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Soybean oil as biodiesel feedstock

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  1. A Highly Stable Soybean Oil-Rich Miscella Obtained by Ethanolic Extraction as a Promising Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Bueno-Borges, L. B.; de Camargo, A. C.; Sangaletti-Gerhard, N.; dos Santos, G. C. P.; de Alencar, S. M.; Shahidi, F.; Regitano-d'Arce, M. A. B. 2017. A Highly Stable Soybean Oil-Rich Miscella Obtained by Ethanolic Extraction as a Promising Biodiesel Feedstock. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 94(8) 1101-1109

    Soybean oil is industrially obtained upon hexane extraction. In biodiesel production, soybean oil is submitted to phospholipid removal in order to improve its quality before transesterification. An extraction process was employed to produce ethanolic oil-rich miscella, which can be directly transesterified to produce biodiesel without prior refining. We assessed the oxidative stability of the miscella and three other soybean oils, namely degummed, alkali-refined, and refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) oil. In vitro antioxidant assays as well as the identification and quantification of tocopherols and isoflavones were also performed. Although hexane-extracted oils showed higher tocopherol contents than miscella, this latter sample and its direct biodiesel demonstrated superior stability in accelerated tests. Miscella also outperformed hexane-extracted oils in all in vitro assays. This behavior can be explained by the presence of phenolic compounds with higher affinity to ethanol than hexane, which was confirmed by the identification of isoflavones glycitein, genistein, and acetyldaidzin, found only in miscella. This study showed that the ethanolic extraction of soybean oil generated a highly stable lipid feedstock for biodiesel manufacture.
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  2. Comparative study of emissions from stationary engines using biodiesel made from soybean oil, palm oil and waste frying oil
    Abstract

    D'Agosto, M. D.; da Silva, M. A. V.; Franca, L. S.; de Oliveira, C. M.; Alexandre, M. O. L.; Marques, L. G. D.; Murta, A. L. S.; de Freitas, M. A. V. 2017. Comparative study of emissions from stationary engines using biodiesel made from soybean oil, palm oil and waste frying oil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 701376-1392

    This article examines the CO2 emissions from the combustion of a biodiesel-diesel blend in stationary internal combustion engines to generate electricity. Emissions were analyzed according to the feedstock used for biodiesel production-soybean oil, palm oil, waste frying oil-through the methyl and ethyl routes. The chosen blends were composed of petroleum diesel and biodiesel, with the latter accounting for 20% or 50% of the blend. The results were analyzed using the Tukey test and showed, in general, that higher engine loads led to a decrease in CO2 emissions in comparison with the standard B4 (4% biodiesel) blend mandated in Brazil. Therefore, this paper provides an original and complete approach to analyze and compare in pairs the results of CO2 emissions of different biodiesel production routes, feedstocks and engine loads in order to find the best blend option for each load level.
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  3. Comparative study of NOx emissions of biodiesel-diesel blends from soybean, palm and waste frying oils using methyl and ethyl transesterification routes
    Abstract

    da Silva, M. A. V.; Ferreira, B. L. G.; Marques, L. G. D.; Murta, A. L. S.; de Freitas, M. A. V. D. 2017. Comparative study of NOx emissions of biodiesel-diesel blends from soybean, palm and waste frying oils using methyl and ethyl transesterification routes. Fuel. 194144-156

    The research for renewable and less polluting fuels has focused on biodiesel. This fuel can derive from vegetable, animal or waste oils, and despite its potential to decrease atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases, its influence on NOx emissions is still uncertain. It is believed that biodiesel emissions, especially NOx vary depending on the feedstock, blend percentage and transesterification route. A better understanding of these factors can help choosing the best blend. In this context, this article aims at evaluating how the variation of these factors affects NOx emissions. Tests are carried out in a stationary internal combustion engine with 20% and 50% blends of methyl and ethyl esters made from soybean oil, palm oil and waste frying oil (collected in the University Campus). The analysis of the results with Tukey's test compare their means and lead to the conclusion that, when considering the route, ethyl blends have lower NOx emissions, and palm ethyl ester blends had the best results. Also when all factors are taken into account, B20 from soybean methyl ester has the lowest emissions of NOx. We recommend that future studies test the effect of antioxidants in NOx emissions, as well as test higher blend ratios. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  4. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer
    Abstract

    Joshi, S.; Gogate, P. R.; Moreira, P. F., Jr.; Giudici, R. 2017. Intensification of biodiesel production from soybean oil and waste cooking oil in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst using high speed homogenizer. Ultrason Sonochem. 39645-653

    In the present work, high speed homogenizer has been used for the intensification of biodiesel synthesis from soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) used as a sustainable feedstock. High acid value waste cooking oil (27mg of KOH/g of oil) was first esterified with methanol using sulphuric acid as catalyst in two stages to bring the acid value to desired value of 1.5mg of KOH/g of oil. Transesterification of soybean oil (directly due to lower acid value) and esterified waste cooking oil was performed in the presence of heterogeneous catalyst (CaO) for the production of biodiesel. Various experiments were performed for understanding the effect of operating parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction temperature and speed of rotation of the homogenizer. For soybean oil, the maximum biodiesel yield as 84% was obtained with catalyst loading of 3wt% and molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:10 at 50 degrees C with 12,000rpm as the speed of rotation in 30min. Similarly biodiesel yield of 88% was obtained from waste cooking oil under identical operating conditions except for the catalyst loading which was 1wt%. Significant increase in the rate of biodiesel production with yields from soybean oil as 84% (in 30min) and from WCO as 88% (30min) was established due to the use of high speed homogenizer as compared to the conventional stirring method (requiring 2-3h for obtaining similar biodiesel yield). The observed intensification was attributed to the turbulence caused at microscale and generation of fine emulsions due to the cavitational effects. Overall it can be concluded from this study that high speed homogenizer can be used as an alternate cavitating device to efficiently produce biodiesel in the presence of heterogeneous catalysts.
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  5. Soybean and Soybean/Beef-Tallow Biodiesel: A Comparative Study on Oxidative Degradation During Long-Term Storage
    Abstract

    Pereira, G. G.; Garcia, R. K. A.; Ferreira, L. L.; Barrera-Arellano, D. 2017. Soybean and Soybean/Beef-Tallow Biodiesel: A Comparative Study on Oxidative Degradation During Long-Term Storage. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 94(4) 587-593

    Vegetable oils are the primary raw materials used in biodiesel production; however, they usually present oxidative stabilities inferior to the EN 14214 specifications. An alternative to improve the oxidative quality of vegetable oil biodiesel is blending it with animal fat biodiesel. In this paper, we studied the oxidative degradation of soybean/beef-tallow biodiesel (SB) 70/30 and 50/50 (w/w) during long-term storage. Soybean biodiesel (SO) was used as a control sample. The biodiesel samples were stored for 350 days and analyzed periodically via oxidative stability, tocopherol content, peroxide value, polar compounds, and kinematic viscosity. The results showed that SB 70/30 and 50/50 biodiesel samples presented higher oxidative stabilities than SO biodiesel. Additionally, the blends met the limits proposed by EN 14214 for oxidative stability (8 h). During long-term storage, the SB biodiesel showed greater resistance to oxidative degradation, which was indicated by the lower formation of hydroperoxides and polar compounds. Similarly, the decline in the tocopherol content was slower in SB biodiesel. Blends of soybean and beef-tallow biodiesel at levels of 70/30 and 50/50 are, therefore, proper alternatives to improve the oxidative quality of this biofuel.
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  6. A comparison of particulate emission for rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester in perspective of their fatty ester composition
    Abstract

    Zhu, L.; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Z. 2016. A comparison of particulate emission for rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester in perspective of their fatty ester composition. Applied Thermal Engineering. 94249-255

    Three different kinds of biodiesel blended with baseline diesel fuel in 50% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads of two steady speeds. The aim of this study is to identify the effects of fatty ester composition in the particulate emission of biodiesel from different feedstocks. The smoke opacity of SME50 (Soybean oil methyl ester) is higher than that of RME50 (Rapeseed oil methyl ester) and PME50 (Palm oil methyl ester). There is no obvious relationship between total unsaturate fraction and smoke opacity, while smoke opacity is linear with polyunsaturate fraction of fuel at all test modes, which means that the unsaturated ester with two or three double bonds have greater influence in smoke formation than the counterpart with only one double bond. The SOF (soluble organic fraction) proportion of RME50, PME50 and SME50 is 5 times or 4 times larger than that of diesel fuel and ultra-low-sulfur diesel respectively. The overall sequence of SOF is PME50 > SME50 > RME50. SOF fraction is linear with saturate fraction of fuel at all test modes. PME50 has higher nucleation particle number concentration than that of RME50 and SME50. Same with SOF, the increase in total nucleation number concentration depends on saturate fraction of fuel at all test modes. Thus, the feedstocks and composition of biodiesel could be selected and optimized during production process in order to improve the emission conditions of biodiesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  7. Analysis of soybean biodiesel additive with different formulations of oils and fats
    Abstract

