the process (and not only). This paper discusses how feedstock properties and process characteristics may influence biodiesel (and other products) yield from pyrolytic (and in particular, MAP) processes, and discusses future possible technological developments.
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  181. Ferric-manganese doped sulphated zirconia nanoparticles catalyst for single-step biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: Characterization and optimization
    Abstract

    Alhassan, F. H.; Rashid, U.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2016. Ferric-manganese doped sulphated zirconia nanoparticles catalyst for single-step biodiesel production from waste cooking oil: Characterization and optimization. International Journal of Green Energy. 13(13) 1305-1313

    Biodiesel of waste cooking oil origin is gaining attention as a replacement for current fossil fuels, as its low-priced, recycled feedstock shall prevent food source competition, which is estimated to happen with current biodiesel production processes. As a result, waste cooking oil has been claimed to be a highly potential feedstock for biodiesel production. In the present research work, Fe-Mn doped sulphated zirconia catalyst was synthesized and used in simultaneous esterification and transesterification of waste cooking oil to biodiesel synthesis. The catalyst was prepared through the impregnation method and characterized by using XRD, TPD-NH3, FT-IR, BET, and TEM. Response surface methodology (RSM) in conjunction with the central composite design (CCD) was applied to statistically evaluate and optimize the biodiesel preparation process. It was found that the synthesis of biodiesel achieved an optimum level of 97.2% waste cooking oil methyl ester's (WCOME's) yield at the following reaction conditions: methanol/oil molar ratio: 10:1, catalyst concentration: 3.0 wt %, and reaction temperature: 160 degrees C. The extremely high WCOME's yield of 97.2% was proved to be due to high acidity, surface area, and large pore diameter; reactants can easily diffuse into the interior pore of the catalyst and allow them to be in contact with active sites that enhance catalytic activity.
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  182. Forensic identification of spilled biodiesel and its blends with petroleum oil based on fingerprinting information
    Abstract

    Yang, Z. Y.; Hollebone, B. P.; Wang, Z. D.; Yang, C.; Brown, C.; Landriault, M. 2013. Forensic identification of spilled biodiesel and its blends with petroleum oil based on fingerprinting information. Journal of Separation Science. 36(11) 1788-1796

    A case study is presented for the forensic identification of several spilled biodiesels and its blends with petroleum oil using integrated forensic oil fingerprinting techniques. The integrated fingerprinting techniques combined SPE with GC/MS for obtaining individual petroleum hydrocarbons (aliphatic hydrocarbons, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and their alkylated derivatives and biomarkers), and biodiesel hydrocarbons (fatty acid methyl esters, free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols). HPLC equipped with evaporative scattering laser detector was also used for identifying the compounds that conventional GC/MS could not finish. The three environmental samples (E1, E2, and E3) and one suspected source sample (S2) were dominant with vegetable oil with high acid values and low concentration of fatty acid methyl ester. The suspected source sample S2 was responsible for the three spilled samples although E1 was slightly contaminated by petroleum oil with light hydrocarbons. The suspected source sample S1 exhibited with the high content of glycerol, low content of glycerides, and high polarity, indicating its difference from the other samples. These samples may be the separated byproducts in producing biodiesel. Canola oil source is the most possible feedstock for the three environmental samples and the suspected source sample S2.
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  183. From organic waste to biodiesel: Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, makes it feasible
    Abstract

    Li, Q.; Zheng, L. Y.; Cai, H.; Garza, E.; Yu, Z. N.; Zhou, S. D. 2011. From organic waste to biodiesel: Black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, makes it feasible. Fuel. 90(4) 1545-1548

    Biodiesel is a renewable and environmentally friendly liquid fuel. However, the feedstock, predominantly crop oil, is a limited and expensive food resource which prevents large scale application of biodiesel. Development of non-food feedstocks are therefore, needed to fully utilize biodiesel's potential. In this study, the larvae of a high fat containing insect, black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) (BSFL), was evaluated for biodiesel production. Specifically, the BSFL was grown on organic wastes for 10 days and used for crude fat extraction by petroleum ether. The extracted crude fat was then converted into biodiesel by acid-catalyzed (1% H(2)SO(4)) esterification and alkaline-catalyzed (0.8% NaOH) transesterification, resulting in 35.5 g, 57.8 g and 91.4 g of biodiesel being produced from 1000 BSFL growing on 1 kg of cattle manure, pig manure and chicken manure, respectively. The major ester components of the resulting biodiesel were lauric acid methyl ester (35.5%), oleinic acid methyl ester (23.6%) and palmitic acid methyl ester (14.8%). Fuel properties of the BSFL fat-based biodiesel, such as density (885 kg/m(3)), viscosity (5.8 mm(2)/s), ester content (97.2%), flash point (123 degrees C), and cetane number (53) were comparable to those of rapeseed-oil-based biodiesel. These results demonstrated that the organic waste-grown BSFL could be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  184. Glycerolysis of palm fatty acid distillate for biodiesel feedstock under different reactor conditions
    Abstract

    Islam, A.; Masoumi, H. R. F.; Teo, S. H.; Abdollahi, Y.; Janaun, J.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2016. Glycerolysis of palm fatty acid distillate for biodiesel feedstock under different reactor conditions. Fuel. 174133-139

    This paper deals with the comparative study on glycerolysis of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) in a solvent free system at different reaction conditions in an attempt to get maximum degree of FFA% reduction for biodiesel feedstock. Initially, optimization of varied reaction parameters was performed under all the different reaction conditions using artificial neural network (ANN) based on the genetic algorithm (GA). It has been found that the reduction of acidity varies with varying reaction conditions with maximum reaction rate observed in case of reaction carried-out in open reactor system with inert gas flow, followed by the reaction in open reactor system without inert gas flow and then in case of reaction under the close reactor system. In the most favorable case, 1.5 mgKOH/gPFAD of FFA (free fatty acid) was achieved after 90 min of reaction time with an excess glycerol of 4% at 220 degrees C. The results from the ANN model show good agreement with experimental results. Thus, the glycerolysis in open reactor system with inert gas flow (N-2) option is much-preferred option compared to acid esterification for the same biodiesel plant capacity, particularly for high-FFA feedstocks. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  185. A green and low-cost room temperature biodiesel production method from waste oil using egg shells as catalyst
    Abstract

    Piker, A.; Tabah, B.; Perkas, N.; Gedanken, A. 2016. A green and low-cost room temperature biodiesel production method from waste oil using egg shells as catalyst. Fuel. 18234-41

    Egg shells were used as catalyst for biodiesel production from both commercial fresh soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) at room temperature. After 11 h of regular stirring, high yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was obtained from fresh soybean oil (98 wt.%) and WCO (97 wt.%). The current work demonstrates the feasibility of utilization and storage of the catalyst as well as the performance of the transesterification reaction at ambient conditions. The reusability of the egg shell-derived catalyst was demonstrated for five cycles for WCO and ten cycles for fresh soybean oil. The catalyst can be stored for at least three months without any decrease in its catalytic activity and for a year with only 10% decrease in FAME yield. Utilization of waste materials (egg shells and used cooking oil) and performing the reaction at ambient conditions make the current method a cheap and environmentally-friendly technique for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  186. Green Biodiesel Synthesis Using Waste Shells as Sustainable Catalysts with Camelina sativa Oil
    Abstract

    Hangun-Balkir, Y. 2016. Green Biodiesel Synthesis Using Waste Shells as Sustainable Catalysts with Camelina sativa Oil. Journal of Chemistry.

    Waste utilization is an essential component of sustainable development and waste shells are rarely used to generate practical products and processes. Most waste shells are CaCO3 rich, which are converted to CaO once calcined and can be employed as inexpensive and green catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel. Herein, we utilized lobster and eggshells as green catalysts for the transesterification of Camelina sativa oil as feedstock into biodiesel. Camelina sativa oil is an appealing crop option as feedstock for biodiesel production because it has high tolerance of cold weather, drought, and low-quality soils and contains approximately 40% oil content. The catalysts from waste shells were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscope. The product, biodiesel, was studied by H-1 NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of methanol to oil ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature, and catalyst concentration were investigated. Optimum biodiesel yields were attained at a 12:1 (alcohol : oil) molar ratio with 1wt.% heterogeneous catalysts in 3 hours at 65 degrees C. The experimental results exhibited a first-order kinetics and rate constants and activation energy were calculated for the transesterification reaction at different temperatures. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from Camelina sativa oil and waste shells were compared with those of the petroleum-based diesel by using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards.
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  187. Green integrated process for mitigation of municipal and industrial liquid and solid waste mixes for enhanced microalgal biomass and lipid synthesis for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Karemore, A.; Sen, R. 2015. Green integrated process for mitigation of municipal and industrial liquid and solid waste mixes for enhanced microalgal biomass and lipid synthesis for biodiesel. Rsc Advances. 5(87) 70929-70938

    Wastewater management has become one of the critical environmental challenges, as waste effluents from municipalities and industries including livestock farms are released into the environment resulting in the deterioration of water ecology, if left untreated. Through this study, we have developed a microalgae mediated green integrated process for wastewater remediation, while simultaneously producing biomass as potentially sustainable feedstock for biofuels. Chlorococcum sp. was cultivated in different types of wastewater and tested for nutrient remediation efficacy as well as biomass production. The results with respect to nutrient removal capacity in wastewater were encouraging as nitrogen was almost completely remediated, whereas removal percentages for carbon and phosphorous were between 67 and 89%. The results obtained using waste mixtures of wastewater effluents and poultry litter waste indicates substantial gain in microalgal biomass yield, an increase of more than 1.5-fold was observed as opposed to unsupplemented use. The obtained experimental microalgal growth data were fitted with a logistic growth model and found to provide a good fit between predicted values and investigated values. Furthermore, the lipid accumulation was enhanced by 2-fold in waste mixtures when compared to standard medium, and the lipids were mainly composed of C16 and C18 fatty acids, which are considered favourable for good-quality biodiesel. The strategy adopted in this study served the dual purpose of waste management and microalgal biomass production for biofuel application, thus making the entire process cost-effective and green.
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  188. Green polymerization methods : renewable starting materials, catalysis and waste reduction
    Abstract

    Mathers, Robert T.; Meier, Michael A. R. 2011. Green polymerization methods : renewable starting materials, catalysis and waste reduction. . xv, 363 p.

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  189. Greenhouse gas emissions from production and use of used cooking oil methyl ester as transport fuel in Thailand
    Abstract

    Pleanjai, S.; Gheewala, S. H.; Garivait, S. 2009. Greenhouse gas emissions from production and use of used cooking oil methyl ester as transport fuel in Thailand. Journal of Cleaner Production. 17(9) 873-876

    Biodiesel, produced from various vegetable and/or animal oils, is one of the most promising alternative fuels for transportation in Thailand. Currently, the waste oils after use in cooking are not disposed adequately. Such oils could serve as a feedstock for biodiesel which would also address the waste disposal issue. This study compares the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from used cooking oil methyl ester (UCOME) and conventional diesel used in transport. The functional unit (FU) is 100 km transportation by light duty diesel vehicle (LDDV) under identical driving conditions. Life cycle GHG emissions from conventional diesel are about 32.57 kg CO2-eq/FU whereas those from UCOME are 2.35 kg CO2-eq/FU. The GHG emissions from the life cycle of UCOME are 93% less than those of conventional diesel production and use. Hence, a fuel switch from conventional diesel to UCOME will contribute greatly to a reduction in global warming potential. This will also support the Thai Government's policy to promote the use of indigenous and renewable sources for transportation fuels. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  190. Heterogeneous acid catalysts for biodiesel production: current status and future challenges
    Abstract

    Melero, J. A.; Iglesias, J.; Morales, G. 2009. Heterogeneous acid catalysts for biodiesel production: current status and future challenges. Green Chemistry. 11(9) 1285-1308

    The reduction of oil resources and the consequent increasing price of oil distillates as well as the environmental concerns of conventional fuels has renewed and increased interest on the preparation of biofuels from renewable resources. One of those interests is nowadays focused on biodiesel, which is usually prepared from crude and refined triglyceride containing raw materials, such as vegetable oils, animal fats and wastes-for instance waste cooking oil and yellow and brown grease. Since several commercial interests converge on this kind of feedstock, one of the priorities being crops for human food supply, the research efforts on biodiesel production are diverting towards the use of low quality triglyceride-containing raw materials. Nevertheless, all of these feedstocks feature high water and free fatty acids (FFAs) content, which strongly affects the behaviour of conventional homogeneous base catalysts. These catalysts are primarily NaOH and KOH, but also NaOCH3 and KOCH3 are employed-as solutions in methanol-mainly in large-scale production plants. In this context, an appropriate solid acid catalyst which could simultaneously carry out esterification of FFAs and transesterification of triglycerides would be of great interest for biodiesel production. Moreover, a heterogeneous acid catalyst could be easily incorporated into a packed bed continuous flow reactor, simplifying product separation and purification and reducing waste generation. The present review attempts to provide a wide overview on the possibility of heterogeneous acid catalysts for biodiesel production replacing the homogeneous conventional process. In this way, three aspects of solid acid catalysis for biodiesel production will be reviewed. The first section deals with the solid acid-catalyzed esterification of FFAs, the second topic relates to the transesterification of triglycerides, while the third deals with solid acid-catalyzed transformation of bioglycerol into oxygenated compounds for biodiesel formulation.
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  191. Heterogeneous alkaline earth metal-transition metal bimetallic catalysts for synthesis of biodiesel from low grade unrefined feedstock
    Abstract

    Kwong, T. L.; Yung, K. F. 2015. Heterogeneous alkaline earth metal-transition metal bimetallic catalysts for synthesis of biodiesel from low grade unrefined feedstock. Rsc Advances. 5(102) 83748-83756

    A bimetallic alkaline earth metal-transition metal oxide, synthesized through a method of direct low-temperature decomposition of the bimetallic complex, is reported for the synthesis of biodiesel. Due to the high phase purity of the Ca/Fe catalytic system and its catalytic stability and robustness, the Ca/Fe catalyst was selected for further investigation. A transesterification conversion of 99.5% could be achieved in 1 h under the optimal conditions: feedstock to methanol, 1 : 20; catalyst loading, 6 wt%; temperature, 120 degrees C. ANOVA tests suggested that the reaction temperature was discerned as the most prominent factor which contributed 82.84% to the overall catalytic feedstock conversion. In addition, the Ca/Fe catalytic system demonstrated a high FFA tolerance of 2 wt% and a water tolerance of 1 wt% with remarkable catalytic activity in one-step biodiesel synthesis.
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  192. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Juan, J. C.; Abdullah, N. F. B.; Nizah, M. F. R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production. Chemistry Central Journal. 8

    Background: Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO).
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  193. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Juan, J. C.; Binti Abdullah, N. F.; Nizah Mf, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production. Chem Cent J. 830

    BACKGROUND: Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO). RESULTS: The chemical characteristic, textural properties, basicity profile and leaching test of synthesized catalysts were studied by using X-ray diffraction, BET measurement, TPD-CO2 and ICP-AES analysis, respectively. Transesterification activity of solid base catalysts showed that > 90% of palm biodiesel and > 80% of Jatropha biodiesel yield under 3 wt.% of catalyst, 3 h reaction time, methanol to oil ratio of 15:1 under 65 degrees C. This indicated that other than physicochemical characteristic of catalysts; different types of natural oil greatly influence the catalytic reaction due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs). CONCLUSIONS: Among the solid base catalysts, calcium based mixed metal oxides catalysts with binary metal system (CaMgO and CaZnO) showed capability to maintain the transesterification activity for 3 continuous runs at ~ 80% yield. These catalysts render high durability characteristic in transesterification with low active metal leaching for several cycles.
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  194. Heterogeneous Catalyst and Process for the Production of Biodiesel from High Free-Fatty Acid-Containing Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Banavali, R.; Hanlon, R. T.; Jerabek, K.; Schultz, A. K. 2009. Heterogeneous Catalyst and Process for the Production of Biodiesel from High Free-Fatty Acid-Containing Feedstocks. Catalysis of Organic Reactions. 123279-+

    We will present research describing our newly developed polymeric catalyst technology which enables the production of biodiesel from feedstocks containing high levels (> 1 wt %) of free fatty acids (FFAs). Current biodiesel manufacture via alkali-catalyzed transesterification of an oil or fat is now limited by both cost and availability of refined feedstocks. While non-refined feed stocks, Such as crude palm oil, rendered animal fat, and yellow and brown greases, are inexpensive and readily available, the high FFA contents of these feedstocks limits their use since the acids unfavorably react with the base catalysts employed in transesterification. Because of this, conventional biodiesel technology typically limits feedstock FFA to < 0.1 wt %. We will present our work using a novel polymer catalyst for esterifying the FFA present in greases (1-100 wt %) to their corresponding methyl esters in quantitative yields. The resulting ester-oil stream can then be readily converted to biodiesel by base-catalyzed transesterification. The novel catalyst overcomes the drawbacks of traditional catalysts Such as limited catalyst life time, slow reaction rates, and low conversions. We will also discuss the chemistry of catalyst functionality, and flow these properties relate to improved catalytic activity, reaction rates, kinetics, and mechanisms. We will also describe a continuous process with reactor design optimized for conversion, longevity, ease of use, and economic impact.
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  195. Heterotrophic microalgae cultivation to synergize biodiesel production with waste remediation: Progress and perspectives
    Abstract

    Mohan, S. V.; Rohit, M. V.; Chiranjeevi, P.; Chandra, R.; Navaneeth, B. 2015. Heterotrophic microalgae cultivation to synergize biodiesel production with waste remediation: Progress and perspectives. Bioresource Technology. 184169-178

    Microalgae are inexhaustible feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and valuable bioactive compounds. Their cultivation is critical in sustaining the global economy in terms of human consumption of food and fuel. When compared to autotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic systems are more suitable for producing high cell densities of microalgae for accumulation of large quantities of lipids (triacylglycerols) which can be converted into biodiesel. Consorted efforts are made in this communication to converge recent literature on heterotrophic cultivation systems with simultaneous wastewater treatment and algal oil production. Challenges faced during large scale production and limiting factors which hinder the microalgae growth are enumerated. A strategic deployment of integrated closed loop biorefinery concept with multi-product recovery is proposed to exploit the full potential of algal systems. Sustainable algae cultivation is essential to produce biofuels leading to green future. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  196. High free fatty acid coconut oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand
    Abstract

    Nakpong, P.; Wootthikanokkhan, S. 2010. High free fatty acid coconut oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand. Renewable Energy. 35(8) 1682-1687

    Coconut oil having 12.8% free fatty acid (FFA) was used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel by a two-step process. In the first step, FFA level of the coconut oil was reduced to 0.6% by acid-catalyzed esterification. In the second step, triglycerides in product from the first step were transesterified with methanol by using an alkaline catalyst to produce methyl esters and glycerol. Effect of parameters related to these processes was studied and optimized, including methanol-to-oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time. Methyl ester content of the coconut biodiesel was determined by GC to be 98.4% under the optimum condition. The viscosity of coconut biodiesel product was very close to that of Thai petroleum diesel and other measured properties met the Thai biodiesel (B100) specification. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  197. High performance heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from vegetal and waste oil at low temperature
    Abstract

    Borges, M. E.; Diaz, L.; Alvarez-Galvan, M. C.; Brito, A. 2011. High performance heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from vegetal and waste oil at low temperature. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 102(1-2) 310-315

    A natural porous silica, pumice, was studied as heterogeneous catalyst in the transesterification reaction of sunflower oil and frying oil with methanol for biodiesel production. This low cost natural porous material was subjected to ion exchange with a KOH aqueous solution in order to increase its activity. The dependence of the reaction variables such as temperature, reaction time, catalyst loading and methanol/oil molar ratio were studied using sunflower oil and waste oil as feedstock. Moreover, in order to save production costs, the reusability of the catalyst in the transesterification reaction was studied. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  198. High Yield and Conversion of Biodiesel from a Nonedible Feedstock (Pongamia pinnata)
    Abstract

    Sharma, Y. C.; Singh, B.; Korstad, J. 2010. High Yield and Conversion of Biodiesel from a Nonedible Feedstock (Pongamia pinnata). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(1) 242-247

    An efficient approach has been adopted for the synthesis of biodiesel developed from karanja, a nonedible oil feedstock. A two-step reaction was followed for synthesis of biodiesel. Karanja oil possessing a high free fatty acid content was esterified with sulfuric acid, and the product obtained was further converted to fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) by transesterification reactions. A moderate molar ratio of 6:1 (methanol/oil) was efficient for acid esterification with 1.5% v/v H(2)SO(4) and 1 h of reaction time at 60 +/- 0.5 degrees C, which resulted in reduction of FFA from 19.88 to 1.86 mg of KOH/g. During alkaline transesterification, 8:1 molar ratio (methanol/oil), 0.8 wt % sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 1.0 wt % sodium methoxide (CH(3)ONa), or 1.0 wt % potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst at 60 0.5 degrees C gave optimized yield (90-95%) and high conversion (96-100%). Optimum times for alkaline transesterification were 45 min for CH(3)ONa and 1 h for NaOH and KOH. Conversion of karanja oil feedstock to its respective fatty acid methyl esters was identified on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and determined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography. The fuel properties, such as cetane number of the methyl ester synthesized, were studied and found to be within the limits and specification of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14112 except for oxidation stability.
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  199. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: A review
    Abstract

    Lam, M. K.; Lee, K. T.; Mohamed, A. R. 2010. Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: A review. Biotechnology Advances. 28(4) 500-518

    In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can be easily produced through transesterification reaction. However, current commercial usage of refined vegetable oils for biodiesel production is impractical and uneconomical due to high feedstock cost and priority as food resources. Low-grade oil, typically waste cooking oil can be a better alternative; however, the high free fatty acids (FFA) content in waste cooking oil has become the main drawback for this potential feedstock. Therefore, this review paper is aimed to give an overview on the current status of biodiesel production and the potential of waste cooking oil as an alternative feedstock. Advantages and limitations of using homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic transesterification on oil with high FFA (mostly waste cooking oil) are discussed in detail. It was found that using heterogeneous acid catalyst and enzyme are the best option to produce biodiesel from oil with high FFA as compared to the current commercial homogeneous base-catalyzed process. However, these heterogeneous acid and enzyme catalyze system still suffers from serious mass transfer limitation problems and therefore are not favorable for industrial application. Nevertheless, towards the end of this review paper, a few latest technological developments that have the potential to overcome the mass transfer limitation problem such as oscillatory flow reactor (OFR), ultrasonication, microwave reactor and co-solvent are reviewed. With proper research focus and development, waste cooking oil can indeed become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  200. Hybrid biofuels from non-edible oils: A comparative standpoint with corresponding biodiesel
    Abstract

    Bora, P.; Konwar, L. J.; Boro, J.; Phukan, M. M.; Deka, D.; Konwar, B. K. 2014. Hybrid biofuels from non-edible oils: A comparative standpoint with corresponding biodiesel. Applied Energy. 135450-460

    Exploration of new non-edible feedstocks for biofuel production and the use of economically favorable conversion technologies could significantly contribute to bioenergy research. In this regard the present investigation aims to highlighten hybrid biofuels (HBFs) prepared from crude vegetable oils of five locally available plant species namely, Gmelina arborea Roxb (GAO), Mimusops elengi Linn (MEO), Acer laurinum Hasskarl (ALO), Thevetia peruviana Schum (TPO) and Mesua fen-ea Linn (MFO). This new approach does not involve any chemical reactions and can substantially reduce the production cost of vegetable oil based biofuels. Besides, the HBF systems prepared here can be 100% renewable as they only contain vegetable oil, butanol and ethanol, all products derived from biomass. The naturally occurring mono-, di-glycerides and free fatty acid (FFA)s in crude vegetable oils (or esters in pretreated oils) functioned as surfactants in the formulation of stable fuel systems. The fuel properties of the formulations were affected by the concentrations of these compounds in the vegetable oil. The optimum formulations (oil:butanol:ethanol ratio of 60:30:10) exhibited viscosity (4.7-5.4 mm(2)/s), density (0.86-0.88 gm/cm(3)) and gross calorific values (38.91-39.18 MJ/kg) comparable with their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Moreover, they show superior cold flow properties than FAMEs. The present investigation suggests that non-edible oil based HBF systems formulated in the study containing 'bio-based' and 'green' surface active agents in the system offers economically attractive candidature for the future biofuel industry. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  201. Hybridization of feedstocks-A new approach in biodiesel development: A case of Moringa and Jatropha seed oils
    Abstract

    Eloka-Eboka, A. C.; Inambao, F. L. 2016. Hybridization of feedstocks-A new approach in biodiesel development: A case of Moringa and Jatropha seed oils. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(11) 1495-1502

    In this study, two selected feedstocks, Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas seed oils, and their methyl esters (biodiesel) were subjected to two new different hybridization processes at varying proportions experimentally. The hybrid compositions were J(50)M(50), J(40)M(10), J(30)M(20), J(20)M(30), and J(10)M(40) from crude oil samples (in situ) and BM(50)J(50), BM(40)J(10), BM(30)J(20), BM(20)J(30), and BM(10)J(40) from produced biodiesel by transesterification (ex situ) using production variables and optimization sequences. The hybrids were evaluated for chemo-physical and thermal properties using American Society for Testing and Materials and South African National Standards standards for each specific test(s). Results obtained revealed the efficacy of hybridization in improving the specific biodiesel properties as fuels. Specific tests include viscosity, specific gravity, refractive index, cetane index, fatty acid composition, free and total glycerine (TG), free fatty acid (FFA) composition, flash point, pour and cloud points, and calorific values. These were all higher and better than the single-stock biodiesel fuels. Moringa oleifera biodiesel, which was proved an excellent biodiesel fuel in the previous studies of the authors having high oleic acid content (>70%), impacted positively on Jatropha in enhancing its potential, with positive correlation at a 95% confidence level (alpha > 0.05) and on analysis of variation (ANOVA). This is a new approach in biodiesel development as studies of this nature are scarce in the literature.
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  202. Hydrolase BioH knockout in E-coli enables efficient fatty acid methyl ester bioprocessing
    Abstract

    Kadisch, M.; Schmid, A.; Buehler, B. 2017. Hydrolase BioH knockout in E-coli enables efficient fatty acid methyl ester bioprocessing. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. 44(3) 339-351

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) originating from plant oils are most interesting renewable feedstocks for biofuels and bio-based materials. FAMEs can also be produced and/or functionalized by engineered microbes to give access to, e.g., polymer building blocks. Yet, they are often subject to hydrolysis yielding free fatty acids, which typically are degraded by microbes. We identified BioH as the key enzyme responsible for the hydrolysis of medium-chain length FAME derivatives in different E. coli K-12 strains. E. coli Delta bioH strains showed up to 22-fold reduced FAME hydrolysis rates in comparison with respective wild-type strains. Knockout strains showed, beside the expected biotin auxotrophy, unchanged growth behavior and biocatalytic activity. Thus, high specific rates (similar to 80 U g(CDW)(-1) ) for terminal FAME oxyfunctionalization catalyzed by a recombinant alkane monooxygenase could be combined with reduced hydrolysis. Biotransformations in process-relevant two-liquid phase systems profited from reduced fatty acid accumulation and/or reduced substrate loss via free fatty acid metabolization. The BioH knockout strategy was beneficial in all tested strains, although its effect was found to differ according to specific strain properties, such as FAME hydrolysis and FFA degradation activities. BioH or functional analogs can be found in virtually all microorganisms, making bioH deletion a broadly applicable strategy for efficient microbial bioprocessing involving FAMEs.
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  203. Hydrophobic calcium carbonate: an option for the value-added conversion of wastes resulting from biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lei, H.; Chen, X.; Guan, S.; Liu, Y.; Ding, X. F.; Wang, Z. C. 2011. Hydrophobic calcium carbonate: an option for the value-added conversion of wastes resulting from biodiesel production. Environmental Chemistry Letters. 9(2) 217-221

    High production cost is the key issue of biodiesel industry nowadays. To low down the cost, using low-quality lipids feedstock is the most effective way. Two-step process is vastly applied to deal with those low-quality lipids to produce biodiesel. However, environmentally unfriendly wastes are formed during the process. Here we use calcium oxide residue and wastewater from biodiesel production to produce nanostructured calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) by carbonation at ambient temperature. The results show that CaCO(3) is hydrophobic and has broccoli-like morphology. It is made up of many uniform nano-rods, and each rod is composed of smaller particles with diameters about 50 nm. The idea of wastes utilization could make the biodiesel production process environmentally friendly, and the income of the produced CaCO(3) could further low down the cost of biodiesel production.
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  204. Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part II: Effect of temperature on hydrocarbon composition
    Abstract

    Bezergianni, S.; Dimitriadis, A.; Sfetsas, T.; Kalogianni, A. 2010. Hydrotreating of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. Part II: Effect of temperature on hydrocarbon composition. Bioresource Technology. 101(19) 7658-7660

    This study focuses on the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) as the main feedstock for hydrotreatment to evaluate the effect of temperature on the product hydrocarbon composition. A qualitative analysis was initially performed using a GC x GC-TOFMS indicating the presence of mainly paraffins of the C15-C18 range. A quantitative analysis was also performed via a GC-FID, which gave both n-paraffins and iso-paraffins in the range of C8-C29. The results indicate that hydrotreating temperature favors isomerization reactions as the amount of n-paraffins decreases while the amount of iso-paraffins increases. For all experiments the same commercial hydrotreating catalyst was utilized, while the remaining operating parameters were constant (pressure = 1200 psig, LHSV = 1.0 h(-1), H(2)/oil ratio = 4000 scfb, liquid feed = 0.33 ml/min, and gas feed = 0.4 scfh). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  205. Improved biodiesel production using microwave irradiation
    Abstract

    El Sheltawy, S. T.; Refaat, A. A.; Sadek, K. U. 2008. Improved biodiesel production using microwave irradiation. Proceedings of the 2nd Wseas International Conference on Management, Marketing and Finances. 149-+

    Cooperative global efforts are held to confront climate change threats by measures aiming at the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Biodiesel is a renewable, energy efficient, substitution fuel which reduces net carbon dioxide emissions. By running on biodiesel, vehicles can help reduce GHGs and polluting emissions even more, without impairing their performance or reducing their energy efficiency. Biodiesel production is worthy of continued study and optimization of production procedures due to its environmentally beneficial attributes and renewable nature. While the transesterification process for production of biodiesel is well established, there remain considerable inefficiencies in existing transesterification processes. Application of radio frequency microwave energy offers a fast, easy route to this valuable biofuel with advantages of enhancing the reaction rate and improving the separation process. The methodology allows for the use of high FFA content feedstock, including used cooking oil; hence it helps to reduce the cost of production which constitutes a major hurdle towards widespread commercialization of biodiesel.
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  206. Improved biomass and lipid production in Synechocystis sp NN using industrial wastes and nano-catalyst coupled transesterification for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Jawaharraj, K.; Karpagam, R.; Ashokkumar, B.; Kathiresan, S.; Moorthy, I. M. G.; Arumugam, M.; Varalakshmi, P. 2017. Improved biomass and lipid production in Synechocystis sp NN using industrial wastes and nano-catalyst coupled transesterification for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 242128-132

    In this study, the improved biomass (1.6 folds) and lipid (1.3 folds) productivities in Synechocystis sp. NN using agro-industrial wastes supplementation through hybrid response surface methodology-genetic algorithm (RSM-GA) for cost-effective methodologies for biodiesel production was achieved. Besides, efficient harvesting in Synechocystis sp. NN was achieved by electroflocculation (flocculation efficiency 97.8 +/- 1.2%) in 10 min when compared to other methods. Furthermore, different pretreatment methods were employed for lipid extraction and maximum lipid content of 19.3 +/- 0.2% by Synechocystis sp. NN was attained by ultrasonication than microwave and liquid nitrogen assisted pretreatment methods. The highest FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) conversion of 36.5 +/- 8.3 mg FAME/g biomass was obtained using titanium oxide as heterogeneous nano-catalyst coupled whole-cell transesterification based method. Conclusively, Synechocystis sp. NN may be used as a biodiesel feedstock and its fuel production can be enriched by hybrid RSM-GA and nano-catalyst technologies. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  207. Improvement in biodiesel production from soapstock oil by one-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis
    Abstract

    Su, E. Z.; Wei, D. Z. 2014. Improvement in biodiesel production from soapstock oil by one-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis. Energy Conversion and Management. 8860-65

    A major obstacle in the commercialization of biodiesel is its cost of manufacturing, primarily the raw material cost. In order to decrease the cost of biodiesel, soapstock oil was investigated as the feedstock for biodiesel production. Because the soapstock oil containing large amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) cannot be effectively converted to biodiesel, complicated two-stage process (esterification followed by transesterification) was generally adopted. In this study, simple one-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis of soapstock oil was developed via one-pot esterification and transesterification. Water produced by lipase catalyzed esterification of FFAs affected the lipase catalyzed transesterification of glycerides in the soapstock oil severely. Addition of tert-alcohol could overcome this problem and enhance the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield from 42.8% to 76.4%. The FAME yield was further elevated to 95.2% by optimizing the methanol/oil molar ratio, lipase amount, and water absorbent. The developed process enables the simple, efficient, and green production of biodiesel from soapstock oil, providing with a potential industrial application. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  208. Improving fatty acid methyl ester production yield in a lipase-catalyzed process using waste frying oils as feedstock
    Abstract

    Azocar, L.; Ciudad, G.; Heipieper, H. J.; Munoz, R.; Navia, R. 2010. Improving fatty acid methyl ester production yield in a lipase-catalyzed process using waste frying oils as feedstock. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 109(6) 609-614

    The application of waste frying oil (WFO) mixed with rapeseed oil as a feedstock for the effective production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in a lipase-catalyzed process was investigated. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the interaction of four variables: the percentage of WFO in the mixed feedstock, the methanol-to-oil ratio, the dosage of Novozym 435 as a catalyst and the temperature. Furthermore, the addition of methanol to the reaction mixture in a second step after 8 h was shown to effectively diminish enzyme inhibition. Using this technique, the model predicted the optimal conditions that would reach 100% FAME, including a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 3.8:1, 100% (wt) WFO, 15% (wt) Novozym 435 and incubation at 44.5 degrees C for 12 h with agitation at 200 rpm, and verification experiments confirmed the validity of the model. According to the model, the addition of WFO increased FAME production yield, which is largely due to its higher contents of monoacylglycerols, diacylglycerols and free fatty acids (in comparison to rapeseed oil), which are more available substrates for the enzymatic catalysis. Therefore, the replacement of rapeseed oil with WFO in Novozym 435-catalyzed processes could diminish biodiesel production costs since it is a less expensive feedstock that increases the production yield and could be a potential alternative for FAME production on an industrial scale. (C) 2009, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.
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  209. Incorporating uncertainty in the life cycle assessment of biodiesel from waste cooking oil addressing different collection systems
    Abstract

    Caldeira, C.; Queiros, J.; Noshadravan, A.; Freire, F. 2016. Incorporating uncertainty in the life cycle assessment of biodiesel from waste cooking oil addressing different collection systems. Resources Conservation and Recycling. 11283-92

    Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) is increasing prominence as a feedstock for biodiesel production due to its potential in reducing costs and environmental impacts of biodiesel when compared with virgin oils. However, several life-cycle studies have reported a wide range of WCO biodiesel impacts, mainly due to the WCO collection stage, which has not been discussed in the literature. The lack of a comprehensive assessment of the collection stage influence on biodiesel overall impacts motivates this article, in which a detailed Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) of biodiesel produced from WCO addressing different collection systems is presented. An inventory for WCO collection was implemented for different systems in the domestic and the food service industry sectors in Portugal as well as for biodiesel companies. The characterization and incorporation of the variation associated with WCO collection systems, parameter uncertainty and variability, as well as modelling options was performed. A wide range of impacts was calculated. Two factors contribute the most to the variation observed: the WCO collection efficiency and the characteristics of the collection system (e.g. sector, type of collection and population density). Results show that WCO collection cannot be neglected or simplified when assessing the overall environmental performance of biodiesel produced from WCO. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  210. Influence of fatty acids in waste cooking oil for cleaner biodiesel
    Abstract

    Chuah, L. F.; Klemes, J. J.; Yusup, S.; Bokhari, A.; Akbar, M. M. 2017. Influence of fatty acids in waste cooking oil for cleaner biodiesel. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 19(3) 859-868

    Physiochemical properties of biodiesel, a sustainable and green alternative fuel produced from renewable resources, are greatly influenced by the structural features of polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids. Two feedstock oils, potentially contribution to cleaner technologies, refined cooking oil and waste cooking oil derived from palm olein have been studied. Fatty acid compositions of the refined cooking oil and waste cooking oil were analysed and confronted with other literature sources. Critical parameters such as cetane number (CN), iodine value, cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and oxidation stability (OS) were correlated with long-chain saturated factor and degree of unsaturation (DU) of fatty acid to match the international standards of cleaner biodiesel. OS in biodiesel has been met with the absence of linolenic acid. High saturated fatty acid provides high CN. The iodine value of feedstock oil met the European standard where the DU of the oils was less than 138. However, CFPP of refined cooking oil and waste cooking oil did not meet the demanding Spanish regional (RD 61/2006) standard due to the presence of stearic and palmitic acid, which tended to clog the fuel filter by precipitating while the biodiesel becomes cool. With the proposed triangular chart for biodiesel properties prediction, potential biodiesel fuels from various feedstock oils can be analysed.
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  211. The influence of free fatty acid intermediate on biodiesel production from soybean oil by whole cell biocatalyst
    Abstract