    Farias, A. F. F.; da Conceicao, M. M.; Cavalcanti, E. H. S.; Melo, M. A. R.; dos Santos, I. M. G.; de Souza, A. G. 2016. Analysis of soybean biodiesel additive with different formulations of oils and fats. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. 123(3) 2121-2127

    In Brazil the soybean oil is most utilized for biodiesel production due to its high production. Nevertheless, this feedstock presents low oxidative stability. This work aimed to evaluate the application of castor oil, babassu oil and beef tallow in soybean oil as an additive (< 5 %) to improve thermal and oxidative stability of ethyl soybean biodiesel. The characterizations realized were gas chromatography, kinematic viscosity, thermal analysis and Rancimat. In the binary and ternary formulations were added 2-4 % (w/w) babassu oil, castor oil or beef tallow in soybean oil for promoting ethyl transesterification. Content of ester agrees with Brazilian biodiesel specification, except to soybean biodiesel with 2 % beef tallow (87.2 %). The increase in content of beef tallow in soybean oil for biodiesel synthesis led to an increase in the cloud point and pour point, mainly soybean biodiesel with addition of 4 % beef tallow. In relation to the kinematic viscosity all biodiesel formulations were in agreement with the Technical Regulation established by ANP 3/2014, except for soybean biodiesel with addition of 4 % beef tallow. Thermogravimetric curves indicated that 4 % ternary formulation was the most stable (245 A degrees C). In relation to oxidative stability, the most stable were soybean biodiesel with 2 and 4 % beef tallow and 4 % ternary formulation. Considering thermal, oxidative and flow properties, it is suggested that 4 % ternary formulation (soybean oil additive with 2 % babassu oil and 2 % castor oil) is the most appropriate for production of biodiesel.
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  8. Continuous production of biodiesel from soybean flakes by extraction coupling with transesterification under supercritical conditions
    Abstract

    Xu, Q. Q.; Li, Q.; Yin, J. Z.; Guo, D.; Qiao, B. Q. 2016. Continuous production of biodiesel from soybean flakes by extraction coupling with transesterification under supercritical conditions. Fuel Processing Technology. 14437-41

    A continuous process of supercritical extraction coupling with supercritical methanol transesterification was put forward to prepare biodiesel directly from full-fat soybean flakes. This method is meaningful to the industrialized production of biodiesel. It can lower the high cost of the refined vegetable oil as feedstock. Furthermore, it gives a possibility that a mobile biodiesel processor could be easily moved to various locations where raw materials are available and produce biodiesel in situ. The experimental results indicated that a residence time of more than 2.5 h was required to obtain a stable fatty acid methyl ester yield. The maximum biodiesel yield of 86% was obtained at 350 degrees C, 20 MPa and 3 h, with the molar ratio of methanol-to-oil of about 42:1. In addition, based on the investigation of the process optimization, oil extraction was found to be the crucial step for the coupling process and other promising routes were proposed to improve both the production efficiency and the capacity. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  9. Nanostructured sodium-zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) doped with potassium by sol-gel processing for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Saeedi, M.; Fazaeli, R.; Aliyan, H. 2016. Nanostructured sodium-zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) doped with potassium by sol-gel processing for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. 77(2) 404-415

    Zeolite imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) doped with potassium (KNa/ZIF-8) was prepared under hydrothermal conditions. FTIR, powder XRD, scanning electron microscopy, N-2 physisorption and TGA were used to characterize synthesized catalysts. Furthermore, biodiesel was synthesized using soybean oil as the feedstock by KNa/ZIF-8-catalyzed transesterification process. In order to increase the basicity and consequently improve the performance of ZIF-8 in the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol, sodium and potassium were added to it. The effect of various reaction parameters, including methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction, catalyst mass and temperature on the reaction, was studied. Using KNa/ZIF-8 and methanol/oil molar ratio of 10:1 over a period of 3.5 h afforded a remarkable conversion of > 98. The solid catalyst can be recycled least three times under mild conditions. KNa/ZIF-8 demonstrated higher activity in the transesterification of soybean oil compared with Na and K (as dopant) modifications on the conventional support (SiO2) and other MOF (MIL-101 and MIL-100) materials.
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  10. Nonpolar Organic Compound Emission Rates for Light-Duty Diesel Engine Soybean and Waste Vegetable Oil Biodiesel Fuel Combustion
    Abstract

    Kasumba, J.; Holmen, B. A. 2016. Nonpolar Organic Compound Emission Rates for Light-Duty Diesel Engine Soybean and Waste Vegetable Oil Biodiesel Fuel Combustion. Energy & Fuels. 30(11) 9783-9792

    Very few studies report the detailed organic chemical composition of biodiesel exhaust PM despite reports that biodiesel exhaust PM leads to more adverse health effects than diesel exhaust PM. Here, we compare light-duty diesel engine exhaust particle-phase emission rates (ng/mu g (PM)) of target nonpolar organic analytes-19 n-alkanes, 16 priority PAHs, and 10 fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)-during transient operation for 5 recycled waste vegetable oil (WVO; B00, B10, B20, B50, and B100) and 3 virgin soybean oil (soybean; BOO, B20, and B100) biodiesel blends (where Bxx = volume % biodiesel). Biodiesel fuels were blended volumetrically from ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and B100 from each feedstock. FAMEs emission rates were 3-7 times higher than n-alkanes for the common B20 blend, increasing to 60-100 times for B100. Both total n-alkanes and total FAMES emission rate trends with Bxx were consistent with expected values based on fuel volume percent and similar ratios to ULSD were observed for both feedstocks. Total n-alkane emission rates decreased with increasing biodiesel content (B10 to B100) between 5-86% and 3-79% compared to ULSD, for WVO and soybean, respectively. Total FAMEs emission rates in WVO B100 exhaust PM were about 7, 3, and 2 times higher than WVO B10, B20, and B50 exhaust PM, respectively, with similar ratios for the soybean feedstock. In contrast, PAH emission rates, while statistically similar for both feedstocks, did not decrease as much as expected based on dilution of ULSD with B100 biodiesel, evidence that FAME or lubrication oil combustion account for PAH formation in higher biodiesel blends (greater than B20). Because emission rates of n-alkanes, PAHs, and FAMEs from recycled vegetable oil biodiesel were not statistically different from those for soybean biodiesel, based on nonpolar organic emissions alone, use of recycled waste cooking oil biodiesel is preferable to virgin vegetable oil biodiesel because of its dual use for food preparation prior to use as a renewable, low-carbon transportation fuel. Future studies should quantify how WVO biodiesel emissions are changed by use of emission control devices, such as DPF and SCR.
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  11. Synthesis of Zn,La-catalysts for biodiesel production from edible and acid soybean oil
    Abstract

    Veiga, P. M.; Veloso, C. O.; Henriques, C. A. 2016. Synthesis of Zn,La-catalysts for biodiesel production from edible and acid soybean oil. Renewable Energy. 99543-552

    Mixed oxides are widely used as catalyst in biodiesel production. The synthesis of these materials is mostly performed through co-precipitation using a basic solution as precipitating agent. The presence of residual alkali metals in the catalyst is a problem. The use of non-edible raw materials is a challenging issue in biodiesel production. The effect of precipitating agent (NaOH/Na2CO3, urea and (NH4)(2)CO3/NH4OH), calcination temperature (450 and 750 degrees C), and Zn/La molar ratio in the catalytic performance of Zn,La-mixed oxides for edible and non-edible soybean oil methanolysis was studied. ZnO promoted biodiesel production and lanthanum oxide carbonate and carbonate hydroxide phases are more effective for transesterification reaction than lanthanum oxide. The catalytic results for the transesterification of edible soybean oil could be correlated to catalyst basicity. The esterification of oleic acid added to edible soybean oil was favored by La species. In the presence of oleic acid, FAME yield could not be correlated to acid-basic sites density and the lanthanum oxide carbonate and carbonate hydroxide species deactivated more than lanthanum oxide. The best performance for the methanolysis of soybean oil containing 10% of oleic acid (95%) was obtained by the catalyst prepared using urea as coprecipitation agent and calcined at 750 degrees C. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  12. Life-cycle impacts of soybean and algae biodiesel: Case study of US marine vessels
    Abstract

    Tsang, M.; Fox-Lent, C.; Wallace, S.; Welp, T.; Bates, M.; Linkov, I. 2015. Life-cycle impacts of soybean and algae biodiesel: Case study of US marine vessels. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 9(5) 567-580

    The push to find alternatives to fossil fuels has driven research and consumption of biofuels. Recent actions in the United States have placed an emphasis on the use of renewable fuels for improved sustainability of government operations. In 2013, the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) measured atmospheric emissions from two navigation vessels consuming three different fuel types and found that biofuels have the potential to lower atmospheric emissions. These fuels have widely different production processes, however, and a full life-cycle assessment is necessary to provide a complete picture of these biofuels. The goal of this study was to identify whether transitioning navigation vessels to operate on biodiesel would have the potential to lower human health and environmental impacts. This study focuses on the complete life cycle of these fuels in USACE marine vessels by employing a well-to-wheels life-cycle assessment comparing the impacts of a 100% soy-based biodiesel and an algal-based biodiesel blend to a conventional diesel. Overall, soybean-based biodiesel had lower impacts compared to algal-based biodiesel. Impacts from conventional diesel were generally lower than algal-based biodiesel, but impacts between conventional diesel and soybean-based biodiesel were mixed. While greenhouse gas emissions during the use phase were reduced for the biofuels (after considering only the non-biogenic fraction of carbon emission), a complete look at the life-cycle resulted in cases where emissions could be greater than conventional diesel. Biodiesel impacts depended greatly on modeling assumptions made in the life-cycle system boundaries and inventory such as allocation method and assumptions about feedstock growth and harvesting. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
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  13. Monetized value of the environmental, health and resource externalities of soy biodiesel
    Abstract

    Winden, M.; Cruze, N.; Haab, T.; Bakshi, B. 2015. Monetized value of the environmental, health and resource externalities of soy biodiesel. Energy Economics. 4718-24

    This study monetizes the life cycle environmental damage, human health risk, and resource depletion externalities associated with the production and use of biodiesel fuels from soybean feedstock. Applying a framework that couples life cycle damage measurements with social preferences elicited from a conjoint choice experiment allows for comparison of petrodiesel and biodiesel's external damages. The results of the study reveal that production and consumption of soybean based biodiesels produce improvements in environmental, health and resource impacts of $0.27 per gallon relative to petrodiesel for a 20% blend and $3.14 per gallon for a 100% blend. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  14. Nanorice-shaped mesoporous V/RSM as an efficient and reusable catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Fazaeli, R.; Aliyan, H. 2015. Nanorice-shaped mesoporous V/RSM as an efficient and reusable catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology. 76(2) 456-464

    Sol-gel method was used to synthesize a nanorice-shaped mesoporous V/RSM, which was characterized by FTIR, XRD, BET, UV-Vis and TEM. The mesostructure of silica remains intact after following vanadium modification, as shown by absorption-desorption analysis, while spectral techniques indicate the successful immobilization of the neat vanadium oxide inside the porous silica support. Furthermore, soybean oil was has been used as the feedstock in the preparation of biodiesel by V/RSM-catalyzed transesterification process. Various reaction parameters, including methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction time, catalyst mass and reaction temperature, were studied investigated with regard to their effect on the reaction. A remarkable conversion of 94 % was obtained achieved using a 8 % (wt/wt oil) of V(4.8)/RSM catalyst, methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1 and reflux temperature of methanol during 8 h. The solid catalyst can be reused over at least six cycles under mild conditions.
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  15. Production of biodiesel through transesterification of soybean oil using ZIF-8@GO doped with sodium and potassium catalyst
    Abstract

    Fazaeli, R.; Aliyan, H. 2015. Production of biodiesel through transesterification of soybean oil using ZIF-8@GO doped with sodium and potassium catalyst. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 88(10) 1701-1710

    One pot encapsulating (hydrothermal) method was used to synthesize ZIF-8@GO hybrid nanocomposites. Na/ZIF-8@GO doped with potassium were synthesized by the hydrothermal treatment of ZIF-8@GO precursor with a 10 M alkali solution containing both NaOH and KOH. The final product (KNa/ZIF-8@GO) was characterized by FTIR, XRD, BET, TGA, and SEM. The structure of graphene oxide remains intact following various modifications, as shown by absorption-desorption analysis, while spectral techniques indicate successful immobilization of the neat ZIF-8 between the GO sheets. Furthermore, soybean oil has been used as the feedstock in the preparation of biodiesel by KNa/ZIF-8@GO-catalyzed transesterification process. The effects of various reaction parameters, including methanol/oil molar ratio, reaction time, catalyst mass, and reaction temperature were investigated. A remarkable conversion of 98% was obtained using a 8% (wt/wt oil) of KNa/ZIF-8@GO catalyst, methanol/oil molar ratio of 18 : 1, and reflux temperature of methanol over a period of 8 h. The solid catalyst can be reused over at least three cycles under mild reaction conditions.
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  16. Biodiesel Synthesis from Soybean Oil Using Zinc Oxide in Supercritical Methanol
    Abstract

    Shin, H. Y.; Ryu, J. H.; An, S. H.; Bae, S. Y. 2014. Biodiesel Synthesis from Soybean Oil Using Zinc Oxide in Supercritical Methanol. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan. 47(11) 815-820

    ZnO has been reported to be the optimum heterogeneous catalyst for mitigating harsh supercritical operating conditions for biodiesel production because of its high activity and negligible leaching in supercritical methanol. However, more data on transesterification using ZnO in supercritical methanol is still needed for industrial applications. In this study, biodiesel was produced by the transesterification of soybean oil with a ZnO catalyst in supercritical methanol. The kinetic parameters were determined at the initial stage of the reaction to examine the reaction rate, and the activity of the recycled catalyst was measured to determine its reuse performance. The effect of the free fatty acid content was also investigated to validate the feasibility of applying waste oils to the biodiesel feedstock.
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  17. Energy flow in the soybean biodiesel production chain using ethanol as solvent extraction of oil from soybeans
    Abstract

    Sangaletti-Gerhard, N.; Romanelli, T. L.; Vieira, T. M. F. D.; Navia, R.; Regitano-d'Arce, M. A. B. 2014. Energy flow in the soybean biodiesel production chain using ethanol as solvent extraction of oil from soybeans. Biomass & Bioenergy. 6639-48

    Technological, energetic, economic and environmental feasibilities of a production system should be analyzed for the best conditions for implementing a process to be established. Refined soybean oil is a high-cost feedstock for biodiesel production, because it involves crop production, oil extraction and refining. Desolventizing and refining steps are required to obtain edible oils within the market quality standards. The introduction of a new technology, i.e. the direct use of the rich-in-soybean oil ethanolic miscella to produce biodiesel would however avoid these high energy demanding steps. Material and energy flow analysis are tools adopted to evaluate production systems and to identify the most energy demanding steps, in order to improve the processes. This study aimed to establish a comparative analysis between the conventional biodiesel production process in Brazil and the direct rich-in-soybean oil ethanolic miscella transesterification based on the energy flow. Energy flows confirmed that biodiesel feedstock production is the most energy demanding step, followed by oil extraction. Rich-in-oil miscella transesterification step by chemical route demanded less energy, followed by refined oil ethanolysis and methanolysis. The enzymatic catalysis had the highest energy demand, due to the amount and especially, the catalyst support composition. Generally speaking, refined oil ethanolysis process presented better energy balance (60.5 MJ kg(-1)), followed by refined oil methanolysis (55.4 MJ rich-in-oil miscella chemical ethanolysis (44.3 MJ kg(-1)), rich-in-oil miscella enzymatic ethanolysis with co-solvent (9.5 MJ kg(-1)) and rich-in-oil miscella enzymatic ethanolysis (9.4 MJ kg(-1)). This showed that rich-in-oil miscella process has high potential to produce biodiesel competitively. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  18. Energy life-cycle assessment and CO2 emissions analysis of soybean-based biodiesel: a case study
    Abstract

    Rajaeifar, M. A.; Ghobadian, B.; Safa, M.; Heidari, M. D. 2014. Energy life-cycle assessment and CO2 emissions analysis of soybean-based biodiesel: a case study. Journal of Cleaner Production. 66233-241

    In this study the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of biodiesel production from soybean in Golestan province of Iran were studied. For this purpose, the life-cycle process of biodiesel was considered as five stages of agricultural soybean production, soybean transportation, soybean crushing, biodiesel conversion, and its transportation. The results indicated that the total fossil energy consumption with coproduct allocation was 8617.7 MJ ha(-1) and the renewable energy output content (biodiesel as the final outcome) was estimated as 16,991.4 MJ ha(-1). The net energy gain (NEG) and the fossil energy ratio (FER) were calculated as 8373.7 MJ ha(-1) and 1.97, respectively, which show soybean is a suitable energy crop for biodiesel production. Agricultural soybean production stage ranked the first in energy consumption among the five main stages where it consumed 50.56% of total fossil energy consumption in the biodiesel life-cycle process. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions data analysis revealed that the total GHG emission was 1710.3 kg CO(2)eq ha(-1) which biodiesel production life-cycle was only account for 311.96 kg CO(2)eq ha(-1) if the mass allocation is considered. Overall, biodiesel production from soybean in Iran can be considered as a way to increase energy security in the near future. Also, soybean cultivation must be considered along with other common oilseeds cultivation in order to prevent food competition between biodiesel feedstocks and food production in Iran. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  19. Statistical Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil in a Microchannel Reactor
    Abstract