    Lin, Y. H.; Luo, J. J.; Hwang, S. C. J.; Liau, P. R.; Lu, W. J.; Lee, H. T. 2011. The influence of free fatty acid intermediate on biodiesel production from soybean oil by whole cell biocatalyst. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(5) 2217-2223

    The whole cell of lipase-producing Rhizopus oryzae was employed as biocatalyst for transesterification of soybean oil containing oleic acid. The free fatty acid (FFA) intermediate, playing an important role in the kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil, was thoroughly investigated and characterized. The conversion was more than 97% at the initial FFA content of 5.5%. A high content of FFA could protect the lipase from denaturation. The 34.6 percent of FFA with the optimal 26-mg mL(-1) methanol resulted in a specific reaction rate of 420 mg h(-1)g-dry cell(-1). In addition, the methanol/FFA ratio at 0.83-1.7 provides a good indication of the fatty acid methyl esters conversions for different initial FFA contents. In the transesterification process, more FFA intermediate present would become beneficial to conversion of retrograde feedstock to biodiesel. The immediately generated and original FFA content become the major rate-determining factor in the FFA-mixed transesterification process. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  212. Influence of waste cooking oil biodiesel on combustion, unregulated gaseous emissions and particulate emissions of a direct-injection diesel engine
    Abstract

    Wei, L.; Cheung, C. S.; Ning, Z. 2017. Influence of waste cooking oil biodiesel on combustion, unregulated gaseous emissions and particulate emissions of a direct-injection diesel engine. Energy. 127175-185

    This study investigated the influence of waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel on the combustion, unregulated gaseous emissions and particulate emissions of a diesel engine. Experiments were carried out on a direct-injection diesel engine fueled with diesel, B20 (20% biodiesel on volume basis), B50, B75 and biodiesel, under the Japanese 13-mode test cycle.
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  213. Inorganic heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils
    Abstract

    Endalew, A. K.; Kiros, Y.; Zanzi, R. 2011. Inorganic heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(9) 3787-3809

    Biofuels are renewable solutions to replace the ever dwindling energy reserves and environmentally pollutant fossil liquid fuels when they are produced from low cost sustainable feedstocks. Biodiesel is mainly produced from vegetable oils or animal fats by the method of transesterification reaction using catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts are conventionally used for biodiesel production. Unfortunately, homogeneous catalysts are associated with problems which might increase the cost of production due to separation steps and emission of waste water. Inorganic heterogeneous catalysts are potentially low cost and can solve many of the problems encountered in homogeneous catalysts. Many solid acid and base inorganic catalysts have been studied for the transesterification of various vegetables oils. The work of many researchers on the development of active, tolerant to water and free fatty acids (FFA), as well as stable inorganic catalysts for biodiesel production from vegetable oils are reviewed and discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  214. Integration of algae cultivation as biodiesel production feedstock with municipal wastewater treatment: Strains screening and significance evaluation of environmental factors
    Abstract

    Li, Y. C.; Zhou, W. G.; Hu, B.; Min, M.; Chen, P.; Ruan, R. R. 2011. Integration of algae cultivation as biodiesel production feedstock with municipal wastewater treatment: Strains screening and significance evaluation of environmental factors. Bioresource Technology. 102(23) 10861-10867

    The objectives of this study are to find the robust strains for the centrate cultivation system and to evaluate the effect of environmental factors including light intensity, light-dark cycle, and exogenous CO(2) concentration on biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrient removal and biodiesel production. The results showed that all 14 algae strains from the genus of Chlorella, Haematococcus, Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas, and Chloroccum were able to grow on centrate. The highest net biomass accumulation (2.01 g/L) was observed with Chlorella kessleri followed by Chlorella protothecoides (1.31 g/L), and both of them were proved to be capable of mixotrophic growth when cultivated on centrate. Environmental factors had significant effect on algal biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrients removal and biodiesel production. Higher light intensity and exogenous CO(2) concentration with longer lighting period promote biomass accumulation, biodiesel production, as well as the removal of chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen, while, lower exogenous CO(2) concentration promotes phosphorus removal. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  215. Intensification Approaches for Biodiesel Synthesis from Waste Cooking Oil: A Review
    Abstract

    Maddikeri, G. L.; Pandit, A. B.; Gogate, P. R. 2012. Intensification Approaches for Biodiesel Synthesis from Waste Cooking Oil: A Review. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 51(45) 14610-14628

    The use of biodiesel as an alternative fuel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits such as nontoxicity and biodegradability. However, due to the unfavorable economics and other problems for design and operation of large scale reactors, commercialization of biodiesel has not been significantly effective. The specific challenges in the synthesis route based on transesterification include higher separation times, high operating cost, high energy consumption, and low production efficiency due to equilibrium limitations. The present work highlights the potential use of Waste cooking oil as a cheap and economical feedstock discussing the advantages of the process and limitations for transesterification reaction. Improvements in the synthesis process based on the different pretreatment methods and process intensifying techniques are discussed with specific reference to transesterification of waste cooking oil. Different physical and chemical pretreatment methods required for the preparation of feedstock include filtration, drying, acidic esterification, adsorption, crystallization, and distillation for the removal of fatty acids and other contaminants. The critical review also highlights the different process intensification techniques such as cavitational reactors, microwave irradiation, microchannel reactor, oscillatory flow reactor, use of cosolvent, and supercritical transesterification process that can be used for biodiesel production process with an objective of enhancing the reaction rate, reduction in the molar ratio of alcohol to oil, and energy input by intensifying the transport processes and overcoming the equilibrium limitations. Guidelines for the selection of optimum operating parameters have also been given with comparative analysis of the different approaches of process intensification. Finally, some recommendations have been made for the possible research that needs to be done for successful commercialization of biodiesel synthesis.
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  216. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer
    Abstract

    Joshi, S.; Gogate, P. R.; Moreira, P. F., Jr.; Giudici, R. 2017. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer. Ultrason Sonochem. 39645-653

    In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel. Various experiments were performed for understanding the effect of operating parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and speed of rotation of the homogenizer. For soybean oil, the maximum biodiesel yield as 84% was obtained with catalyst loading of 3wt% and molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:10 at 50 degrees C with 12,000rpm as the speed of rotation in 30min. Similarly biodiesel yield of 88% was obtained from waste cooking oil under identical operating conditions except for the catalyst loading which was 1wt%. Significant increase in the rate of biodiesel production with yields from soybean oil as 84% (in 30min) and from WCO as 88% (30min) was established due to the use of high speed homogenizer as compared to the conventional stirring method (requiring 2-3h for obtaining similar biodiesel yield). The observed intensification was attributed to the turbulence caused at microscale and generation of fine emulsions due to the cavitational effects. Overall it can be concluded from this study that high speed homogenizer can be used as an alternate cavitating device to efficiently produce biodiesel in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts.
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  217. Intensification of biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oil (Palm Olein) in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor: Effect of operating parameters on methyl ester conversion
    Abstract

    Chuah, L. F.; Yusup, S.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Bokhari, A.; Klemes, J. J.; Abdullah, M. Z. 2015. Intensification of biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oil (Palm Olein) in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor: Effect of operating parameters on methyl ester conversion. Chemical Engineering and Processing. 95235-240

    This paper investigates a new route for intensification of methyl ester synthesis in Malaysia via alkali-catalysed transesterification of waste cooking oil derived from palm olein using a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. The effects of the oil to methanol molar ratio (1:4-1:7), catalyst loading concentration (0.5-1.25 wt%) and reaction temperature (50-65 degrees C) have been investigated using an optimised plate with 21 holes of 1 mm diameter and an inlet pressure of 2 bar in a 50 L of hydrodynamic cavitation reactor assisted by a double diaphragm pump. Optimal conversion of 98.1% was achieved in 15 min in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor with 1:6 molar ratio of oil to methanol, 1 wt% of catalyst and 60 degrees C of reaction temperature. It has been observed that a significant reduction in the optimum reaction time (about 6 fold) for transesterification from 90 min for mechanical stirring approach to 15 min for the hydrodynamic cavitation approach. Optimal yield efficiency of 12.50 x 10(-4) g/J was found using hydrodynamic cavitation and it was 8 fold higher than 1.5 x 10(-4)g/J when mechanical stirring was used. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  218. Intensified synthesis of biodiesel using hydrodynamic cavitation reactors based on the interesterification of waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Maddikeri, G. L.; Gogate, P. R.; Pandit, A. B. 2014. Intensified synthesis of biodiesel using hydrodynamic cavitation reactors based on the interesterification of waste cooking oil. Fuel. 137285-292

    In the present work, hydrodynamic cavitation reactor has been used for the intensification of synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) based on the interesterification reaction. Experiments have been performed using different cavitating devices such as orifice plate, circular and slit venturi and under varying operating parameters viz. inlet pressure (2-5 bar), molar ratio of oil to methyl acetate (over the range of 1:10-1:14) and catalyst loading over the range of 0.5-1.25% by weight of oil. Maximum yield (90%) of biodiesel from WCO was obtained at oil to methyl acetate ratio of 1:12 and catalyst loading of 1.0% using slit venturi at the inlet pressure of 3 bar. Also, higher cavitational yield (biodiesel produced per unit energy consumed) was obtained for the hydrodynamic cavitation based approach as compared to the ultrasound based approach and conventional method. The observed intensification is attributed to the microscale turbulence generated due to the cavitational effects that help in intensifying the transfer processes. Overall, the potential of WCO to produce good quality methyl esters in energy efficient manner using hydrodynamic cavitation reactor has been demonstrated based on the cavitational yield calculations and properties of synthesized biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  219. Investigation of carbon-based solid acid catalyst from Jatropha curcas biomass in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mardhiah, H. H.; Ong, H. C.; Masjuki, H. H.; Lim, S.; Pang, Y. L. 2017. Investigation of carbon-based solid acid catalyst from Jatropha curcas biomass in biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management. 14410-17

    In this study, a carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared using the de-oiled Jatropha curcas (JC) seed cake waste. The catalyst was consequently used to esterify the JC oil in order to lower the high free fatty acid content (FFA) to an acceptable level (< 4 mg KOH g(-1)) for biodiesel production. The chemical and physical properties of the catalyst were characterized using a variety of techniques. The conversion of FFA reached 99.13% under optimum conditions of 12:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 7.5 wt% catalyst loading, 60 min reaction time and 60 degrees C reaction temperature at 350 rpm. The catalyst was also determined to outperform the conventionally used sulfuric acid catalyst in terms of reaction time needed to achieve the highest conversion yield. The high catalytic ability of the catalyst was associated with the high acid site density formed in the catalyst which was due to the high porosity and large pore size of the carbon framework of the catalyst. The hydrophobic nature of the catalyst also contributed to the stability of the catalyst in which it can be re-used up until the 4th cycle. The recyclability of the catalyst and its cheap feedstock makes the overall process much simpler, cost-efficient and environment-friendly. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  220. Investigation of heterogeneous solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstocks for biodiesel production: A review
    Abstract

    Mansir, N.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Rashid, U.; Lokman, I. M. 2017. Investigation of heterogeneous solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstocks for biodiesel production: A review. Energy Conversion and Management. 141171-182

    The conventional fossil fuel reserves are continually declining worldwide and therefore posing greater challenges to the future of the energy sources. Biofuel alternatives were found promising to replace the diminishing fossil fuels. However, conversion of edible vegetable oils to biodiesel using homogeneous acids and base catalysts is now considered as indefensible for the future particularly due to food versus fuel competition and other environmental problems related to catalyst system and feedstock. This review has discussed the progression in research and growth related to heterogeneous catalysts used for biodiesel production for low grade feedstocks. The heterogeneous base catalysts have revealed effective way to produce biodiesel, but it has the limitation of being sensitive to high free fatty acid (FFA) or low grade feedstocks. Alternatively, solid acid catalysts are capable of converting the low grade feedstocks to biodiesel in the presence of active acid sites. The paper presents a comprehensive review towards the investigation of solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstock, their category, properties, advantages, limitations and possible remedy to their drawbacks for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  221. An investigation of restaurant waste oil characteristics for biodiesel production in Trinidad and Tobago
    Abstract

    Wyse-Mason, R. R.; Beckles, D. M. 2012. An investigation of restaurant waste oil characteristics for biodiesel production in Trinidad and Tobago. Energy for Sustainable Development. 16(4) 515-519

    In this study, the effect of cooking conditions on waste oil characteristics and yield of methyl esters was investigated for biodiesel production in Trinidad and Tobago. Used cooking oil was collected from eleven restaurants that were subdivided into four categories according to the type of meals served: four Chinese restaurants. four Indian restaurants, two Fried-Chicken restaurants and one Pizzeria. The waste oils were characterised as to their acid value, free fatty acid levels, saponification, peroxide value, water concentrations and fatty acid composition. Waste oil from one restaurant from each category was then selected to undergo base catalysed transesterification. The waste oils collected from the Indian restaurants were used less intensely and had the most desirable properties with the lowest free fatty acid content while those of the Chinese restaurants produced the highest yields of methyl esters. Biodiesel produced from the waste oil of these two restaurants also met the ASTM standard for the properties tested. Waste oils from the Fried-Chicken restaurants and the Pizzeria demonstrated high degradation that was reflected in their high acid values and free fatty acid levels and correspondingly poor yields of methyl esters. Given the high proportion of these less suitable waste oil feedstocks in the local market, biodiesel production via base catalysed transesterification may not be suitable in the Trinidad and Tobago context. (c) 2012 International Energy Initiative. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  222. Investigation of the Effect of Blending Ratio and Temperature on the Kinematic Viscosity and Specific Gravity of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Eryilmaz, T.; Yesilyurt, M. K. 2015. Investigation of the Effect of Blending Ratio and Temperature on the Kinematic Viscosity and Specific Gravity of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 24(4b) 1523-1529

    Increasing uncertainty about global energy production and supply, environmental concerns due to the use of fossil fuels, and the high price of petroleum products are the major reasons to search for alternatives to diesel. One of these alternative energy sources, biodiesel, can be produced from vegetable, animal, waste cooking and algal oils. Waste cooking oil (WCO) is one of the most economical choices to produce biodiesel. Since one of the major concerns in biodiesel production is the price of feedstock, utilization of WCO significantly enhances its economic viability. In this study, biodiesel was produced from WCO, using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and methyl alcohol by transesterification method. Four different fuel blends (20, 40, 60 and 80% by volume, blending with diesel) were prepared. Specific gravity, density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, flash point, copper strip corrosion and water content of biodiesel produced from WCO were determined under various blending ratios with ultimate euro diesel fuel, and also specific gravity and kinematic viscosity were investigated at different temperatures.
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  223. An Investigation of the Effect of Methyl Ester Produced from Waste Frying Oil on the Performance and Emissions of an Idi Diesel Engine
    Abstract

    Ozsezen, A. N.; Canakci, M. 2008. An Investigation of the Effect of Methyl Ester Produced from Waste Frying Oil on the Performance and Emissions of an Idi Diesel Engine. Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University. 23(2) 395-404

    In this study, methyl ester produced from waste frying oil based palm-oil was used as an alternative diesel fuel in a four-cylinder, naturally aspirated, indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine. Obtained engine test results were compared with reference values which were determined by using petroleum-based diesel fuel (PBDF). In order to determine the engine performance and emission levels, the engine was exposed with full load-varied speed tests. The test results showed that when methyl ester was used, the brake specific fuel consumption increased slightly, while the brake torque and power decreased by comparing to petroleum-based diesel fuel. In the experiments, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and smoke opacity values has been measured for each fuel. Emission results showed that the methyl ester has provided significant reduction in HC, CO and smoke opacity emissions. But, by using the methyl ester, the NO(x) emissions have increased compared to PBDF.
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  224. Isolation and screening of microalgae from agro-industrial wastewater (POME) for biomass and biodiesel sources
    Abstract

    Kamyab, H.; Din, M. F. M.; Ponraj, M.; Keyvanfar, A.; Rezania, S.; Taib, S. M.; Abd Majid, M. Z. 2016. Isolation and screening of microalgae from agro-industrial wastewater (POME) for biomass and biodiesel sources. Desalination and Water Treatment. 57(60) 29118-29125

    Indigenous microalgae (KR349061) were isolated from the agro-industrial wastewater and screened in order to determine their potential for biomass and biodiesel sources. Bold's Basal Medium was used to isolate the colonies from sample. The nutrient contents were altered in order to optimize the growth of the microalgae. The isolates were identified based on the morphology and microscopic appearance of the isolated colonies. It was seen that the isolates comprised of several common green microalgae and cyanobacteria, among which the ideal candidate was selected and further investigated. Lipid content was determined for the strains that showed rapid growth. The results showed that Chlamydomonas incerta achieved highest lipid content of biomass (42.6%) after 2d, also highest lipid productivity of 0.197mg/L/d was observed when the initial COD concentration was 500mg/L. C. incerta also showed higher growth rate and higher amount of lipid was examined for its potential as sustainable biodiesel feedstock along with its higher biomass yield.
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  225. Kernel characteristics, oil contents, fatty acid compositions and biodiesel properties in developing Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seeds
    Abstract

    Fan, S. Q.; Liang, T. Y.; Yu, H. Y.; Bi, Q. X.; Li, G. T.; Wang, L. B. 2016. Kernel characteristics, oil contents, fatty acid compositions and biodiesel properties in developing Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seeds. Industrial Crops and Products. 89195-199

    Kernel characteristics, oil contents, fatty acid compositions and biodiesel properties were studied in developing Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seeds, at intervals of I week from 3 weeks after anthesis to 10 weeks. Variation of kernel dry biomass, kernel length, kernel breadth and kernel thickness were significant (P < 0.01). Oil content increased with maturity and reached the highest point at 8 weeks after anthesis (51.6%). Changes in the content of oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) presented an opposite trend that oleic acid increased, whereas linoleic acid decreased until 7 weeks after anthesis. Siberian apricot methyl esters meet the specifications better in biodiesel standards when seeds were harvested at 8, 9 and 10 weeks after anthesis. Siberian apricot seeds harvested after 8 weeks after anthesis may be suitable for producing biodiesel. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  226. Kinetic studies of sea mango (Cerbera odollam) oil for biodiesel production via injection of superheated methanol vapour technology
    Abstract

    Ang, G. T.; Tan, K. T.; Lee, K. T.; Mohamed, A. R. 2015. Kinetic studies of sea mango (Cerbera odollam) oil for biodiesel production via injection of superheated methanol vapour technology. Energy Conversion and Management. 1051213-1222

    In this study, sea mango (Cerbera odollam) oil which is rich in free fatty acid was utilised as the feedstock in one-step superheated methanol vapour (SMV) transesterification reaction without going through pretreatment step. SMV transesterification reaction was initiated by injecting superheated methanol vapour into sea mango oil phase. Effect of methanol flow rate at the range of 1-4 mL/min as well as effect of reaction temperatures at the range of 260-290 degrees C was studied based on FAME production rates at constant initial oil volume of 100 mL. Kinetic modelling of semi-batch system, incorporating second-order of three-stepwise reversible transesterification of triglycerides (TG) and second order of reversible esterification of free fatty acid (FFA) were verified simultaneously using ordinary differential equation (ODE45) solver. It shows that transesterification reaction of TG and esterification of FFA would occur simultaneously. The high activation energy of 50 kJ/mol and low reaction rate constant of 1.62 x 10(-4) dm(3)/mol min verified that the reaction of TG to become diglycerides (DG) as the rate limiting step in this semi-batch SMV system. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  227. Kinetic studies on waste cooking oil into biodiesel via hydrodynamic cavitation
    Abstract

    Chuah, L. F.; Klemes, J. J.; Yusup, S.; Bokhari, A.; Akbar, M. M.; Chong, Z. K. 2017. Kinetic studies on waste cooking oil into biodiesel via hydrodynamic cavitation. Journal of Cleaner Production. 14647-56

    Development of cleaner biodiesel production related to hydrodynamic cavitation of methyl ester synthesis from sustainable waste cooking oil via alkali-catalysed transesterification is gaining importance due to considerable lower energy requirement and time. The effects of the oil to methanol molar ratio (1:4-1:7), catalyst concentration (0.5-1.25 wt %) and reaction temperature (50-65 degrees C) have been studied in a hydrodynamic cavitation and mechanical stirring system. Highest conversion of 98% was achieved under optimum conditions of 1:6 M ratio of oil to methanol, 1 wt % potassium hydroxide as alkali catalyst, 60 degrees C and 15 min reaction time. It has been observed that yield efficiency and reaction time were 833% higher and 600% shorter using hydrodynamic cavitation compared to mechanical stirring. Triglycerides conversion obeys pseudo-first order mechanism. The kinetic parameters of hydrodynamic cavitation and mechanical stirring were calculated, where the reaction rate constants were 0.238 and 0.031 min(-1), activation energies were 89.7 and 92.7 kJ/mol and the pre-exponential factors were 2.623 x 10(13) and 1.120 x 10(13) min(-1). Hydrodynamic cavitation was 1.8 fold more energy efficient and 4.6 fold lower feedstock used per produced product than mechanical stirring in biodiesel production. In conclusion, waste cooking oil methyl ester produced via hydrodynamic cavitation proved to be time saving and energy efficient compared to mechanical stirring. This makes the process more environmental friendly using hydrodynamic cavitation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  228. Kinetic Study of Alcoholysis of the Fatty Acids Catalyzed by Tin Chloride(II): An Alternative Catalyst for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Cardoso, A. L.; Neves, S. C. G.; da Silva, M. J. 2009. Kinetic Study of Alcoholysis of the Fatty Acids Catalyzed by Tin Chloride(II): An Alternative Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. Energy & Fuels. 231718-1722

    A valuable alternative for making the biodiesel price more competitive than petroleum-derived fuel is the use of raw materials of low cost. However, these feedstocks contain a high amount of free fatty acids (FFAs). Currently, the biodiesel production from this kind of resource is comprised in a two-step process, where an initial acid-catalyzed esterification of the FFA followed by a base-catalyzed transesterification of the triglycerides occurs. Commonly, the sulfuric acid is the catalyst on the acid step. However, some serious drawbacks, such as substantial reactor corrosion and the great generation of wastes, even of the salts formed by mineral acid neutralization, are negative aspects of these processes. In this work, the SnCl(2)-catalyzed esterification of saturated and unsaturated FFA was evaluated. High yields and selectivities were achieved on the ethanolysis of FFA, under mild conditions of reaction. The SnCl(2) catalyst has shown to be as active as the mineral acid H(2)SO(4). Their use has relevant advantages in comparison to mineral acid catalysts, such as lower corrosiveness and as well as the unnecessary neutralization after the reaction finishes. Herein, the effects of the principal parameters of the reaction have been investigated. Kinetic investigations revealed a first-order dependence upon both the oleic acid and the catalyst concentration. The energy of activation achieved for this process was approximately similar to those reported for H(2)SO(4)-catalyzed FFA esterification.
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  229. Kinetics and mass transfer of free fatty acids esterification with methanol in a tubular packed bed reactor: A key pretreatment in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Santacesaria, E.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Guida, M.; Gaetano, D.; Agreda, A. G. 2007. Kinetics and mass transfer of free fatty acids esterification with methanol in a tubular packed bed reactor: A key pretreatment in biodiesel production. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 46(15) 5113-5121

    Biodiesel can be easily obtained starting from high-quality or refined vegetable oils and performing on these feedstocks a transesterification reaction usually promoted by alkaline catalysts in the homogeneous phase. In this production scheme the employment of low-quality or waste raw materials, as cheap as possible, must be carefully considered to strongly improve the economic competitiveness of this biofuel with respect to the petroleum-derived diesel. In the case of raw materials characterized by a high content of free fatty acids (FFAs), a preliminary esterification treatment with methanol or ethanol is necessary for the abatement of the FFA concentration below the threshold limit value of 0.5-1.0% by weight that is tolerable by the subsequent process step of alkaline transesterification. In the present work the esterification reaction in tubular packed bed reactors, operating under pressure and using a sulfonic acid resin as catalyst, has been extensively studied. As it is well-known, sulfonic exchange resins are subjected to an impressive swelling phenomenon, and it is difficult to obtain, in this case, a dimensionally stable packed bed reactor. A particular solution to this problem has been proposed by the authors using springs of suitable size and shape as catalyst diluent. The influence of operative conditions like overall feed flow rate, reactants feed molar ratio, reactor aspect ratio L/D-R, and mixture viscosity in the described reactors has been investigated. The collected experimental data have been interpreted by means of a mono-dimensional packed bed reactor model in which the external mass-transfer limitation (fluid-to-particle) has been accounted for.
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  230. Kinetics of amidation of free fatty acids in jatropha oil as a for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Das, H. P.; Neeharika, T. S. V. R.; Sailu, C.; Srikanth, V.; Kumar, T. P.; Rani, K. N. P. 2017. Kinetics of amidation of free fatty acids in jatropha oil as a for biodiesel production. Fuel. 196169-177

    Owing to the growing demand for transportation fuel, enormous efforts are being carried on development of alternate fuels mainly biodiesel from various renewable sources. Different pretreatment methods are adopted for the preparation of biodiesel, major one of the them is the removal of free fatty acids (FFA). Literature reveals esterification as an essential unit process for the reduction of FFA by conversion into its respective esters. In this study, FFA present in jatropha oil were reduced by amidation reaction using monoethanolamine for use in biodiesel. The by-product obtained is fatty acid amide. The fatty acid amide obtained was separated from the feedstock by filtration or centrifugation. This pre-treated oil can be directly transesterified for the preparation of biodiesel without undergoing any process step for removal of unreacted amine. Also, the reaction kinetics of jatropha oil with monoethanolamine was studied with batch experiments at 34-64 degrees C and at molar ratios of FFA-monoethanolamine varying from 1:0.5 to 1:2 with different speeds of agitation. Based on the experimental results, 1:1.5 FFA-monoethanolamine molar ratio at 34 degrees C and 550 rpm gave maximum reduction in free fatty acids. The effect of reaction conditions such as temperature and molar ratio on the kinetics has been studied. Observed reaction rate data was fitted to the regression technique. Estimated kinetic model reaction rate constants and equilibrium constant were fitted to the Arrhenius and van't Hoff equations respectively. The deacidified jatropha oil was transesterified by conventional method and was characterized for its physico-chemical properties. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  231. Kinetics Study of Jatropha Oil Esterification with Ethanol in the Presence of Tin (II) Chloride Catalyst for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kusumaningtyas, R. D.; Ratrianti, N.; Purnamasari, I.; Budiman, A. 2017. Kinetics Study of Jatropha Oil Esterification with Ethanol in the Presence of Tin (II) Chloride Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. International Conference on Engineering, Science and Nanotechnology 2016 (Icesnano 2016). 1788

    Jatropha oil is one of the promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Jatropha oil is non-edible oil hence utilization of this oil would not compete with the needs of food. However, crude jatropha oil usually has high free fatty acid (FFA) content. Due to this fact, direct alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of crude jatropha oil for biodiesel production cannot be performed. FFA in crude jatropha oil will react with a base catalyst, resulting in soap as by product and hindering methyl ester (biodiesel) production. Therefore, prior to a transesterification reaction, it is crucial to run a pretreatment step of jatropha oil which can lower the FFA content in the oil. In this work, the pretreatment process was conducted through the esterification reaction of FFA contained in crude jatropha oil with ethanol over tin (II) chloride catalyst to reduce the acid value of the feedstock. The feedstock was Indonesia crude jatropha oil containing 12.03% of FFA. The esterification reaction was carried out in a batch reactor with a molar ratio of FFA to ethanol was 1: 60 and total reaction time was 180 minutes. Tin (II) chloride catalyst was varied at 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% wt, whereas the effect of the reaction temperature was studied at 35, 34, 55, and 65 degrees C. The best reaction conversion was 71.55%, achieved at the following condition: a reaction temperature of 65 degrees C, catalyst concentration of 10% wt, the reaction time of 180 min, and the molar ratio of FFA to ethanol was 1: 60. Kinetics study was also conducted in this work. It was found that esterification reaction of jatropha oil FFA with ethanol catalyzed by tin(II) chloride fitted the first-order pseudohomogeneous kinetics model. It was also revealed that the frequency factor (A) and the activation energy (Ea) were 4.3864 x 10(6) min(-1) and 56.2513 kJ/mole, respectively.
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  232. A laboratory study of producing docosahexaenoic acid from biodiesel-waste glycerol by microalgal fermentation
    Abstract

    Chi, Z. Y.; Pyle, D.; Wen, Z. Y.; Frear, C.; Chen, S. L. 2007. A laboratory study of producing docosahexaenoic acid from biodiesel-waste glycerol by microalgal fermentation. Process Biochemistry. 42(11) 1537-1545

    Crude glycerol is the primary by-product in the biodiesel industry, which is too costly to be purified into to higher quality products used in the health and cosmetics industries. This work investigated the potential of using the crude glycerol to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) through fermentation of the microalga Schizochytrium limacinum. The results showed that crude glycerol supported alga growth and DHA production, with 75-100 g/L concentration being the optimal range. Among other medium and environmental factors influencing DHA production, temperature, trace metal (PI) solution concentration, ammonium acetate, and NH4Cl had significant effects (P < 0.1). Their optimal values were determined 30 mL/L of PI, 0.04 g/L of NH4Cl, 1.0 g/L of ammonium acetate, and 19.2 degrees C. A highest DHA yield of 4.91 g/L with 22.1 g/L cell dry weight was obtained. The results suggested that biodiesel-derived crude glycerol is a promising feedstock for production of DHA from heterotrophic algal culture. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  233. Lewis acid/surfactant rare earth trisdodecylsulfate catalysts for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    de Mattos, F. C. G.; de Souza, J. A. D.; Cotrim, A. B. D.; de Macedo, J. L.; Dias, J. A.; Dias, S. C. L.; Ghesti, G. F. 2012. Lewis acid/surfactant rare earth trisdodecylsulfate catalysts for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. Applied Catalysis a-General. 4231-6

    This work reports the synthesis, characterization and application of rare earth (La. Ce. Sm and Gd) trisdodecylsulfate materials as Lewis acid-surfactant-combined catalysts for the production of biodiesel from waste cooking soybean oil. All the solid materials showed a bilayer lamellar arrangement with the dodecylsulfate molecules in a head to head, tail to tail packing. The reaction between commercial feedstocks (soybean oil and oleic acid) with ethanol was used separately to study La, Ce, Sm and Gd catalyst activities for transesterification (conversions of 73, 92, 53 and 73%) and esterification (conversions of 87, 80, 75 and 85%) after 1 h, respectively. Among them, cerium(III) trisdodecylsulfate showed the highest catalytic activity (TOF = 29.5 mol h(-1) mol(cat)(-1)) for transesterification, while lanthanum(III) and gadolinium(III) trisdodecylsulfates were the most active for esterification (TOF = 28.7 mol h(-1) mol(cat)(-1)). The application of the studied catalysts for the simultaneous transesterification and esterification reaction of waste cooking oil, containing 8.8 wt.% of free fatty acids (FFAs), with ethanol showed conversions of 76(3.3 wt.% of FFAs), 79(5.3 wt.% of FFAs), 81(2.5 wt.% of FFAs) and 86% (0.0 wt.% of FFAs) after 1 h for La, Ce, Sm and Gd catalysts, respectively. Thus, gadolinium(III) trisdodecylsulfate was the best material for the conversion of waste feedstock to produce biodiesel. However, cerium(III) trisdodecylsulfate was less susceptible to deactivation, exhibiting conversion values of 92,81 and 77% for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd reaction cycles. The catalysts were characterized by elemental analysis. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), H-1 NMR, thermal analysis (TG/DTG/DTA) and FTIR measurements. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  234. Life Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas and PM2.5 Emissions from Restaurant Waste Oil Used for Biodiesel Production in China
    Abstract

    Yang, Y.; Fu, T. C.; Bao, W. Q.; Xie, G. H. 2017. Life Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas and PM2.5 Emissions from Restaurant Waste Oil Used for Biodiesel Production in China. Bioenergy Research. 10(1) 199-207

    Waste cooking oil (WCO) can serve as a feedstock for producing biodiesel, which would not only address food security and waste disposal but also has the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) and particulate matter of 2.5 mu m or smaller (PM2.5). In this study, we assessed restaurant waste oil (RWO) availability in China and conducted life cycle analysis (LCA) of GHG and PM2.5 emissions of RWO-based biodiesel using the GREET model. The results showed that the amount of RWO in China varies between 0.56 and 1.67 million tons in 2013 and between 0.54 and 1.63 million tons in 2014. Life cycle analysis estimated reduction of GHG and PM2.5 emissions through the use of RWO-based rather than petroleum-based biodiesel of 82 kg CO2-Eq. (90 %) and 0.92 g PM2.5 (46 %) respectively per 100 km driven by busses in 2014 in Shanghai, China. Given the total amount of RWO available in 2014 in China, the potential mitigated annual GHG emission ranges, in China, are 1.51 similar to 4.52 x 10(6) tons of CO2-eq and 16.94 similar to 50.83 tons of PM2.5.
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  235. Life cycle assessment of hydrogenated biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using the catalytic cracking and hydrogenation method
    Abstract

    Yano, J.; Aoki, T.; Nakamura, K.; Yamada, K.; Sakai, S. 2015. Life cycle assessment of hydrogenated biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using the catalytic cracking and hydrogenation method. Waste Management. 38409-423

    There is a worldwide trend towards stricter control of diesel exhaust emissions, however presently, there are technical impediments to the use of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters)-type biodiesel fuel (BDF). Although hydrogenated biodiesel (HBD) is anticipated as a new diesel fuel, the environmental performance of HBD and its utilization system have not been adequately clarified. Especially when waste cooking oil is used as feedstock, not only biofuel production but also the treatment of waste cooking oil is an important function for society. A life cycle assessment (LCA), including uncertainty analysis, was conducted to determine the environmental benefits (global warming, fossil fuel consumption, urban air pollution, and acidification) of HBD produced from waste cooking oil via catalytic cracking and hydrogenation, compared with fossil-derived diesel fuel or FAME-type BDF. Combined functional unit including "treatment of waste cooking oil" and "running diesel vehicle for household waste collection" was established in the context of Kyoto city, Japan. The calculation utilized characterization, damage, and integration factors identified by LIME2, which was based on an endpoint modeling method. The results show that if diesel vehicles that comply with the new Japanese long-term emissions gas standard are commonly used in the future, the benefit of FAME-type BDF will be relatively limited. Furthermore, the scenario that introduced HBD was most effective in reducing total environmental impact, meaning that a shift from FAME-type BDF to HBD would be more beneficial. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  236. Life cycle emissions and energy study of biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil and diesel in Singapore
    Abstract

    Chua, C. B. H.; Lee, H. M.; Low, J. S. C. 2010. Life cycle emissions and energy study of biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil and diesel in Singapore. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. 15(4) 417-423

    Biodiesel derived from Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) is considered highly environmentally sustainable since WCO is a waste product from domestic and commercial cooking processes and then recycled to a transportation fuel in Singapore. In addition, it avoids the conversion of land use for crop production. This is a strong advantage for Singapore which has relatively smaller land space than other countries. The import of virgin oil as feedstock into Singapore is also avoided. Therefore, the more appropriate feedstock to produce biodiesel in Singapore context is WCO. According to the National Environment Agency, diesel vehicles in Singapore contribute 50% of the total particulate matter smaller than 2.5 mu m (PM(0.25)) emissions to air ambient. Hence, the aim of this life cycle assessment study was to compare the environmental performances of biodiesel derived from WCO and low sulphur diesel in terms of global warming potential, life cycle energy efficiency (LCEE) and fossil energy ratio (FER) using the life cycle inventory. The results of this study would serve as a reference for energy policy makers and environmental agencies.
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  237. Life-Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel Produced from Grease Trap Waste
    Abstract

    Hums, M. E.; Cairncross, R. A.; Spatari, S. 2016. Life-Cycle Assessment of Biodiesel Produced from Grease Trap Waste. Environmental Science & Technology. 50(5) 2718-2726

    Grease trap waste (GTW) is a low-quality waste material with variable lipid content that is an untapped resource for producing biodiesel. Compared to conventional biodiesel feedstocks, GTW requires different and additional processing steps for biodiesel production due to its heterogeneous composition, high acidity, and high sulfur content. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy demand, and criteria air pollutant emissions for the GTW-biodiesel process, in which the sensitivity to lipid concentration in GTW is analyzed using Monte Carlo simulation. The life-cycle environmental performance of GTW-biodiesel is compared to that of current GTW disposal, the soybean-biodiesel process, and low-sulfur diesel (LSD). The disposal of the water and solid wastes produced from separating lipids from GTW has a high contribution to the environmental impacts; however, the impacts of these processed wastes are part of the current disposal practice for GTW and could be excluded with consequential LCA system boundaries. At lipid concentrations greater than 10%, most of the environmental metrics studied are lower than those of LSD and comparable to soybean biodiesel.
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  238. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and quality with Jatropha curcas oil: exploring its potential for Central America
    Abstract

    Bueso, F.; Moreno, L.; Cedeno, M.; Manzanarez, K. 2015. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and quality with Jatropha curcas oil: exploring its potential for Central America. Journal of Biological Engineering. 9

    Background: Extensive native Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha) crop areas have been planted in Central America marginal lands since 2008 as a non-edible prospective feedstock alternative to high-value, edible palm oil. Jatropha biodiesel is currently exclusively produced in the region at commercial scale utilizing alkaline catalysts. Recently, a free, soluble Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL) 1,3 specific lipase has shown promise as biocatalyst, reportedly yielding up to 96 % ASTM D6751 compliant biodiesel after 24 h transesterification of soybean, canola oils and other feedstocks. Biodiesel conversion rate and quality of enzymatically catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil was evaluated. Two lipases: free, soluble TL and immobilized Candida antarctica (CA) catalyzed methanolic transesterification of crude Jatropha and refined palm oil.
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  239. Lipase-catalyzed process in an anhydrous medium with enzyme reutilization to produce biodiesel with low acid value
    Abstract

    Azocar, L.; Ciudad, G.; Heipieper, H. J.; Munoz, R.; Navia, R. 2011. Lipase-catalyzed process in an anhydrous medium with enzyme reutilization to produce biodiesel with low acid value. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 112(6) 583-589

    One major problem in the lipase-catalyzed production of biodiesel or fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is the high acidity of the product, mainly caused by water presence, which produces parallel hydrolysis and esterification reactions instead of transesterification to FAME. Therefore, the use of reaction medium in absence of water (anhydrous medium) was investigated in a lipase-catalyzed process to improve FAME yield and final product quality. FAME production catalyzed by Novozym 435 was carried out using waste frying oil (WFO) as raw material, methanol as acyl acceptor, and 3 angstrom molecular sieves to extract the water. The anhydrous conditions allowed the esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) from feedstock at the initial reaction time. However, after the initial esterification process, water absence avoided the consecutives reactions of hydrolysis and esterification, producing FAME mainly by transesterification. Using this anhydrous medium, a decreasing in both the acid value and the diglycerides content in the product were observed, simultaneously improving FAME yield. Enzyme reuse in the anhydrous medium was also studied. The use of the moderate polar solvent tert-butanol as a co-solvent led to a stable catalysis using Novozym 435 even after 17 successive cycles of FAME production under anhydrous conditions. These results indicate that a lipase-catalyzed process in an anhydrous medium coupled with enzyme reuse would be suitable for biodiesel production, promoting the use of oils of different origin as raw materials. (C) 2011, The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. All rights reserved.
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  240. Lipase-Catalyzed Production of Biodiesel by Hydrolysis of Waste Cooking Oil Followed by Esterification of Free Fatty Acids
    Abstract

    Vescovi, V.; Rojas, M. J.; Baraldo, A.; Botta, D. C.; Santana, F. A. M.; Costa, J. P.; Machado, M. S.; Honda, V. K.; Giordano, R. D. C.; Tardioli, P. W. 2016. Lipase-Catalyzed Production of Biodiesel by Hydrolysis of Waste Cooking Oil Followed by Esterification of Free Fatty Acids. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 93(12) 1615-1624

    Biodiesel is conventionally produced by alkaline-catalyzed transesterification, which requires high-purity oils. However, low-quality oils can be used as feedstocks for the production of biodiesel by enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The use of enzymes has several advantages, such as the absence of saponification side reactions, production of high-purity glycerol co-product, and low-cost downstream processing. In this work, biodiesel was produced from lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of waste cooking oil (WCO) followed by esterification of the hydrolyzed WCO (HWCO). The hydrolysis of acylglycerols was carried out at 30 A degrees C in salt-free water (WCO/water ratio of 1:4, v/v) and the esterification of HWCO was carried out at 40 A degrees C with ethanol in a solvent-free medium (HWCO/ethanol molar ratio of 1:7). The hydrolysis and esterification steps were carried out using immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL/WCO ratio of 1:5.6, w/w) and immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (10 wt%, CALB/HWCO) as biocatalysts, respectively. The hydrolysis of acylglycerols was almost complete after 12 h (ca. 94 %), and in the esterification step, the conversion was around 90 % after 6 h. The purified biodiesel had 91.8 wt% of fatty acid ethyl esters, 0.53 wt% of acylglycerols, 0.003 wt% of free glycerol, viscosity of 4.59 cP, and acid value of 10.88 mg KOH/g. Reuse hydrolysis and esterification assays showed that the immobilized enzymes could be recycled five times in 10-h batches, under the conditions described above. TLL was greatly inactivated under the assay conditions, whereas CALB remained fully active. The results showed that WCO is a promising feedstock for use in the production of biodiesel.
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  241. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of biodiesel from acid oil in fixed bed reactor
    Abstract

    Chen, Y. M.; Lu, J. D.; Xiao, B.; Pengmei, L. V.; Chang, J.; Fu, Y.; Wang, X. W. 2008. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of biodiesel from acid oil in fixed bed reactor. Research Journal of Biotechnology. 3(2) 5-12

    Acid oil, which is a by-product in vegetable oil refining, mainly contains free fatty acids (FFAs) and acylglycerols and is a feedstock for production of biodiesel fuel now. The transesterification of acid oil and methanol to biodiesel was catalyzed by immobilized Candida lipase in fixed bed reactors. The reactant solution was a mixture of acid oil, water, methanol and solvent (hexane) and the main product was biodiesel composed of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) of which the main component was methyl oleate. The effects of lipase content, solvent content, water content temperature and flow velocity of the reactant on the reaction were analyzed. The experimental results indicate that a maximum FAME content of 90.18% can be obtained in the end product under optimum conditions. Most of the chemical and physical properties of the biodiesel were superior to the standards for 0(#) diesel (GB/T 19147) and biodiesel (DIN V51606 and ASTM D6751).
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  242. Low Temperature De-acidification Process of Animal Fat as a Pre-Step to Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Bianchi, C. L.; Boffito, D. C.; Pirola, C.; Ragaini, V. 2010. Low Temperature De-acidification Process of Animal Fat as a Pre-Step to Biodiesel Production. Catalysis Letters. 134(1-2) 179-183

    An esterification process is proposed to lower Free Fatty Acids (FFA) content in waste animal fat using solid acid ion exchange resins as catalysts. The final aim is to make this material a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production. Its exploitation does not interfere with the food chain, besides allowing to lower biodiesel production costs.
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  243. Low-Quality Vegetable Oils as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production Using K-Pumice as Solid Catalyst. Tolerance of Water and Free Fatty Acids Contents
    Abstract

    Diaz, L.; Borges, M. E. 2012. Low-Quality Vegetable Oils as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production Using K-Pumice as Solid Catalyst. Tolerance of Water and Free Fatty Acids Contents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60(32) 7928-7933

    Waste oils are a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to the decrease of the industrial production costs. However, feedstock with high free fatty acids (FFA) content presents several drawbacks when alkaline-catalyzed transesterification reaction is employed in biodiesel production process. Nowadays, to develop suitable processes capable of treating oils with high free fatty acids content, a two-step process for biodiesel production is being investigated. The major problem that it presents is that two catalysts are needed to carry out the whole process: an acidic catalyst for free fatty acids esterification (first step) and a basic catalyst for pretreated product transesterification (second step). The use of a bifunctional catalyst, which allows both reactions to take place simultaneously, could minimize the production costs and time. In the present study, the behavior of pumice, a natural volcanic material used as a heterogeneous catalyst, was tested using oils with several FFA and water contents as feedstock in the transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel. Pumice as a bifunctional solid catalyst, which can catalyze simultaneously the esterification of FFA and the transesterification of fatty acid glycerides into biodiesel, was shown to be an efficient catalyst for the conversion of low-grade, nonedible oil feedstock into biodiesel product. Using this solid catalyst for the transesterification reaction, high FAME yields were achieved when feedstock oils presented a FFA content until approximately 2% wt/wt and a water content until 2% wt/wt.
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  244. Macauba oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel: Characterization and ester conversion by the supercritical method
    Abstract

    Navarro-Diaz, H. J.; Gonzalez, S. L.; Irigaray, B.; Vieitez, I.; Jachmanian, I.; Hense, H.; Oliveira, J. V. 2014. Macauba oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel: Characterization and ester conversion by the supercritical method. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 93130-137

    In this work different samples of Brazilian macauba oil obtained from mechanical pressing were characterized and production of esters of fatty acids using a catalyst-free continuous process under supercritical alcohols was assessed. Analysis of oil samples showed that the major fatty acid on pulp oil was oleic acid (mean value 62.8%), the amount of free fatty acid (FFA) was very high (37.4-65.4%), samples contained glycerides (7.4-16.5% TAG, 14.2-16.8% DAG and 1.0-3.4% MAG) and moisture was around 1.0%. Oil was processed in a continuous reactor using supercritical methanol or ethanol and the effects of temperature (573, 598, 623 and 648K), pressure (10,15 and 20 MPa), oil to alcohol molar ratio (1:20, 1:30 and 1:40), water concentration (0, 5 and 10 wt% added) and the flow rate of reaction mixture (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mL/min) on process efficiency were evaluated. The highest ester content achieved in reactions with supercritical methanol was 78.5% (648 K, 15 MPa, 1:30 oil:methanol molar ratio, 5 wt% water and 2.5 mL/min flow rate), while with supercritical ethanol was 69.6% (598 K, 15 MPa, 1:30 oil:ethanol molar ratio, 5 wt% water and 2.0 mL/min flow rate). The extent of the reaction was explored using a novel parameter, convertibility, which corresponds to the maximum ester content attainable from the feedstock. According to the convertibility of macauba pulp oil, the highest ester content corresponded to efficiencies of 98.0% and 86.9%, respectively. Results demonstrate that macauba oil might be a potential alternative for biodiesel production, though purification steps should be taken into account to achieve biodiesel specifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  245. Manufacture of Biodiesel by Transerification Reaction with Alkali Process from Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Leu, J. H. 2011. Manufacture of Biodiesel by Transerification Reaction with Alkali Process from Waste Cooking Oil. Applications of Engineering Materials, Pts 1-4. 287-2901464-1468

    For self-manufacture of biodiesel, the purchase cost of the feedstock is around the 70% manufacture cost, so, three kinds of the feedstock were tested & analyzed in this paper for decreasing the feedstock purchase cost for the fully developed technique of the transerification reaction with homogeneous/heterogeneous process. The other hand, the pre-treatment procedure for modulation of both acid number and iodine number is the important step for biodiesel manufacture with the feedstock of waste cooking oil (including extracted fat from cooking residue). And, the relating techniques are also developed actively in Taiwan.
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  246. Mass culture of microalgae on wastewater and gases from sludge burning for production of biomass feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Kong, Q. X.; Chen, P.; Ruan, R. 2007. Mass culture of microalgae on wastewater and gases from sludge burning for production of biomass feedstock for biodiesel. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 234

    Sustainability is an essential aspect of biobased economy. The development of biofuels, an important component of biobased economy, must conform to sustainable behaviours. The work is centered on development of a new biofuel strategy, in which production of high oil content microalgae for biodiesel fuel is coupled with wastewater treatment and flue gas emission control, and thus provides significant environmental benefits and improves the economic feasibility. The work addresses the two priority areas defined "Development of new biofuel resources or technologies" and "Biofuels, the environment, and the economy", and will involve expertise in multiple areas including algae production, biology, waste treatment, water quality, engineering, biomass processing, and biofuel production. Management of wastewater and associated gaseous emission is very costly and technically challenging. With increasingly stringent regulations and limits on wastewater discharge and gaseous emission, modification of current conventional processes must be made to meet these new limits. These process modifications will require substantial capital investment and would also likely substantially increase operating costs. The present proposed project takes a creative approach in which microalgae is grown on nutrients supplied from wastewater and gaseous emission from wastewater treatment plants, harvested and extracted for oil that is converted to biodiesel fuel. This would create a win-win situation where water and air conditions are preserved while renewable energy is generated. Furthermore, savings/credits from the wastewater and emission treatments will significantly improve the economic feasibility of microalgal biodiesel.
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  247. A Material Compatibility Study of Automotive Elastomers with high FFA based Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Sorate, K. A.; Bhale, P. V.; Dhaolakiya, B. Z. 2015. A Material Compatibility Study of Automotive Elastomers with high FFA based Biodiesel. Clean, Efficient and Affordable Energy for a Sustainable Future. 75105-110

    Application of renewable fuels and changes in fuel composition often create many trouble in gaskets, seals, elastomers and O-rings in the engine fuel system. In a CI engine fuel system, fuel comes in touch with different elastomeric components. The compatibility of automotive fuel system components like seals, gaskets and hose materials using conventional fossil based diesel has long been recognized and documented but there is concern over the use of elastomeric materials with biodiesel. Based on these concerns, a study of compatibility of Natural rubber, Nylon and EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) with biodiesel and diesel was carried out. High FFA oil, which is a byproduct of edible and non-edible oil refineries, is available at low price and in considerable quantities at vegetable oil refinery sites. In the current study, high FFA oil is synthesized into biodiesel by two step process i.e. esterification followed by transesterification. The methyl ester content of biodiesel is determined by GCMS. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were found to be comparable with that of biodiesel specifications.
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  248. Metal modified graphene oxide composite catalyst for the production of biodiesel via pre-esterification of Calophyllum inophyllum oil
    Abstract

    Marso, T. M. M.; Kalpage, C. S.; Udugala-Ganehenege, M. Y. 2017. Metal modified graphene oxide composite catalyst for the production of biodiesel via pre-esterification of Calophyllum inophyllum oil. Fuel. 19947-64

    Biodiesel production from high free fatty acid (FFA) containing feedstock through direct base catalyzed transesterification is not desirable due to the yield reduction caused by saponification. As a remedy, acid catalyzed pre-esterification of FFA is performed to bring the FFA content into a negligible level. The major drawbacks encountered due to the use of such homogeneous acid catalysts are the product separation and raw material oxidation. The work reported herein describes the application of a metal (Al3+, Fe3+) modified graphene oxide composite (GO/metal composite) as a novel heterogeneous acid catalyst that can be employed for two related processes; the esterification of stearic acid (SA) and the reduction of FFA level of Calophyllum inophyllum oil. The catalyst characterization was performed by spectroscopic (FTIR and AAS), X-ray diffractive (XRD) and microscopic (SEM-EDX) methods. Hammett indicator method was used to determine its surface acidity. The results revealed 92.72% of SA conversion and 95.37% of FFA level reduction in Calophyllum inophyllum oil. Optimum conditions were achieved when methanol to FFA molar ratio was 10:1 for 3 h in the presence of 8% of catalytic dose at 65 degrees C. More importantly, the catalyst could be effectively used for more than four cycles in order to convert high FFA containing oil into biodiesel without encountering undesirable waste formation. The calculated activation energy for the esterification in the presence of the catalyst is significantly lower (23.67 kJ mol(-1)) than that for similar esterification reactions reported. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  249. Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios
    Abstract

    Yang, Z.; Hollebone, B. P.; Wang, Z.; Yang, C.; Brown, C.; Landriault, M. 2014. Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios. Forensic Sci Int. 23486-94

    A forensic identification method based on the chemical fingerprinting of the first generation of biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters as effective components), and several corresponding diagnostic ratios was developed and validated. The distribution of major fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and polar compounds (free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols) in several representative above biodiesel products commercially available in Canada were positively quantified and compared, a number of cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of target FAMEs and sterols were developed for biofuel correlation and differentiation. It was found that the cross-plots of FAME ratios, for example, the sum of the di-unsaturated relative to saturated homologues of FAMEs (D/S) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), and the sum of di-unsaturated to mono-saturated FAMEs (D/M) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), could cluster samples clearly into their individual feedstock. The cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of individual major sterols (cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, beta-stiosterol and stigmasterol) to the total sterols were also developed and proved to be effective in identifying biodiesel sources due to their self-normalizing effect on sterol data. The case study of a mystery biodiesel spill using this method showed that the two real samples can be tightly clustered into biodiesel from animal fat (Ban) group. However, the significant discrepancy of free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides and sterol concentrations between the two real samples indicated their different producing batches.
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  250. Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios
    Abstract

    Yang, Z. Y.; Hollebone, B. P.; Wang, Z. D.; Yang, C.; Brown, C.; Landriault, M. 2014. Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios. Forensic Science International. 23486-94

    A forensic identification method based on the chemical fingerprinting of the first generation of biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters as effective components), and several corresponding diagnostic ratios was developed and validated. The distribution of major fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and polar compounds (free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols) in several representative above biodiesel products commercially available in Canada were positively quantified and compared, a number of cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of target FAMEs and sterols were developed for biofuel correlation and differentiation. It was found that the cross-plots of FAME ratios, for example, the sum of the di-unsaturated relative to saturated homologues of FAMEs (D/S) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), and the sum of di-unsaturated to mono-saturated FAMEs (D/M) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), could cluster samples clearly into their individual feedstock. The cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of individual major sterols (cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, beta-stiosterol and stigmasterol) to the total sterols were also developed and proved to be effective in identifying biodiesel sources due to their self-normalizing effect on sterol data. The case study of a mystery biodiesel spill using this method showed that the two real samples can be tightly clustered into biodiesel from animal fat (B-an) group. However, the significant discrepancy of free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides and sterol concentrations between the two real samples indicated their different producing batches. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  251. Methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Lokman, I. M.; Rashid, U.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Yunus, R. 2015. Methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst. Renewable Energy. 81347-354

    A highly potential heterogeneous solid acid catalyst derived from a carbohydrate precursor was successfully developed and applied for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). The catalyst was synthesized by sulfonating the incomplete carbonized D-glucose using concentrated sulfuric acid to produce a sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst. The catalyst underwent a detailed characterization analysis in terms of its functional groups of active sites, morphological structure, thermal stability, surface area and density of acid sites. For the catalytic activity test, the sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst was used to esterify PFAD which contained around 85 wt.% free fatty acids (FFA). Furthermore, it demonstrated a 95.4% conversion of FFA to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with 92.3% of FAME yield under the following optimum condition: catalyst loading of 2.5 wt.%, methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio of 10:1, reaction temperature of 75 degrees C and the reaction time was 2 h. It can be deduced from the results that a sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst has a high potential to esterify high FFA feedstocks, especially PFAD, to produce low cost biodiesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  252. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production
    Abstract

    Qin, L.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Shu, Q.; Feng, P.; Zhu, L.; Xu, J.; Yuan, Z. 2016. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 23(9) 8379-87

    The potential of microalgae consortia used in dairy wastewater treatment combined with microalgae biodiesel feedstock production was evaluated by comparing the nutrient removal of dairy wastewater, the growth of cells, and the lipid content and composition of biomass between monoalgae and microalgae consortia cultivation system. Our results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (maximum, 57.01-62.86 %) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (maximum, 91.16-95.96 %) were achieved in almost microalgae consortia cultivation system than those in Chlorella sp. monoalgae cultivation system (maximum, 44.76 and 86.74 %, respectively). In addition, microalgae consortia cultivation except the mixture of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus spp. reached higher biomass concentration (5.11-5.41 g L(-1)), biomass productivity (730.4-773.2 mg L(-1) day(-1)), and lipid productivity (143.7-150.6 mg L(-1) day(-1)) than those of monoalgae cultivation (4.72 g L(-1), 674.3, and 142.2 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively) on the seventh day. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles indicated the lipids produced from microalgae consortia cultivation system were more suitable for biodiesel production. The microalgae consortia display superiority in dairy wastewater treatment and the getting feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  253. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production
    Abstract

    Qin, L.; Wang, Z. M.; Sun, Y. M.; Shu, Q.; Feng, P. Z.; Zhu, L. D.; Xu, J.; Yuan, Z. H. 2016. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23(9) 8379-8387

    The potential of microalgae consortia used in dairy wastewater treatment combined with microalgae biodiesel feedstock production was evaluated by comparing the nutrient removal of dairy wastewater, the growth of cells, and the lipid content and composition of biomass between monoalgae and microalgae consortia cultivation system. Our results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (maximum, 57.01-62.86 %) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (maximum, 91.16-95.96 %) were achieved in almost microalgae consortia cultivation system than those in Chlorella sp. monoalgae cultivation system (maximum, 44.76 and 86.74 %, respectively). In addition, microalgae consortia cultivation except the mixture of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus spp. reached higher biomass concentration (5.11-5.41 g L-1), biomass productivity (730.4-773.2 mg L-1 day(-1)), and lipid productivity (143.7-150.6 mg L-1 day(-1)) than those of monoalgae cultivation (4.72 g L-1, 674.3, and 142.2 mg L-1 day(-1), respectively) on the seventh day. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles indicated the lipids produced from microalgae consortia cultivation system were more suitable for biodiesel production. The microalgae consortia display superiority in dairy wastewater treatment and the getting feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  254. Microbial Conversion of Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters into Lipids Suitable for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Yousuf, A.; Sannino, F.; Addorisio, V.; Pirozzi, D. 2010. Microbial Conversion of Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters into Lipids Suitable for Biodiesel Production. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(15) 8630-8635

    Lipomyces starkey were able to survive and proliferate in the presence of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW), a medium difficult to process by biological treatments, due to the antimicrobial activities of their phenolic components. The microorganisms were grown in the presence of undiluted OMW, without external organic supplements, producing a significant reduction of both the total organic carbon (TOC) and the total phenols content. The OMW treated by L. starkey showed a significant increase of the germination index. The preliminary dilution of OMW enhanced the reduction of polluting components of OMW, leading to a complete TOC removal, as well as to lower levels of residual phenols. The activities of extracellular lipases and esterases significantly increased in the course of the OMW fermentation. A significant increase in lipid yield was observed in L. starkey in the course of the OMW treatment, particularly enhanced when the feedstock was preliminarily diluted. The fatty acid distribution showed a prevalence of oleic acid, demonstrating the potential of L. starkeyi as a source of lipids to be used as a feedstock for the synthesis of II generation biodiesel.
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  255. Microbial lipid produced by Yarrowia lipolytica QU21 using industrial waste: A potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Poli, J. S.; da Silva, M. A. N.; Siqueira, E. P.; Pasa, V. M. D.; Rosa, C. A.; Valente, P. 2014. Microbial lipid produced by Yarrowia lipolytica QU21 using industrial waste: A potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 161320-326

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of medium composition and culture conditions on lipid content, fatty acid profile and biomass production by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica QU21. Lipid production by the yeast growing on glycerol/(NH4)(2)SO4 (10%/0.1%) reached 1.48 g/L (30.1% according to total cell dry weight). When glycerol was replaced by crude glycerol (industrial waste), the lipid yield was 1.27 g/L, with no significant difference. Some particular fatty acids were found when crude glycerol was combined with fresh yeast extract (FYE, brewery waste), as linolenic acid (C18:3n3), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3). In addition, the FYE promoted an increase of more than 300% on polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA), which is an undesirable feature for biodiesel production. The fatty acid composition of the oil produced by Y. lipolytica QU21 growing on crude glycerol/(NH4)(2)SO4 presented a potential use as biodiesel feedstock, with low PUFA content. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  256. A microfluidic device for the automated derivatization of free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters
    Abstract

    Duong, C. T.; Roper, M. G. 2012. A microfluidic device for the automated derivatization of free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters. Analyst. 137(4) 840-846

    Free fatty acid (FFA) compositions are examined in feedstock for biodiesel production, as source-specific markers in soil, and because of their role in cellular signaling. However, sample preparation of FFAs for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis can be time and labor intensive. Therefore, to increase sample preparation throughput, a glass microfluidic device was developed to automate derivatization of FFAs to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). FFAs were delivered to one input of the device and methanolic-HCl was delivered to a second input. FAME products were produced as the reagents traversed a 29 mu L reaction channel held at 55 degrees C. A Design of Experiment protocol was used to determine the combination of derivatization time (T-der) and ratio of methanolic-HCl: FFA (R-der) that maximized the derivatization efficiencies of tridecanoic acid and stearic acid to their methyl ester forms. The combination of T-der = 0.8 min and R-der = 4.9 that produced optimal derivatization conditions for both FFAs within a 5 min total sample preparation time was determined. This combination of T-der and R-der was used to derivatize 12 FFAs with a range of derivatization efficiencies from 18% to 93% with efficiencies of 61% for tridecanoic acid and 84% for stearic acid. As compared to a conventional macroscale derivatization of FFA to FAME, the microfluidic device decreased the volume of methanolic-HCl and FFA by 20- and 1300-fold, respectively. The developed microfluidic device can be used for automated preparation of FAMEs to analyze the FFA compositions of volume-limited samples.
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  257. Microwave Irradiation Biodiesel Processing of Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Motasemi, F.; Ani, F. N. 2012. Microwave Irradiation Biodiesel Processing of Waste Cooking Oil. 4th International Meeting of Advances in Thermofluids (Imat 2011), Pt 1 and 2. 1440842-853

    Major part of the world's total energy output is generated from fossil fuels, consequently its consumption has been continuously increased which accelerates the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and also increases the price of these valuable limited resources. Biodiesel is a renewable, non-toxic and biodegradable diesel fuel which it can be the best environmentally friendly and easily attainable alternative for fossil fuels. The costs of feedstock and production process are two important factors which are particularly against large-scale biodiesel production. This study is intended to optimize three critical reaction parameters including intensity of mixing, microwave exit power and reaction time from the transesterification of waste cooking oil by using microwave irradiation in an attempt to reduce the production cost of biodiesel. To arrest the reaction, similar quantities of methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1) and potassium hydroxide (2% wt) as the catalyst were used. The results showed that the best yield percentage (95%) was obtained using 300W microwave exit power, 300 rpm stirrer speed (intensity of mixing) and 78 degrees C for 5 min. It was observed that increasing the intensity of mixing greatly ameliorates the yield percentage of biodiesel (up to 17%). Moreover, the results demonstrate that increasing the reaction time in the low microwave exit power (100W) improves the yield percentage of biodiesel, while it has a negative effect on the conversion yield in the higher microwave exit power (300W). From the obtained results it was clear that FAME was within the standards of biodiesel fuel.
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  258. Mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for lipid production from industrial wastes and its use as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Cheirsilp, B.; Suwannarat, W.; Niyomdecha, R. 2011. Mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for lipid production from industrial wastes and its use as biodiesel feedstock. New Biotechnology. 28(4) 362-368

    A mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris was performed to enhance lipid production from industrial wastes. These included effluent from seafood processing plant and molasses from sugar cane plant. In the mixed culture, the yeast grew faster and the lipid production was higher than that in the pure cultures. This could be because microalga acted as an oxygen generator for yeast, while yeast provided CO(2) to microalga and both carried out the production of lipids. The optimal conditions for lipid production by the mixed culture were as follows: ratio of yeast to microalga at 1:1; initial pH at 5.0; molasses concentration at 1%; shaking speed at 200 rpm; and light intensity at 5.0 klux under 16:8 hours light and dark cycles. Under these conditions, the highest biomass of 4.63 +/- 0.15 g/L and lipid production of 2.88 +/- 0.16 g/L were obtained after five days of cultivation. In addition, the plant oil-like fatty acid composition of yeast and microalgal lipids suggested their high potential for use as biodiesel feedstock.
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  259. MnO and TiO solid catalysts with low-grade feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Gombotz, K.; Parette, R.; Austic, G.; Kannan, D.; Matson, J. V. 2012. MnO and TiO solid catalysts with low-grade feedstocks for biodiesel production. Fuel. 92(1) 9-15

    Manganese (II) oxide (MnO) and titanium (II) oxide (TiO) solid catalysts were found to be robust catalysts for both the transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of free fatty acids. These metal oxides were shown to exhibit long life with little loss of activity. The ability to esterify free fatty acids (FFA) and handle high levels of water illustrates the potential of these catalysts to produce biodiesel from low quality feedstocks without the pretreatment operations required with the traditional process. Some soaps were produced in the presence of free fatty acids, but soaps were within tolerable levels and formed at concentrations that were orders of magnitude lower than the traditional process. This results in significant reductions in product washing. By utilizing a 2-stage process, high quality fuel (meeting ASTM specifications) and glycerol were produced. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  260. Monitoring of a biodiesel production process via reset observer
    Abstract

    Aguilar-Garnica, E.; Garcia-Sandoval, J. P.; Dochain, D. 2016. Monitoring of a biodiesel production process via reset observer. Journal of Process Control. 42104-113

    This paper is concerned with the monitoring of a biodiesel production process, more specifically with the monitoring of the esterification of grease trap wastes, a low quality feedstock for biodiesel production typically characterized by its high content of Free Fatty Acids (FFAs). The esterification takes place in a jacketed Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR). A reset observer is designed and applied in order to provide on-line estimation of the concentration of FFAs from temperature measurements within the CSTR. In addition, the proposed reset observer is compared to two other observers (classical fuzzy observer and extended Kalman filter). According to a multiple range test conducted for analyzing the estimation error, the monitoring task for the process under study has been better fulfilled by the reset observer which is able to update the estimation results every instant when the measurements were available. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  261. Municipal sewage sludge to biodiesel by simultaneous extraction and conversion of lipids
    Abstract

    Melero, J. A.; Sanchez-Vazquez, R.; Vasiliadou, I. A.; Castillejo, F. M.; Bautista, L. F.; Iglesias, J.; Morales, G.; Molina, R. 2015. Municipal sewage sludge to biodiesel by simultaneous extraction and conversion of lipids. Energy Conversion and Management. 103111-118

    Two different approaches have been investigated for the production of biodiesel from glycerides and free fatty acids (FFAs) extracted from sewage sludge. The first one is a two-step process consisting of organic solvent extraction followed by acid-catalyzed esterification/transesterification of the isolated oil fraction. The second one is a one-step direct transformation consisting of the simultaneous extraction and conversion of the lipid fraction contained in the sewage sludge. In both alternatives, a heterogeneous acid Zr-SBA-15 catalyst has been used. In the two-step extraction-reaction process, conversion close to 90% of the saponifiable fraction (including FFAs and glycerides) were achieved. Remarkably, the catalyst provided such high conversion in the presence of high amounts of unsaponifiable matter. Furthermore, the catalyst kept its activity in successive catalytic runs in presence of this low-quality lipid fraction. In the one-step direct conversion of the dried sludge, the overall weight FAME yield, based on the initial mass of dried sewage sludge, was around 15.5 wt% for primary and 10.0 wt% for secondary sludge. In contrast, this FAME yield was lower than 6 wt% for two-step process when processing primary sludge (being negligible for the secondary sludge). Finally, the results of this work proof the high potential of Zr-SBA-15 as catalyst for the production of biodiesel from a low quality oleaginous feedstock such as municipal sewage sludge. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  262. A new generation of zirconia supported metal oxide catalysts for converting low grade renewable feedstocks to biodiesel
    Abstract

    Kim, M.; DiMaggio, C.; Salley, S. O.; Ng, K. Y. S. 2012. A new generation of zirconia supported metal oxide catalysts for converting low grade renewable feedstocks to biodiesel. Bioresource Technology. 11837-42

    A new class of zirconia supported mixed metal oxides (ZnO-TiO2-Nd2O3/ZrO2 and ZnO-SiO2-Yb2O3/ZrO2) has demonstrated the ability to convert low quality, high free fatty acid (FFA) bio-oils into biodiesel. Pelletized catalysts of ZrO2 supported metal oxides were prepared via a sol-gel process and tested in continuous flow packed bed reactors for up to 6 months. In a single pass, while operating at mild to moderate reaction conditions, 195 degrees C and 300 psi, these catalysts can perform simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions on feedstock of 33% FFA and 67% soybean oil to achieve FAME yields higher than 90%. Catalytic activity of the ZrO2 supported metal oxide catalysts was highly dependent on the metal oxide composition. These heterogeneous catalysts will enable biodiesel manufacturers to avoid problems inherent in homogeneous processes, such as separation and washing, corrosive conditions, and excessive methanol usage. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  263. The new green catalysts derived from waste razor and surf clam shells for biodiesel production in a continuous reactor
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Loryuenyong, V. 2015. The new green catalysts derived from waste razor and surf clam shells for biodiesel production in a continuous reactor. Green Processing and Synthesis. 4(5) 389-397

    A green catalyst has been derived from a waste material for transesterification of the Jatropha curcas oil feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel in a packed bed reactor (PBR). The razor and surf clam shells were crushed, ground, and calcined at 900 degrees C for 2 h to derive calcium oxide (CaO) as the economic and environmentally friendly catalysts. The heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The effects of reaction variables such as catalyst bed length (mass of catalyst), residence time (reaction time), reaction temperature, and methanol/oil molar ratio on the % yield of biodiesel were investigated. Long-term repeated operation of PBR was also examined. The optimum conditions were catalyst bed length 250 mm, residence time 1.5 h, reaction temperature 60 degrees C, and methanol/oil molar ratio 15:1 which yielded 98% of the conversion. The CaO catalyst could be used repeatedly for three cycles of methanolysis without activity loss and no activation treatment was required. The fuel properties of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) were determined. The results indicated that the new green catalysts derived from razor and surf clam shells showed good catalytic performance and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of J. curcas oil with methanol.
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  264. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor
    Abstract

    Hagiwara, S.; Nabetani, H.; Nakajima, M. 2015. Non-catalytic alcoholysis process for production of biodiesel fuel by using bubble column reactor. Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society. 596

    Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is usually defined as a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derived from vegetable oil or animal fat. In European countries, such as Germany and France, biodiesel fuel is commercially produced mainly from rapeseed oil, whereas in the United States and Argentina, soybean oil is more frequently used. In many other countries such as Japan and countries in Southeast Asia, lipids that cannot be used as a food source could be more suitable materials for the production of biodiesel fuel because its production from edible oils could result in an increase in the price of edible oils, thereby increasing the cost of some foodstuffs. Therefore, used edible oil, lipids contained in waste effluent from the oil milling process, byproducts from oil refining process and crude oils from industrial crops such as jatropha could be more promising materials in these countries. The materials available in Japan and Southeast Asia for the production of biodiesel fuel have common characteristics; they contain considerable amount of impurities and are high in free fatty acids (FFA). Superheated methanol vapor (SMV) reactor might be a promising method for biodiesel fuel production utilizing oil feedstock containing FFA such as waste vegetable oil and crude vegetable oil. In the conventional method using alkaline catalyst, FFA contained in waste vegetable oil is known to react with alkaline catalyst such as NaOH and KOH generating saponification products and to inactivate it. Therefore, the FFA needs to be removed from the feedstock prior to the reaction. Removal of the alkaline catalyst after the reaction is also required. In the case of the SMV reactor, the processes for removing FFA prior to the reaction and catalyst after the reaction can be omitted because it requires no catalyst. Nevertheless, detailed study on the productivity of biodiesel fuel produced from waste vegetable oils and other non-edible lipids by use of the SMV reactor has not been examined yet. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils using the SMV reactor. Biodiesel fuel is a replacement for diesel as a fuel produced from biomass resources. It is generally produced as a FAME derived from vegetable oil by using alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process. This alkaline method requires deacidification process prior to the reaction process and the alkaline catalyst removal process after the reaction. Those process increases the total cost of biodiesel fuel production. In order to solve the problems in the conventional alkaline catalyzed alcoholysis process, the authors proposed a non-catalytic alcoholysis process called the Superheated Methanol Vapor (SMV) method with bubble column reactor. So, this study aims to investigate the productivity of biodiesel produced from vegetable oils and other lipids using the SMV method with bubble column reactor.
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  265. Non-catalytic heterogeneous biodiesel production via a continuous flow system
    Abstract

    Kwon, E. E.; Yi, H.; Park, J.; Seo, J. 2012. Non-catalytic heterogeneous biodiesel production via a continuous flow system. Bioresource Technology. 114370-374

    This study provides a novel methodology for biodiesel (FAME) production under ambient pressure, which resolves most drawbacks of current commercialized biodiesel conversion via the transesterification reaction. This has been achieved by means of a thermo-chemical process and a true continuous flow system. This also enables combination of esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and transesterification of triglycerides into a single process without utilizing a catalyst, and leads to a 98-99 +/- 0.5 % conversion efficiency of FAME within 1 min in the temperature range of 350-500 degrees C. High FFA content in oil feedstock is not a matter of the new process, which enables the use of a broader variety of feedstocks, including all edible and inedible fats. Another feature of this novel method is that it does not produce wastewater. Thus, the new process has potential to spur a breakthrough in the lowest cost of biodiesel production. Moreover, this method also requires utilization of carbon dioxide during biodiesel production, an additional environmental benefit. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  266. Non-Evaporative Solvent Recovery Step in Deacidification of Used Frying Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock by Methanol Extraction
    Abstract