    Dai, J. Y.; Li, D. Y.; Zhao, Y. C.; Xiu, Z. L. 2014. Statistical Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil in a Microchannel Reactor. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(22) 9325-9330

    Microreactors are efficient with regard to the continuous production of biodiesel, because of their enhanced mass transfer. In this study, a novel structure of microchannel reactor was studied to synthesize biodiesel from soybean oil via alkali-catalyzed transesterification. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the relationship between biodiesel yield and reaction parameters, such as residence time, reaction temperature, catalyst amount, and molar ratio of methanol to oil. A three-level four-factor Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to fit the available response data to a second-order polynomial regression model. Under the optimum conditions of a residence time of 14.9 s, a methanol/oil molar ratio of 8.5, 1.17 wt % KOH, and 59 degrees C, the biodiesel yield reached 99.5%. The effect of moisture and free fatty acid on biodiesel production were also explored.
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  20. Utilization of glycerin byproduct derived from soybean oil biodiesel as a carbon source for heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris
    Abstract

    Anastacio, G. S.; Santos, K. O.; Suarez, P. A. Z.; Torres, F. A. G.; De Marco, J. L.; Parachin, N. S. 2014. Utilization of glycerin byproduct derived from soybean oil biodiesel as a carbon source for heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris. Bioresource Technology. 152505-510

    Crude glycerol, also known as glycerin, is the main byproduct of the biodiesel industry. It has been estimated that up to 40,000 tons of glycerin will be produced each year by 2020. This study evaluated the value-added use of crude glycerol derived from soybean biodiesel preparation as a carbon source for heterologous protein production using the yeast Pichia pastoris. Eleven glycerin samples were obtained by methanolysis of soybean oil using different acids or bases as catalysts. Cell growth experiments showed that crude glycerol containing either potassium or sodium hydroxide resulted in 1.5-2 times higher final cell densities when compared to glycerol P. A. Finally, crude glycerol containing sodium hydroxide was successfully utilized for constitutive heterologous a-amylase production in P. pastoris. This study demonstrated that crude glycerol without any purification steps may be directly used as carbon source for protein production in P. pastoris. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  21. Aminopropylsilica as an environmentally friendly and reusable catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Xie, W. L.; Zhao, L. L. 2013. Aminopropylsilica as an environmentally friendly and reusable catalyst for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Fuel. 1031106-1110

    In this study, 3-aminopropylsilica was prepared by a reaction of silica gel with 3-aminopropyl(trimethoxy)silane, and used as a heterogeneous catalyst for soybean oil transesterification with methanol. This 3-aminopropylsilica catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique. The transesterification conditions, such as the molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, reaction time, and catalyst dosage were investigated. It was shown that the conversion of soybean oil to methyl esters could reach 94.5% when the reaction was performed with a molar ratio of methanol to soybean oil of 30: 1, a catalyst amount of 8 wt.%, at a reaction temperature of 423 K. The free fatty acid and water present in the feedstocks decreased the catalyst activity in the transesterification reaction. The heterogeneous catalyst could be recovered with a better reusability. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  22. Biodiesel Production by Esterification of Hydrolyzed Soybean Oil with Ethanol in Reactive Distillation Columns: Simulation Studies
    Abstract

    Machado, G. D.; Pessoa, F. L. P.; Castier, M.; Aranda, D. A. G.; Cabral, V. F.; Cardozo-Filho, L. 2013. Biodiesel Production by Esterification of Hydrolyzed Soybean Oil with Ethanol in Reactive Distillation Columns: Simulation Studies. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 52(27) 9461-9469

    Biodiesel conventional production process, by alkaline transesterification reaction, have disadvantages such as complex products separation and high feedstock costs. In this regard, production of biodiesel by esterification of fatty acids into a reactive distillation column has proved to be promising for overcoming some of these drawbacks. However, only simulation works that consider only one type of fatty acid reagent are available in the literature, and not simulations based on a real fatty material for this process. In this way, this work presents steady-state computational simulations of fatty acid esters (biodiesel) production in a reactive distillation column by esterification reaction of a new feedstock that represents the fatty acids composition of the soybean oil (hydrolyzed soybean oil) with anhydrous ethanol Sensitivity analyses showed that the best operating conditions were the minimum reflux ratio of 0.001 and 15 theoretical stages. As to thermal analysis, it was noted that the process is optimized by increasing the energy consumption of reagent instead of the reboiler. The low thermal load on this equipment can be used in order to avoid exposure of the bottom product at elevated temperatures. Conversions close to 99% were possible with the proper choice of these operating conditions The results show the technical feasibility of this process, and such data can be useful for the design of biodiesel processes.
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  23. Biodiesel production from soybean oil transesterification using tin oxide-supported WO3 catalysts
    Abstract

    Xie, W. L.; Wang, T. 2013. Biodiesel production from soybean oil transesterification using tin oxide-supported WO3 catalysts. Fuel Processing Technology. 109150-155

    The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was carried out using WO3/SnO2 solid as a heterogeneous acid catalyst. The effects of catalyst preparation parameters on the conversion to FAME were investigated. This WO3/SnO2 catalyst prepared by an impregnation method, with the WO3 loading amount of 30% and calcined at a temperature of 1173 K, showed the best catalytic activity. The maximum conversion to FAME of 79.2% was achieved after 5 h at 383 K when 30:1 M ratio of methanol to oil and 5 wt.% of catalyst were employed. The ability of the catalyst to esterify free fatty acids (FFAs) in feedstocks and its insensitivity to water exhibited the potential to prepare biodiesel from low-cost feedstocks. The solid catalyst can be reused for four runs without significant deactivation. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  24. Biodiesel production from soybean soapstock acid oil by hydrolysis in subcritical water followed by lipase-catalyzed esterification using a fermented solid in a packed-bed reactor
    Abstract

    Soares, D.; Pinto, A. F.; Goncalves, A. G.; Mitchell, D. A.; Krieger, N. 2013. Biodiesel production from soybean soapstock acid oil by hydrolysis in subcritical water followed by lipase-catalyzed esterification using a fermented solid in a packed-bed reactor. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 8115-23

    We investigated a new hydroesterification strategy for the production of biodiesel from low-value oil feedstocks: complete hydrolysis of the feedstock to fatty acids in subcritical water, followed by the use of a packed-bed reactor, containing a fermented solid with lipase activity, to convert the fatty acids to their ethyl esters. The fermented solids were produced by cultivating Burkholderia cepacia LTEB11 for 72 h on a 1:1 mixture, by mass, of sugarcane bagasse and sunflower seed meal. The esterification of fatty acids obtained from soybean soapstock acid oil was studied in the packed-bed bioreactor, in a solvent-free system, with the best results being a 92% conversion in 31 h, obtained at 50 C. When the packed-bed reactor was reused in successive 48-h esterification reactions, conversions of over 84% of the fatty acids to esters were maintained for five cycles at 50 C and for six cycles at 45 C. Unlike previous hydroesterification processes that have used lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis followed by chemically-catalyzed esterification, our process does not expose the lipases to contaminants present in low quality feedstocks such as soapstocks. This advantage opens the possibility of operating the packed-bed esterification reactor in continuous mode. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  25. Continuous Catalyst-Free Production of Biodiesel through Transesterification of Soybean Fried Oil in Supercritical Methanol and Ethanol
    Abstract

    Gonzalez, S. L.; Sychoski, M. M.; Navarro-Diaz, H. J.; Callejas, N.; Saibene, M.; Vieitez, I.; Jachmanian, I.; da Silva, C.; Hense, H.; Oliveira, J. V. 2013. Continuous Catalyst-Free Production of Biodiesel through Transesterification of Soybean Fried Oil in Supercritical Methanol and Ethanol. Energy & Fuels. 27(9) 5253-5259

    This work reports the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) by means of waste fried oil (WFO) transesterification using methanol and ethanol at supercritical conditions, in a continuous catalyst-free process. Transesterification experiments were performed from 573 to 623 K, at 10, 15, and 20 MPa, with oil/alcohol molar ratios of 1:20, 1:30, and 1:40 and water addition to alcohol of 0, 5, and 10 wt %. The extent of the reaction was explored using a novel parameter, convertibility, which corresponds to the maximum ester content attainable from the feedstock (92.1%). The highest FAME and FAEE contents achieved were 81.7 and 82.2%, respectively. Results show that transesterification of WFO in methanol was more efficient than that in ethanol, the temperature had the strongest influence, and the addition of water considerably improved the ester yield.
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  26. Economic Comparison of Continuous and Batch Production of Biodiesel Using Soybean Oil
    Abstract

    Benavides, P. T.; Salazar, J.; Diwekar, U. 2013. Economic Comparison of Continuous and Batch Production of Biodiesel Using Soybean Oil. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 32(1) 11-24

    Continuing depletion of fossil fuel reserves and increasing environmental concerns have encouraged engineers and scientists to look for alternative, clean, and renewable fuels that can reduce fossil-fuels negative environmental impact and secure the energy supplies. Biodiesel has been considered as one of the best candidates for these renewable fuels. For its production, transesterification reaction of triglycerides is recognized as a feasible pathway. This reaction can be carried out in continuous or batch reactors, however, most of the other unit operations, like decanters and distillation columns, are operated continuously. Most of the studies of biodiesel production have been done in continuous models. In this paper, we evaluate batch and continuous processing options for biodiesel production from the economical point of view. The economic feasibility of biodiesel as well the plants configuration not only depends on technical design aspects but also on other important factors such as seasonal variation of feedstock, transportation costs, and storage costs of material. Therefore, our comparison involves size of the market, transportation distance from supplier to producer facility, and feedstock availability of soybean oil by the allocation of supply of raw material. It was found that based on these aspects, batch processing shows interesting results and should be considered for production rather that continuous production as it is done today. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis provides more insights of the flexibility of batch processing when scheduling variation is considered. (c) 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 1124, 2013
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  27. Effect of alkali catalyst on biodiesel production in South Korea from mixtures of fresh soybean oil and waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Primata, M.; Seo, Y. C.; Chu, Y. H. 2013. Effect of alkali catalyst on biodiesel production in South Korea from mixtures of fresh soybean oil and waste cooking oil. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 15(2) 223-228

    Biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) and soybean oil (SO) mixture was produced by changing the alkali catalyst (NaOH) content and the WCO to SO ratio in the feedstock. All the prepared biodiesel samples satisfied the standard requirement in terms of free glycerol, density, and acid value. The minimum catalyst content and the highest WCO composition to get biodiesel from the WCO/SO mixture feedstock without ruining the biodiesel properties were 1.0 and 60 wt %, respectively. This conclusion implies that the waste cooking oil mixture, which contains 40 wt % fresh soybean oil, could be treated like the fresh soybean oil to produce biodiesel, and that this behavior would be helpful to reduce the biodiesel production cost when waste cooking oil used as feedstock. The unsaturated methyl esters such as linoleic, and oleic acid were dominant (almost 80 % w/w) in the fresh soybean oil. However the saturated methyl ester was increased due to the double bond breaking during the frying process. These results may deteriorate the biodiesel quality by changing the methyl ester composition.
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  28. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean ethanolic miscella for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Sangaletti, N.; Cea, M.; Regitano-d'Arce, M. A. B.; Vieira, T. M. F. D.; Navia, R. 2013. Enzymatic transesterification of soybean ethanolic miscella for biodiesel production. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 88(11) 2098-2106

    BACKGROUNDBiodiesel production is not economically competitive with petroleum diesel particularly when using virgin and refined vegetable oils. Rich-in-oil miscella obtained from the extraction of soybean oil with ethanol may be a promising feedstock for taking off the refining process, simultaneously introducing an environmental friendly step by replacing hexane by ethanol as a renewable solvent in the oil extraction process. The aim of this study was to investigate the production of biodiesel from the oil-ethanol miscella by direct transesterification using Novozym (R) 435 as catalyst and ethanol as acyl acceptor; simultaneously optimizing the process by response surface methodology and enzyme reuse.
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  29. Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for Compounds of Soybean Ethyl Biodiesel Production by Transesterification
    Abstract

    Franca, B. B.; Villardi, H. G. D.; Pessoa, F. L. P.; Uller, A. M. C. 2013. Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium for Compounds of Soybean Ethyl Biodiesel Production by Transesterification. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data. 58(7) 1927-1933

    The phenomenon of liquid liquid equilibrium for products of transesterification reaction has been studied over the past decade. There was an increase of experimental data from different kinds of possible feedstock used to obtained biodiesel. Phase equilibrium data were presented here for systems containing soybean ethyl biodiesel, ethanol, glycerol, and water at 298.15 K. In addition, results on parameter estimation show a satisfactorily adjustment for experimental data with a UNIQUAC model, and a matrix with parameters was presented. The estimation procedure shows high sensibility for structural parameters of the UNIQUAC model. Therefore, new parameters were obtained for the system mentioned, which were capable of representing all experimental data measured at this work and data considered from the literature.
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  30. Perspectives of safflower oil as biodiesel source for South Eastern Europe (comparative study: Safflower, soybean and rapeseed)
    Abstract

    Mihaela, P.; Josef, R.; Monica, N.; Rudolf, Z. 2013. Perspectives of safflower oil as biodiesel source for South Eastern Europe (comparative study: Safflower, soybean and rapeseed). Fuel. 111114-119

    Biodiesel is a non-polluting alternative fuel produced from renewable resources whose chemical and physical properties closely resemble those of the petroleum diesel fuel. Recently studies are being carried out for biodiesel production from less common or unconventional oilseeds. This paper highlights the perspectives of using safflower oil for the biodiesel industry to promote it as an alternative fuel. The safflower is widely grown in semi-arid and arid regions of the world. Advantages of cultivating safflower like drought resistance and salt tolerance were taken into account. The field experiments were placed in Romania, one of the South-Eastern Europe countries with a big agricultural potential.
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  31. Should Zambia produce biodiesel from soybeans? some insights from an empirical analysis
    Abstract

    De Gorter, Harry; De Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Timilsina, Govinda R. 2013. Should Zambia produce biodiesel from soybeans? some insights from an empirical analysis. Policy research working paper. 1 online resource (25 p

    Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of entire petroleum despite the availability of a surplus of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia, a country in Sub-Saharan Africa, has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. But, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been fully investigated yet. Using an empirical model this study analyzes the economics of meeting the biodiesel mandate through soybean feedstock. The study finds that meeting the biodiesel mandate with biodiesel from soybeans would reduce social welfare because the country's soybean imports would cost more than the expected reduction in petroleum imports. However, if Zambia increases its domestic soybean supply along with its capacity to convert soybean to biodiesel, as well as oil yield, soybean based biodiesel is likely to be welfare-beneficial, even if biodiesel prices are above diesel prices. The study also finds that under current market prices and transportation costs and constraints, the same amount of biodiesel can be produced most cost-effectively with a tax exemption. A blend mandate would be less cost effective, while a biodiesel production subsidy represents the least efficient policy option.
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  32. Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil Catalyzed by Li2CO3
    Abstract

    Wang, J. X.; Chen, K. T.; Huang, S. T.; Chen, K. T.; Chen, C. C. 2012. Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil Catalyzed by Li2CO3. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 89(9) 1619-1625

    In the present study, we synthesized biodiesel from soybean oil through a transesterification reaction catalyzed by lithium carbonate. Under the optimal reaction conditions of methanol/oil molar ratio 32:1, 12 % (wt/wt oil) catalyst amount, and a reaction temperature of 65 A degrees C for 2 h, there was a 97.2 % conversion to biodiesel from soybean oil. The present study also evaluated the effects of methanol/oil ratio, catalyst amount, and reaction time on conversion. The catalytic activity of solid base catalysts was insensitive to exposure to air prior to use in the transesterification reaction. Results from ICP-OES exhibited non-significant leaching of the Li2CO3 active species into the reaction medium, and reusability of the catalyst was tested successfully in ten subsequent cycles. Free fatty acid in the feedstock for biodiesel production should not be higher than 0.12 % to afford a product that passes the EN biodiesel standard. Product quality, ester content, free glycerol, total glycerol, density, flash point, sulfur content, kinematic viscosity, copper corrosion, cetane number, iodine value, and acid value fulfilled ASTM and EN standards. Commercially available Li2CO3 is suitable for direct use in biodiesel production without further drying or thermal pretreatment, avoiding the usual solid catalyst need for activation at high temperature.
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  33. Effects of soybean biodiesel on engine vibration and noise emission
    Abstract

    Ozcanli, M.; Keskin, A.; Serin, H.; Yamacli, S.; Ustun, D. 2012. Effects of soybean biodiesel on engine vibration and noise emission. Energy Education Science and Technology Part a-Energy Science and Research. 28(2) 949-956

    The influence of soybean biodiesel on vibration characteristics and noise emissions of a three cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated in the present work. Two types of soybean biodiesel were produced via transesterification method using sodium hydroxide and sodium methylat as catalysts. Fuel properties of biodiesel fuels were observed similar to diesel fuel specifications. A high sensitivity electronic vibration analysis system was developed for measurement of frequency spectrum of diesel engine vibration. In comparison with diesel fuel, vibration of engine with the biodiesel fuel has the lower amplitude and lower frequency. Similar results were obtained with both of the two biodiesel fuels. Noise emission of diesel engine showed a decreasing trend with biodiesel fuel.
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  34. Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification
    Abstract