    Tunc, M. F.; Gurbuz, H.; Turkay, S. Z. 2010. Non-Evaporative Solvent Recovery Step in Deacidification of Used Frying Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock by Methanol Extraction. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 87(2) 195-203

    An alternative deacidification process combining a liquid-liquid extraction with a non-evaporative solvent recovery step was proposed for preparing used frying oil (UFO) as biodiesel feedstock. The liquid-liquid extraction step using methanol was simulated for obtaining refined UFO with a final residual free fatty acids (FFA) content a parts per thousand currency sign 1%. Solvent recovery step of the process, which is based on the precipitation of FFA with Ca(OH)(2) as insoluble calcium soaps, was investigated experimentally. With the aim of maximizing the FFA removal from the methanol extract, the influence of process variables such as FFA concentration in the extract phase, Ca(OH)(2) amount, stirring rate and temperature were investigated by using model extract phases. Complete removal of FFA was achieved in 30, 20, and 15 min, from the extract phases containing 3.86, 7.78, and 11.58 wt% FFA, respectively, when the precipitation was carried out at a temperature of 65 A degrees C, stirring rate of 250 rpm and by using 18 times the stoichiometric Ca(OH)(2) amount. The precipitate quickly settled down due to the agglomeration, thereby provided an efficient and easy separation of the methanol from the solids. Provided the final residual content of FFA in methanol was too low, recovered methanol can be recycled for more FFA extraction. Although the suggested process offers a feasible method for preparing UFO as biodiesel feedstock, the effect of other decomposition products in UFO must be investigated in depth for using such a process on an industrial scale.
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  267. Nonpolar Organic Compound Emission Rates for Light-Duty Diesel Engine Soybean and Waste Vegetable Oil Biodiesel Fuel Combustion
    Abstract

    Kasumba, J.; Holmen, B. A. 2016. Nonpolar Organic Compound Emission Rates for Light-Duty Diesel Engine Soybean and Waste Vegetable Oil Biodiesel Fuel Combustion. Energy & Fuels. 30(11) 9783-9792

    Very few studies report the detailed organic chemical composition of biodiesel exhaust PM despite reports that biodiesel exhaust PM leads to more adverse health effects than diesel exhaust PM. Here, we compare light-duty diesel engine exhaust particle-phase emission rates (ng/mu g (PM)) of target nonpolar organic analytes-19 n-alkanes, 16 priority PAHs, and 10 fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)-during transient operation for 5 recycled waste vegetable oil (WVO; B00, B10, B20, B50, and B100) and 3 virgin soybean oil (soybean; BOO, B20, and B100) biodiesel blends (where Bxx = volume % biodiesel). Biodiesel fuels were blended volumetrically from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and B100 from each feedstock. FAMEs emission rates were 3-7 times higher than n-alkanes for the common B20 blend, increasing to 60-100 times for B100. Both total n-alkanes and total FAMES emission rate trends with Bxx were consistent with expected values based on fuel volume percent and similar ratios to ULSD were observed for both feedstocks. Total n-alkane emission rates decreased with increasing biodiesel content (B10 to B100) between 5-86% and 3-79% compared to ULSD, for WVO and soybean, respectively. Total FAMEs emission rates in WVO B100 exhaust PM were about 7, 3, and 2 times higher than WVO B10, B20, and B50 exhaust PM, respectively, with similar ratios for the soybean feedstock. In contrast, PAH emission rates, while statistically similar for both feedstocks, did not decrease as much as expected based on dilution of ULSD with B100 biodiesel, evidence that FAME or lubrication oil combustion account for PAH formation in higher biodiesel blends (greater than B20). Because emission rates of n-alkanes, PAHs, and FAMEs from recycled vegetable oil biodiesel were not statistically different from those for soybean biodiesel, based on nonpolar organic emissions alone, use of recycled waste cooking oil biodiesel is preferable to virgin vegetable oil biodiesel because of its dual use for food preparation prior to use as a renewable, low-carbon transportation fuel. Future studies should quantify how WVO biodiesel emissions are changed by use of emission control devices, such as DPF and SCR.
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  268. A novel ammonium based eutectic solvent for the treatment of free fatty acid and synthesis of biodiesel fuel
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M.; Mjalli, F. S.; AlNashef, I. M. 2013. A novel ammonium based eutectic solvent for the treatment of free fatty acid and synthesis of biodiesel fuel. Industrial Crops and Products. 46392-398

    In this work, low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO) with high free fatty acids (FFA) content is introduced as a possible biodiesel production feedstock alternative. The pre-treatment of LGCPO was conducted using ammonium-based deep eutectic solvent which consisted of hydrogen bond donor (i.e. p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate) (PTSA) and salt (i.e. N,N-diethylenethanol ammonium chloride) as a novel recyclable catalyst (DEAC-DES). The DEAC-DES was used in different dosages to reduce the level of FFA to the acceptable limit for biodiesel production. The esterification reaction was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying reaction operating conditions on the reduction of FFA content. The FFA content of LGCPO was reduced from 9.5% to less than 1% using optimum conditions. Four recycling runs of the DEAC-DES were achieved. The conversion of PTSA to deep eutectic solvent improved the recyclability of the acid and the physical properties such as the elimination of acid hygroscopicity. The LGCPO biodiesel fulfilled the international standards. This study demonstrates a potential route for biodiesel production from abundance LGCPO using DEAC-DES and an alkaline catalyst. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  269. Novel heterogeneous esterification and transesterification catalysts for producing low-cost biodiesel from high-FFA feedstocks
    Abstract

    Gao, Y. 2007. Novel heterogeneous esterification and transesterification catalysts for producing low-cost biodiesel from high-FFA feedstocks. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 234

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  270. A novel process for low-sulfur biodiesel production from scum waste
    Abstract

    Ma, H.; Addy, M. M.; Anderson, E.; Liu, W. W.; Liu, Y. H.; Nie, Y.; Chen, P.; Cheng, B. J.; Lei, H. W.; Ruan, R. 2016. A novel process for low-sulfur biodiesel production from scum waste. Bioresource Technology. 214826-835

    Scum is an oil-rich waste from the wastewater treatment plants with a high-sulfur level. In this work, a novel process was developed to convert scum to high quality and low sulfur content biodiesel. A combination of solvent extraction and acid washing as pretreatment was developed to lower the sulfur content in the scum feedstock and hence improve biodiesel conversion yield and quality. Glycerin esterification was then employed to convert free fatty acids to glycerides. Moreover, a new distillation process integrating the traditional reflux distillation and adsorptive desulfurization was developed to further remove sulfur from the crude biodiesel. As a result, 70% of the filtered and dried scum was converted to biodiesel with sulfur content lower than 15 ppm. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles showed that the refined biodiesel from the new process exhibited a higher quality and better properties than that from traditional process reported in previous studies. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  271. Novozym 435 for production of biodiesel from unrefined palm oil: Comparison of methanolysis methods
    Abstract

    Talukder, M. M. R.; Wu, J. C.; Van Nguyen, T. B.; Fen, N. M.; Melissa, Y. L. S. 2009. Novozym 435 for production of biodiesel from unrefined palm oil: Comparison of methanolysis methods. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 60(3-4) 106-112

    Biodiesel (BD) is commonly produced from refined vegetable oils by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. Unrefined vegetable oils are economically attractive but not suitable for alkali catalysis because of their high content of free fatty acids (FFAs). Novozym 435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B), which accepts both FFA and oil as substrates, was, therefore, employed to convert unrefined palm oil to BD. Three different methanolysis methods, namely, t-butanol mediated system (method-1), LiCl solution based controlled release system for methanol (method-2) and solvent-free system with three successive additions of methanol (method-3), were compared. The optimal methanol to oil molar ratios in the method-1, -2 and -3 are 6:1,3:1 and 3: 1, respectively. 131) yield at an optimal methanol concentration reaches 91-92% after 10, 20 and 24 h in the method-1, -2 and -3, respectively. BD yield remains the same over five repeated cycles in the method-1, while it drops to 68 and 71% by the fifth cycle in the method-2 and -3, respectively. The results show that the method-1 is the most effective for production of BD from a low cost feedstock like unrefined palm oil. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  272. Oil extracted from spent coffee grounds as a renewable source for fatty acid methyl ester manufacturing
    Abstract

    Al-Hamamre, Z.; Foerster, S.; Hartmann, F.; Kroger, M.; Kaltschmitt, M. 2012. Oil extracted from spent coffee grounds as a renewable source for fatty acid methyl ester manufacturing. Fuel. 96(1) 70-76

    The effect of different extraction solvents (polar and non-polar) on yield, chemical and physical properties, including free fatty acid content (FFA) or acid value (AV), saponification value (SV), density, viscosity, elemental composition and heating values of oil extracted from spent coffee grounds (SCG) is investigated. The Soxhlet extraction method is utilized for the extraction of oil from spent coffee grounds. Iso-propanol, ethanol, and acetone as polar solvents and toluene, chloroform, hexane and n-pentane as nonpolar solvents are used. For each solvent, the oil yield is recorded for different time spans. The results show that the highest oil yield (15.3%) is achieved using hexane as an extraction solvent after 30 min of extraction time. The AV and SV of the extracted oils vary depending on the extraction solvent. The results indicate that AV of SCG oil extracted with hexane is 3.65% (7.3 mg(KOH)/g). This value is lower than the values for spent coffee oil extracted with the other solvents (ethanol 3.85%, isopropanol 6.4%, chloroform 4.55%, and toluene 4.15%).
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  273. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Abbas, J.; Hussain, S.; Iqbal, M. J.; Nadeem, H.; Qasim, M.; Hina, S.; Hafeez, F. 2016. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Environmental Technology. 37(16) 2082-2087

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6: 1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60 degrees C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.
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  274. Oleaginous Microalgae from Dairy Farm Wastewater for Biodiesel Production: Isolation, Characterization and Mass Cultivation
    Abstract

    Sun, Z.; Fang, X. P.; Li, X. Y.; Zhou, Z. G. 2017. Oleaginous Microalgae from Dairy Farm Wastewater for Biodiesel Production: Isolation, Characterization and Mass Cultivation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol.

    Producing biodiesel from microalgae grown in wastewater is environment-friendly and cost-effective. The present study investigated the algae found in wastewater of a local dairy farm for their potential as biodiesel feedstocks. Thirteen native algal strains were isolated. On the basis of morphology and 16S/18S rRNA gene sequences, one strain was identified to be a member of cyanobacteria, while other 12 strains belong to green algae. After screening, two Scenedesmus strains out of the 13 microalgae isolates demonstrated superiority in growth rate, lipid productivity, and sedimentation properties, and therefore were selected for further scale-up outdoor cultivation. Both Scenedesmus strains quickly adapted to the outdoor conditions, exhibiting reasonably good growth and strong anti-contamination capabilities. In flat-plate photobioreactors (PBRs), algal cells accumulated predominantly neutral lipids that accounted for over 60% of total lipids with almost 70% being triacylglycerol. In addition, Scenedesmus obliquus had a high content of monounsaturated fatty acids, of which the amount of oleic acid (C18:1) was up to 27.11%. Based on these findings, the dairy farm wastewater-isolated Scenedesmus strains represent promising sources of low-cost, high-quality oil for biofuel production.
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  275. One-step production of biodiesel from rice bran oil catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia via simultaneous esterification and transesterification
    Abstract

    Zhang, Y.; Wong, W. T.; Yung, K. F. 2013. One-step production of biodiesel from rice bran oil catalyzed by chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia via simultaneous esterification and transesterification. Bioresource Technology. 14759-64

    Due to the high content (25-50%) of free fatty acid (FFA), crude rice bran oil usually requires a two steps conversion or one step conversion with very harsh condition for simultaneous esterification and transesterification. In this study, chlorosulfonic acid modified zirconia (HClSO3-ZrO2) with strong acidity and durability is prepared and it shows excellent catalytic activity toward simultaneous esterification and transesterification. Under a relative low reaction temperature of 120 degrees C, HClSO3-ZrO2 catalyzes a complete conversion of simulated crude rice bran oil (refined oil with 40 wt% FFA) into biodiesel and the conversion yield keep at above 92% for at least three cycles. Further investigation on the tolerance towards FFA and water reveals that it maintains high activity even with the presence of 40 wt% FFA and 3 wt% water. It shows that HClSO3-ZrO2 is a robust and durable catalyst which shows high potential to be commercial catalyst for biodiesel production from low grade feedstock. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  276. One-step production of biodiesel through simultaneous esterification and transesterification from highly acidic unrefined feedstock over efficient and recyclable ZnO nanostar catalyst
    Abstract

    Kwong, T. L.; Yung, K. F. 2016. One-step production of biodiesel through simultaneous esterification and transesterification from highly acidic unrefined feedstock over efficient and recyclable ZnO nanostar catalyst. Renewable Energy. 90450-457

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostar synthesized by simple and up-scalable microwave-assisted surfactant free hydrolysis method was applied as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis through one-step simultaneous esterification and transesterification from high free fatty acid (FFA) contaminated unrefined feedstock. It was found that ZnO nanostar catalyst was reacted with FFA to yield zinc oleate (ZnO1) as intermediate and finally became zinc glycerolate (ZnGly). With the re-deposition of ZnGly back to the ZnO nanostar catalyst at the end of the reaction, the catalyst can be easily recovered and stay active for five cycles. Furthermore, the rate of transesterification is highly promoted by the presence of FFA (6 wt.%) which makes it an efficient catalyst for low grade feedstock like waste cooking oil and crude plant oils. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  277. Optimization and kinetic modeling of esterification of the oil obtained from waste plum stones as a pretreatment step in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kostic, M. D.; Velickovic, A. V.; Jokovic, N. M.; Stamenkovic, O. S.; Veljkovic, V. B. 2016. Optimization and kinetic modeling of esterification of the oil obtained from waste plum stones as a pretreatment step in biodiesel production. Waste Management. 48619-629

    This study reports on the use of oil obtained from waste plum stones as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Because of high free fatty acid (FFA) level (15.8%), the oil was processed through the two-step process including esterification of FFA and methanolysis of the esterified oil catalyzed by H2SO4 and CaO, respectively. Esterification was optimized by response surface methodology combined with a central composite design. The second -order polynomial equation predicted the lowest acid value of 0.53 mg KOH/g under the following optimal reaction conditions: the methanol:oil molar ratio of 8.5:1, the catalyst amount of 2% and the reaction temperature of 45 degrees C. The predicted acid value agreed with the experimental acid value (0.47 mg KOH/g). The kinetics of FFA esterification was described by the irreversible pseudo first -order reaction rate law. The apparent kinetic constant was correlated with the initial methanol and catalyst concentrations and reaction temperature. The activation energy of the esterification reaction slightly decreased from 13.23 to 11.55 kJ/mol with increasing the catalyst concentration from 0.049 to 0.172 mol/dm(3). In the second step, the esterified oil reacted with methanol (methanol: oil molar ratio of 9:1) in the presence of Ca0 (5% to the oil mass) at 60 degrees C. The properties of the obtained biodiesel were within the EN 14214 standard limits. Hence, waste plum stones might be valuable raw material for obtaining fatty oil for the use as alternative feedstock in biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  278. Optimization of a batch CaO-catalyzed transesterification of used domestic waste oil with methanol and elucidation of a mathematical correlation between biodiesel yield and percent conversion
    Abstract

    Ismail, A. R.; El-Henawy, S. B.; Younis, S. A.; Betiha, M. A.; Abu Amr, S. S.; El-Gendy, N. S.; Azab, M. S.; Sedky, N. M. 2017. Optimization of a batch CaO-catalyzed transesterification of used domestic waste oil with methanol and elucidation of a mathematical correlation between biodiesel yield and percent conversion. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(10) 1013-1028

    The major drawback of the wide applicability of biodiesel is its price compared to the conventional petro-diesel. The feedstock and the applied catalyst in the transesterification reaction are the main contributor for the overall cost of the biodiesel production. Thus, this study summarizes the optimization of a batch transesterification reaction of used domestic waste oil (UDWO) with methanol using CaO, which can be easily prepared from different cheap and readily available natural sources. Quadratic model equations were elucidated describing the effect of methanol:oil molar ratio, CaO concentration wt.%, reaction temperature degrees C, reaction time h, and mixing rate rpm on biodiesel yield and conversion percentage. The optimum operating conditions were found to be competitive with those of the high-cost immobilized enzyme Novozym435. An overall acceptable agreement was achieved between the produced biodiesel, its blends with petro-diesel and the available commercial petro-diesel, and the international fuel standards. A precise and reliable logarithmic mathematical model was predicted correlating the production of pure high-quality biodiesel yield with the conversion percentage which were measured based on the fatty acid methylester content and decrease in viscosity, respectively.
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  279. Optimization of a two-step biodiesel production process comprised of lipid extraction from blended sewage sludge and subsequent lipid transesterification
    Abstract

    Supaporn, P.; Yeom, S. H. 2016. Optimization of a two-step biodiesel production process comprised of lipid extraction from blended sewage sludge and subsequent lipid transesterification. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 21(4) 551-560

    As a preliminary research for the development of feasible and economical biodiesel production using blended sewage sludge (BSS), a sustainable and non-edible feedstock, the two-step process comprised of lipid extraction (first step) and subsequent transesterification of the lipid with methanol (second step) was optimized. The total lipid content of the free fatty acid (FFA) containing BSS was determined to be 14.5% using the Blight and Dyer method with ultrasonication pretreatment, where 40.8% of the total lipid content was FFAs. The highest lipid yield of 13.5% (g-lipid/g-dry sludge), corresponding to 92.9% extraction efficiency, was obtained using 20 mL-solvent/g-dry sludge of the total solvent mixture with a 2/1 (v/v) ratio of chloroform and methanol. In the transesterification step, an acidic catalyst (H2SO4) exhibited significantly higher performance than an alkaline catalyst (NaOH). Thus, the optimal reaction conditions were 0.2% (g/g-lipid) H2SO4, 20 mL-methanol/g-lipid, 70A degrees C and 8 h, respectively. Although the reaction temperature was increased from 50 to 70A degrees C, we could save H2SO4, methanol, and a reaction time by 75, 50 and 66.7%, respectively compared with previous optimal conditions suggest by others' research. Under our optimal conditions, a biodiesel yield of 39.0% (g-biodiesel/g-lipid) and an overall yield (i.e., extraction and transesterification) of 5.3% (g-biodiesel/g-BSS) were achieved, which are substantially higher than those from others' research.
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  280. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater
    Abstract

    Han, S. F.; Jin, W.; Tu, R.; Abomohra Ael, F.; Wang, Z. H. 2016. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 39(7) 1073-9

    Despite the significant breakthroughs in research on microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel, its production cost is still much higher than that of fossil diesel. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to optimize algal growth and lipid production in wastewater. The present study examines the optimization of pretreatment of municipal wastewater and aeration conditions in order to enhance the lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus. Results showed that no significant differences were recorded in lipid productivity of S. obliquus grown in primary settled or sterilized municipal wastewater; however, ultrasound pretreatment of wastewater significantly decreased the lipid production. Whereas, aeration rates of 0.2 vvm significantly increased lipid content by 51 %, with respect to the non-aerated culture, which resulted in maximum lipid productivity (32.5 mg L(-1) day(-1)). Furthermore, aeration enrichment by 2 % CO2 resulted in increase of lipid productivity by 46 % over the CO2 non-enriched aerated culture. Fatty acid profile showed that optimized aeration significantly enhanced monounsaturated fatty acid production, composed mainly of C18:1, by 1.8 times over the non-aerated S. obliquus culture with insignificant changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion; suggesting better biodiesel characteristics for the optimized culture.
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  281. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater
    Abstract

    Han, S. F.; Jin, W. B.; Tu, R. J.; Abomohra, A.; Wang, Z. H. 2016. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 39(7) 1073-1079

    Despite the significant breakthroughs in research on microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel, its production cost is still much higher than that of fossil diesel. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to optimize algal growth and lipid production in wastewater. The present study examines the optimization of pretreatment of municipal wastewater and aeration conditions in order to enhance the lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus. Results showed that no significant differences were recorded in lipid productivity of S. obliquus grown in primary settled or sterilized municipal wastewater; however, ultrasound pretreatment of wastewater significantly decreased the lipid production. Whereas, aeration rates of 0.2 vvm significantly increased lipid content by 51 %, with respect to the non-aerated culture, which resulted in maximum lipid productivity (32.5 mg L-1 day(-1)). Furthermore, aeration enrichment by 2 % CO2 resulted in increase of lipid productivity by 46 % over the CO2 non-enriched aerated culture. Fatty acid profile showed that optimized aeration significantly enhanced monounsaturated fatty acid production, composed mainly of C18:1, by 1.8 times over the non-aerated S. obliquus culture with insignificant changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion; suggesting better biodiesel characteristics for the optimized culture.
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  282. Optimization of biodiesel production from animal fat residue in wastewater using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Awad, S.; Paraschiv, M.; Varuvel, E. G.; Tazerout, M. 2013. Optimization of biodiesel production from animal fat residue in wastewater using response surface methodology. Bioresource Technology. 129315-320

    Animal fat residues (AFR) from waste water were used as feedstock to produce biodiesel by a two-step acid-catalyzed process. Treatment of the AFRs with 5.4% (w/w) of 17 M H2SO4 at a methanol/AFR ratio of 13:1 (50% w/w) at 60 degrees C converted more than 95% of the triglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with an acid value (AV) of 1.3 mg(KOH)/g(biodiesel). Response surface methodology indicated that a lower AV cannot be reached using a one-step acid catalyzed process. Thus a two-step acid catalyzed process was employed using 3.6% catalyst and 30% methanol for 5 h for the first step and 1.8% catalyst and 10% methanol for I h in the second step, resulting in a yield higher than 98% and an AV of 0.3 mg(KOH)/g(biodiesel). The product thus conforms to the European norm EN14214 concerning biodiesel. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  283. Optimization of biodiesel production from mixture of edible and nonedible vegetable oils
    Abstract

    Gupta, J.; Agarwal, M.; Dalai, A. K. 2016. Optimization of biodiesel production from mixture of edible and nonedible vegetable oils. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 8112-120

    In the present study, optimization of biodiesel production from mixture of edible and nonedible vegetable oils with low to high free fatty acid (FFA) has been investigated. The selection of oils was based on richness of particular fatty acid in it. The combination of oils has been optimized to get suitable mixture for production of biodiesel. The mixture was analyzed in terms of physical properties and accordingly two step esterification process was applied. For optimization study, the response surface methodology (RSM) based central composite design (CCD) was used in Design of Experiments (DOE) software to optimize the various process variables such as reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration for biodiesel production. A quadratic model was created for the prediction of the Biodiesel yield. The R-2 value of the model was 0.96 which indicates the satisfactory accuracy of the model. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: reaction temperature of 43.50 degrees C, methanol to oil molar ratio of 8.8:1, catalyst concentration of 1.9 g/100 cc feed, reaction time of 58.4 min. At these reaction conditions, the predicted and observed biodiesel yield was 97.02% and 97.00%, respectively. These values experimentally satisfied the accuracy of the model. GC and FTIR analysis of biodiesel was also done for biodiesel characterization. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  284. Optimization of biodiesel production from trap grease via acid catalysis
    Abstract

    Wang, Z. M.; Lee, J. S.; Park, J. Y.; Wu, C. Z.; Yuan, Z. H. 2008. Optimization of biodiesel production from trap grease via acid catalysis. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 25(4) 670-674

    As a kind of waste collected from restaurants, trap grease is a chemically challenging feedstock for biodiesel production for its high free fatty acid (FFA) content. A central composite design was used to evaluate the effect of methanol quantity, acid concentration and reaction time on the synthesis of biodiesel from the trap grease with 50% free fatty acid, while the reaction temperature was selected at 95 degrees C. Using response surface methodology, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for ester content by multiple regression analysis. Verification experiments confirmed the validity of the predicted model. To achieve the highest ester content of crude biodiesel (89.67%), the critical values of the three variables were 35.00 (methanol-to-oil molar ratio), 11.27 wt% (catalyst concentration based on trap grease) and 4.59 h (reaction time). The crude biodiesel could be purified by a second distillation to meet the requirement of biodiesel specification of Korea.
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  285. The Optimization of Conversion of Waste Edible Oil to Fatty Acid Methyl Esters in Homogeneous Media
    Abstract

    Zhang, L.; Jin, Q.; Zhang, K.; Huang, J.; Wang, X. 2012. The Optimization of Conversion of Waste Edible Oil to Fatty Acid Methyl Esters in Homogeneous Media. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 34(5-8) 711-719

    Conversion of waste edible oil to the fatty acid methyl esters was optimized using sulfuric acid as a catalyst for transesterification and esterification simultaneously, and adding tetrahydrofuran as a cosolvent for producing a homogeneous media. The optimized model was established by the response surface methodology. The optimum conditions were methanol/oil molar ratio of 21:1, 3.95% of sulphuric acid based on the oil mass, and reaction period of 3.3 h at 64 C in the presence of tetrahydrofuran, obtaining a fatty acid methyl esters yield of 98.2%. Further verification experiments confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The result suggested that the present work had a significantly lower reaction temperature and methanol/oil molar ratio by the addition of tetrahydrofuran to the reaction system.
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  286. Optimization of conversion of waste rapeseed oil with high FFA to biodiesel using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Yuan, X.; Liu, J.; Zeng, G.; Shi, J.; Tong, J.; Huang, G. H. 2008. Optimization of conversion of waste rapeseed oil with high FFA to biodiesel using response surface methodology. Renewable Energy. 33(7) 1678-1684

    In the present study, waste rapeseed oil with high free fatty acids (FFA) was used as feedstock for producing biodiesel. In the pretreatment step, FFA was reduced by distillation refining method. Then, biodiesel was produced by alkaline-catalyzed transesterification process, which was designed according to the 2(4) full-factorial central composite design. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions for the maximum conversion to biodiesel and understand the significance and interaction of the factors affecting the biodiesel production. The results showed that catalyst concentration and reaction time were the limiting conditions and little variation in their value would alter the conversion. At the same time, there was a significant mutual interaction between catalyst concentration and reaction time.
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  287. Optimization of heterogeneous biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil via response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Omar, W. N. N. W.; Amin, N. A. S. 2011. Optimization of heterogeneous biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil via response surface methodology. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(3) 1329-1338

    Heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking palm oil (WCPO) to biodiesel over Sr/ZrO(2) catalyst and the optimization of the process have been investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the relationships of methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction time, and reaction temperature on methyl ester yield and free fatty acid conversion. The experiments were designed using central composite by applying 2(4) full factorial designs with two centre points. Transesterification of WCPO produced 79.7% maximum methyl ester yield at the optimum methanol to oil molar ratio = 29:1, catalyst loading = 2.7 wt%, reaction time = 87 min and reaction temperature = 115.5 degrees C. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  288. Optimization of oil extraction from waste "Date pits" for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Jamil, F.; Al-Muhtaseb, A. H.; Al-Haj, L.; Al-Hinai, M. A.; Hellier, P.; Rashid, U. 2016. Optimization of oil extraction from waste "Date pits" for biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management. 117264-272

    Biodiesel produced from non-edible feedstocks is increasingly attractive alternative to both fossil diesels and renewable fuels derived from food crops. Date pits are one such lipid containing feedstock, and are widely available in Oman as a waste stream. This study analyses the effects of soxhlet process parameters (temperature, solvent to seed ratio and time) on the extraction of oils from waste Date pits and the subsequent production of biodiesel from it. The highest yield of oil extracted from the Date pits was 16.5 wt% obtained at a temperature of 70 degrees C, solvent to seed ratio of 4:1 and extraction duration of 7 h. Gas Chromatography analysis showed that Date pits oil consisted of 54.85% unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). Transesterification of the oil extracted was undertaken at 65 degrees C, a methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 and a reaction time of 1 h for biodiesel production. Biodiesel produced from the Date pits oil was found to have a cetane number of 58.23, density 870 of kg m(-3), cloud point of 4 degrees C, pour point of -1 degrees C, CFPP of -0.5 degrees C and kinematic viscosity of 3.97 mm(2) s(-1) (40 degrees C). In general, Date pit oil appears to be a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  289. Optimization of pretreatment reaction for methyl ester production from chicken fat
    Abstract

    Alptekin, E.; Canakci, M. 2010. Optimization of pretreatment reaction for methyl ester production from chicken fat. Fuel. 89(12) 4035-4039

    In biodiesel production, to use low cost feedstock such as rendered animal fats may reduce the biodiesel cost. One of the low cost animal fats is the chicken fat for biodiesel production. It is extracted from feather meal which is prepared from chicken wastes such as chicken feathers, blood, offal and trims after rendering process. However, chicken fats often contain significant amounts of FFA which cannot be converted to biodiesel using an alkaline catalyst due to the formation of soap. Therefore, the FFA level should be reduced to desired level (below 1%) by using acid catalyst before transesterification. For this aim, sulfuric, hydrochloric and sulfamic (amidosulfonic) acids were used for pretreatment reactions and the variables affecting the FFA level including alcohol molar ratio, acid catalyst amount and reaction time were investigated by using the chicken fat with 13.45% FFA. The optimum pretreatment condition was found to be 20% sulfuric acid and 40: 1 methanol molar ratio based on the amount of FFA in the chicken fat for 80 min at 60 degrees C. After transesterification, the methyl ester yield was 87.4% and the measured fuel properties of the chicken fat methyl ester met EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel specifications. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  290. Organic municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for biodiesel production: A financial feasibility analysis
    Abstract

    Gaeta-Bernardi, A.; Parente, V. 2016. Organic municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for biodiesel production: A financial feasibility analysis. Renewable Energy. 861422-1432

    The pursuit towards an alternative solution to fossil fuel has facilitated science investigation initiatives that compare various options leading to biodiesel production. Besides conventional feedstock derived from vegetable oils, alternative sources that could be produce in large scale at competitive costs are the main scope of research in this field. This paper investigates the financial feasibility using organic solid waste as a feedstock, which results in the production of biodiesel through the conversion of volatile fatty acids into lipids (VFA). As a result, based on existing references of capital and operating costs, production and extraction yields for VFA and lipids and an internal rate of return of 15% in real terms, we concluded that biodiesel production is competitive compared to subsidized biodiesel traded in regions of Europe and the United States. These results encourage research aims to examine this technology at a larger scale. The adoption of public policies for the urban waste's disposal and collection, to reduced municipality's costs associated to the treatment, is also important for the implementation of these technologies. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  291. Overview of the production of biodiesel from Waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Yaakob, Z.; Mohammad, M.; Alherbawi, M.; Alam, Z.; Sopian, K. 2013. Overview of the production of biodiesel from Waste cooking oil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 18184-193

    In recent years, biodiesel has attracted significant attention from researchers, governments, and industries as a renewable, biodegradable, and non-toxic fuel. However, several feedstocks have been proven impractical or infeasible because of their extremely high cost due to their usage primarily as food resources. Waste cooking oil (WCO) is considered the most promising biodiesel feedstock despite its drawbacks, such as its high free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of the pre-treatment and the usage of WCO for the production of biodiesel using several methods, different types of reactors, and various types and amounts of alcohol and catalysts. The most common process in the production of biodiesel is transesterification, and using a methanol-ethanol mixture will combine the advantages of both alcohols in biodiesel production. In addition, this paper highlights the purification and analysis of the produced biodiesel, operating parameters that highly affect the biodiesel yield, and several economic studies. This review suggests that WCO is a promising feedstock in biodiesel production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  292. Oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from high free fatty acid feedstock
    Abstract

    Sorate, K. A.; Bhale, P. V.; Meena, R. N. 2016. Oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from high free fatty acid feedstock. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(10) 1410-1418

    At present, with fluctuating feedstock prices, the biodiesel manufacturing industries are facing some downfall. High free fatty acid (FFA) non-edible oil, which is a byproduct of vegetable oil refineries, is available at low price and in considerable quantities at vegetable oil refinery sites. This high FFA oil can be utilized as a potential low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. In the present work, high FFA (51.6%) oil was synthesized into biodiesel by a two-step process. Except oxidation stability, other fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were found to be comparable with that of biodiesel specifications. Oxidation stability was found to be only 2.1 h at 110 degrees C as determined by the Rancimat apparatus.
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  293. Oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from waste catfish oil
    Abstract

    Fu, J. X.; Hue, B. T. B.; Turn, S. Q. 2017. Oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from waste catfish oil. Fuel. 202455-463

    The present work investigates the properties and oxidation stabilities of biodiesel derived from catfish oil (B100 CFO) generated by the fish processing plants in Vietnam. The composition and physicochemical properties of the B100 CFO were measured, including oxygen content (similar to 11 wt%), viscosity (4.5306 mm(2) s(-1)), density (0.8772 g cm(-3)), peroxide value (28.13 mg kg (-1)), heat of combustion (39.18 MJ kg(-1)), and acid number (0.12 mg KOH g(-1)). Methyl oleate (46.44 wt%) was the dominant fatty acid methyl ester. B100 CFO was found to have poorer low- temperature quality than most vegetable oil derived biodiesels as determined by its fusion and crystallization properties. Novel modified ASTM D5304 and D2274 tests were employed to study the oxidation process of B100 CFO and the impact of oxidation time on its stability. Under ASTM 5304 test conditions, rapid O-2 consumption by B100 CFO occurred after 8 h, behavior similar to commercial biodiesel stabilized with antioxidant additives. The influence of oxidation condition and time on the B100 CFO physicochemical properties and low-temperature qualities was also investigated according to ASTM methods. Three oxidation stages were identified in B100 CFO based on the peroxide value change during the modified ASTM D5304 and D2274 tests. B100 CFO was also found have superior oxidation stability in comparison with B100 derived from waste cooking oil. This is the first report on oxidation stability of B100 derived from catfish oil. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  294. Oxidative stability of biodiesel produced from the crude fish oil from the waste parts of marine fish
    Abstract

    Lin, C. Y.; Lee, J. C. 2010. Oxidative stability of biodiesel produced from the crude fish oil from the waste parts of marine fish. Journal of Food Agriculture & Environment. 8(2) 992-995

    The crude fish oil from the waste parts of marine fish is considered to be alternative source of abundant and low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Fish oil extracted from the waste parts of marine fish is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, the biodiesel produced from marine fish oil may have lower oxidative stability. To better understand how to improve the oxidative stability of marine fish-oil biodiesel, the influence of oxidative variables including antioxidant addition, operating temperature and storage time on the fuel characteristics of this biodiesel was investigated in this study. The experimental results show that the addition of antioxidant significantly retards the deterioration over time of the fuel characteristics of the marine fish-oil biodiesel. Operating temperature was found to be a dominant factor in the deterioration of the fuel characteristics of this biodiesel. The marine fish-oil biodiesel sample to which no antioxidant has been added and which has been stored at a higher temperature appears to have the highest deterioration rate of methyl ester content and greatest rate of increase in acid value, kinematic viscosity, and carbon residue among the four tested biodiesel samples. Moreover, the addition of a combination of two antioxidants was found to have a slightly greater effect in reducing the deterioration rate of the fuel characteristics of this biodiesel than the addition of a single antioxidant alone. However, the addition of antioxidant to the fish-oil biodiesel results in an increase in kinematic viscosity and carbon residue at the beginning of the storage period.
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  295. Performance and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with waste palm oil and canola oil methyl esters
    Abstract

    Ozsezen, A. N.; Canakci, M.; Turkcan, A.; Sayin, C. 2009. Performance and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with waste palm oil and canola oil methyl esters. Fuel. 88(4) 629-636

    This study discusses the performance and combustion characteristics of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine fueled with biodiesels such as waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME) and canola oil methyl ester (COME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at the constant engine speed mode (1500 rpm) under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME, the engine performance slightly weakened; the combustion characteristics slightly changed when compared to petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF). The biodiesels caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and smoke opacity, but they caused to increases in nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  296. Performance and emission evaluation of pure biodiesel from non-edible feedstock and waste oil in a diesel engine
    Abstract

    Onuh, E. I.; Inambao, F. 2016. Performance and emission evaluation of pure biodiesel from non-edible feedstock and waste oil in a diesel engine. African Journal of Science Technology Innovation & Development. 8(5-6) 387-398

    Biodiesel prepared from Jatropha, Moringa and restaurant waste oil were evaluated in a 3.5 kw diesel engine to determine their performance and pollutant emission. The brake specific (BS) emissions across the full load spectrum were benchmarked against the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US, EPA) and the European Union (EU) emission caps. Results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiencies gave marginal differences between conventional diesel fuel (ndiesel) and the biodiesel fuel samples (+/- 4% and +/- 5 respectively at peak load). Carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and particulate matter (PM) emissions (in parts per million) showed a decreasing trend with load increase and were lower than those of ndiesel fuel samples. Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emission for the biodiesel were observed to be lower than those of ndiesel. This was because the 1650 k peak temperature to activate thermal NOX was sparingly breached for the biodiesels. BSHC for all fuel types failed the EPA as well as the EU emission caps under all loading conditions. All tested fuel samples met the regulatory standards at load conditions exceeding 65%. Brake specific particulate matter (BSPM) for all fuel type fell short of the EPA and EU standard, except those of waste oil and jatropha biodiesel, with BSPM below the EU upper limit of 0.85 g/Kwh.
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  297. Performance evaluation of artificial neural network coupled with generic algorithm and response surface methodology in modeling and optimization of biodiesel production process parameters from shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) nut butter
    Abstract