    Lin, C. Y.; Lin, Y. W. 2012. Fuel Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from a High-Acid Oil from Soybean Soapstock by Supercritical-Methanol Transesterification. Energies. 5(7) 2370-2380

    A supercritical methanol transesterification method was applied to produce biodiesel from the high-acid oil of soybean soapstock. The fuel properties of biodiesel produced with various molar ratios of methanol to raw oil were analyzed and compared in this experimental study. Oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and palmitic acid (C16:0) were the three main compounds in the high-acid oil-biodiesel. The saturated fatty acid content of the high-acid oil increased significantly due to the supercritical-methanol transesterification reaction. The fuel characteristics of the resulting high-acid oil, including the specific gravity and kinematic viscosity, were also greatly improved. The saturated fatty acid content of the biodiesel produced from the high-acid oil was higher than that of biodiesel from waste cooking oil produced by the subcritical transesterification using a strongly alkaline catalyst. The high-acid oil-biodiesel that was produced with a molar ratio of methanol to raw oil of 42 had the best fuel properties, including a higher distillation temperature and cetane index and a lower kinematic viscosity and water content, among the biodiesels with different molar ratios.
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  35. Influence of Feedstock: Air Pollution and Climate-Related Emissions from a Diesel Generator Operating on Soybean, Canola, and Yellow Grease Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Lackey, L. G.; Paulson, S. E. 2012. Influence of Feedstock: Air Pollution and Climate-Related Emissions from a Diesel Generator Operating on Soybean, Canola, and Yellow Grease Biodiesel. Energy & Fuels. 26(1) 686-700

    Global use of biodiesel is increasing rapidly. Combustion of biodiesel changes the emissions profile of diesel engines, altering their impact on both urban air pollution and climate. Here, we characterize exhaust emissions from conventional petroleum diesel and three neat biodiesels manufactured from soybean, canola, and yellow grease feedstocks. Exhaust was sampled from a fixed-speed 4.8 kW diesel generator at idle and full loads, and mass emission rates were determined for nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, and NOx, particulate matter (PM), and elemental, organic, and black carbon (EC, OC, and BC). Additionally, particle size distributions were characterized. Largely consistent with a growing body of data on emissions from biodiesel, biodiesel emissions were cleaner by most metrics than those for conventional diesel. Emissions from the two primary-oil fuels, synthesized from soy and canola feedstocks, were cleaner by most metrics than emissions from diesel, producing approximately 55, 65, and 60% less PM, EC, and OC at engine idle and 40, 20, and 15% less at engine load. In addition, while primary-oil NOx emissions were 5% higher than diesel emissions at engine idle, they were more than 30% lower at engine load. Yellow grease emissions of PM, EC, and OC were reduced in comparison to diesel at engine idle by 60, 30, and 20%. However, at engine load, most yellow grease emissions were increased in comparison to diesel, resulting in approximately 5, 60, and 70% more PM, EC, and OC. Organic vapor emissions from primary-oil biodiesels were also lower, and aromatic emissions were much lower compared to diesel. Yellow grease NOx emissions were increased in comparison to diesel by approximately 5% at engine idle and 10% at engine load. Notably, NO2 accounted for a smaller fraction of NOx for all three biodiesels compared to diesel, a difference that may be more important than the somewhat higher NOx emissions in determining the impact of biodiesel on urban ozone formation. Taken together, our results suggest that widespread implementation of primary-oil biodiesels could result in improvements in urban ozone and PM pollution. In addition, by reducing both the mass and the EC content of those particles, primary-oil biodiesels may reduce anthropogenic climate forcing.
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  36. Methanolysis of soybean oil over KCl/CaO solid base catalyst for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mar, W. W.; Somsook, E. 2012. Methanolysis of soybean oil over KCl/CaO solid base catalyst for biodiesel production. Scienceasia. 38(1) 90-94

    A KCl-doped CaO catalyst synthesized by a wet impregnation method under microwave irradiation was studied in the transesterification of refined soybean oil with methanol at 338 K. The catalyst was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, N-2 adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscopy, and FT-IR techniques. The basic strength of the catalysts was also determined by the Hammett indicator method. The KCl/CaO catalyst exhibited a chemical stability in the reaction medium as well as a good resistance to feedstocks with high acidity.
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  37. Regional life cycle assessment of soybean derived biodiesel for transportation fleets
    Abstract

    Xue, X. B.; Collinge, W. O.; Shrake, S. O.; Bilec, M. M.; Landis, A. E. 2012. Regional life cycle assessment of soybean derived biodiesel for transportation fleets. Energy Policy. 48295-303

    Although the life cycle environmental impacts of biofuels have been recently reported, studies that focus on specific regions and use real fleet data for the use phase are still lacking. In Pennsylvania, the Penn Security Fuels Initiative required 2% biodiesel (B2), effective on January 1, 2010, with higher blending levels required in the future if production thresholds are met. This study quantifies the environmental impacts of biodiesel blends to meet increasing regional biodiesel demand. A process life cycle model was developed using data collected from collaboration with Pennsylvania Department of Transportation. For PennDOT, both in-state and out-of-state production scenarios were analyzed to estimate the possible environmental impacts of biodiesel blends. The results show that fertilizer usage in the agricultural phase, soy oil extraction and refining, feedstock and fuel transportation, and fuel combustion in the use phase are main contributors to biodiesel's life cycle environmental impacts for all blends. Comparing biodiesels with ultra low sulfur diesel, significant environmental tradeoffs exist between global warming potential and eutrophication. For Pennsylvania, an in-state farming and processing preference has the lowest environmental impacts for B5. However, the limited area of farmlands in Pennsylvania may not satisfy the state's biodiesel needs with higher blending levels. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  38. A Normative Economic Analysis of Cooperative Biodiesel Production Using Soybeans Produced by Smallholders in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa
    Abstract

    Sparks, G. D.; Ortmann, G. F.; Lyne, M. C. 2011. A Normative Economic Analysis of Cooperative Biodiesel Production Using Soybeans Produced by Smallholders in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Agrekon. 50(3) 51-67

    The South African biofuels industrial strategy promotes a development-oriented strategy with feedstock produced by smallholders and processed by traditional producer-owned cooperatives. This study examines a proposal to apply this strategy to small-scale farmers in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), using soybeans as feedstock for biodiesel production. First, it is argued that value-adding cooperatives established under South Africa's current Cooperatives Act, No. 14 of 2005 (hereafter the Cooperatives Act) would fail to attract the capital and expertise needed to process biodiesel owing to ill-defined voting and benefit rights. Second, a mixed integer linear programming model is used to determine the viability of producing biodiesel from soybeans, viewed from the perspective of the smallholder as grower and co-owner of the processing plant. It is concluded that smallholder participation would require a rental market for cropland, co-ownership of the processing plant in a non-traditional cooperative or investor-owned firm, information and training, and a high level of government subsidy.
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  39. An Economic Evaluation of Soybean-Based Biodiesel Production on Commercial Farms in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa
    Abstract

    Sparks, G. D.; Ortmann, G. F.; Lagrange, L. 2011. An Economic Evaluation of Soybean-Based Biodiesel Production on Commercial Farms in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. Agrekon. 50(3) 68-89

    Global biofuel production has risen substantially in recent years, driven primarily by government support for biofuel industries. The stated motivations for these initiatives are numerous and have varied over time. Soybeans are the only field crop produced in sufficient quantities in the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) that the South African industrial biofuel strategy identifies as a potential biodiesel feedstock. Results from a mixed integer linear programming model suggest that significant government support is required to stimulate biodiesel production, and support the notion of Funke et al. (2009), who contend that the incentives and commitments outlined by the industrial biofuel strategy are inadequate to both establish and sustain a domestic biodiesel industry. Under baseline assumptions, a minimum implicit subsidy of R4.37 per litre is required to draw soybean-based biodiesel production into the optimum solution. Results also show that the implicit subsidy is sensitive to changes in the soybean oilcake (by-product) price and the soybean (input) price.
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  40. Deforestation and the Social Impacts of Soy for Biodiesel: Perspectives of Farmers in the South Brazilian Amazon
    Abstract

    Lima, M.; Skutsch, M.; Costa, G. D. 2011. Deforestation and the Social Impacts of Soy for Biodiesel: Perspectives of Farmers in the South Brazilian Amazon. Ecology and Society. 16(4)

    Cultivation of soy for human and animal food has been growing rapidly in Brazil in the last thirty years, and the recent emergence of a biodiesel market in Brazil has stimulated this further. Soy occupies large parts of the Cerrado biome and has now reached the Amazon, and concerns have been raised about both the environmental and social impacts of this. This study combined data from literature with interview surveys in three areas in the soy belt: Sorriso, in the Cerrado; Guaranta do Norte and Alta Floresta, in the transitional zone between the Cerrado and the Amazon biome, and Santarem, which is fully in the Amazon biome, to understand these impacts from the perspective of the soy farmers, the other farmers, and the laborers. From the literature it is clear that at least 80% of the direct deforestation is due to clearance for cattle rearing, and we estimate that 13-18% is due to soy, although less than 6% can be attributed to biodiesel, since most soy is used for other products. In the Amazon biome, the Forest Law, the Soy Moratorium, improved monitoring and the general unsuitability of the land have combined to keep soy cultivation at a low level so far despite the construction of a port at Santarem, which makes this area much more accessible. In the site in the transition area little soybean is cultivated due to unsuitable configuration of land and to transportation costs. In the Cerrado, however, soy has proved itself to be a viable alternative to timber, as well as replacing grazing, which is most likely causing indirect deforestation elsewhere, although this effect could not be measured in this study. More than half of the soy farmers interviewed claimed to have converted grazing land as opposed to forest, although grazing land often contains some secondary forest as well as grassland. In the transition areas, the expectation of farmers is that when transport costs fall due to road improvements, soy will be cultivated in an integrated rotation system on grazing land, improving degraded pastures. Soy farmers, laborers and non-soy farmers all have a positive view of the social impacts of soy, borne out by the fact that average incomes in Sorriso, where there has been an enormous increase in soy production over the last 20 years, are 4.6 times higher than those in Guaranta do Norte, which is still dominated by cattle rearing. The PNPB program, which aims for social inclusion of small family farmers in the production of biofuel feedstock, has succeeded in forcing large soy purchasing companies to assist essentially uneconomic farms and has enabled some small farmers in agrarian reform settlements to profit. However, we found evidence of plots changing hands and being consolidated by farmers with greater skills and capital, resulting in incipient class formation. Moreover, the companies are selective in their choice of agrarian settlement, and were not operating in those in which land holdings are very small or where the terrain is too broken up for large-scale mechanization.
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  41. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels
    Abstract

    Fore, S. R.; Lazarus, W.; Porter, P.; Jordan, N. 2011. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(1) 193-202

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L(-1) of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13$L(-1) and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83$L(-1) depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60$L(-1) and from 0.14 to 0.33$L(-1), respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39$L(-1) for soybean and 0.44$L(-1) for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25$L-1 (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  42. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel from soybean, jatropha and microalgae in China conditions
    Abstract

    Hou, J.; Zhang, P. D.; Yuan, X. Z.; Zheng, Y. H. 2011. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel from soybean, jatropha and microalgae in China conditions. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(9) 5081-5091

    Increasing demand for transport fuels has driven China to attach great importance to biodiesel development. To evaluate the environmental impacts caused by producing and driving with biodiesel made from soybean, jatropha, and microalgae under China conditions, the LCA methodology is used and the assessment results are compared with fossil diesel. The solar energy and CO(2) uptake in biomass agriculture and reduction of dependency on fossil fuels lead to a better performance on abiotic depletion potential (ADP), global warming potential (GWP), and ozone depletion potential (ODP) in the life cycle of biodiesel compared to fossil diesel. Except for ADP, GWP and ODP, producing and driving with biodiesel does not offer benefits in the other environmental impact categories including eutrophication, acidification, photochemical oxidation, and toxicity. Jatropha and microalgae are more competitive biodiesel feedstock compared to soybean in terms of all impacts. By using global normalization references and weighting method based on ecotaxes, the LCA single score for the assessed 10 mid-point impact categories of soybean, jatropha, and microalgae based biodiesel is 54, 37.2 and 3.67 times of that of fossil diesel, respectively. Improvement of biomass agriculture management, development of biodiesel production technologies, bettering energy structure and promoting energy efficiency in China are the key measures to lower environmental impacts in the life cycle of biodiesel in the future. Various sensitivity analyses have also been applied, which show that, choice of allocation method, transport distance, uncertainty in jatropha and microalgae yield and oil content, and recycling rate of harvest water of microalgae have significant influence on the life cycle environmental performance of biodiesel. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  43. Net energy balance of small-scale on-farm biodiesel production from canola and soybean
    Abstract

    Fore, S. R.; Porter, P.; Lazarus, W. 2011. Net energy balance of small-scale on-farm biodiesel production from canola and soybean. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(5) 2234-2244

    One necessary criterion for a biofuel to be a sustainable alternative to the petroleum fuels it displaces is a positive net energy balance. This study estimated the net energy ratio (NER), net energy balance (NEB), and net energy yield (NEY) of small-scale on-farm production of canola [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel in the upper Midwest. Direct and embodied energy inputs based on well-defined system boundaries and contemporary data were used to estimate the energy requirement of crop production, oil extraction, and biofuel processing. The NER of canola biodiesel was 1.78 compared with 2.05 for soybean biodiesel. Canola biodiesel had a NEB of 0.66 MJ MJ(-1) of biofuel compared with 0.81 MJ MJ(-1) for soybean biodiesel. The NEY of soybean biodiesel was 10,951 MJ ha(-1) less than canola biodiesel which had a NEY of 11,353 MJ ha(-1). Use of soybean as a biodiesel feedstock was more energetically efficient than canola primarily due to reduced nitrogen fertilizer requirement. In terms of energetic productivity, canola was a more productive biodiesel feedstock than soybean due to its higher oil content. A best-case scenario based on optimal feedstock yields, reduced fertilizer input, and advanced biofuel processing equipment suggested that potential gains in energetic efficiency was greater for canola than soybean. According to our results, small-scale on-farm biodiesel production using canola and soybean can be an energetically efficient way to produce energy for on-farm use. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  44. The influence of free fatty acid intermediate on biodiesel production from soybean oil by whole cell biocatalyst
    Abstract

    Lin, Y. H.; Luo, J. J.; Hwang, S. C. J.; Liau, P. R.; Lu, W. J.; Lee, H. T. 2011. The influence of free fatty acid intermediate on biodiesel production from soybean oil by whole cell biocatalyst. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(5) 2217-2223

    The whole cell of lipase-producing Rhizopus oryzae was employed as biocatalyst for transesterification of soybean oil containing oleic acid. The free fatty acid (FFA) intermediate, playing an important role in the kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil, was thoroughly investigated and characterized. The conversion was more than 97% at the initial FFA content of 5.5%. A high content of FFA could protect the lipase from denaturation. The 34.6 percent of FFA with the optimal 26-mg mL(-1) methanol resulted in a specific reaction rate of 420 mg h(-1)g-dry cell(-1). In addition, the methanol/FFA ratio at 0.83-1.7 provides a good indication of the fatty acid methyl esters conversions for different initial FFA contents. In the transesterification process, more FFA intermediate present would become beneficial to conversion of retrograde feedstock to biodiesel. The immediately generated and original FFA content become the major rate-determining factor in the FFA-mixed transesterification process. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  45. The use of a modified TDSP for biodiesel production from soybean, linseed and waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Guzatto, R.; de Martini, T. L.; Samios, D. 2011. The use of a modified TDSP for biodiesel production from soybean, linseed and waste cooking oil. Fuel Processing Technology. 92(10) 2083-2088

    In this study, the Transesterification Double Step Process (TDSP) for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil was modified to yield a shorter reaction time and products with improved quality. TDSP consists in a two step transesterification procedure which starts with a basic catalysis, followed by an acidic catalysis. The process modifications included a reduction in the concentration of catalysts, a reduction in the reaction time of the first step and the direct mixing of methanol/acid solution, without cooling the system between the first and second step. A comparison between washed and unwashed biodiesel demonstrates that the final washing and drying procedure is necessary for satisfactory results. The products were analyzed by (1)H-NMR and nineteen different biodiesel analyses specific for international quality certification. The modified procedure resulted in a high conversion index (97% for waste cooking oil and soybean oil and 98% for linseed oil) and high yield (87 +/- 5% for waste cooking oil, 92 +/- 3% for soybean and 93 +/- 3% for linseed oil). The biodiesel produced by the modified TDSP met ASTM, EN ISO and ABNT standards before the addition of stabilizer. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  46. Conversion of Degummed Soybean Oil to Biodiesel: Optimization of Degumming Methods and Evaluation of Fuel Properties
    Abstract

    Fan, X. H.; Burton, R.; Austic, G. 2010. Conversion of Degummed Soybean Oil to Biodiesel: Optimization of Degumming Methods and Evaluation of Fuel Properties. International Journal of Green Energy. 7(6) 593-599

    Biodiesel, known as fatty acid methyl ester, has become increasingly important due to the following advantages: it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and eco-friendly. At present, the main hurdle for its commercialization is high feedstock price. Crude soybean oil may be a cheap source for biodiesel production. However, it contains high amount of phosphorus, which can inhibit the action of the catalyst during transesterification. The degumming process can remove most of phosphorus in the crude soybean oil. In this paper, different degumming methods were investigated and an optimal method was determined based on phosphorus content, free fatty acid, and bound glycerin tests. Crude soybean oil degummed by the optimal method was further transesterified, and the fuel properties, including acid number, water and sediment, flash point, soap, moisture, methanol content, and free and total glycerin, etc., were further evaluated. It was found that the fuel properties were within ASTM D 6751 specifications.
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  47. Forage turnip, sunflower, and soybean biodiesel obtained by ethanol synthesis: Production protocols and thermal behavior
    Abstract