    Betiku, E.; Okunsolawo, S. S.; Ajala, S. O.; Odedele, O. S. 2015. Performance evaluation of artificial neural network coupled with generic algorithm and response surface methodology in modeling and optimization of biodiesel production process parameters from shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa) nut butter. Renewable Energy. 76408-417

    This work investigated the potential of shea butter oil (SBO) as feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel. Due to high free fatty acid (FFA) of SBO used, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model and optimize the pretreatment step while its conversion to biodiesel was modeled and optimized using RSM and artificial neural network (ANN). The acid value of the SBO was reduced to 1.19 mg KOH/g with oil/ methanol molar ratio of 3.3, H2SO4 of 0.15 v/v, time of 60 min and temperature of 45 degrees C. Optimum values predicted for the transesterification reaction by RSM were temperature of 90 degrees C, KOH of 0.6 w/v, oil/ methanol molar ratio of 3.5, and time of 30 mm with actual shea butter oil biodiesel (SBOB) yield of 99.65% (w/w). ANN combined with generic algorithm gave the optimal condition as temperature of 82 degrees C, KOH of 0.40 w/v, oil/methanol molar ratio of 2.62 and time of 30 min with actual SBOB yield of 99.94% (w/w). Coefficient of determination (R-2) and absolute average deviation (AAD) of the models were 0.9923, 0.83% (RSM) and 0.9991, 0.15% (ANN), which demonstrated that ANN model was more efficient than RSM model. Properties of SBOB produced were within biodiesel standard specifications. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  298. Performance evaluation of biodiesel from used domestic waste oils: A review
    Abstract

    Diya'uddeen, B. H.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Daud, W. M. A. W.; Chakrabarti, M. H. 2012. Performance evaluation of biodiesel from used domestic waste oils: A review. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 90(3) 164-179

    Global warming, high-energy demand and availability of new technologies are among the factors catalyzing the search for alternative sources of energy. Currently, there is renewed interest in obtaining energy from wastes hitherto meant for disposal. Increased costs of disposal and their attendant problems of heavy environmental loading are some aspects making the disposal option unattractive. These wastes are sources of energy and among the several sources of generating this energy are the waste-to-energy (WTE) categories with potentials for useable fuel production. The WTE materials are mainly used domestic waste oils (UDWOs), municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural and industrial wastes. However, the latter wastes are not attractive as they consist of innumerable hazardous contaminants. The UDWOs are arguably a safe and cost effective source of useable fuel. Their conversion offers the merits of a reduction in greenhouse gas emission (GHG), enhancing fuel diversification and a qualitatively comparable energy output to fossil diesel fuels. Thus, UDWOs could significantly contribute towards achieving the 2020 and 2030 goals of substituting approximately 20% and 30% of petro-diesel with biofuels in US and EU, respectively. Moreover, attaining the forecasted annual production rate of 227 billion liters of biofuel by most active stakeholders in the biodiesel industry could be easily achieved.
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  299. Performance evaluation of microalgae for concomitant wastewater bioremediation, CO2 biofixation and lipid biosynthesis for biodiesel application
    Abstract

    Nayak, M.; Karemore, A.; Sen, R. 2016. Performance evaluation of microalgae for concomitant wastewater bioremediation, CO2 biofixation and lipid biosynthesis for biodiesel application. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 16216-223

    This study was directed towards evaluating the potential of microalgae for simultaneous wastewater treatment, CO2 biofixation and lipid biosynthesis for biofuel application. The cultivation potential of various microalgal species in domestic wastewater (DWW) was studied in shake-flasks. The microalga, Scenedesmus sp. showed superior results in terms of the maximum specific growth rate of 0.44 d(-1), biomass yield of 0.43 g L-1, biomass productivity of 61.4 mg L-1 d(-1) and total lipid content of 23.1%. Subsequently, the performance evaluation of Scenedesmus sp. with respect to biomass growth, lipid accumulation, CO2 biofixation rate and nutrient uptake was carried out at different CO2 concentrations in a photobioreactor. The culture supplemented with 2.5% (v/v) CO2 was found most suitable and resulted in highest biomass productivity, total lipid content, lipid productivity, and CO2 consumption rate of 196 mg L-1 d(-1), 33.3%, 65.17 mg L-1 d(-1) and 368 mg L-1 d(-1), respectively. The microalga could bioremediate ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and chemical oxygen demand (COD) efficiently from the wastewater to the extent of 70-98%. The FAME composition of the microalgal lipid was found encouraging for biodiesel application as saturated: unsaturated fatty acid ratio was favorable to about 1.2:1. The study indicates that Scenedesmus sp. can efficiently utilize DWW for its growth instead of using synthetic culture medium and can produce a significant amount of biomass at 2.5% CO2 for biofuel application. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  300. A perspective on incorporation of glycerin purification process in biodiesel plants using waste cooking oil as feedstock
    Abstract

    Singhabhandhu, A.; Tezuka, T. 2010. A perspective on incorporation of glycerin purification process in biodiesel plants using waste cooking oil as feedstock. Energy. 35(6) 2493-2504

    In biodiesel production through transesterification, glycerin is produced as a valuable co-product. Some biodiesel plants have incorporated a glycerin purification process since the beginning of operations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the benefits of the incorporation of a glycerin purification process to a biodiesel plant where has already been constructed without the initial consideration of including an extra process for glycerin. A cost-benefit analysis is applied to evaluate the potential benefit from the incorporation of this process, in cases of a high plant cost and a low plant cost, with and without a glycerin facility installation. Our results show that the installation of a glycerin purification process could benefit a biodiesel plant through glycerin recovery and a decrease in wastewater treatment cost. The current downward trend in the market price of glycerin could be offset by encouraging the development of new applications for glycerin in order to expand the existing market and to stabilize the market price. However, biodiesel plants using waste cooking oil in Japan still need government subsidy to sustain their business activity. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  301. Phosphotungstic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for the one-pot production of biodiesel from grease via esterification and transesterification
    Abstract

    Zillillah; Ngu, T. A.; Li, Z. 2014. Phosphotungstic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for the one-pot production of biodiesel from grease via esterification and transesterification. Green Chemistry. 16(3) 1202-1210

    A novel, active, and recyclable magnetic nano-size solid acid catalyst was developed for the high-yielding transformation of waste grease to biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) via simultaneous esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and transesterification of triglycerides with methanol in one pot. The coreshell structured magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) HPW-PGMA-MNPs consist of iron oxide MNPs as the core, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) as the shell, and phosphotungstic acid (HPW) as the surface acid group. They were conveniently prepared in a 93% yield from PGMA-MNPs via phosphonation with Na2HPO4 and subsequent treatment with Na2WO4 center dot 2H(2)O under acidic conditions, allowing for in situ formation of HPW on the particle surface with a high acidity of 1.13 mmol g(-1) and a particle size of 90 nm. The catalyst was fully characterized by EDX, FT-IR, FESEM, TEM, and VSM. It demonstrated a much better catalytic performance for the transesterification of triacetin and for the one-pot transformation of grease to biodiesel than commercially available solid acid catalysts such as Amberlyst 15, Purolite CT-275, and zeolite. One-pot transformation of grease (21.3 wt% FFAs) with methanol using HPW-PGMA-MNPs (4 wt %) gave a 98% FAME yield after 24 h, with 96% conversion for the esterification and > 98% conversion for the transesterification. HPW-PGMA-MNPs were easily separated from the reaction mixture under a magnetic field and efficiently reused for further cycles of transformation, retaining 95% productivity in the 10th reaction cycle. Thus, the developed magnetic nano-size solid acid catalyst is potentially useful for the green and economic production of biodiesel from waste grease.
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  302. Pilot Plant of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Liu, G. R.; Chen, G. Y. 2012. Pilot Plant of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil. Advances in Chemical Engineering Ii, Pts 1-4. 550-553687-692

    Biodiesel, as an alternative auto fuel for conventional fossil fuel, has drawn wide attention in recent years. In this research, a two-step process for biodiesel production using waste cooking oil as feedstock was studied in a pilot plant with a treatment capacity of 3 ton/d. The results show that: the process exihibited a good conversion ratio and the biodiesel displayed suitable physical-chemical properties in comparison with diesel fuel, such as flash point of 137 degrees C, viscosity of 4.49 mm(2)/s, acid value of 0.44 mg KOH/g etc. The quality of biodiesel meets the agreement with the European specification defined by EN 14214. Afterwards, the mixture of biodiesel and diesel were test in the engine with a ratio of 50/50 (v/v), 20/80 (v/v), and 0/100 (v/v). It indicates the mixed fuel has a reasonable fuel consumption rates without diesel engine modification, when the biodiesel blended with 0# diesel as fuel. The present results demonstrated that the industrial scale plant would achieve promising objective with waste cooking oils and animal fats as raw material. Also, this biodiesel-based diesel fuel could be applied in Tianjin local public transportation system that improves its sustainable development.
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  303. Pilot-scale production of biodiesel from waste fats and oils using tetramethylammonium hydroxide
    Abstract

    Sanek, L.; Pecha, J.; Kolomaznik, K.; Barinova, M. 2016. Pilot-scale production of biodiesel from waste fats and oils using tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Waste Management. 48630-637

    Annually, a great amount of waste fats and oils not suitable for human consumption or which cannot be further treated are produced around the world. A potential way of utilizing this low-cost feedstock is its conversion into biodiesel. The majority of biodiesel production processes today are based on the utilization of inorganic alkali catalysts. However, it has been proved that an organic base - tetramethylammonium hydroxide - can be used as a very efficient transesterification catalyst. Furthermore, it can be employed for the esterification of free fatty acids - reducing even high free fatty acid contents to the required level in just one step. The work presented herein, is focused on biodiesel production from waste frying oils and animal fats using tetramethylammonium hydroxide at the pilot-plant level. The results showed that the process performance in the pilot unit - using methanol and TMAH as a catalyst, is comparable to the laboratory procedure, even when the biodiesel is produced from waste vegetable oils or animal fats with high free fatty acid content. The reaction conditions were set at: 1.5% wow of TMAH, reaction temperature 65 degrees C, the feedstock to methanol molar ratio to 1:6, and the reaction time to 120 min. The conversion of triglycerides to FAME was approximately 98%. The cloud point of the biodiesel obtained from waste animal fat was also determined. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  304. Plantwide Control of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Integrated Framework of Simulation and Heuristics
    Abstract

    Patle, D. S.; Ahmad, Z.; Rangaiah, G. P. 2014. Plantwide Control of Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using Integrated Framework of Simulation and Heuristics. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(37) 14408-14418

    This article describes the systematic plantwide control (PWC) design of an ecofriendly process for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO) feedstock A simulation model was developed to produce biodiesel from WCO that reduces both production costs and adverse environmental impacts. An effective PWC system is crucial for the safe, smooth, and economical operation of a biodiesel plant. Hence, a PWC system was developed for a homogeneously catalyzed biodiesel process using the integrated framework of simulation and heuristics (IFSH). The main merits of the IFSH methodology are effective use of rigorous process simulators and heuristics in developing a PWC system and simplicity of application. Finally, the performance of the developed control system was assessed in terms of settling time, a dynamic economic index based on the deviation from the production target (DPT), and the overall total variation (TV) in manipulated variables. These performance assessments and the results of dynamic simulations showed that the developed PWC system is stable, effective, and robust in the presence of several disturbances and that biodiesel quality can be maintained despite these disturbances. This is the first study to develop a complete PWC system for a homogeneously catalyzed two-step biodiesel production from WCO.
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  305. Polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis on biodiesel wastewater using mixed microbial consortia
    Abstract

    Dobroth, Z. T.; Hu, S.; Coats, E. R.; McDonald, A. G. 2011. Polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis on biodiesel wastewater using mixed microbial consortia. Bioresour Technol. 102(3) 3352-9

    Crude glycerol (CG), a by-product of biodiesel production, is an organic carbon-rich substrate with potential as feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. PHA is a biodegradable thermoplastic synthesized by microorganisms as an intracellular granule. In this study we investigated PHA production on CG using mixed microbial consortia (MMC) and determined that the enriched MMC produced exclusively polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) utilizing the methanol fraction. PHB synthesis appeared to be stimulated by a macronutrient deficiency. Intracellular concentrations remained relatively constant over an operational cycle, with microbial growth occurring concurrent with polymer synthesis. PHB average molecular weights ranged from 200-380 kDa, while thermal properties compared well with commercial PHB. The resulting PHB material properties and characteristics would be suitable for many commercial uses. Considering full-scale process application, it was estimated that a 38 million L (10 million gallon) per year biodiesel operation could potentially produce up to 19 metric ton (20.9t on) of PHB per year.
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  306. Polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis on biodiesel wastewater using mixed microbial consortia
    Abstract

    Dobroth, Z. T.; Hu, S. J.; Coats, E. R.; McDonald, A. G. 2011. Polyhydroxybutyrate synthesis on biodiesel wastewater using mixed microbial consortia. Bioresource Technology. 102(3) 3352-3359

    Crude glycerol (CG), a by-product of biodiesel production, is an organic carbon-rich substrate with potential as feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. PHA is a biodegradable thermoplastic synthesized by microorganisms as an intracellular granule. In this study we investigated PHA production on CG using mixed microbial consortia (MMC) and determined that the enriched MMC produced exclusively polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) utilizing the methanol fraction. PHB synthesis appeared to be stimulated by a macronutrient deficiency. Intracellular concentrations remained relatively constant over an operational cycle, with microbial growth occurring concurrent with polymer synthesis. PHB average molecular weights ranged from 200-380 kDa, while thermal properties compared well with commercial PHB. The resulting PHB material properties and characteristics would be suitable for many commercial uses. Considering full-scale process application, it was estimated that a 38 million L (10 million gallon) per year biodiesel operation could potentially produce up to 19 metric ton (20.9 ton) of PHB per year. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  307. Possibility of biodiesel production from waste fats and oils and animal fats
    Abstract

    Mustapic, N.; Stanisa, B. 2006. Possibility of biodiesel production from waste fats and oils and animal fats. Energy and the Environment 2006, Vol II. 215-224

    Used cooking oil (yellow grease), animal fats such as beef tallow, rendered animal fats, and trap grease (brown grease) from grease traps and from water treatment plants are potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. The objective of this paper is to present the approximately amount and main properties of these waste oils and fats and animal fats. In this paper also a review is made of the possible alternative biodiesel production processes that could be used to produce this biofuel from waste vegetable oils and animal fats.
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  308. Potassium Ion Impregnated Calcium Oxide as a Nanocrystalline Solid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Waste Cotton Seed Oil
    Abstract

    Kumar, D.; Ali, A. 2014. Potassium Ion Impregnated Calcium Oxide as a Nanocrystalline Solid Catalyst for Biodiesel Production from Waste Cotton Seed Oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(10) 1093-1102

    Vegetable oil and animal fat derived fatty acid methyl esters are commonly known as biodiesel and provide an environment friendly and renewable substitute for the conventional diesel fuel. The present work demonstrates an easy preparation of potassium ion impregnated calcium oxide in nano crystalline form (supported by powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopic studies) and its application as a solid catalyst for the transesterification of waste cottonseed oil with methanol. The catalyst prepared by impregnating 3.5 wt% of potassium in CaO support was found to show the best catalytic activity among the prepared catalysts. The same catalyst was found to be effective for the complete transesterification of less expensive feedstock, waste cotton seed oil, even in the presence of 10.26 wt% moisture and 4.35 wt% free fatty acid contents. The selected catalyst has also been reused successfully for three catalytic cycles. Few physicochemical properties of the prepared biodiesel sample have been studied and found to be within the acceptable limits of EN 14214 standards.
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  309. The potential for agro-industrial waste utilization using oleaginous yeast for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Leiva-Candia, D. E.; Pinzi, S.; Redel-Macias, M. D.; Koutinas, A.; Webb, C.; Dorado, M. P. 2014. The potential for agro-industrial waste utilization using oleaginous yeast for the production of biodiesel. Fuel. 12333-42

    Environmental problems are making it necessary to find renewable and sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels in the field of transport. Biodiesel may replace diesel fuel under an environmentally friendly and economically sound process, as long as the raw material employed is of low cost and can be derived from sustainable sources. Such an alternative feedstock from non-vegetable sources could be provided by microbial oil produced by oleaginous microorganisms that may possess similar chemical composition to that of the most commonly used vegetable oils in the biodiesel industry. Moreover, oleaginous yeasts could accumulate intracellular lipids through cultivation on various agro-industrial wastes. Oleaginous yeasts may accumulate different amounts of microbial oil with varying fatty acid profiles, depending on the substrate or growing conditions. This review presents the most relevant aspects regarding yeast oil production using agro-industrial waste as culture media and evaluates the potential of this microbial oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  310. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel
    Abstract

    Gomaa, M. A.; Abed, R. M. M. 2017. Potential of fecal waste for the production of biomethane, bioethanol and biodiesel. Journal of Biotechnology. 25314-22

    Fecal waste is an environmental burden that requires proper disposal, which ultimately becomes also an economic burden. Because fecal waste is nutrient-rich and contains a diverse methanogenic community, it has been utilized to produce biomethane via anaerobic digestion. Carbohydrates and lipids in fecal waste could reach up to 50% of the dry weight, which also suggests a potential as a feedstock for bioethanol and biodiesel production. We measured biomethane production from fecal waste of cows, chickens, goats and humans and compared the microbial community composition before and after anaerobic digestion. We also compared the fecal waste for cellulase production, saccharification and fermentation to produce bioethanol and for lipid content and fatty acid profiles to produce biodiesel. All fecal waste produced biomethane, with the highest yield of 433.4 +/- 77.1 ml CH4/g VS from cow fecal waste. Production of bioethanol was achieved from all samples, with chicken fecal waste yielding as high as 1.6 +/- 0.25 g/l. Sludge samples exhibited the highest extractable portion of lipids (20.9 +/- 0.08 wt%) and conversion to fatty acid methyl esters (11.94 wt%). Utilization of fecal waste for the production of biofuels is environmentally and economically beneficial.
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  311. Potential of feedstock and catalysts from waste in biodiesel preparation: A review
    Abstract

    Nurfitri, I.; Maniam, G. P.; Hindryawati, N.; Yusoff, M. M.; Ganesan, S. 2013. Potential of feedstock and catalysts from waste in biodiesel preparation: A review. Energy Conversion and Management. 74395-402

    For many years, the cost of production has been the main barrier in commercializing biodiesel, globally. It has been well researched and established in the literature that the cost of feedstock is the major contributor. Biodiesel producers are forced to choose between edible and non-edible feedstock. The use of edible feedstock sparks concern in terms of food security while the inedible feedstock needs additional pretreatment steps. On the other hand, the wide availability of edible feedstock guarantees the supply while the choice of non-edible results in a non-continuous or non-ready supply. With these complications in mind, this review attempts to identify possible solutions by exploring the potential of waste edible oils and waste catalysts in biodiesel preparation. Since edible oils are available and used abundantly, waste or used edible oils have the potential to provide plentiful feedstock for biodiesel. In addition, since traditional homogeneous catalysts are less competent in transesterifying waste/used oils, this review includes the possibility of heterogeneous catalysts from waste sources that are able to aid the transesterification reaction with success. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  312. The potential of waste cooking oil as supply for the Brazilian biodiesel chain
    Abstract

    Cesar, A. D.; Werderits, D. E.; Saraiva, G. L. D.; Guabiroba, R. C. D. 2017. The potential of waste cooking oil as supply for the Brazilian biodiesel chain. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 72246-253

    Biofuel production stands out on an international level because of its environmentally sustainable characteristics and the potential to promote rural development in developing countries. Introducing waste cooking oil (WCO) into the biodiesel chain holds the potential to promote social inclusion in urban areas in developing countries as well. In this sense, this paper examines the opportunity for biodiesel production from WCO as a potential source for future energy supply, particularly for biodiesel, and in this case, we will analyze the Brazilian scene. Several related aspects are covered, such as the physical and chemical properties of the WCO and the biodiesel made from it. The process of production is also presented. Lastly, the potential of the supply for this chain and the potential of social inclusion in developing countries, especially in Brazil, are analyzed.
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  313. Potential of waste palm cooking oil for catalyst-free biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Tan, K. T.; Lee, K. T.; Mohamed, A. R. 2011. Potential of waste palm cooking oil for catalyst-free biodiesel production. Energy. 36(4) 2085-2088

    Disposal of waste palm cooking oil (WPCO) via an environmental-friendly route is of major importance in the quest for sustainable development. In this study. WPCO was utilized instead of refined vegetable oils as the source of triglycerides for biodiesel production. WPCO contains several impurities, such as water and free fatty acids, which limit its application in catalytic transesterification processes. Consequently, a catalyst-free process using supercritical methanol was employed to investigate the potential of WPCO as an economical feedstock for biodiesel production. The parameters that influence the reaction, including reaction time, temperature and the molar ratio of alcohol to oil, were investigated. For comparison purposes, refined palm oil (RPO) was also subjected to supercritical methanol reaction and it was found that both processes produced comparable optimum yields of 80% at their respective optimum conditions. Hence, it can be concluded that WPCO has high potential as an economical and practical future source of biodiesel. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  314. Potential vegetable oils of Indian origin as biodiesel feedstock - An experimental study
    Abstract

    Agarwal, M.; Singh, K.; Upadhyaya, S.; Chaurasia, S. P. 2012. Potential vegetable oils of Indian origin as biodiesel feedstock - An experimental study. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research. 71(4) 285-289

    This study presents various vegetable oils from edible and non-edible sources for preparation of biodiesel using KOH as catalyst and methanol as alcohol. Maximum biodiesel yield from all vegetable oils was obtained under following optimum conditions: reaction temp., 70 degrees C; reaction time, 1 h; catalyst amount, 1% (by oil wt); and methanol to oil molar ratio, 6:1. Characteristics of biodiesel at optimum conditions were as per ASTM standards.
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  315. Predicting the higher heating values of waste frying oils as potential biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Sanli, H.; Canakci, M.; Alptekin, E. 2014. Predicting the higher heating values of waste frying oils as potential biodiesel feedstock. Fuel. 115850-854

    In the literature, there are several empirical models to estimate the higher heating values of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels. In this study, five of these models found in the literature were used to estimate the higher heating value of waste frying oils. When some models are used to estimate HHVs of waste frying oils, the relative errors were found up to 5% compared to the values obtained experimentally. Therefore, a new empirical formula based on the fatty acid composition was developed to predict the HHV of waste frying oils. For this purpose, 35 samples taken from different facilities producing waste frying oils (fast-foods, fish restaurants and hospital restaurants) were analyzed and their properties (such as viscosity, density, iodine value, saponification value, HHV and fatty acid distributions) were determined. Subsequently, to develop an empirical formula, a regression analysis was performed between the HHVs and fatty acid compositions of the waste frying oils. When the experimentally determined and estimated values were compared, it was proven that the new empirical formula gave precise results. By using this model, the mean absolute and relative errors were found around 148.40 kJ/kg and 0.37%, respectively. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  316. Pre-esterification of FFA in plant oil transesterified into biodiesel with the help of solid acid catalysis of sulfonated cation-exchange resin
    Abstract

    Kouzu, M.; Nakagaito, A.; Hidaka, J. S. 2011. Pre-esterification of FFA in plant oil transesterified into biodiesel with the help of solid acid catalysis of sulfonated cation-exchange resin. Applied Catalysis a-General. 405(1-2) 36-44

    One of the ways for the economically reasonable biodiesel production is to use the low quality plant oil as the cost advantageous feedstock. However, a large amount of free fatty acids (FFA) contained in the low quality plant oil causes the various problems: slowdown of the base-catalyzed transesterification, loss of the produced biodiesel and so on. Therefore, much interest has been taken in esterifying FFA into their methyl esters preliminarily with the help of solid acid catalysis of sulfonated cation-exchange resin. In the present research work, the resin catalysts of two types differing in textile structure of the matrix were employed for esterification of oleic acid with methanol at 333 K. For both the gelular resin and the macro-reticular one, the original bead shape provided the lower conversion ratio than the powder form prepared by grinding. The difference in the conversion ratio between the original bead shape and the powder form was larger for the gelular resin than for the macro-reticular one. On the other hand. the gelular resin was more active in catalyzing the esterification than the macro-reticular one. Also, for the purpose of examining the influence of the liquid-liquid interfaces formed between oil and methanol phases, soybean oil and methyloleate were used as a vehicle for the source oil of oleic acid. Additionally, a relation between the reusability of the resin catalyst and the by-production of water was investigated from a data collected by repeating the esterifying batches with reusing the resin catalyst. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  317. Preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of moisture removal and energy usage in pretreatment module of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Palanisamy, K.; Idlan, M. K.; Saifudin, N. 2013. Preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of moisture removal and energy usage in pretreatment module of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (Icee 2013). 16

    Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) is a plausible low cost biodiesel feedstock but it exhibits few unfavorable parameters for conversion into biodiesel. One of the parameter is the presence of high moisture content which will inhibit or retard catalyst during the acid esterification or base transesterification causing lower purity and yield of biodiesel. This will effect the post processing and escalate production cost making WCO a not favorable biodiesel feedstock. Therefore, it is important to have an effective moisture removal method to reduce the moisture content below 0.05% wt or 500 ppm in WCO for an efficient biodiesel production. In this work, the effectiveness of moisture removal and the energy usage of a newly develop innovative pretreatment module has been evaluated and reported. Results show that the pretreatment module is able to reduce up to 85% to effectively reduce the moisture content to below 500ppm of the initial moisture content of WCO and only consume 157 Wh/l energy compared to conventional heating that consume 386 Wh/l and only remove 67.6% moisture in 2 hours.
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  318. Preparation and evaluation of biodiesel from Egyptian castor oil from semi-treated industrial wastewater
    Abstract

    Negm, N. A.; Shaalan, M. A.; El Barouty, G. S.; Mohamed, M. Y. 2016. Preparation and evaluation of biodiesel from Egyptian castor oil from semi-treated industrial wastewater. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 63151-156

    Biodiesel derived from Egyptian castor oil was prepared via the conventional base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol. Fatty acid profiles of castor oil and the obtained fuel properties of the biodiesel were analyzed and tested in accordance with the ASTM standards. Castor oil contains: > 6%, > 6%, > 8%, 82% of saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and hydroxy mono-saturated fatty acids, respectively. The present study reports the preparation of biodiesel from castor oil using sodium methoxide as a catalyst. The resultant biodiesel was evaluated for physic-chemical properties namely: Iodine value (82.7 g I-2/100 g oil), cetane number (55.82), density (0.878 g/cm(3)), kinematic viscosity (40 degrees C: 4.65 cSt; 100 degrees C: 1.28 cSt), cloud point (0 degrees C), flash point (151 degrees C), fire point (156 degrees C), carbon residue (0.052 %), and ash residual (0.025%). The obtained biodiesel properties were compared with those of several biodiesels from different vegetable oils such as: sunflower, soybean and rapeseed oils and found to be comparable. The performance of the diesel engine was improved by blending regular diesel with 10 % biodiesel (B10). The brake specific fuel consumption was decreased using B10 blend. The brake thermal efficiency was also increased for B10 from 25% to 27.36%. The brake specific fuel consumption was increased for B10 blend compared to regular diesel. In general, Egyptian castor oil has been identified as the ideal feedstock for biodiesel production, and was found to be the promising feed stock for biodiesel production. (c) 2016 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  319. Preparation of biodiesel using s-MWCNT catalysts and the coupling of reaction and separation
    Abstract

    Shu, Q.; Zhang, Q.; Xu, G. H.; Wang, J. F. 2009. Preparation of biodiesel using s-MWCNT catalysts and the coupling of reaction and separation. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 87(C3) 164-170

    A new process that coupled the reaction and separation in the production of biodiesel from feedstocks with Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) was studied. A novel solid acid catalyst, sulfonated-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (s-MWCNTs), was used in the synthesis of biodiesel from methanol and oleic acid in a 250 mL autoclave. s-MWCNTs with different concentrations of -SO(3)H were produced from the treatment of MWCNTs with concentrated H(2)SO(4) (96%) at 120-210 degrees C, and were characterized by SEM/EDS and FTIR analysis. Recycling of the methanol phase was used to separate the water produced from the reaction mixture, which increased the esterification conversion substantially and decreased the acidity of the product. A conversion of oleic acid of 95.46 wt.% was obtained with a catalyst/oleic acid mass ratio of 0.20%, methanol/oleic acid molar ratio of 5.8, temperature of 135 degrees C, and reaction time of 1.5 h. By removing water from the reaction mixture and adding the recycling of the methanol steam, the conversion of oleic acid was increased to 99.10 wt.% after 1 h. (C) 2009 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  320. Preparation of Vegetable Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock Via Re-Esterification: A Suitable Catalyst
    Abstract

    Jansri, S. 2015. Preparation of Vegetable Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock Via Re-Esterification: A Suitable Catalyst. 2015 International Conference on Alternative Energy in Developing Countries and Emerging Economies. 79143-148

    A suitable heterogeneous catalyst for reducing 20 wt.% of free fatty acid (FFA) that is contained in vegetable oil to less than 3 wt.% through re-esterification was investigated. There were two groups of heterogeneous catalyst used to reduce FFA: 1) zinc compound: Zn, ZnCl2, ZnO and ZnSO4 center dot 7H(2)O, and 2) stannum compound: SnCl4 center dot 5H(2)O and SnCl2 center dot 2H(2)O. The reaction was operated at 150 degrees C under ambient pressure, stirred at 600 rpm. with spent retention time of approximately 180 min. Final FFA in re-esterification of products, which were cleaned up with centrifuging and hot wet washing, was monitored. The results after centrifuge indicated that only two catalysts (Zn and ZnO) were capable of promoting the reaction and achieving the requirement. Moreover, final FFA in re-esterification of products, which were cleaned up with hot wet washing, was also monitored. It was found that no significant differences existed in the two purification techniques except for the heterogeneous Zn catalyst in re-esterification product. The results showed that thin layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) could not detect all of the compositions in the pre-treatment product using Zn as a catalyst. Therefore, ZnO was the most suitable catalyst for effectively reducing FFA via a re-esterification process. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  321. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Zeolite-based Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil
    Abstract

    Hassani, M.; Najafpour, G. D.; Mohammadi, M.; Rabiee, M. 2014. Preparation, Characterization and Application of Zeolite-based Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research. 73(2) 129-133

    Zeolite-based catalyst was prepared from a fine powder and kaolinite by pelletization method and used to synthesize fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) known as biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) containing high amounts of free fatty acids (FFA). The prepared catalyst was characterized by Thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The zeolite-based catalyst was employed to simultaneously catalyze the esterification of fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides present in the waste oil feedstock to biodiesel. The condition for biodiesel synthesis was optimized in terms of reaction temperature (50-85 degrees C), methanol/ WCO molar ratio (2.6-6.0) and reaction time (2-10 h). Maximum triglyceride conversion of 46 % was achieved at the near optimum conditions. These conditions were defined at reaction temperature of 70 degrees C, methanol/ WCO molar ratio of 5.1 and reaction time of 6 h.
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  322. Pre-recovery of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and anaerobic digestion as a biorefinery route to valorizing waste activated sludge
    Abstract

    Choi, O. K.; Lee, K.; Park, K. Y.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. W. 2017. Pre-recovery of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and anaerobic digestion as a biorefinery route to valorizing waste activated sludge. Renewable Energy. 108548-554

    This study presented the effects of lipids extraction from waste activated sludge (WAS) via in-situ transesterification on anaerobic digestion performance. The nonpolar transesterified product (TP) yield through the extraction was 9.68% of the dried mass of WAS and its fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content was 78.45%. Pre-extraction of lipids lead to the solubilization of the sludge. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) test exhibited that both the extent and rate of methane production increased by 3.65 times after the pre-extraction of lipids. Overall solid reduction of WAS through the series of lipid extraction and anaerobic fermentation was enhanced by more than 5 times compared to that of control. Based on energy balance, the strategy proposed in this study could be an alternative biorefinery route to valorizing WAS with a simultaneous production of FAMEs as a biodiesel feedstock and biogas. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  323. Pretreatment and Bentonite-based Catalyzed Conversion of Palm-rubber Seed Oil Blends to Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Ali, B.; Yusup, S.; Quitain, A. T.; Kamil, R. N. M.; Sumigawa, Y.; Ammar, M.; Kida, T. 2016. Pretreatment and Bentonite-based Catalyzed Conversion of Palm-rubber Seed Oil Blends to Biodiesel. Proceeding of 4th International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials (Icpeam 2016). 148501-507

    Pretreatment of pre-blended palm and rubber seed oil (50: 50) was studied. A parametric study to determine the effect of alcohol-to-oil ratio, catalyst loading and reaction temperature on free fatty acid (FFA) content was also conducted. Interestingly, the FFA percentage of pre-blended feedstock has been reduced significantly from 20% to below 2%. The optimum value for the reduction of FFA was found to be 1.5 wt. % catalyst, alcohol-tooil ratio 6: 1, 62 degrees C reaction temperature at constant stirring speed (400 rpm) and reaction time 1.5 hours. NaOH/bentonite was also investigated and characterized as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification. The characterization was conducted by FTIR and XRD analysis. The catalyst showed good results by producing 92 wt% fatty acid methyl esters at reaction temperature of 62 degrees C and reaction time of 3 hours. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  324. Pretreatment of trap grease with Amberlyst-15 for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Huang, D. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Yuan, Z. H. 2012. Pretreatment of trap grease with Amberlyst-15 for biodiesel production. Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Pts 1-7. 347-3532528-2531

    After investigating the effects of each parameter on the esterification of FFA catalyzed by Amberlyst-15 in the trap grease, the optimal values were determined through an orthogonal experimental design. The optimum conditions for the esterification were determined to be 27:1 molar for the methanol to FFA in the trap grease, 95 degrees C for the reaction temperature and 3 h for the reaction time. Stability of Amberlyst-15 was also studied under the optimal reaction conditions. The stability of the catalyst was not decreased much even after 10 times repeated use. The acid value was decreased from 100 mg KOH/g to 1.3 mg KOH/g in this process.
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  325. Pretreatment of yellow grease for efficient production of fatty acid methyl esters
    Abstract

    Diaz-Felix, W.; Riley, M. R.; Zimmt, W.; Kazz, M. 2009. Pretreatment of yellow grease for efficient production of fatty acid methyl esters. Biomass & Bioenergy. 33(4) 558-563

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel comprised of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Comparisons between biodiesel and petroleum-based diesel have shown biodiesel to be effective in reducing exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and Sulfur dioxide. While there are advantages of biodiesel over the traditional petroleum based diesel, biodiesel commercialization is limited by production cost that is dominated by the price of the feedstock (soybean oil). Yellow grease has the potential to be an effective feedstock with lower cost, but the chemical composition of these oils is variable depending on the source of collection and differs from that of virgin oil due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFA). Esterification has beer) previously demonstrated to reduce the FFA levels of YG, however, large quantities of methanol were required to drive the reaction to high yield. Methanol usage for processing and FFA content are the main factors affecting the economics of FAME production from YG. In this study, the relationship between composition and process variables was systematically studied. The effect of FFA ranging from 2% to 32% (w/w) was studied at three different molar ratios of methanol to FFA (4.5:1, 9:1, 18:1) and was found to have a non-linear relationship. Data obtained from this full factorial screening was used to develop a predictive statistical model to forecast the conversion based on initial FFA level and proportion of alcohol applied for esterification. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  326. Process and techno-economic analysis of green diesel production from waste vegetable oil and the comparison with ester type biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Glisic, S. B.; Pajnik, J. M.; Orlovic, A. M. 2016. Process and techno-economic analysis of green diesel production from waste vegetable oil and the comparison with ester type biodiesel production. Applied Energy. 170176-185

    Like ester type biodiesel fuel, green diesel is a next generation transportation fuel emerging due to the need for a renewable replacement of internal combustion engine fuel, which is also fully compatible with existing automotive powertrain systems. Besides other limitations, the main obstacle for wider application of such renewable fuels is their relatively high production cost, depending mainly on the raw material cost and the application of more efficient processing technology. Green diesel and ester type biodiesel can be produced from waste vegetable oil by catalytic hydrogenation, homogeneous alkali catalysed transesterification and supercritical non-catalytic transesterification. Techno-economic analysis and the sensitivity analysis reveal that economics of these production technologies strongly depend on the process unit capacity and the cost of feedstock. Green diesel production by catalytic hydroprocessing located in a petroleum refinery appears to be the most cost effective option for unit capacity close to and above 200,000 tonnes/year. Conventional ester biodiesel process and non-catalytic ester biodiesel process under supercritical conditions are less profitable at specified capacity. Unit capacities of the investigated processes which are below 100,000 tonnes/year are likely to result in negative net present values after 10 years of project lifetime. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  327. Process design and supply chain optimization of supercritical biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oils
    Abstract

    Kelloway, A.; Marvin, W. A.; Schmidt, L. D.; Daoutidis, P. 2013. Process design and supply chain optimization of supercritical biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oils. Chemical Engineering Research & Design. 91(8) 1456-1466

    A small scale biodiesel production facility based on the Mcgyan process is simulated in HYSYS and a follow-up techno-economic analysis is performed. Two feedstocks are analyzed: a soybean oil and waste cooking oil analogs. It is found that the soybean oil based process is not economical at such small scales, whereas the waste oil case has an NPV of $618K with an internal rate of return of 80%. The economic feasibility of a distributed system of small scale biodiesel production facilities in Greater London using waste vegetable cooking feedstock is also investigated. It is found that this system is feasible with a total of 20 installed facilities and an NPV of $1.1MM. A scheme is then implemented which reduces the total capital expenditure per facility based on the mass production of similar facilities. As expected, this scheme reduces the total capital cost of the system. Finally, a Monte Carlo scheme is implemented to study how the variability in economic parameters affects the system. It is found that the system is most sensitive to the sale price of biodiesel but that in all cases a positive NPV is returned. These analyses support the feasibility of small scale locally based biofuel production from locally sourced feestocks. (C) 2013 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  328. Process Engineering Study of the Homogenously Catalyzed Biodiesel Synthesis in a Bubble Column Reactor
    Abstract

    Mollenhauer, T.; Klemm, W.; Lauterbach, M.; Ondruschka, B.; Haupt, J. 2010. Process Engineering Study of the Homogenously Catalyzed Biodiesel Synthesis in a Bubble Column Reactor. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 49(24) 12390-12398

    A bubble column reactor has been developed for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from refined oil and oil with high free fatty acid (FFA) content The aim of our investigations was to examine the basic use of a discontinuously operated bubble reactor for homogenously catalyzed synthesis of FAME in comparison to use of a discontinuously operated stirred reactor Stirring of the liquid phase in the bubble reactor was realized by the ascending force of bubbles which were introduced over a distribution system from the bottom of the reactor Either the aerating nitrogen gas (at 60 degrees C) or vaporized methanol (at 80 degrees C) were used in the bubble reactor The ascending bubbles should enable the mass transfer for transesterification and esterification of the feedstock Further, the catalysts p-toluene sulfonic acid (p-TSS, 3 wt %) or sodium methoxide (1 wt %) were applied to an initial load of 2 L in a molar ratio of 2 1 methanol-to-feedstock related to the fatty acids Additionally, Important process engineering parameters and kinetic information were collected experimentally as well as theoretically The results show that a bubble reactor is a serious alternative reaction technique for FAME production simplifying the devices and enabling higher throughputs per reaction unit
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  329. Process optimisation for the production of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock by a novel method of short path distillation
    Abstract

    Shao, P.; He, J. Z.; Sun, P. L.; Jiang, S. T. 2009. Process optimisation for the production of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock by a novel method of short path distillation. Biosystems Engineering. 102(3) 285-290

    Refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high production costs make it difficult for the resulting fuels to compete with petroleum-derived fuels. An effective method involving a short path distillation pretreatment followed by appropriate esterification and transesterification was proposed. A short path distillation process was developed to separate free fatty acids (FFAs) and esterified fatty acids from rapeseed soapstock (SS). Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was carried out on the process of FFA esterification catalysed by an acid catalyst (sulphuric acid) to prepare biodiesel from rapeseed SS using methanol. Methanol substrate, acid concentration and reaction time were the three important parameters investigated. RSM analysis showed close agreement between experimental and predicted values. It was found that the most effective parameter was methanol quantity, which was in agreement with the results. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the model was 99.80%. A probability value (P < 0.0001) demonstrated a very high significance for the regression model. A biodiesel yield of 96.45% was obtained when optimum conditions of catalysed biodiesel production were used. Optimum performance occurred with a methanol to oil ratio of 0.33 v/v, an acid catalyst of 1.44% v/v and a reaction time 1.42 h at 60 degrees C. Transesterification with glycerides was also carried out with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 6.3:1 and a KOH catalyst 1.0% w/v to produce biodiesel of 98% purity. (C) 2008 IAgrE. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  330. Process Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Oil over Montmorillonite Clay K-30
    Abstract

    Ayoub, M.; Ullah, S.; Inayat, A.; Bhat, A. H.; Hailegiorgis, S. M. 2016. Process Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Waste Frying Oil over Montmorillonite Clay K-30. Proceeding of 4th International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials (Icpeam 2016). 148742-749

    Biodiesel that mostly comes from pure renewable resources provide an alternative fuel option for future because of limited fossil fuel resources as well as environmental concerns. The transesterification of non- edible oils for biodiesel production is one of the promising process for biodiesel production to overcome this future crises of energy. The utilization of waste frying oil into biodiesel have great worth for economization of biodiesel cost as well as the conversion of waste into value added product with environmental protection. The purpose of the present work is to optimize the process of biodiesel production over a heterogeneous clay based catalyst. Particularly, the transesterification of waste frying palm oil with methanol was studied in the presence of montmorillonite clay K-30 as solid base catalyst that have both of acid and basic nature. The observed date was then optimized with the help of Design of Experiments software. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on four-variable central composite design (CCD) with a (alpha) = 2 was used for this purpose. The transesterification process variables were reaction temperature, x(1) (40-140 degrees C), reaction period, x(2) (60-300 min), methanol/oil ratio, x(3) (6:1-18: 1mol/ mol) and amount of catalyst, x(4) (1-5% wt). The results showed that waste frying oil is a good feedstock for biodiesel production and high yield of 78.4% was obtained during optimization of this biodiesel process that was noted after 180 min at temperature 90 degrees C, with a 12:1 molar ratio of methanol to waste frying oil and using 3% wt of montmorillonite clay K-30 catalyst. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  331. Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production processes using fresh and waste vegetable oil and supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Lee, S.; Posarac, D.; Ellis, N. 2011. Process simulation and economic analysis of biodiesel production processes using fresh and waste vegetable oil and supercritical methanol. Chemical Engineering Research & Design. 89(12a) 2626-2642

    Three continuous biodiesel processes with production capacity of 40,000 tonne/yr, including a conventional alkali-catalyzed process using both fresh and waste vegetable oil and a supercritical methanol process using waste vegetable oil as the raw material, were simulated in HYSYS. In order to improve the simulation accuracy, the properties of triolein, a model compound of vegetable oil, were re-evaluated. The normal boiling point of triolein was experimentally determined by thermogravimetric analysis and further incorporated in HYSYS simulation, which resulted in improvements in the values of specific heat capacity, mass density, and viscosity. Process economics were analyzed using Aspen In-Plant Cost Estimator. The alkali-catalyzed process using fresh vegetable oil had the lowest total capital investment, but the supercritical process was the most economically feasible overall, providing a lower manufacturing cost and higher net present value and a discounted cash flow rate of return. Sensitivity analyses of net present value were conducted using four parameters including oil feedstock costs, glycerol credit, biodiesel selling prices, and interest rates. Based on the analyses, prediction equations of net present value were developed. (C) 2011 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  332. Processes for biodiesel production from unrefined oils and fats
    Abstract

    Bart, J. C. J.; Palmeri, N.; Cavallaro, S. 2010. Processes for biodiesel production from unrefined oils and fats. Biodiesel Science and Technology: From Soil to Oil. (7) 386-433

    More economic raw materials than refined triglyceride oils for biodiesel production are waste vegetable oils and low-value fats (technical tallows), containing high free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents. This chapter describes the actions to be taken to convert such rather heterogeneous feedstocks to specification compliant biodiesel, including removal of impurities, dehydration and deacidification. Different process schemes for transformation of low- and high-FFA oils and fats into biodiesel are described. Fatty acid esterification is considered in detail as well as simultaneous esterification/transesterification procedures. In particular, the prospects of jatrodiesel, algal and tall biodiesel, and the use of vegetable oil soapstocks are outlined.
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  333. The Production and Characterization of Ethyl Ester (Biodiesel) from Waste Vegetable Oil as Alternative to Petro Diesel
    Abstract

    Uthman, H.; Abdulkareem, A. S. 2014. The Production and Characterization of Ethyl Ester (Biodiesel) from Waste Vegetable Oil as Alternative to Petro Diesel. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(19) 2135-2141

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester from "used frying oil" for use as biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of the used frying oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst (NaOH), to yield the ethyl ester as a product and glycerine as a by-product. Prior to the use of the waste vegetable oil as a feedstock in the production of biodiesel, the oil sample was treated with silica gel as an adsorbent and the results obtained indicate that the treatment method employed positively affects the free fatty acids and iodine value of the oil. Results obtained on the characterization of the biodiesel produced also shows that the viscosity, density, flash point, pour point, sulphur content, vapor pressure, and heat of combustion are 4.8 cP, 850 g/cm(3), 145 degrees C, -15 degrees C, 0.02%, 64 kPa, and 42,600 kJ/kg, respectively. These values compared favorably with the petro diesel. The distillation properties of the produced biodiesel also compared favorably with that of the petro diesel with an initial boiling point of 141 degrees C, final boiling point of 347 degrees C, total recovery of 97.74%, with residue and loss of 1.23 and 1.03%, respectively.
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  334. Production and evaluation of biodiesel from mixed castor oil and waste chicken oil
    Abstract

    Fadhil, A. B.; Ahmed, A. I. 2016. Production and evaluation of biodiesel from mixed castor oil and waste chicken oil. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(14) 2140-2147

    Biodiesel was developed from an unconventional feedstock, i.e. an equivalent blend of castor bean and waste chicken oil through the alkaline-catalyzed transesterification with methanol. The process variables including the alkaline catalyst concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and the alkaline catalyst type were investigated. The highest yield of biodiesel (97.20 % similar to 96.98 % w/w ester content) was obtained under optimum conditions of 0.75 % w/w of oil, 8:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C temperature, and a duration of 30 min. Properties of the produced biodiesel satisfied those specified by the ASTM standards. The results thus indicated that the suggested blend oils are suitable feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The process was found to follow pseudo first-order kinetics, and the activation energy was found to be 8.85 KJ/mole.
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  335. Production of algal biodiesel from marine macroalgae Enteromorpha compressa by two step process: Optimization and kinetic study
    Abstract

    Suganya, T.; Gandhi, N. N.; Renganathan, S. 2013. Production of algal biodiesel from marine macroalgae Enteromorpha compressa by two step process: Optimization and kinetic study. Bioresource Technology. 128392-400

    In this investigation, Enteromorpha compressa algal oil with high free fatty acids (FFA) used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Two step process was developed and kinetic study executed to obtain reaction rate constant for the transesterification reaction. The acid esterification was carried out to reduce FFA from 6.3% to 0.34% with optimized parameters of 1.5% H2SO4, 12:1 methanol-oil ratio, 400 rpm at 60 degrees C and 90 min of reaction time. The maximum biodiesel yield 90.6% was achieved from base transesterification through optimum conditions of 1% NaOH, 9:1 methanol-oil ratio, 600 rpm and 60 degrees C temperature for 70 min. The algal biodiesel was characterized by GC-MS, HPLC and NIR. This transesterification follows first order reaction kinetics and the activation energy was determined as 73,154.89 J/mol. The biodiesel properties were analyzed and found to be within the limits of American standards. Hence, E. compressa serves as a valuable renewable raw-material for biodiesel production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  336. Production of biodiesel from chicken wastes by various alcohol-catalyst combinations
    Abstract

    Lin, C. W.; Tsai, S. W. 2015. Production of biodiesel from chicken wastes by various alcohol-catalyst combinations. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. 26(1) 36-45

    An environmentally friendly biorefinery process for producing biodiesel from chicken wastes was performed for this study. Low acid value (0.13+/-0.01 mg KOH/g) chicken oil was obtained by preparing chicken wastes with moderate heating and filtration processes that minimized damage to the lipids and thus facilitated subsequent reactions. Methanollipids in a molar ratio of 6: 1 and a methanolethanol-lipids mixture in a molar ratio of 3: 3: 1 were both reacted with 1% KOH catalyst for transesterfication. Furthermore, ethanol-lipids in a molar ration of 6: 1 were analogously transesterified with 1% sodium ethoxide. The amounts of biodiesel were 771.54 mg/mL+/-15.28, 722.98 mg/mL+/-37.38, and 714.86 mg/mL+/-29.99 from methanol, ethanol, and a mixture of methanol/ethanol (3: 3), respectively, after transesterification. The total amount of ethyl ester was comparable with the total amount of methyl ester. In addition, ethanol is a renewable resource and a biorefinery concept can be contributed for biodiesel production. Furthermore, transesterification of chicken oil with a mixture of methanol/ethanol (3: 3) only needed a relatively short reaction time of an hour. Densities, viscosities, sulphur contents, acid values, and flash points of all esters were within the specifications of CNS 15072 and EN 14214. The transesterification system for chicken oil in ethanol and mixed methanol/ethanol (3: 3) demonstrated in this study is a potential candidate for biodiesel production.
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  337. Production of Biodiesel from High Acid Value Waste Cooking Oil Using an Optimized Lipase Enzyme/Acid-Catalyzed Hybrid Process
    Abstract

    Saifuddin, N.; Raziah, A. Z.; Farah, H. N. 2009. Production of Biodiesel from High Acid Value Waste Cooking Oil Using an Optimized Lipase Enzyme/Acid-Catalyzed Hybrid Process. E-Journal of Chemistry. 6S485-S495

    The present study is aimed at developing an enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production using waste cooking oil with high acid value (poor quality) as feedstock. Tuned enzyme was prepared using a rapid drying technique of microwave dehydration (time required around 15 minutes). Further enhancement was achieved by three phase partitioning (TPP) method. The results on the lipase enzyme which was subjected to pH tuning and TPP, indicated remarkable increase in the initial rate of transesterification by 3.8 times. Microwave irradiation was found to increase the initial reaction rates by further 1.6 times, hence giving a combined increase in activity of about 5.4 times. The optimized enzyme was used for hydrolysis and 88% of the oil taken initially was hydrolyzed by the lipase. The hydrolysate was further used in acid-catalyzed esterification for biodiesel production. By using a feedstock to methanol molar ratio of 1: 15 and a sulphuric acid concentration of 2.5%, a biodiesel conversion of 88% was obtained at 50 degrees C for an hour reaction time. This hybrid process may open a way for biodiesel production using unrefined and used oil with high acid value as feedstock.
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  338. Production of biodiesel from high-FFA neem oil and its performance, emission and combustion characterization in a single cylinder DICI engine
    Abstract

    Dhar, A.; Kevin, R.; Agarwal, A. K. 2012. Production of biodiesel from high-FFA neem oil and its performance, emission and combustion characterization in a single cylinder DICI engine. Fuel Processing Technology. 97118-129

    Environment friendly alternative energy sources need to be developed in order to meet the burgeoning demand for fossil fuels for transportation. Utilization of vegetable oils as biodiesel is most accepted route. Yield and quality of biodiesel is dependent on feedstock quality specially moisture and free fatty acid (FFA) content. In this study, biodiesel was produced from high free fatty acid neem oil using a two step process i.e. esterification followed by transesterification. This biodiesel was characterized for its physical, chemical and thermal properties. Performance, emission and combustion characteristics of this biodiesel and its various blends with mineral diesel were compared with baseline data in a direct injection (DI) diesel engine. Brake specific fuel consumption for biodiesel and its blends was higher than mineral diesel and brake thermal efficiency of all biodiesel blends was found to be higher than mineral diesel. Brake specific CO and HC emissions for biodiesel fuelled engine were lower than mineral diesel but NO emissions were higher for biodiesel blends. Detailed combustion characterization revealed that combustion starts earlier for higher biodiesel blends however start of combustion was slightly delayed for lower blends of biodiesel in comparison with mineral diesel. Rate of heat release for all biodiesel blends were almost identical to mineral diesel. Combustion duration for biodiesel blends was found to be shorter than mineral diesel. Biodiesel produced from high FFA neem oil is found to be marginally inferior compared to mineral diesel. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  339. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Ramachandran, K.; Sivakumar, P.; Suganya, T.; Renganathan, S. 2011. Production of biodiesel from mixed waste vegetable oil using an aluminium hydrogen sulphate as a heterogeneous acid catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 102(15) 7289-7293

    Al(HSO(4))(3) heterogeneous acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of anhydrous AlCl(3). This catalyst was employed to catalyze transesterification reaction to synthesis methyl ester when a mixed waste vegetable oil was used as feedstock. The physical and chemical properties of aluminum hydrogen sulphate catalyst were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements, energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis and titration method. The maximum conversion of triglyceride was achieved as 81 wt.% with 50 min reaction time at 220 degrees C, 16:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil and 0.5 wt.% of catalyst. The high catalytic activity and stability of this catalyst was related to its high acid site density (-OH, Bronsted acid sites), hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH group, hydrophilic functional groups (-SO(3)H) that gave improved accessibility of methanol to the triglyceride. The fuel properties of methyl ester were analyzed. The fuel properties were found to be observed within the limits of ASTM 06751. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  340. Production of Biodiesel from Vietnamese Waste Coffee Beans: Biofuel Yield, Saturation and Stability are All Elevated Compared with Conventional Coffee Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Jenkins, R. W.; Ellis, E. H.; Lewis, E. J.; Paterson, M.; Le, C. D.; Ting, V. P.; Chuck, C. J. 2017. Production of Biodiesel from Vietnamese Waste Coffee Beans: Biofuel Yield, Saturation and Stability are All Elevated Compared with Conventional Coffee Biodiesel. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 8(4) 1237-1245

    The suitability of biodiesel produced from spent Vietnamese coffee was examined. Previous work shows that the geographical origin of coffee beans has little effect on the composition and physical properties of the biodiesel produced Jenkins et al. [1]. Vietnamese coffee, however, is roasted in a range of fats and oils for flavour enhancement and therefore has a unique fatty acid profile. The oil yield and biodiesel properties of three Vietnamese coffees were assessed and compared to a coffee of more typical composition-Colombian-and traditional biodiesel feedstocks (rapeseed, sunflower and palm). The oil yield from fresh Vietnamese coffee was higher (12.0-14.0 %) than Colombian coffee (9.3 %), while the oil yield from spent Vietnamese coffee (9.3-10.4 %) was comparable to the Colombian coffee (9.5 %). The unsaponifiable matter was only present in low levels in the Vietnamese coffee (1.9-4.9 %) compared to Colombian coffee (30.4 % fresh, 21.4 % spent). Vietnamese coffee biodiesel was more saturated than Columbian coffee biodiesel. It was therefore more viscous and had a higher pour point than the Colombian coffee, and possessed properties more akin to palm biodiesel. Vietnamese coffee biodiesel would therefore be a suitable feedstock for use locally due to the more suitable climate and compatibility with the palm feedstock that is currently used.
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  341. Production of biodiesel from waste fat and grease
    Abstract

    Ikura, M.; Kouchachvili, L.; Caravaggio, G. 2007. Production of biodiesel from waste fat and grease. Lecture Notes on Energy and Environment. 25-+

    Processing of waste triglycerides by conventional trans-esterification is problematic due to high free fatty acid (FFA) content. Free fatty acid turns to soap that renders the trans-esterification process inoperable. Clean triglycerides such as soy, corn, and canola oils are low in FFA and easy to process but too expensive as fuel feedstocks. We have been exploring a system that combines thermal cracking of waste triglycerides with acid esterification. Middle distillates (bp 165 degrees C-345 degrees C) obtained by continuous thermal cracking of waste triglycerides were batch-esterified using methanol and Amberlyst 36 (wet). The yields of middle distillate from thermal cracking ranged from 58-63wt % for trap grease and 60-68 wt % for rendered animal fat. More than half of the middle distillates was fatty acids and the rest were conventional hydrocarbons. The esterification of the middle distillate with methanol was done at 90 degrees C for 20h. Although methanol boils at 67 degrees C, there was sufficient methanol left in the liquid phase for esterification at the elevated temperatures. This produced bio-diesel is a mixture of hydrocarbons and methyl-esters.
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  342. The production of biodiesel from waste frying oils: A comparison of different purification steps
    Abstract

    Predojevic, Z. J. 2008. The production of biodiesel from waste frying oils: A comparison of different purification steps. Fuel. 87(17-18) 3522-3528

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize biodiesel produced by two-step alkali transesterification of waste sunflower oils (WFOs) using methanol and KOH as catalyst and at the same time to investigate the influence of different purification methods on the properties and yields of the obtained products. Three different methods have been chosen for the purification of the product mixture after the transesterification reaction: washing the mixture with (a) silica gel, (b) 5% phosphoric acid, and (c) hot distilled water. The physical and chemical properties of the used feedstocks and the obtained biodiesel were determined and compared in order to investigate the effects of WFO properties and purification methods on the product characteristics and yields. In general, it could be said that properties of biodiesel reflected the ones of the feedstocks. The produced biodiesel met the criteria required to be a diesel substitute with respect to the density at 15 degrees C, kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C, acid values (except in the case of biodiesel obtained from WFO with acid value higher that 3 mg KOH/g), iodine values, the content of methyl ester of linolenic acid, and the purity. The biodiesel yields were inversely linked to the acid value and viscosity of the feedstocks. Results showed that silica gel and phosphoric acid treatments gave the highest (similar to 92%), while the hot water treatment the lowest yields (similar to 89%), recommending the silica gel and phosphoric acid treatments as more suitable for the purification of crude methyl esters obtained after the conversion of waste frying oils by two-step alkali transesterification reaction. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  343. Production of biodiesel from wastewater grown Chlorella minutissima
    Abstract

    Singh, S. K.; Bansal, A.; Jha, M. K.; Jain, R. 2013. Production of biodiesel from wastewater grown Chlorella minutissima. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology. 20(5) 341-345

    The present study has been undertaken to assess integrated algal harvesting in sewage wastewater for biodiesel feedstock. Chlorella minutissirna microalgae are grown in wastewater from local hotel sewage drain and produced biomass is used to produce biodiesel. C. minutissima effectively removes the wastewater nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus with the 99.19% and 96% removal respectively. Content of oil in produced algal biomass is drastically reduced i.e. 4% in response to 57% of total dry biomass reported in literature. The extracted oil mainly consists of small chain fatty acids (C-16:0, C-18:1, C-18:2, C-18:3). Transesterification reaction shows that maximum fatty acid methyl ester (FAMEs) concentration is converted from free fatty acids of oil during 1-2 h at 65 degrees C.
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  344. Production of biodiesel fuel from tall oil fatty acids via high temperature methanol reaction
    Abstract

    White, K.; Lorenz, N.; Potts, T.; Penney, W. R.; Babcock, R.; Hardison, A.; Canuel, E. A.; Hestekin, J. A. 2011. Production of biodiesel fuel from tall oil fatty acids via high temperature methanol reaction. Fuel. 90(11) 3193-3199

    Tall oil fatty acids are a byproduct of the paper industry and consist predominantly of free-fatty acids (FFAs). Although this feedstock is ideal for biodiesel production, there has been relatively little study of its conversion to biodiesel. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the high temperature reaction of methanol with tall oil at subcritical and supercritical pressures to produce fatty acid methyl esters. This study investigates the effects of mixing, pressure, temperature, and methanol to oil molecular ratio in order to determine the potential use of tall oil as a biodiesel feedstock. In this work, tall oil fatty acids were successfully reacted with supercritical and subcritical methanol in a continuous tubular reactor, resulting in a reaction that is primarily temperature dependent. Conversions at subcritical pressures of 4.2 MPa and 6.6 MPa were 81% and 75%, respectively. Pressure seemed to have little correlation to conversion in both regimes, and conversions were comparable between the two. Additionally, it was found that tall oil fatty acids react well with methanol to give comparable conversions at the relatively low molecular flow ratio of 5: 1 methanol to tall oil. Both of these observations suggest that hydrolyzed triglycerides or free fatty acid feedstocks would make the primary high temperature biodiesel reaction and the subsequent separation and purification operations less expensive than was previously believed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  345. Production of biodiesel using high free fatty acid feedstocks
    Abstract

    Atadashi, I. M.; Aroua, M. K.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Sulaiman, N. M. N. 2012. Production of biodiesel using high free fatty acid feedstocks. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16(5) 3275-3285

    The enormous challenges faced in the search for suitable and profitable feedstocks to produce biodiesel cannot be over-emphasis. This paper has provided an overview of different catalysts used in processing different kinds of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Although the process of biodiesel production from refined feedstocks is less cumbersome and could provide biodiesel yield of more than 98%, but its product cost is high. Thus, the recent biodiesel production from low-quality feedstocks, though presents challenges but has equally provided biodiesel yield comparable to that obtained from refined feedstocks. Furthermore the physicochemical properties of biodiesel derived from low-quality feedstocks are discussed. Additionally economic evaluation of biodiesel from low-quality feedstocks is examined. The result showed that if less expensive feedstocks are used to produce biodiesel, a 25% reduction in cost production is possible. Thus making biodiesel price reasonably closed to the price of petro-diesel. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  346. Production of bioethanol and biodiesel using instant noodle waste
    Abstract

    Yang, X.; Lee, J. H.; Yoo, H. Y.; Shin, H. Y.; Thapa, L. P.; Park, C.; Kim, S. W. 2014. Production of bioethanol and biodiesel using instant noodle waste. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 37(8) 1627-1635

    Instant noodle manufacturing waste was used as feedstock to convert it into two products, bioethanol and biodiesel. The raw material was pretreated to separate it into two potential feedstocks, starch residues and palm oil, for conversion to bioethanol and biodiesel, respectively. For the production of bioethanol, starch residues were converted into glucose by alpha-amylase and glucoamylase. To investigate the saccharification process of the pretreated starch residues, the optimal pretreatment conditions were determined. The bioethanol conversion reached 98.5 % of the theoretical maximum by Saccharomyces cerevisiae K35 fermentation after saccharification under optimized pretreatment conditions. Moreover, palm oil, isolated from the instant noodle waste, was converted into valuable biodiesel by use of immobilized lipase (Novozym 435). The effects of four categories of alcohol, oil-to-methanol ratio, reaction time, lipase concentration and water content on the conversion process were investigated. The maximum biodiesel conversion was 95.4 %.
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  347. Production of Distilled Biodiesel Fuels through Direct Alkaline Transesterification of Used Frying Oil
    Abstract

    Kheang, L. S.; Idris, N. A.; May, C. Y. 2011. Production of Distilled Biodiesel Fuels through Direct Alkaline Transesterification of Used Frying Oil. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 231135-1140

    Vegetable oils are the most suitable renewable feedstock for biodiesel production, in particular palm oil which has unique characteristics, stability and attractive price. Besides the fresh vegetable oils, used frying oil (UFO) can also be used to make an equally good product. MPOB has investigated palm olein-derived UFO for biodiesel production since 2001 employing an additional pre-treatment using silica gel prior to transesterification of UFO, which increased the production cost. Alternative approaches focusing on cost improvement are being sought. This study found that direct alkali transesterification (DAT) is possible, preferably with UFO having low free fatty acids (FFA) content. The undistilled methyl esters (ME) produced have comparable physicochemical and fuel properties with an exceptionally better yield, are more stable against oxidation and have higher heat of combustion. The ME conversion exceeded 98% and the UFOME purity was 96.5%. The UFOME produced had properties comparable to petroleum diesel and can be used as a diesel substitute. Distillation of UFOME was conducted to further improve its colour, yielding a novel UFOME (UFOME-DAT distilled). However, while the distilled UFOME had similar fuel properties with those of the undistilled UFOME, its oxidative stability was reduced to an induction period of 4.13 hr, below the compliance level of the European Standard specification EN 14214.
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  348. Production of fatty acid methyl esters over a limestone-derived heterogeneous catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor
    Abstract

    Ketcong, A.; Meechan, W.; Naree, T.; Seneevong, I.; Winitsorn, A.; Butnark, S.; Ngamcharussrivichai, C. 2014. Production of fatty acid methyl esters over a limestone-derived heterogeneous catalyst in a fixed-bed reactor. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 20(4) 1665-1671

    Production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) via the transesterification of different vegetable oils and methanol with a limestone-derived heterogeneous catalyst was investigated in a fixed-bed reactor at 65 degrees C and ambient pressure. This heterogeneous catalyst, as a 1 or 2 mm cross-sectional diameter extrudate, was prepared via a wet mixing of thermally treated limestone with Mg and Al compounds as binders and with or without hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) as a plasticizer, followed by calcination at 800 degrees C. The physicochemical properties of the prepared catalysts were characterized by various techniques. Palm kernel oil, palm oil, palm olein oil and waste cooking oil could be used as the feedstocks but the FFA and water content must be limited. The extrudate catalyst prepared with the HEC addition exhibited an enhanced formation of FAME due to an increased porosity and basicity of the catalyst. The FAME yield was increased with the methanol/oil molar ratio. The effect of addition of methyl esters as co-solvents on the FAME production was investigated. The structural and compositional change of the catalysts spent in different reaction conditions indicated that deactivation was mainly due to a deposition of glycerol and FFA (if present). The FAME yield of 94.1 wt.% was stably achieved over 1500 min by using the present fixed-bed system. (C) 2013 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  349. Production of high quality biodiesel from waste acid oil obtained during edible oil refining using ion-exchange resin catalysts
    Abstract

    Shibasaki-Kitakawa, N.; Hiromori, K.; Ihara, T.; Nakashima, K.; Yonemoto, T. 2015. Production of high quality biodiesel from waste acid oil obtained during edible oil refining using ion-exchange resin catalysts. Fuel. 13911-17

    This study was aimed at the continuous production of high quality biodiesel fuel, which fully satisfies international specifications, from waste acid oil with free fatty acids (FFA) content of > 95 wt%. First, the effect of water on the esterification of FFA with the cation-exchange resin catalyst was discussed. Then, a simple method for pretreating the resin without drying, only supplying alcohol of 1.5 cm(3)/g (wet resin), was proposed. Second, the operating conditions for the continuous esterification of FFA to biodiesel were established. The complete conversion of FFA was achieved at the mole ratio of alcohol: fatty acid residue of 2:1 and sufficient residence time. Subsequent processing with an anionexchange resin catalyst for the transesterification of triglycerides in the oil was necessary to produce high quality biodiesel. The biodiesel productivity with acid oil was about 8.5 times higher than that with triglyceride-rich oil. This process demonstrated a commercially feasible route to high quality biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  350. Production of Microbial Lipids from Tomato Waste to Be Used as Feedstock for Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Yousuf, A.; Sannino, F.; Pirozzi, D. 2017. Production of Microbial Lipids from Tomato Waste to Be Used as Feedstock for Biodiesel. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. 16(1) 59-65

    In this study, the oleaginous yeasts cultured in tomato waste hydrolysates (TWH) to produce microbial lipids that offer a suitable alternative to vegetable oils as feedstock for the biodiesel synthesis. The TWH were prepared by acid hydrolysis (2.5% H2SO4). To obtain higher growth rates, as well as higher lipid contents, Lipomyces starkeyi were cultured under original nitrogen content (TWHON), lower nitrogen content (TWHLN), attained by alkaline precipitation of TWHON followed by centrifugation and filtration, and higher nitrogen content (TWHHN), prepared by addition of (NH4)(2)SO4.
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  351. Production Technology of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Mild Acid Catalyst
    Abstract

    Abd Wafti, N. S.; Lau, H. L. N.; Choo, Y. M. 2015. Production Technology of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Mild Acid Catalyst. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 27(4) 352-359

    A two-stage esterification system for the production of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has been developed using acid catalysts, i.e. sulphonic acids. The sulphonic acid catalysts have an excellent solubility property in water phase rendering easy phase separations and also can prevent the formation of undesirable by-products. The optimum reaction conditions for the first stage esterification process was achieved with 2:1 molar ratio of methanol to PFAD with 1.5 wt.% of acid catalyst, reacted for 90 min at temperature of 65 degrees C. The optimum conditions for second stage esterification process enable the reduction of remaining free fatty acids (FFA) in PFAD to less than 2% with catalyst dosage of 1.0 wt.% under similar reaction conditions. The reaction product was then purified and subjected to transesterification process; 0.5 wt. % sodium hydroxide was used as catalyst at 65 degrees C for 90 min. The fuel properties of PFAD biodiesel were found to comply with the European Biodiesel Standard, EN 14214:2008. Therefore, the developed process for production of biodiesel from low-priced feedstock PFAD is really applicable to actual biodiesel production with most competitive process due to its simplicity and excellent reaction yield.
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  352. Progresses in Waste Biomass derived Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel and Bioethanol: A Review
    Abstract

    Chakraborty, R.; Chatterjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Barman, S. 2016. Progresses in Waste Biomass derived Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel and Bioethanol: A Review. Waste Management for Resource Utilisation. 35546-554

    Due to the growing awareness regarding depletion of fossil fuels and increase in harmful emissions, efforts are being made to develop renewable green fuels viz. biodiesel and bioethanol from different waste/natural resources. This article enunciates that biomass derived catalysts has created a new essence in the field of biofuel production. As revealed from published literature, yield of biodiesel and bioethanol had been appreciable through application of the waste derived solid green catalysts. The environmentally benign catalysts demonstrate immense regeneration attributes coupled with superior catalytic properties. Thus, utilization of bio-waste for development of such promising heterogeneous green catalyst(s) or catalyst support(s) can substantially mitigate the problem of solid waste disposal and facilitate reduction of environmental pollution. This review article is based on critical assessments of different biomass supported catalysts in terms of their efficacy in biofuel synthesis from various biomass feedstocks under varying process conditions. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  353. Properties and emission indicators of biodiesel fuels obtained from waste oils from the Turkish industry
    Abstract

    Altun, S.; Lapuerta, M. 2014. Properties and emission indicators of biodiesel fuels obtained from waste oils from the Turkish industry. Fuel. 128288-295

    Three waste oils from traditional manufacturing industries in Turkey, such as leather fat, obtained as a by-product in the leather industry, waste anchovy fish oil, derived from the fish-processing industry, and waste frying cottonseed oil from food industry, have been evaluated as alternative raw materials for biodiesel production, with potentially low life-cycle greenhouse emissions. Measured properties such as heating value, density, viscosity, flash point, acidity and cold flow properties, showed that the obtained biodiesel fuels fulfilled both the European and American quality standards and could be used to partially replace petroleum diesel in automotive engines. From gas chromatography analysis, detailed fatty acid profile was obtained, which permitted the application of group contribution methods for the estimation of thermodynamic properties (critical parameters, acentric factor) and thermochemical properties (enthalpies of vaporization and formation). This information was useful to calculate some indicators related to the most important diesel engine emissions, such as soot (main component of particulate matter) and nitric oxide emissions. Soot indicators reveal significant reduction potential with respect to fossil diesel fuels, and, among the studied biodiesel fuels, soot emissions would be lowest for the most saturated and shortest carbon-chain length biodiesel fuel. Adiabatic flame temperature, selected as the main nitric oxide emission indicator, shows small differences among the studied biofuels. Both the properties and emission indicators of the biodiesel fuels studied are within the typical ranges of other conventional biodiesel fuels. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  354. Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Karmakar, A.; Karmakar, S.; Mukherjee, S. 2010. Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 101(19) 7201-7210

    As an alternative fuel biodiesel is becoming increasingly important due to diminishing petroleum reserves and adverse environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum-fuelled engines. Biodiesel, the non-toxic fuel, is mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feedstock like vegetable oils, animal fats and residual oils. Choice of feedstocks depends on process chemistry, physical and chemical characteristics of virgin or used oils and economy of the process.
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  355. A Property Prediction Scheme for Biodiesel Derived from NonEdible Feedstock
    Abstract

    Onuh, E. I.; Inambao, F. L. 2016. A Property Prediction Scheme for Biodiesel Derived from NonEdible Feedstock. Proceedings of the Twenty Fourth Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy. 164-171

    Biodiesel's renewability, universal accessibility and milder impact on the environment has positioned it as a potential fuel of choice for transport prime movers going forward. Biodiesel's unique fuel chemistry while conferring some advantage, has shown some mismatch between it and the current compression ignition (CI) combustion strategy. Computational as well as experimental research on biodiesel combustion are presently, in large part, geared toward resolving this mismatch. Numerical property prediction, as a more efficient and cost effective tool was implemented here to determine the thermo-physical and transport properties of biodiesel derived from moringa, jatropher and waste restaurant oil. Primary and secondary experimental data obtained in accordance with biodiesel standard ASTM D6751 were used to validate the scheme. The average relative deviation (ARD) for most key properties fell within acceptable limit (<= 5%). Obtaining higher computational fidelity was observed to correlate with improved accuracy in determining the free fatty acid (FFA) composition of the different component and group contribution of the biodiesel mixture.
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  356. The prospect of microalgal biodiesel using agro-industrial and industrial wastes in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Jayakumar, S.; Yusoff, M. M.; Ab Rahim, M. H.; Maniam, G. P.; Govindan, N. 2017. The prospect of microalgal biodiesel using agro-industrial and industrial wastes in Malaysia. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 7233-47

    The world's biodiesel demand is rising from day to day due to the urgency to tackle fuel crisis, greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and climatic changes in the near future. This alternative energy will minimize the dependency on fossil fuels while guarantees a continuous energy supply and upholds the ecosystem sustainability. Malaysia, as a developing country is still finding a suitable green energy source to support the national daily energy consumption without affecting the political stability and socio-economic background. In this article, a realistic effort made by applying microalgal biotechnology for biodiesel production and concurrently mitigating CO2 and other flue gases in the presence of tertiary wastewater. Microalgae produce high amount of biomass feedstock in a short time with less amount of land capacity by using wastewater as the medium to grow. Malaysia is producing variable wastes from both agro-industrial and industrial sectors that can be recycled as a nutrient supply for microalgae. Wastewater that is available in Malaysia comprises high nutrient value compounds that have high amount of nitrogen and phosphorus. The current trend in Malaysia in the biodiesel industry as well as the application of microalgae as a superlative feedstock to replace conventional methods and boost future biodiesel industries are well elaborated in this article. This also includes the opportunities and challenges of Malaysia in cultivating microalgae with stronger technical feasibility and higher turnout in the economy by using the high rate algal pond (HRAP). Apart from that, this review paper illustrates the process of converting waste from five different sources in biofuel production by using microalgae as the intermediate tool.
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  357. Prospects of Heterogeneous Catalysts in Biodiesel Development
    Abstract

    Sharma, Y. C.; Singh, B.; Upadhyay, S. N. 2010. Prospects of Heterogeneous Catalysts in Biodiesel Development. Handbook of Sustainable Energy. 487-520

    Biodiesel is gaining popularity among the researchers and the public in general who are using diesel as fuel in agriculture and automobiles. The positive aspects of biodiesel is its renewable nature, less emissions of toxic substances, being biodegradable in nature and reduction in the major contributor of global warming such as carbon dioxide. Constituents of biodiesel are basically fatty acid alkyl esters which can be derived from a variety of raw materials. These include vegetable oils, animal fats and algae. The process employed is transesterification reaction where the fatty acids react with lower group alcohol in presence of a catalyst to get converted into fatty acid alkyl esters. Till recently, homogeneous catalysts were commonly employed in research and at industrial level also for biodiesel production. These catalysts still dominate in biodiesel production but few of their demerits have given the scope for search of heterogeneous catalysts. These heterogeneous catalysts work on the mechanism similar to that of homogeneous catalysts. A variety of compounds have been used as heterogeneous catalysts based on their surface area, basicity, porosity and other factors. These catalysts are mainly grouped as acid catalysts, base catalyst and enzymes. Solid base catalysts have shown good performance in transesterification reaction. Acid catalysts have the advantage of esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) in addition to transesterification. FFAs are constituents of various non-edible oils which are used as feedstock for biodiesel development. Acid and base catalysts along with their method of preparation, mechanism, yield and conversion obtained from them under optimized conditions have been discussed in this chapter. Activity of these heterogeneous catalysts improved by calcination at high temperature to modify their characteristics has also been discussed. Leaching test has been carried out by several authors to justify their heterogeneous nature. As per the findings of several authors, some of these catalysts have shown high yield and conversion which could be a definite alternative to their homogeneous counterparts. With this pace of research and the advantage of the heterogeneous catalyst in the form of their easy separation and reusability, these catalysts have potential to be applied at industrial level for the production of biodiesel. On the basis of their better performance and simplicity in their handling, the heterogeneous catalysts will prove to be 'master substances' of tomorrow.
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  358. Pt and Ni supported catalysts on SBA-15 and SBA-16 for the synthesis of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Cruz, A. E. B.; Banda, J. A. M.; Mendoza, H.; Ramos-Galvan, C. E.; Melo, M. A. M.; Esquivel, D. 2011. Pt and Ni supported catalysts on SBA-15 and SBA-16 for the synthesis of biodiesel. Catalysis Today. 166(1) 111-115

    Biodiesel is synthesized via the transesterification of lipid feedstocks with low molecular weight alcohols. Industrially, alkaline bases such as sodium and potassium hydroxides (NaOH-KOH) are used to catalyze the reaction. These catalysts require anhydrous conditions and feedstocks with low levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Water in the reaction promotes the formation of FFAs, which can deactivate the catalyst and produce soap, an undesirable byproduct. Strong liquid acids are less sensitive to FFAs and can simultaneously conduct esterification and transesterification reactions. Solid catalysts based on Ni and Pt supported on mesoporous materials (SBA-15 and SBA-16) were tested in the synthesis of biodiesel by transesterification of a vegetable oil via acid catalysis. Textural and structural proprieties of the catalysts were characterized by N-2 physisorption (BET method), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM); the textural properties and XRD results showed the characteristic properties of mesoporous materials. The Cetane Index of the biodiesel obtained was tested and compared against the Cetane Index of conventional petroleum-based diesel. ASTM techniques used as comparison analysis for the synthetic biodiesel showed better properties than conventional diesel. (C) 2011 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
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  359. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece
    Abstract

    Schinas, P.; Karavalakis, G.; Davaris, C.; Anastopoulos, G.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. 2009. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece. Biomass & Bioenergy. 33(1) 44-49

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as a substitute to petroleum diesel has rapidly grown in Greece. The raw materials for biodiesel production in this country mainly include traditional seed oils (cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil) and used frying oils. In the search for new low-cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the evaluation of pumpkin seed oil. The experimental results showed that the oil content of pumpkin seeds was remarkably high (45%). The fatty acid profile of the oil showed that is composed primarily of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The oil was chemically converted via an alkaline transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters, with a yield nearly 97.5wt%. All of the measured properties of the produced biodiesel met the current quality requirements according to EN 14214. Although this study showed that pumpkin oil could be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production within the EU, it is rather difficult for this production to be achieved on a large scale. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  360. A rapid enzyme-catalyzed pretreatment of the acidic oil of macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) for chemoenzymatic biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Teixeira, D. A.; da Motta, C. R.; Ribeiro, C. M. S.; de Castro, A. M. 2017. A rapid enzyme-catalyzed pretreatment of the acidic oil of macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) for chemoenzymatic biodiesel production. Process Biochemistry. 53188-193

    Macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) is a plant with high potential of oil supply for biodiesel production. However, the high acidity (35-43%) of this oil disqualifies it from use in industrial biodiesel production plants that use alkaline transesterification as the synthesis reaction. Thus, technologies such as the use of bio-catalysts to reduce oil acidity are necessary to better monetize the carbon present in that biomass. In the present study, a commercial lipase (Lipozyme 435) was used for the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the oil to reduce the acidity. Lipozyme 435 performed well under broad temperature (20-45 degrees C) and water content (560-30000 ppm) ranges, and its performance was maximized in a substrate (methanol:FFA) molar ratio of 2. The lowest final FFA content achieved was 1.09%, corresponding to a global conversion rate of 97.22%. The fatty acid methyl esters content in the treated oil (55%), determined by C-13 NMR, indicated that Lipozyme 435 can also catalyze the transesterification of the glycerides in the oil. The versatility under different operational conditions and Stability over long use (up to 150 times) indicated that Lipozyme 435 is a very suitable biocatalyst for the proposed process, contributing to a better economic attractive option. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  361. Rapid high conversion of high free fatty acid feedstock into biodiesel using continuous flow vortex fluidics
    Abstract

    Britton, J.; Raston, C. L. 2015. Rapid high conversion of high free fatty acid feedstock into biodiesel using continuous flow vortex fluidics. Rsc Advances. 5(3) 2276-2280

    Conversion of high free fatty acid (FFA) feedstock (94.4%) to biodiesel with undetectable FFA content is effective using room temperature vortex fluidic flow chemistry, with the conversion taking < 1 minute residence time, using dramatically less methanol and acid catalyst compared to other processes. Optimum conditions are 1 : 6 volumetric ratio of oil feedstock to methanol and 0.2 molar equivalents of H2SO4 catalyst loading, for a combined flow rate of 3.50 mL min(-1) in a 17.7 mm internal diameter tube rotating at 7500 rpm. This work furthers the viability of using high FFA content feedstocks for biodiesel production.
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  362. Reaction kinetics with catalyst deactivation in simultaneous esterification and transesterification of acid oils to biodiesel (FAME) over a mesoporous sulphonated carbon catalyst
    Abstract

    Konwar, L. J.; Warna, J.; Maki-Arvela, P.; Kumar, N.; Mikkola, J. P. 2016. Reaction kinetics with catalyst deactivation in simultaneous esterification and transesterification of acid oils to biodiesel (FAME) over a mesoporous sulphonated carbon catalyst. Fuel. 1661-11

    In this work, a careful analysis of the reaction kinetics upon simultaneous esterification and transesterification of acidic oils over a mesoporous sulphonated carbon catalyst is discussed. A batch reactor system was used and the synthesized carbon catalyst were characterized by N-2-physisorption, transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis and NH3-TPD. A second order pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model was proposed which explained the experimental results obtained for three different feedstock oils with >= 98% accuracy. The rate constants (k), activation energies (E-a) and equilibrium constants (K-eq) of the individual reactions were determined by regression analysis which confirmed that the reaction steps were kinetically controlled and not limited by inter-particle diffusion or external mass transfer limitations (E-a > 25 kJ mol(-1)). Furthermore, the composition feedstock was found to have a distinct effect on the solubility of methanol and oil phase which influenced k, K-eq and E-a values, eventually determining the final biodiesel (FAME) yield. To account for the loss of activity upon catalyst reuse, a deactivation model was also proposed which explained our results with similar to 94% accuracy. In fact, the loss of activity was accounted for by incorporating a concentration-independent 'deactivation constant' k(d) in the reaction rate equations. Moreover, under optimized reaction conditions (120 degrees C and 20:1 methanol-to-FFA molar ratio), FAME yields up to 79-91 wt% could be obtained in one step process from oils containing 21-41 wt% FFA. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  363. Reactive extraction of castor seeds and storage stability characteristics of produced biodiesel
    Abstract

    Dasari, S. R.; Borugadda, V. B.; Goud, V. V. 2016. Reactive extraction of castor seeds and storage stability characteristics of produced biodiesel. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 100252-263

    In the present study, oil was extracted from a single castor seed by eppendorf vial method, and the oil yield was compared with the yield obtained from Soxhlet method. The oil yield from both methods was about 55% and comparable. Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content of extracted castor oil was found to be lower (<1 mg KOH/g oil). Therefore, single step transesterification (reactive extraction) was carried out to study the effect of various reaction variables on the conversion of castor oil biodiesel. The optimum biodiesel conversion of similar to 93% was achieved under following conditions: 4h, 1:250 oil to MeOH molar ratio, 1 wt.% NaOH, 40 degrees C, 0.75 mm particle size, 20 g seed, 600 rpm and 10 (vol.%) co-solvent. The estimated fuel properties of biodiesel obtained with NaOH, KOH and NaOH (with co-solvent) were found to be similar and within the limits of ASTM standards. Similarly, storage stability of prepared biodiesel was evaluated over a six-month storage period (180 days) under three different storage conditions. The results showed a sharp decrease in fuel stability over time in terms of increase in density from 0.878 to 0.984 g/cm(3), kinematic viscosity (10.59-16.18 cSt), acid value (0.52-5.15 mg KOH/g) respectively. While, iodine value significantly decreased from 82.5 to 54.57 g I-2/100 g oil over time. Biodiesel sample stored in the open air degraded faster than samples stored in other storage conditions. (C) 2016 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  364. Recent developments in heterogeneous catalysis for the sustainable production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Lee, A. F.; Wilson, K. 2015. Recent developments in heterogeneous catalysis for the sustainable production of biodiesel. Catalysis Today. 2423-18

    The quest for energy security and widespread acceptance of the anthropogenic origin of rising CO2 emissions and associated climate change from combusting fossil derived carbon sources, is driving academic and commercial research into new routes to sustainable fuels to meet the demands of a rapidly rising global population. Biodiesel is one of the most readily implemented and low cost, alternative source of transportation fuels to meet future societal demands. However, current practises to produce biodiesel via transesterification employing homogeneous acids and bases result in costly fuel purification processes and undesired pollution. Life-cycle calculations on biodiesel synthesis from soybean feedstock show that the single most energy intensive step is the catalytic conversion of TAGs into biodiesel, accounting for 87% of the total primary energy input, which largely arises from the quench and separation steps. The development of solid acid and base catalysts that respectively remove undesired free fatty acid (FFA) impurities, and transform naturally occurring triglycerides found within plant oils into clean biodiesel would be desirable to improve process efficiency. However, the microporous nature of many conventional catalysts limits their ability to convert bulky and viscous feeds typical of plant or algal oils. Here we describe how improved catalyst performance, and overall process efficiency can result from a combination of new synthetic materials based upon templated solid acids and bases with hierarchical structures, tailored surface properties and use of intensified process allowing continuous operation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  365. Recent trends of biodiesel production from animal fat wastes and associated production techniques
    Abstract
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  366. Reducing Material Waste in Biodiesel Production through Multi-Energy Optimized Processing
    Abstract

    Kropf, M. M. 2012. Reducing Material Waste in Biodiesel Production through Multi-Energy Optimized Processing. Nanotechnology 2012, Vol 3: Bio Sensors, Instruments, Medical, Environment and Energy. 743-745

    Multi-Energy Optimized Processing is a patented green chemical processing technique which substitutes focused energy for hazardous chemicals to achieve efficient fuel conversions. Applied to biofuel production, this technology reduces material waste in the form of catalyst while improving energy efficiency providing a competitive advantage for the producers. The technology employs high intensity ultrasonics and microwaves to achieve rapid reaction rates while minimizing catalyst requirements. The reduction in catalyst not only reduces the waste associated with production, it also permits more economical treatment of "low-value" feedstock. The technology has been developed from bench top experiments to a continuous flow, pilot scale demonstration reactor. Scale-up validation studies have indicated the process is not capital intensive and suitable for plug-in upgrades to existing facilities. Finally, the insights gained in the development process has positioned this technology to have major impacts across a broad base of applications in the fuel and chemical processing arenas.
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  367. Re-esterification of high free fatty acid oils for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kombe, G. G. 2015. Re-esterification of high free fatty acid oils for biodiesel production. Biofuels-Uk. 6(1-2) 31-36

    The high free fatty acids (FFA) in most of the non-edible oils hinders their direct application in the production of biodiesel by using the traditional homogeneous base transesterification. In this study, a low temperature re-esterification process has been applied to reduce the FFA in castor oil for base catalysed transesterification. The response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to model and optimize the re-esterification efficiency under three reaction variables: reaction time, temperature, and glycerol to oil mass ratio. The optimum conditions for the highest re-esterification efficiency of 99.01% were found to be temperature of 56(circle)C, reaction time of 85 minutes, and 2.34 g/g glycerol to oil mass ratio. These conditions reduced the high FFA of crude castor oil from 6.50% to 0.06% which is below the 3% recommended for alkali catalysed transesterification. The re-esterified oil was then transesterified using homogeneous base transesterification, resulting into a conversion of 97.95%. Except for viscosity, most fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were found to be comparable to those of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards.
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  368. Repeated use of methanol and sulfuric acid to pretreat jatropha oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Wang, Z. M.; Wu, C. Z.; Yuan, Z. H.; Lee, J. S.; Park, S. C. 2007. Repeated use of methanol and sulfuric acid to pretreat jatropha oil for biodiesel production. Proceedings of Ises Solar World Congress 2007: Solar Energy and Human Settlement, Vols I-V. 2413-2417

    Large-scale plantation of jatropha will provide low-cost and reliable feedstock for biodiesel production, but jatropha oil has the tendency to degrade so that it often contains excessive free fatty acid (FFA). In this study, an efficient method was developed by repeated use of the mixture of methanol and sulfuric acid for the pretreatment of jatropha oil with an acid value of 10.4 mg KOH/g. A quadratic polynomial model was established by investigating the effect of water content on the conversion of FFA, while the molar ratio of methanol to FFA was 270:1 and the weight ratio of sulfuric acid to jatropha oil was 1.6%. This model was proved to be valid when the mixture of methanol and sulfuric acid had been used for twenty times. Total sulfuric acid and methanol used for these twenty experiments was 0.21% and 21% respectively, based on the weight of pretreated jatropha oil. Average reaction time of them was 26min; acid values of the pretreated jatropha oil were about 0.6 mg KOH/g, water contents of it were no more than 0.07%. Biodiesel with an ester content of 98.6% was produced through the following alkaline catalyzed biodiesel production process.
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  369. The Research of Cultivating Chlorella Vulgaris as Biodiesel Feedstock by Using Municipal Wastewater
    Abstract

    Liu, J. Q.; Liu, Y. H.; Liu, Q.; Ruan, R.; Zhang, J. S.; Peng, H.; Wu, X. D. 2010. The Research of Cultivating Chlorella Vulgaris as Biodiesel Feedstock by Using Municipal Wastewater. 2010 the Second China Energy Scientist Forum, Vol 1-3. 924-928

    The objective of present research was to investigate the technical feasibility of using Nanchang municipal wastewater as culture media for large-scale cultivation of oil-rich microalgae to produce bio-diesel and treating the wastewater simultaneausly. Collecting the municipal wastewater without any treatment from QingShanhu sewage plant as the culture medium for Chlorella vulgaris growth. The experiment monitored the specific growth rate and biomass yield of Chlorella vulgaris and associated ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorous, COD, TSS, and VSS removal during 10 days. The experimental results showed that the level of nutrients influenced algae growth significantly. The growth rate of Chlorella vulgaris reached a maximum of OD(680nm) 2.856 after 8 days culturing and the algae biomass accumulation rate reached a maximum of 0.0100 gdw.L(-1).day(-1). The oil content of Chlorella vulgaris was 180 mg g(-1) in dry biomass weight. The removel rate of NH(4)(+)-N, TP and COD was 0.6123mg.L(-1).day(-1), 0.0540 mg.L(-1).day(-1), and 2.6387mg.L(-1).day(-1). The TSS and VSS removal rate were 0.0100mg.L(-1)day(-1) and 0.0061mg.L(-1).day(-1) respectively.
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  370. The reuse of waste cooking oil and spent bleaching earth to produce biodiesel
    Abstract

    Sahafi, S. M.; Goli, S. A. H.; Tabatabaei, M.; Nikbakht, A. M.; Pourvosoghi, N. 2016. The reuse of waste cooking oil and spent bleaching earth to produce biodiesel. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(7) 942-950

    Currently, semi-refined and refined vegetable oils are used as a feedstock in biodiesel production. However, criteria such as competition with conventional fossil fuel, economic reasons, shortage supply of food and its social impact on the global scale have somewhat slowed the development of the biodiesel industry. Spent bleaching earth is currently under-utilized by deposition in landfills with no attempt to recover the oil. In this study the waste oil adsorbed on spent bleaching earth, refined soybean oil, and waste cooking oil were evaluated as potential sources of biodiesel production in Iran. Different characteristics of the oil samples, such as fatty acid composition, peroxide, iodine, acid values, etc., were evaluated. A two-step esterification reaction using methanol was conducted to produce biofuel. Subsequently, physicochemical properties of produced biodiesel were analyzed. The oil content in spent bleaching earth was 19.3%, which was lowered to 3.7% using hexane as the solvent. Gas chromatography showed that palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids were predominantly fatty acids, respectively, and the highest content of saturated acids belonged to waste cooking oil (24%). The acidity of 8.3% was obtained for the oil recovered from spent bleaching earth followed by waste cooking oil (3.6%) and refined soybean oil (0.1%). Totally, the specifications of all biodiesel produced were in the range defined by ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. Since about 2000-3000 tones of spent bleaching earth residual oil is annually dumped and the amount of waste cooking oil produced yearly is 500,000 tones, there is a great potential for Iran to produce biodiesel from waste oils.
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  371. Review of biodiesel synthesis from waste oil under elevated pressure and temperature: Phase equilibrium, reaction kinetics, process design and techno-economic study
    Abstract

    Glisic, S. B.; Orlovic, A. M. 2014. Review of biodiesel synthesis from waste oil under elevated pressure and temperature: Phase equilibrium, reaction kinetics, process design and techno-economic study. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 31708-725

    The synthesis of biodiesel under elevated pressure and temperature could be promising technology which could result in sustainable biodiesel production, from renewable and waste streams like waste oil or used frying oil, thereby having no impact on biodiversity and the environment. This paper is comprehensive review of biodiesel synthesis from waste oil under elevated pressure and temperature: the supercritical or subcritical conditions of alcohol, with or without the use of heterogeneous catalyst. The review compromises the thermodynamic data, phase equilibria, phase composition and distribution during reaction, kinetic parameters and kinetic modeling, are presented. This type of data is necessary for process design and optimization. Process economics is analyzed and the impact of different production parameters (feedstock type, process parameters as temperature, pressure and alcohol to oil ratio, and different technology) is summarized and discussed. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  372. Review of process parameters for biodiesel production from different feedstocks
    Abstract

    Verma, P.; Sharma, M. P. 2016. Review of process parameters for biodiesel production from different feedstocks. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 621063-1071

    Biodiesel is one of the prospective alternatives to petroleum fuel resources because of its renewable and environment friendly nature. Transesterficiation process is used for biodiesel production. The biodiesel production process mainly depends on five parameters which includes free fatty acid (FFA) content, type of alcohol used and molar ratio (alcohol:oil), catalyst type and its concentration, reaction temperature and time. Methanol and ethanol are commonly used for biodiesel production in presence of different alkaline catalysts like sodium and potassium hydroxides. The production methodology of biodiesel is an important aspect for efficient and cost-effective production of biodiesel. The present study focuses on the various technical aspects of biodiesel production methodology. The study reveals that for optimum biodiesel production reaction temperature should be in range of 50-60 degrees C, molar ratio of alcohol to oil should be in range of 6-12:1 with the use of an alkali catalyst having optimum concentration 1% by weight. The optimal reaction time for transesterification process is 120 min. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  373. A review on the prospects of sustainable biodiesel production: A global scenario with an emphasis on waste-oil biodiesel utilization
    Abstract

    Hajjari, M.; Tabatabaei, M.; Aghbashlo, M.; Ghanavati, H. 2017. A review on the prospects of sustainable biodiesel production: A global scenario with an emphasis on waste-oil biodiesel utilization. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 72445-464

    Due to the large amount of diesel fuel demands worldwide and the negative environmental and health impacts of its direct combustion, biodiesel production and consumption have been globally increasing as the best short-term substitute for mineral diesel. However, using edible and non-edible oil feedstocks for biodiesel production has led to several controversial issues including feedstock availability and cost, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, land use changes (LUC), and fuel vs. food/feed competition. Fortunately, these problems can be effectively overcome using non-crop feedstocks. In this context, waste-oriented oils/fats have been proposed as the excellent options to produce biodiesel by overlooking the trivial collection/recycling costs. In this review article, a comprehensive collection plan followed by an elaborated integrated utilization strategy called "waste oil biodiesel utilization scenario" (WO-BUS) is proposed for Iran in order to achieve cost-effective and eco-friendly production/consumption of biodiesel. WO-BUS is adoptable by the countries with similar situations and infrastructures.
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  374. A Review onl Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Boro, J.; Deka, D. 2012. A Review onl Biodiesel. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 6(2) 125-141

    Among the different alternative fuels explored for replacing existing fossil diesel, biodiesel has emerged as the potential renewable energy. It is made from nontoxic, biodegradable, renewable sources such as refined and used vegetable oils and animal fats. The usage of refined vegetable oil is considered as uneconomical owing to the high feedstock price and its importance as food resources. Non edible oil such as Jatropha curcus is considered as a better replacement of refined oil; but they have a high FFA content which makes them unsuitable for biodiesel production in one step which is a drawback. Apart from conventional techniques for bio-diesel production, application of microwave and ultrasound are explored for better results compared to conventional methods.
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  375. Rhizopus oryzae IFO 4697 whole cell catalyzed methanolysis of crude and acidified rapeseed oils for biodiesel production in tert-butanol system
    Abstract

    Li, W.; Du, W.; Liu, D. H. 2007. Rhizopus oryzae IFO 4697 whole cell catalyzed methanolysis of crude and acidified rapeseed oils for biodiesel production in tert-butanol system. Process Biochemistry. 42(11) 1481-1485

    Whole cell Rhizopus oryzae (R. oryzae) IFO4697 immobilized within biomass support particles (BSPs) was used as catalyst for biodiesel production in tert-butanol, in which the stability of the catalyst could be enhanced significantly. Different feedstocks (refined, crude and acidified rapeseed oils) were adopted further for biodiesel production in tert-butanol system and it was found that when acidified rapeseed oil was used as feedstocks, the reaction rate and final methyl ester (ME) yield were significantly higher than that of refined and crude rapeseed oil. Major differences among the aforementioned oils were found to be the contents of free fatty acid (FFA), water and phospholipids, which showed varied influences on whole cell mediated methanolysis for biodiesel production. The reaction rate increased with the increase of free fatty acid content in oils; water content had varied influence on reaction rate and biodiesel yield; using adsorbent to remove excessive water could increase biodiesel yield significantly (from 73 to 84%); it was also found interestingly that phospholipids contained in oils could increase the reaction rate to a certain extent. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  376. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand
    Abstract

    Nakpong, P.; Wootthikanokkhan, S. 2010. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand. Fuel. 89(8) 1806-1811

    The production of biodiesel fuel from crude roselle oil was evaluated in this study. The process of alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol was carried out to examine the effects of reaction variables on the formation of methyl ester: variables which included methanol-to-oil molar ratios of 4: 1-10: 1, catalyst concentrations of 0.25-2.0% w/w of oil, reaction temperatures of 32-60 degrees C, and reaction times of 5-80 min. The methyl ester content from each reaction condition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), the optimum condition having been achieved at a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 8: 1, a catalyst concentration of 1.5% w/w of oil, a reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, and a reaction time of 60 min. The resultant methyl ester content of 99.4% w/w, plus all of the other measured properties of the roselle biodiesel, met the Thai biodiesel (B100) specifications and international standards EN 14214: 2008 (E) and ASTM D 6751-07b, with the exception of a higher carbon residue and lower oxidation stability. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  377. Rubber seed oil as potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalyst in Thailand
    Abstract

    Roschat, W.; Siritanon, T.; Yoosuk, B.; Sudyoadsuk, T.; Promarak, V. 2017. Rubber seed oil as potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalyst in Thailand. Renewable Energy. 101937-944

    This research present an alternative raw material of rubber seed which is non-edible crops as a source to produce oil for biodiesel production in Thailand. The rubber seed powder was extracted with hexane at room temperature to give rubber seed oil with the yield of 24 wt%. The composition and key properties of the extracted oil were analyzed including fatty acid compositions, density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, water content and acid value. This high FFAs oil (5.20 wt%) was successfully transesterified by various heterogeneous catalysts such as CaO-based waste coral fragment, sodium metasilicate and CaO-based eggshell to biodiesel in high yield and high %FAME of >97% in single step. Thermal stability of biodiesel obtained from rubber seed oil was evaluated by using thermogravimetric analysis and compared with petrol-diesel fuels. The biodiesel obtained from rubber seed oil was examined and found to meet the EN 14214 standard for bio-auto fuel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  378. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants
    Abstract

    Wang, Y.; Feng, S.; Bai, X. J.; Zhao, J. C.; Xia, S. Q. 2016. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants. Waste Management. 4791-97

    The main goal of this study was to compare the component and yield of biodiesel obtained by different methods from different sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. Biodiesel was produced by ex-situ and in-situ transesterification of scum, primary and secondary sludge respectively. Results showed that scum sludge had a higher calorific value and neutral lipid than that of primary and secondary sludge. The lipid yield accounted for one-third of the dried scum sludge and the maximum yield attained 22.7% under in-situ transesterification. Furthermore the gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that all sludge contained a significant amount of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) regardless of extraction solvents and sludge types used. However, the difference lay in that oleic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs produced from scum sludge while palmitic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs from primary and secondary sludge. In addition, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid ester in FAMEs from scum sludge accounted for 57.5-64.1% of the total esters, which was higher than the equivalent derived from primary and secondary sludge. In brief, scum sludge is a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel and more work is needed in the future.(c) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  379. Selective esterification to produce microalgal biodiesel and enrich polyunsaturated fatty acid using zeolite as a catalyst
    Abstract

    Dong, T.; Yu, X. C.; Miao, C.; Rasco, B.; Garcia-Perez, M.; Sablani, S. S.; Chen, S. L. 2015. Selective esterification to produce microalgal biodiesel and enrich polyunsaturated fatty acid using zeolite as a catalyst. Rsc Advances. 5(103) 84894-84900

    Microalgae can be both a promising biofuel feedstock and a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This paper reports a novel integrated process that simultaneously produces biodiesel and enriches PUFA. It was accomplished by using zeolite as a selective catalyst that preferentially converts shorter-chain fatty acids (SCFA) into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (86% conversion for S. limacinum and 65% conversion for N. salina) and enriches high-value PUFA (70% for S. limacinum and 78% for N. salina) in the unreacted free fatty acid (FFA) stream. The esterification reaction rate was affected by acid strength and pore size, while the selectivity of zeolite increased as pore size of zeolite decreased. This approach allows production of high quality biodiesel and efficient PUFA enrichment. The unreacted PUFA can be further refined for nutraceutical or other applications to improve economic viability of microalgal biodiesel production.
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  380. Sequential co-production of biodiesel and bioethanol with spent coffee grounds
    Abstract

    Kwon, E. E.; Yi, H.; Jeon, Y. J. 2013. Sequential co-production of biodiesel and bioethanol with spent coffee grounds. Bioresource Technology. 136475-480

    The sequential co-production of bioethanol and biodiesel from spent coffee grounds was investigated. The direct conversion of bioethanol from spent coffee grounds was not found to be a desirable option because of the relatively slow enzymatic saccharification behavior in the presence of triglycerides and the free fatty acids (FFAs) found to exist in the raw materials. Similarly, the direct transformation of the spent coffee grounds into ethanol without first extracting lipids was not found to be a feasible alternative. However, the crude lipids extracted from the spent coffee grounds were themselves converted into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via the non-catalytic biodiesel transesterification reaction. The yields of bioethanol and biodiesel were 0.46 g g(-1) and 97.5 +/- 0.5%, which were calculated based on consumed sugar and lipids extracted from spent coffee grounds respectively. Thus, this study clearly validated our theory that spent coffee grounds could be a strong candidate for the production of bioethanol and biodiesel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  381. Silica supported microporous melamine tri sulfonic acid catalyst towards biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil and utilization of side stream
    Abstract

    Savaliya, M. L.; Dholakiya, B. Z. 2015. Silica supported microporous melamine tri sulfonic acid catalyst towards biodiesel fuel production from waste cooking oil and utilization of side stream. Applied Catalysis a-General. 49412-21

    A novel silica based melamine tri sulfonic acid catalyst was successfully prepared by chlorosulfonation of melamine at ambient conditions and applied to the transesterification of waste cooking oil for the production of biodiesel. Glycerol obtained as a side stream at the end of the transesterification reaction along with biodiesel molecules. However, world is facing the problems of disposal of glycerol obtained from biodiesel synthesis as a byproduct and simultaneously they are facing the problem of the abundance of feedstocks for biodiesel synthesis. Therefore, obtained crude glycerol was also successfully converted into triglyceride via esterification of lauric acid over same catalyst. Biodiesel yields were calculated using gas chromatography. Highest biodiesel (%) yield was observed up to 98.00%. Synthesized SMTSA revealed optimistic catalytic activity for transesterification of waste cooking oil with 5% catalyst dose (w/w). SMTSA catalyst was duly characterized by FF-IR, XRD, BET, TPD-NH3 and SEM analysis. While, synthesized biodiesel and triglycerides of lauric acid were well characterized by FT-IR as well as H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopic techniques. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  382. Silybum marianum oil as a new potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel: A comparison of its production using conventional and ultrasonic assisted method
    Abstract

    Takase, M.; Feng, W. W.; Wang, W.; Gu, X. Y.; Zhu, Y.; Li, T.; Yang, L. Q.; Wu, X. Y. 2014. Silybum marianum oil as a new potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel: A comparison of its production using conventional and ultrasonic assisted method. Fuel Processing Technology. 12319-26

    Alkaline transesterification of Silybum marianum seed oil to biodiesel using methanol and ethanol was studied. The two methods used were conventional stirring (600 rpm) and ultrasonication (40 kHz). Oil was extracted from the seeds, followed by physico-chemical properties' determination and transesterification to biodiesel. The seeds contained 46% oil which had low free fatty acids (FFA) (0.68%). Linoleic acid (65.68%) was the main composition of the oil. Ultrasonication transesterification with methanol gave the highest yield (95.75%) after 20 min. Yields of methyl esters were higher than respective yields of ethyl esters. Using first order reaction kinetics model, the reaction rate constants were 2.3 X 10(-2) s(-1) and 7.0 X 10(-3) s(-1) for ultrasonication using methanol and ethanol, respectively. With the exception of oxidative stability (2.1 h) and iodine values (132-methyl and 133-ethyl esters), properties out of range but can easily be improved, the remaining properties including cetane number, flash point and the cold flow ones of both methyl and ethyl esters were similar and comparable to Chinese, ASTM and European Union standards. The findings of this study complement with the abundance of S. marianum oil at cultivation and silymarin industrial production as by-product indicates its potentially new non-edible feedstock for biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  383. Simplifying biodiesel production: The direct or in situ transesterification of algal biomass
    Abstract

    Haas, M. J.; Wagner, K. 2011. Simplifying biodiesel production: The direct or in situ transesterification of algal biomass. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 113(10) 1219-1229

    The in situ esterification/transesterification of algal biomass lipids to produce FAME for potential use as biodiesel was investigated. Commercial algal biomass was employed, containing 20.9 wt% hexane extractable oil. This consisted of 35.1 wt% free fatty acids (FFA), 18.2 wt% TAG, and 8.8 wt% MAG, accounting for 62.1% of the extractable material. Other constituents of the hexane extractable material, accounting for 37.9% of the extracts, were not further characterized. The predominant fatty acids in the oil were palmitic (42.4 wt%), oleic (30.6 wt%), linoleic (22.8 wt%), and linolenic (16.1 wt%). Small amounts of 10-keto 16:0 and 10-OH 16:0 fatty acids were also present. Statistical experimental design was employed to coordinately examine the effects of the amounts of methanol, sulfuric acid, and reaction temperature (23-658C) on the yield of FAME in 2 h reactions. Three methods of feedstock preparation were examined - as received, oven dried, and water-washed/dried. For all feedstocks conditions could be identified which were predicted to yield greater than 90% maximum theoretical FAME production. Oven drying the feedstock reduced the amount of methanol required, with 83% of maximum yield obtained at a methanol/fatty acid molar ratio of 220:1 (4 mL methanol/g substrate). Water washing the biomass did not reduce the methanol required for high level transesterification.
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  384. Simulation and life cycle assessment of process design alternatives for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils
    Abstract

    Morais, S.; Mata, T. M.; Martins, A. A.; Pinto, G. A.; Costa, C. A. V. 2010. Simulation and life cycle assessment of process design alternatives for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils. Journal of Cleaner Production. 18(13) 1251-1259

    This study uses the process simulator ASPEN Plus (R) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to compare three process design alternatives for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oils that are: the conventional alkali-catalyzed process including a free fatty acids (FFAs) pre-treatment, the acid-catalyzed process, and the supercritical methanol process using propane as co-solvent. Results show that the supercritical methanol process using propane as co-solvent is the most environmentally favorable alternative. Its smaller steam consumption in comparison with the other process design alternatives leads to a lower contribution to the potential environmental impacts (PEI's). The acid-catalyzed process generally shows the highest PEI's, in particular due to the high energy requirements associated with methanol recovery operations. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  385. Simultaneous conversion of free fatty acids and triglycerides to biodiesel by immobilized Aspergillus oryzae expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase
    Abstract

    Amoah, J.; Quayson, E.; Hama, S.; Yoshida, A.; Hasunuma, T.; Ogino, C.; Kondo, A. 2017. Simultaneous conversion of free fatty acids and triglycerides to biodiesel by immobilized Aspergillus oryzae expressing Fusarium heterosporum lipase. Biotechnology Journal. 12(3)

    The presence of high levels of free fatty acids (FFA) in oil is a barrier to one-step biodiesel production. Undesirable soaps are formed during conventional chemical methods, and enzyme deactivation occurs when enzymatic methods are used. This work investigates an efficient technique to simultaneously convert a mixture of free fatty acids and triglycerides (TAG). A partial soybean hydrolysate containing 73.04% free fatty acids and 24.81% triglycerides was used as a substrate for the enzymatic production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Whole-cell Candida antarctica lipase B-expressing Aspergillus oryzae, and Novozym 435 produced only 75.2 and 73.5% FAME, respectively. Fusarium heterosporum lipase-expressing A. oryzae produced more than 93% FAME in 72 h using three molar equivalents of methanol. FFA and TAG were converted simultaneously in the presence of increasing water content that resulted from esterification. Therefore, F. heterosporum lipase with a noted high level of tolerance of water could be useful in the industrial production of biodiesel from feedstock that has high proportion of free fatty acids.
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  386. Single-step conversion of wet Nannochloropsis gaditana to biodiesel under subcritical methanol conditions
    Abstract

    Sitthithanaboon, W.; Reddy, H. K.; Muppaneni, T.; Ponnusamy, S.; Punsuvon, V.; Holguim, F.; Dungan, B.; Deng, S. G. 2015. Single-step conversion of wet Nannochloropsis gaditana to biodiesel under subcritical methanol conditions. Fuel. 147253-259

    A single-step process for a direct conversion of wet algal biomass containing about 80% of water into biodiesel under subcritical methanol conditions is developed and presented in this work. This process may have energetic advantages with high free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents as the feedstock. At elevated temperatures, water hydrolysis and FFA esterification can simultaneously occur in a subcritical state. The influences of process parameters including reaction temperature (150-225 degrees C), reaction time (15-120 min) and methanol to wet biomass (vol./wt.) ratio (3:1-8:1) were investigated. The optimal conditions for this process are reported as:methanol to wet biomass (vol./wt.) ratio of around 6:1, temperature and time of about 225 degrees C, and reaction time of 90 min. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were analyzed with GC-MS, FT-IR and thermogravimetric (TGA). This process does not require a catalyst and any drying pre-treatment steps. Thus, the process is cost-saving and environmental friendly for renewable biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  387. Single-step esterification of crude karanj (Pongamia pinnata) oil to fatty acid methyl esters over mesostructured SBA-16 supported 12-molybdophosphoric acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Khayoon, M. S.; Hameed, B. H. 2013. Single-step esterification of crude karanj (Pongamia pinnata) oil to fatty acid methyl esters over mesostructured SBA-16 supported 12-molybdophosphoric acid catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology. 11412-20

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are synthesized via the single step esterification of non-edible feedstock, crude karanj oil (CKO), of high level of free fatty acids (FFAs about 20%) with methanol over series of solid acid catalysts prepared by anchoring molybdophosphoric acid (MP, 5 to 25 wt.%) onto SBA-16 support. The prepared catalysts were intensively characterized for their intrinsic physicochemical and textural properties using BET surface area, NH3-TPD, XRD, SAXS, FT-IR, SEM and EDX Characterization results revealed that the intact MP Keggin structure was preserved in the final catalyst after the thermal treatment at 220 degrees C. The catalyst with 15 wt.% MP (MP-S-16(15)) exhibited a peerless catalytic activity achieving 82% of FAME yield using a molar ratio of methanol to CKO of 1:8 at 140 C and after 5 h. The effect of different operational parameters such as MP concentration in the final catalysts, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to CKO, catalyst wt.% and reaction time were investigated over the MP-S-16(15) catalyst toward the maximum FAME yield. The stability of the catalytic activity was examined through leaching and reusability tests. As such, the MP-S-16(15) catalyst was recycled through four consecutive batch runs to understand its stability. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  388. A Single-Step Solid Acid-Catalyzed Process for the Production of Biodiesel from High Free Fatty Acid Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Baig, A.; Ng, F. T. T. 2010. A Single-Step Solid Acid-Catalyzed Process for the Production of Biodiesel from High Free Fatty Acid Feedstocks. Energy & Fuels. 244712-4720

    Biodiesel is a nontoxic, renewable, and biodegradable alternative green fuel for petroleum-based diesel. However, the major obstacle for the commercial production of biodiesel is the high cost of raw material, i.e., refined vegetable oils. This problem can be addressed using low-cost feedstocks, such as waste oils and fats. However, these feedstocks contain a high amount of free fatty acids (FFAs), which cannot be used for the production of biodiesel using a traditional homogeneous alkali-catalyzed transesterification process. A solid acid catalyst based on a supported heteropolyacid catalyst (PSA) was evaluated for the production of biodiesel from soybean oil (SBO) containing up to 25 wt % palmitic acid (PA). It was demonstrated that this solid acid catalyst catalyzed simultaneously esterification and transesterification. The total glycerin, ester content, and acid numbers were determined according to ASTM D 6584, EN 14103, and ASTM D 974, respectively. It was found that at 200 degrees C, 1:27 oil/alcohol molar ratio, and 3 wt % catalyst, a high-quality biodiesel with an ester content of 93.95 mass % was produced from a feedstock (SBO containing 10% PA) in 10 h. The PA and chemically bound glycerin (CBG), which includes triglyceride (TG), diglyceride (DG), and monoglyceride (MG), conversions of 92.44 and 99.38% were obtained, respectively. The effect of process parameters, such as catalyst amount, oil/alcohol molar ratio, and FFA content in the feedstock, has been investigated. This single-step solid acid-catalyzed process has potential for industrial-scale production of biodiesel from high FFA feedstocks.
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  389. Software sensors design and selection for the production of biodiesel from grease trap wastes
    Abstract

    Aguilar-Garnica, E.; Garcia-Sandoval, J. P. 2015. Software sensors design and selection for the production of biodiesel from grease trap wastes. 12th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering (Pse) and 25th European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering (Escape), Pt B. 371589-1594

    In this paper, a couple of software sensors were designed for CSTR processes and they were tested in the esterification of grease trap wastes which is a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Both software sensors were designed for the estimation of the concentration of Free Fatty Acids (FFAs) from discrete CSTR's temperature measurements. One of these software sensors, called asymptotic observer, is recognized for its capacity to provide estimates without the knowledge of the process kinetics. It has been also designed an estimation algorithm known as reset fuzzy observer. This approach has been recently proposed and is able to update the estimated states at each instant when discrete measurements are available. Both observers were built regarding the structure of a validated dynamical model for the esterification of grease trap wastes and they were tested considering experimental data. The results show that the asymptotic observer offers a very poor performance when some process's disturbances (e.g. input concentration of FFAs, jacket temperature) are carried out, whereas the reset fuzzy observer is able to reconstruct satisfactorily the concentration of FFAs in the presence of such disturbances. Therefore, this fuzzy observer can be selected as reliable monitoring approach that could be further used as a key part of robust control schemes conceived for this specific biodiesel production process.
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  390. Solar-Heated Sustainable Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using a Sonochemically Deposited SrO Catalyst on Microporous Activated Carbon
    Abstract

    Tabah, B.; Nagvenkar, A. P.; Perkas, N.; Gedanken, A. 2017. Solar-Heated Sustainable Biodiesel Production from Waste Cooking Oil Using a Sonochemically Deposited SrO Catalyst on Microporous Activated Carbon. Energy & Fuels. 31(6) 6228-6239

    A novel catalyst, SrO on microporous activated carbon (SrO/C), was synthesized by sonochemical deposition of SrO on carbon. The SrO/C demonstrated high catalytic performance in solar-heated transesterification reactions of canola oil, soybean oil, and waste cooking oil (WCO). The catalytic activity increased more than 5-fold (corresponding to 81% less catalyst compared to pristine SrO), using soybean oil as a feedstock. Similar enhancement was also observed with canola oil and WCO, where the catalytic activity improved more than 4-fold, corresponding to 76% less catalyst compared to pristine SrO. A yield of 98.5 wt % fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was obtained from WCO in 60 min using a 1:6 oil:methanol molar ratio and 7.1 wt % SrO/C catalyst (24% SrO loading) at 46 degrees C (solar heating). The SrO/C catalyst was used for four consecutive transesterification reactions of WCO without any significant decrease in its catalytic activity (only 3% decrease in FAME yield and less than 5 ppm leaching). The results confirm the Stability and sustained activity of the SrO/C catalyst, which is of great importance for industrial applications. The proposed method can significantly minimize the cost of biodiesel production by harnessing solar thermal energy. Performing the reaction without any additional energy consumption for heating, using a carbon-supported catalyst and low-cost feedstock, make the current biodiesel production a simple, economically worthwhile, environmentally-friendly, and industrially appealing process.
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  391. Sources of Methyl Ester Yield Reduction in Methanolysis of Recycled Vegetable Oil
    Abstract

    Frohlich, A.; Rice, B. 2009. Sources of Methyl Ester Yield Reduction in Methanolysis of Recycled Vegetable Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 86(3) 269-275

    Recycled vegetable oil (RVO) is a relatively cheap raw material for biodiesel production, but biodiesel grade methyl ester yields from RVO were found to be considerably lower than those from pure plant oil. The present paper investigates sources of yield loss during methanolysis of RVOs with free fatty acids (FFA) contents of 0.4-3.3%, and makes suggestions for the improvement of methyl ester yields. Data presented here indicated that yield losses of methyl esters during methanolysis were due to triglyceride and methyl ester hydrolysis and to the dissolution of methyl esters in the glycerol phase. Hydrolysis of triglycerides and methyl esters seemed to be the only side reaction causing yield losses, and the amount of fatty acids from hydrolysis increased with concentration of the potassium hydroxide catalyst. Dissolution of methyl esters in the glycerol phase was probably caused by the detergent effect of potassium salts of fatty acids originating from FFA in the RVO and from triglyceride hydrolysis, and the amount of dissolved methyl esters increased with FFA content of the RVO. The FFA content of the RVO had no effect on hydrolysis, and the amount of triglycerides and methyl esters hydrolysed during methanolysis remained constant with increasing FFA content of the RVO.
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  392. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Marques, R. V.; da Paz, M. F.; Duval, E. H.; Correa, L. B.; Correa, E. K. 2016. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 47(3) 675-679

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46 C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste. (C) 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
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  393. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Marques, R. V.; Paz, M. F.; Duval, E. H.; Correa, L. B.; Correa, E. K. 2016. Staphylococcus xylosus fermentation of pork fatty waste: raw material for biodiesel production. Braz J Microbiol. 47(3) 675-9

    The need for cleaner sources of energy has stirred research into utilising alternate fuel sources with favourable emission and sustainability such as biodiesel. However, there are technical constraints that hinder the widespread use of some of the low cost raw materials such as pork fatty wastes. Currently available technology permits the use of lipolytic microorganisms to sustainably produce energy from fat sources; and several microorganisms and their metabolites are being investigated as potential energy sources. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterise the process of Staphylococcus xylosus mediated fermentation of pork fatty waste. We also wanted to explore the possibility of fermentation effecting a modification in the lipid carbon chain to reduce its melting point and thereby act directly on one of the main technical barriers to obtaining biodiesel from this abundant source of lipids. Pork fatty waste was obtained from slaughterhouses in southern Brazil during evisceration of the carcasses and the kidney casing of slaughtered animals was used as feedstock. Fermentation was performed in BHI broth with different concentrations of fatty waste and for different time periods which enabled evaluation of the effect of fermentation time on the melting point of swine fat. The lowest melting point was observed around 46 degrees C, indicating that these chemical and biological reactions can occur under milder conditions, and that such pre-treatment may further facilitate production of biodiesel from fatty animal waste.
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  394. Steam Deacidification of High Free Fatty Acid in Jatropha Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kombe, G. G.; Temu, A. K. 2017. Steam Deacidification of High Free Fatty Acid in Jatropha Oil for Biodiesel Production. Energy & Fuels. 31(6) 6206-6210

    Although non-edible oil feedstocks are available at a lower price than edible oil feedstocks, their high free fatty acid (FFA) content hinders their direct utilization in the production of biodiesel by alkali-catalyzed transesterification. In this study, the steam deacidification process, has been employed in reducing the FFA of crude Jatropha oil before alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The response surface methodology (RSM) established on the central composite design (CCD) was used to model and optimize the steam deacidification efficiency under two process variables, namely, temperature and amount of steam. The optimum conditions for deacidification efficiency of 98.74% were found to be the temperature of 235 degrees C and the amount of steam of 3.4% (w/w) of the feedstock. These conditions reduce the high FFA of crude Jatropha oil from 4.54 to 0.09%, which is below 1% recommended for base-catalyzed transesterification. The deacidified crude Jatropha oil was then transesterified using a homogeneous base catalyst and gave a conversion of 97.45%. The tested fuel properties of biodiesel, such as viscosity at 40 degrees C, acid value, gross calorific value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content, and density at 15 degrees C, were found to be comparable to those of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards.
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  395. Studies on application of fish waste for synthesis of high quality biodiesel
    Abstract

    Madhu, D.; Singh, B.; Sharma, Y. C. 2014. Studies on application of fish waste for synthesis of high quality biodiesel. Rsc Advances. 4(59) 31462-31468

    A low cost raw material obtained from the discarded parts of fish (Cirrhinus mrigala, Cirrhinus cirrhosa, Cirrhinus reba) was utilized as feedstock oil and catalyst for the synthesis of biodiesel. Esterification followed by transesterification was carried out for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste fish oil. The discarded parts of fish after extraction of oil that included fins, tails and bones were used to derive a low cost heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of biodiesel. The catalyst characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis showed the calcination temperature required and the phase of the catalyst respectively. The HAP (hydroxyapatite) present in the waste parts of fish was converted into beta-tri-calcium phosphate when calcined at 900 degrees C for 2 h. The catalyst, beta-tri-calcium phosphate was studied for its morphology and porous structure by scanning electron microscopy. A moderate experimental condition (1 : 6.5 molar ratio of oil : methanol, 1.5 wt% of heterogeneous catalyst with respect to oil) was taken for synthesis of biodiesel from waste fish oil. Biodiesel characterized by proton NMR showed a high conversion of waste fish oil to biodiesel (i.e. >96%). The yield of biodiesel determined by gravimetric method was >95%. The heterogeneous catalyst, beta-tri-calcium phosphate was reused up to five times without significant loss in its activity.
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  396. Study of an energy-integrated biodiesel production process using supercritical methanol and a low-cost feedstock
    Abstract

    Manuale, D. L.; Torres, G. C.; Vera, C. R.; Yori, J. C. 2015. Study of an energy-integrated biodiesel production process using supercritical methanol and a low-cost feedstock. Fuel Processing Technology. 140252-261

    The supercritical biodiesel production process has some disadvantages such as: high reaction temperature, large molar methanol-to-oil ratios (R) and large energy consumption. To mitigate these problems, an energy integrated process in which biodiesel is obtained in a continuous tubular reactor operating at a reaction temperature of 280 degrees C, R = 20, a residence time of 1 h and a pressure of 110 bar, is proposed. A low-cost lipid feedstock (chicken oil) was used as raw material for testing the process. The enthalpy content of the stream exiting the supercritical reactor was used to eliminate the unreacted methanol in an adiabatic flash drum. The operating conditions of the adiabatic flash were optimized to meet the specification of water and methanol content in the biodiesel phase and minimize the ester and acid content in the vapor phase. These conditions were: P = 0.1 bar and T = 178 degrees C. For these conditions the methanol content is 88-90% in the vapor phase and lower than 0.2% in the biodiesel phase. A scheme was developed for an energy integrated process maximizing the heat recovery. Composition, temperature and pressure of the streams were determined and also the amount of heat exchanged in each unit. In order to fulfill the quality restrictions the final content of FFA in the biodiesel product had to be further adjusted by adsorption over bleaching silica. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  397. Study of biodiesel production from animal fats with high free fatty acid content
    Abstract

    Encinar, J. M.; Sanchez, N.; Martinez, G.; Garcia, L. 2011. Study of biodiesel production from animal fats with high free fatty acid content. Bioresource Technology. 102(23) 10907-10914

    The aim of this work was to obtain biodiesel from animal fats, an inedible feedstock. Three different types of fats were used to produce biodiesel; their main characteristic was high free fatty acid content. Animal fats were transesterified with acid catalyst and basic catalyst with and without pre-esterification. Biodiesel of 89.0 wt.% ester content was obtained by acid-transesterification (9 wt.% H(2)SO(4), 6:1 methanol:fats molar ratio, 60 C, 48 h). Pre-esterification conditions were studied for different fats and acid catalysts: 0.5 wt.% H(2)SO(4) or 1.0 wt.% p-TsOH, 6:1 methanol:fats molar ratio, 65 degrees C and 4 h made it possible to obtain fats with acid value less than 0.5% FFA. Pre-treatment was effective for fats with different FFA content. Alkali transesterification of esterified fats resulted in a product with 97.3 wt.% ester content. Biodiesel quality was evaluated and most of properties were well within EN 14214. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  398. Study of the acid pretreatment and biodiesel production from olive pomace oil
    Abstract

    Ouachab, N.; Tsoutsos, T. 2013. Study of the acid pretreatment and biodiesel production from olive pomace oil. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 88(6) 1175-1181

    The objective of this work was to study the two-step acid base homogenous catalyzed transesterification of olive pomace oil, with the ultimate purpose of producing biodiesel under mild reaction conditions by optimizing the process. Optimization of the experimental procedure was conducted by a factorial design of 23 under the acidic pretreatment step and during the basic transesterification. The optimal production of methyl esters (97.8%) was achieved for the experimental conditions H2SO4=20 wt%/CH3OH=35:1/T=40 degrees C and KOH=0.6+ fatty acid value /CH3OH=9:1/ T=60 degrees C, in the acidic and basic stage of the process, respectively. Finally, to properly assess the quality of the biofuel produced, it was tested for all the European Standard properties.
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  399. Study on the glycerolysis reaction of high free fatty acid oils for use as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Felizardo, P.; Machado, J.; Vergueiro, D.; Correia, M. J. N.; Gomes, J. P.; Bordado, J. M. 2011. Study on the glycerolysis reaction of high free fatty acid oils for use as biodiesel feedstock. Fuel Processing Technology. 92(6) 1225-1229

    Biodiesel is the main alternative to fossil diesel and it may be produced from different feedstocks such as semi-refined vegetable oils, waste frying oils or animal fats. However, these feedstocks usually contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA) that make them inadequate for the direct base catalyzed transesterification reaction (where the FFA content should be lower than 4%). The present work describes a possible method for the pre-treatment of oils with a high content of FFA (20 to 50%) by esterification with glycerol. In order to reduce the FFA content, the reaction between these FFA and an esterification agent is carried out before the transesterification reaction. The reaction kinetics was studied in terms of its main factors such as temperature, % of glycerin excess, % of catalyst used, stirring velocity and type of catalyst used. The results showed that glycerolysis is a promising pretreatment to acidic oils or fats (> 20%) as they led to the production of an intermediary material with a low content of FFA that can be used directly in the transesterification reaction for the production of biodiesel. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  400. Sulfur Content in Selected Oils and Fats and Their Corresponding Methyl Esters
    Abstract

    He, B. B.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Thompson, J. C. 2009. Sulfur Content in Selected Oils and Fats and Their Corresponding Methyl Esters. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 25(2) 223-226

    According to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, the use of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) has been mandated for all on-highway transportation diesels since 2006. To comply with the EPA regulations, biodiesel must meet the same ULSD standard for total sulfur which is set at a maximum of 15 ppm. Generally, biodiesel contains lower sulfur than fossil diesel. However, due to the diversity of biodiesel feedstocks, questions have been raised about their sulfur content and the sulfur content of the biodiesel made from them. The objective of this research was to gain basic knowledge about how the sulfur content in biodiesel is affected by the sulfur content of different feedstocks. Sulfur in oilseeds, seed meals, oils and fats, and biodiesel were investigated according to ASTM D5453. Samples of different feedstocks for biodiesel production were investigated. Results showed that sulfur content varies greatly from one source to another The highest sulfur in seeds and meals was found in rapeseed and mustard, at the level of 9,000 and 15,000 ppm, respectively. Oils from mechanical expeller presses contained very low levels of sulfur, although some were still higher than 15 ppm. Animal fats and waste vegetable oils contained relatively higher sulfur levels and were frequently above 15 ppm. It was observed that sulfur was significantly reduced when the oils and fats were processed into biodiesel. Results showed that most of the biodiesel samples investigated in this study contained less than 15-ppm sulfur Feedstocks which contain a high percentage of free fatty acids (FFA) must be treated with sulfuric acid to reduce the FFA level before transesterification. In these cases, care is needed during phase separation to exclude sulfur from the fuel layer.
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  401. Sulfur Content in Selected Oils and Fats and Their Corresponding Methyl Esters
    Abstract

    He, B. B.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Thompson, J. C. 2009. Sulfur Content in Selected Oils and Fats and Their Corresponding Methyl Esters. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 25(2) 223-226

    According to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, the use of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) has been mandated for all on-highway transportation diesels since 2006. To comply with the EPA regulations, biodiesel must meet the same ULSD standard for total sulfur which is set at a maximum of 15 ppm. Generally, biodiesel contains lower sulfur than fossil diesel. However, due to the diversity of biodiesel feedstocks, questions have been raised about their sulfur content and the sulfur content of the biodiesel made from them. The objective of this research was to gain basic knowledge about how the sulfur content in biodiesel is affected by the sulfur content of different feedstocks. Sulfur in oilseeds, seed meals, oils and fats, and biodiesel were investigated according to ASTM D5453. Samples of different feedstocks for biodiesel production were investigated. Results showed that sulfur content varies greatly from one source to another The highest sulfur in seeds and meals was found in rapeseed and mustard, at the level of 9,000 and 15,000 ppm, respectively. Oils from mechanical expeller presses contained very low levels of sulfur, although some were still higher than 15 ppm. Animal fats and waste vegetable oils contained relatively higher sulfur levels and were frequently above 15 ppm. It was observed that sulfur was significantly reduced when the oils and fats were processed into biodiesel. Results showed that most of the biodiesel samples investigated in this study contained less than 15-ppm sulfur Feedstocks which contain a high percentage of free fatty acids (FFA) must be treated with sulfuric acid to reduce the FFA level before transesterification. In these cases, care is needed during phase separation to exclude sulfur from the fuel layer.
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  402. Supercritical water gasification of glycerol and methanol mixtures as model waste residues from biodiesel refinery
    Abstract

    Reddy, S. N.; Nanda, S.; Kozinski, J. A. 2016. Supercritical water gasification of glycerol and methanol mixtures as model waste residues from biodiesel refinery. Chemical Engineering Research & Design. 11317-27

    The eco-friendly processing in biodiesel refineries is feasible with effective utilization of the byproducts and waste residues. The motive of this research is to convert the model byproducts of biodiesel refineries to H-2. In this study, different glycerol-methanol mixtures were gasified in supercritical water at variable temperatures (450-600 degrees C) and pressures (23-25 MPa) for 45 s in a continuous-flow tubular reactor. Glycerol and methanol concentrations were varied from 5 to 20 wt% individually in the mixtures, and their impacts on gas yields were investigated both experimentally and thermodynamically. The thermodynamic simulations were performed using Aspen Plus based on Gibbs free energy minimization method. The thermodynamic yield (25.3 mmoVg) of H-2 was higher compared to experimental yields (19 mmoVg) at 600 degrees C, 25 MPa and 1:1 glycerol-to-methanol feed solution. To enhance the gas yields, the effects of four alkali catalysts such as KOH, NaOH, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 at 0.5 wt% concentration were examined. Among all the catalyst, 0.5 wt% K2CO3 resulted in highest 1-12 yields (24.8 mmol/g), total gas yields (1.24 g/L) and carbon gasification efficiency (96.7%) at 600 degrees C and 25 MPa with 1:1 glycerol-to-methanol feed solution. The results suggest that effluents from biodiesel refineries can be used as potential feedstock for waste-to-energy conversion. (C) 2016 Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  403. Supply chain optimization of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Jiang, Y. J.; Zhang, Y. 2016. Supply chain optimization of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil. Ninth International Conference on City Logistics. 12938-949

    Producing biodiesel using waste cooking oil is a substantial instrument for solving the intense problems caused by energy crisis and environment pollutions. This paper focuses on the design of the biodiesel supply chain using waste cooking oil as feedstock in China and establishes a mixed integer linear programming model for both economic and environmental optimization. The model considers a three level network including waster cooking oil production points, distribution centers and factories. And four aspects of decisions are made: (1) the number of distribution centers and factories to locate; (2) the locations of the distribution centers and factories; (3) the allocations of the waste cooking oil among supply chain members; (4) the decisions of factories' technology choice. Finally, the model is applied to a real network in Nanjing and the genetic algorithm is developed to solve this problem. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  404. Supported solid and heteropoly acid catalysts for production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Hanif, M. A.; Nisar, S.; Rashid, U. 2017. Supported solid and heteropoly acid catalysts for production of biodiesel. Catalysis Reviews-Science and Engineering. 59(2) 165-188

    Biodiesel has developed attraction of most researchers recently because of its renewable resources and environmental benefits. Transesterification process in the presence of catalysts is the most common way, which is used for biodiesel production. Heterogeneous acid catalysts are considered more reliable than any other catalysts to carry out most vital reactions related to green chemistry (biodiesel production), because the production of biodiesel from solid acid catalysts is considered economically favorable. Nowadays, biodiesel is preparing from low quality feedstock by using solid acids catalysts in many research laboratory throughout the world. This article discusses how much catalyst shapes affect the efficiency of catalyst during catalysis. Different types of supports (zinc oxide, alumina, zirconia, and silica) are used to increase the efficiency of catalysts. Supported Lewis acid, BrOnsted acid, and heteropoly acid catalysts show good efficiency for the catalytic transesterification of oil with alcohol. Heteropoly acid catalysts are tremendous and environment friendly acid catalyst and have ability to tolerate contaminations of oil resources such as water contents and free fatty acids (FFAs) contents. Keggin-type heteropoly acids are easily available and having stable structure while Wells-Dawson-type heteropoly acids are included in super acid class, due to these reasons heteropoly acids are considered as best acidic catalysts for biodiesel production by catalytic transesterification process. Therefore, this review also focused on the deactivation, regeneration and advantages of supported solid acid catalysts used for the catalytic production of biodiesel through transesterification.
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  405. Synergetic Sustainability Enhancement via Current Biofuel Infrastructure: Waste-to-Energy Concept for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kwon, E.; Yi, H.; Jeon, Y. J. 2013. Synergetic Sustainability Enhancement via Current Biofuel Infrastructure: Waste-to-Energy Concept for Biodiesel Production. Environmental Science & Technology. 47(6) 2817-2822

    The concept of waste-to-energy (WtE) with regards to the utilization of byproducts from the bioethanol industry (e.g., distiller's dried grain with solubles: DDGS) was employed to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, which would be an initiative stage of a biorefinery due to the conjunction between bioethanol and biodiesel. For example, DDGS is a strong candidate for use as a biodiesel feedstock due to the tremendous amount that is regularly generated. On the basis of an estimation of possible lipid recovery from DDGS, similar to 30% of the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010 could be supported by the total DDGS generation in the same year. Considering the future expansion of the bioethanol industry up to 2020, the possible lipid recovery from DDGS would provide more than 6 times the biodiesel feedstock demand in 2010. In order to enhance the renewability of biodiesel, the transformation of lipid extracted from DDGS into fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) via a noncatalytic transesterification reaction under ambient pressure was investigated in this work. The newly introduced method reported here enables the combination of the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and the transesterification of triglycerides into a single step. This was achieved in the presence of a porous material (i.e., charcoal), and the optimal conditions for transformation into biodiesel via this noncatalytic method were assessed at the fundamental level.
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  406. Synthesis and characterization of ethylic biodiesel from animal fat wastes
    Abstract

    Cunha, A.; Feddern, V.; De Pra, M. C.; Higarashi, M. M.; de Abreu, P. G.; Coldebella, A. 2013. Synthesis and characterization of ethylic biodiesel from animal fat wastes. Fuel. 105228-234

    This study optimized the conversion of animal fat wastes into ethylic biodiesel by alkali-catalyzed process under mild conditions. A mix of chicken and swine fat residues was used as feedstock for biodiesel production. A full 3(3) factorial design was used to optimize process parameters for maximum fatty acid ethyl esters yield. Factors were evaluated at three different levels: temperature (30; 50; 70 degrees C), ethanol: fat molar ratio (6: 1; 7: 1; 8: 1) and catalyst concentration (0.44; 0.88; 1.32 wt.%). Effects of the process variables were analyzed using response surface methodology. Moreover, optimum conditions were applied in a bench-scale reactor and biofuel produced was characterized. It was observed that at high temperatures (50 and 70 degrees C), phase separation between biodiesel and glycerol was impaired. Although high conversion was achieved (96.2%) at 70 degrees C, this condition is not recommended because no spontaneous phase separation was verified. On the other hand, 30 degrees C was identified as the best temperature for biodiesel ethanolysis, using 0.96 wt.% catalyst and 7: 1 ethanol: fat molar ratio. With these conditions, it is possible to achieve around 83% conversion. Despite the oxidative stability and total glycerin, biodiesel measured properties agreed with quality requirements established by Official Regulations (ASTM 6751 and EN 14214). (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  407. Synthesis and Evaluation of Catalytic Activity of Calcined Sodium Silicate for Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil to Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Daramola, M. O.; Nkazi, D.; Mtshali, K. 2015. Synthesis and Evaluation of Catalytic Activity of Calcined Sodium Silicate for Transesterification of Waste Cooking Oil to Biodiesel. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. 5(2) 517-523

    Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil (WCO) using heterogeneous sodium silicate catalyst is presented in this article. The conversion of WCO to biodiesel exploited the potential of the catalyst to convert high free fatty acid (FFA) content feedstock to biodiesel directly, thereby by-passing the esterification stage whereby FFA content of the feedstock is reduced prior to transesterification reaction. In the study, effect of reaction temperature and reaction time on the activity of the catalyst during transesterification of WCO to biodiesel was investigated. The transesterification reaction was conducted in a batch reactor with 2.51 g of the catalysts and at WCO to methanol ratio of 1: 6. In addition, the reaction temperature was varied between 25 degrees C to 63 degrees C, and the reaction time was varied from 0 to 180 minutes at a 30 minute step increase. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield increased with reaction time and reaction temperature and the highest FAME yield of. 30% was obtained at 63 degrees C after 180 minutes. However, further studies are required for in-depth understanding of the activity and kinetics of the catalyst for biodiesel production from WCO.
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  408. Synthesis of biodiesel from a model waste oil feedstock using a carbon-based solid acid catalyst: Reaction and separation
    Abstract

    Shu, Q.; Nawaz, Z.; Gao, J. X.; Liao, Y. H.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, D. Z.; Wang, J. F. 2010. Synthesis of biodiesel from a model waste oil feedstock using a carbon-based solid acid catalyst: Reaction and separation. Bioresource Technology. 101(14) 5374-5384

    A solid acid catalyst that can keep high activity and stability is necessary when low cost feedstocks are utilized for biodiesel synthesis because the reaction medium contains a large amount of water. Three solid acid catalysts were prepared by the sulfonation of carbonized vegetable oil asphalt and petroleum asphalt. The structure of these catalysts was characterized by a variety of techniques. A new process that used the coupling of the reaction and separation was employed, which greatly improved the conversion of cottonseed oil (triglyceride) and free fatty acids (FFA) when a model waste oil feedstock was used. The vegetable oil asphalt-based catalyst showed the highest catalytic activity. This was due to the high density and stability of its acid sites, its loose irregular network, its hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH species, and large pores that provided more acid sites for the reactants. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  409. Synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil using waste eggshell and study of its fuel properties
    Abstract

    Chavan, S. B.; Kumbhar, R. R.; Madhu, D.; Singh, B.; Sharma, Y. C. 2015. Synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil using waste eggshell and study of its fuel properties. Rsc Advances. 5(78) 63596-63604

    High purity calcium oxide (CaO) was prepared from eggshell and used as a catalyst for the production of biodiesel. Non-edible oil, Jatropha curcas was used as a feedstock for the synthesis of biodiesel. High purity calcium oxide (CaO) was obtained when the eggshell was subjected to calcination at 900 degrees C for similar to 2.5 h. Confirmation of the catalyst was carried out by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), and differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA). The synthesized biodiesel was characterized using H-1 NMR. Pure biodiesel was obtained in high yield by taking into account various parameters such as a proper methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time. Reusability of the catalyst was observed and the catalyst worked efficiently up to six times without significant loss of activity. Physical and chemical properties of biodiesel such as density, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, etc. were studied.
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  410. Synthesis of biodiesel from low FFA waste frying oil using calcium oxide derived from Mereterix mereterix as a heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Nair, P.; Singh, B.; Upadhyay, S. N.; Sharma, Y. C. 2012. Synthesis of biodiesel from low FFA waste frying oil using calcium oxide derived from Mereterix mereterix as a heterogeneous catalyst. Journal of Cleaner Production. 29-3082-90

    Biodiesel was produced from waste frying oil (WFO) using powdered calcined clamshell (Mereterix mereterix) as a heterogeneous catalyst. Clamshell calcined at 1173 K for 2.5 and 3.5 h showed different catalytic activities. Calcination for 3.5 h resulted in a catalyst of higher activity and reduced trans-esterification reaction time. The raw and calcined clamshells were characterized by XRD, FIR. XRF spectroscopy and BET analysis. The XRD peaks showed the characteristics peaks of CaO at 2 theta = 37.4, 47.3, and 54.4 degrees. A few high intensity peaks of Ca(OH)(2) at 2 theta = 17.9 and 34.1 degrees in the calcined catalyst were also obtained which might have formed due to exposure of CaO with atmospheric air. The used catalyst showed peaks at 8.2 and 10.1 degrees which were characteristic of calcium glyceroxide which was formed due to reaction of calcium oxide and glycerol. Formation of Ca(OH)(2) in the calcined clamshell was also confirmed by FTIR spectra which showed a sharp OH- stretching band. The catalyst was found to comprise principally of calcium (97%) and a few minor elements (Si, Na, Fe, Al, Sr, S. Mn) as analyzed by XRF. The surface area of the calcined clamshell was found to be 2.6 m(2) g(-1). The optimum values for various parameters were found to be 3.0 g of catalyst and 25 ml of methanol per 100 ml of oil (6.03:1, methanol to oil molar ratio) at 333 K in 3 h. A high yield (>89%) and conversion (>97%) were obtained on optimization of variables. With the mandatory compulsion by National Biofuel Policy in India to blend 20% of biofuels i.e. bioethanol and biodiesel in the spark ignition and compression ignition engines respectively from 2017 strengthens the applicability of the present study that utilizes waste resources as feedstock and catalyst in the production of a green fuel i.e. biodiesel. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  411. Synthesis of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated palm seed cake catalyst
    Abstract

    Akinfalabi, S. I.; Rashid, U.; Yunus, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2017. Synthesis of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated palm seed cake catalyst. Renewable Energy. 111611-619

    The use of a sulfonated soaked palm seed cake (SPSC-SO3H) derived catalyst for the production of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) (the byproduct obtained during palm oil production) has been demonstrated. The activated carbon material from the soaked palm seed cake (SPSC) was sulfonated and then used for the esterification of PFAD (containing 85% of free fatty acid (FFA), 10% of triglycerides, 3% of diglycerides, 0.3% of monoglycerides and some traces of impurities). The synthesized SPSC-SO3H catalyst was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), NH3-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), N-2 physisorption and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The SPSC-SO3H catalyst showed higher acid density (12.08 mmol g(-1)) and surface area (483.07 m(2) g(-1)). The optimized reaction conditions, i.e. 9:1 methanol/PFAD molar ratio; 60 degrees C reaction temperature; 2.5 wt.% of the SPSC-SO3H catalyst and 2 h of reaction time was employed to achieve FFA conversion (98.2%) and FAME yield (97.8%). The SPSC-SO3H catalyst underwent eight reaction cycles and catalytic activity was dropped by 24% during recyclability study. The SPSC-SO3H catalyst demonstrates a promising and effective application for biodiesel synthesis especially for feedstocks containing high free fatty acid content. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  412. Synthesis of biodiesel from second-used cooking oil
    Abstract

    Kawentar, W. A.; Budiman, A. 2013. Synthesis of biodiesel from second-used cooking oil. International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (Icseea) 2012. 32190-199

    These days, many used cooking oils from restaurants were re-used by street sellers to fry their food. Those waste oils commonly just throw away. Whereas waste oils which have not any treatment first, will pollute the environment. One of the ways to treat the waste oil is by converting to biodiesel. This research aimed to study the kinetic reaction of second-used cooking oil transesterification into biodiesel and find the optimum condition of its process. This research was done by transesterification reaction in batch reactor. The feedstock was collected from the street sellers in Yogyakarta. Methanol was used as a reactant and KOH was used as a base catalyst. The study parameters were temperature, alcohol to oil molar ratio, and catalyst concentration. Several types of analysis used were free glycerol analysis, total glycerol analysis, free fatty acid (FFA) analysis, and saponification analysis. These analyses were used to calculate the yield of conversion and ester content of biodiesel sample. From this research, it is found that the kinetic reaction of second-used cooking oil transesterification can be expressed b