    Soares, C. M.; Itavo, L. C. V.; Dias, A. M.; Arruda, E. J.; Delben, A. A. S. T.; Oliveira, S. L.; de Oliveira, L. C. S. 2010. Forage turnip, sunflower, and soybean biodiesel obtained by ethanol synthesis: Production protocols and thermal behavior. Fuel. 89(12) 3725-3729

    In this work it is reported a detailed investigation of the effect of different production protocols based on alkaline ethanolysis on conversion yield of forage turnip, soybean, sunflower, and castor oil into the respective biodiesel. Parameters such as catalyst contents, reaction times and temperatures were evaluated. Additionally, it was also investigated the relationship between the conversion yield and the chemical composition of the fatty acids in the feedstock. Conversion yields ranging between 70% and 100% point out the viability of the production of biodiesel using ethanol. Based on thermal analysis, sequential steps of weight loss were observed indicating that biodiesel undergoes oxidative thermal decomposition with the elimination of different portions of the molecules in each step. Besides, the energies released by the samples during thermal decomposition were determined. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  48. Soy production and certification: the case of Argentinean soy-based biodiesel
    Abstract

    Tomei, J.; Semino, S.; Paul, H.; Joensen, L.; Monti, M.; Jelsoe, E. 2010. Soy production and certification: the case of Argentinean soy-based biodiesel. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 15(4) 371-394

    With the rising emphasis on biofuels as a potential solution to climate change, this paper asks whether certification schemes, developed to promote sustainable feedstock production, are able to deliver genuine sustainability benefits. The Round Table on Responsible Soy (RTRS) is a certification scheme that aims to promote responsible soy production through the development of principles and criteria. However, can and does this initiative address the negative impacts associated with the intensive production of soy? Taking the example of soy biodiesel produced in Argentina, this paper asks whether the social and environmental impacts of soybean production can be mitigated by the RTRS. It concludes that at present certification schemes are unlikely to be able to address either the institutional challenges associated with their implementation or the detrimental impacts of the additional demand generated by biofuels.
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  49. The thermal cracking of canola and soybean methyl esters: Improvement of cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Seames, W.; Luo, Y.; Ahmed, I.; Aulich, T.; Kubatova, A.; Stavova, J.; Kozliak, E. 2010. The thermal cracking of canola and soybean methyl esters: Improvement of cold flow properties. Biomass & Bioenergy. 34(7) 939-946

    A study was performed to evaluate the use of thermal cracking to overcome cold flow and stability limitations of current biodiesel. Experiments were conducted in a batch cracking reactor system using soy methyl ester and canola methyl ester feedstocks. The amount of high-MW C(16)-C(24) FAMEs was reduced from nearly 100% in the original feedstock by an order of magnitude. Yields of desirable cracking product ranged from 70 to 85% while cloud and pour points decreased around 20 degrees C and 15 degrees C, respectively. The stability of the fuel was improved by converting all of the unsaturated esters into lower-MW saturated esters. This method may lead to an attractive process to produce an improved biodiesel that is more conductive to cold temperature utilization and more stable during storage. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  50. A high-oleic-acid and low-palmitic-acid soybean: agronomic performance and evaluation as a feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Graef, G.; LaVallee, B. J.; Tenopir, P.; Tat, M.; Schweiger, B.; Kinney, A.; Van Gerpen, J.; Clemente, T. E. 2009. A high-oleic-acid and low-palmitic-acid soybean: agronomic performance and evaluation as a feedstock for biodiesel. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 7(7) 717-717

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  51. Argentinean soy-based biodiesel: An introduction to production and impacts
    Abstract

    Tomei, J.; Upham, P. 2009. Argentinean soy-based biodiesel: An introduction to production and impacts. Energy Policy. 37(10) 3890-3898

    This paper explores the economic, social and environmental context, drivers and impacts of increased demand for Argentine soy-based biodiesel. It is based on extensive stakeholder interviews in Argentina, including those in government, academia and the third sector; as well as participant observation with communities in soy cultivation areas: and review of relevant academic and grey literatures. Given Argentina's history of political instability and relatively weak levels of environmental protection, there is reason to be sceptical of the likely effectiveness of biofuel sustainability certification as applied to Argentine soy. Direct contracts between feedstock producers and biodiesel retailers may be a more reliable approach to minimise adverse environmental and social impacts than certification alone. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  52. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Sesame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing
    Abstract

    Balan, V.; Rogers, C. A.; Chundawat, S. P. S.; Sousa, L. D.; Slininger, P. J.; Gupta, R.; Dale, B. E. 2009. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Sesame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 86(2) 157-165

    We have come up with a novel, integrated approach for making biodiesel by in-house producion of ethanol after fermentation of hexane extracted edible oil cake fiber. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from commonly available oil cakes (such as canola, sunflower, sesame, soy, peanut) and dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). The edible oil cakes and DDGS were hexane extracted, ammonia fiber expansion pretreated, enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented to produce ethanol. From all the oil cakes tested in this work, DDGS and peanut oil cake showed the most promising results giving more than 180 g of glucose/kg of oil cake. These two feedstock's were hydrolyzed at 15% solids loading and fermented by a native strain of Pichia stipitis. Most sugars were consumed during the first 24 h, with no pronounced inhibition of P. stipitis by the degradation products in the hydrolysate. Xylose consumption was more effective for peanut cake hydrolyzate compared to DDGS.
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  53. Life cycle assessment of soybean-based biodiesel in Argentina for export
    Abstract

    Panichelli, L.; Dauriat, A.; Gnansounou, E. 2009. Life cycle assessment of soybean-based biodiesel in Argentina for export. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. 14(2) 144-159

    Regional specificities are a key factor when analyzing the environmental impact of a biofuel pathway through a life cycle assessment (LCA). Due to different energy mixes, transport distances, agricultural practices and land use changes, results can significantly vary from one country to another. The Republic of Argentina is the first exporter of soybean oil and meal and the third largest soybean producer in the world, and therefore, soybean-based biodiesel production is expected to significantly increase in the near future, mostly for exportation. Moreover, Argentinean biodiesel producers will need to evaluate the environmental performances of their product in order to comply with sustainability criteria being developed. However, because of regional specificities, the environmental performances of this biofuel pathway can be expected to be different from those obtained for other countries and feedstocks previously studied. This work aims at analyzing the environmental impact of soybean-based biodiesel production in Argentina for export. The relevant impact categories account for the primary non-renewable energy consumption (CED), the global warming potential (GWP), the eutrophication potential (EP), the acidification potential (AP), the terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), the aquatic ecotoxicity (AE), the human toxicity (HT) and land use competition (LU). The paper tackles the feedstock and country specificities in biodiesel production by comparing the results of soybean-based biodiesel in Argentina with other reference cases. Emphasis is put on explaining the factors that contribute most to the final results and the regional specificities that lead to different results for each biodiesel pathway.
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  54. Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Butanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions Using Soybean-Derived Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Adhami, L.; Griggs, B.; Himebrook, P.; Taconi, K. 2009. Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Butanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions Using Soybean-Derived Biodiesel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 86(11) 1123-1128

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of mixtures of butanol, 1,3-propanediol (PDO), and ethanol was performed using soybean-derived biodiesel as the extractant. The composition of the mixtures simulated the product of the anaerobic fermentation of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol, which has recently been reported for the first time by the authors. Using a biodiesel: with an aqueous phase volume ratio of 1:1, butanol recovery ranged from 45 to 51% at initial butanol concentrations of 150 and 225 mM, respectively. Less than 10% of the ethanol was extracted, and essentially no PDO was extracted. The partition coefficient for butanol in biodiesel was determined to be 0.91 +/- A 0.097. This partition coefficient is less than that of oleyl alcohol, which is considered the standard for LLE. However, butanol is suitable for blending with biodiesel, which would eliminate the need for separating the butanol after extraction. Additionally, biodiesel is much less costly than oleyl alcohol. If biodiesel-derived glycerol is used as the feedstock for butanol production, and biodiesel is used as the extractant to recover butanol from the fermentation broth, production of a biodiesel/butanol fuel blend could be a fully integrated process within a biodiesel facility. This process could ultimately help reduce the cost of butanol separation and ultimately help improve the overall economics of butanol fermentation using renewable feedstocks.
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  55. Transesterification of Soybean Oil to Biodiesel over Heterogeneous Solid Base Catalyst
    Abstract

    Teng, G. Y.; Gao, L. J.; Xiao, G. M.; Liu, H. 2009. Transesterification of Soybean Oil to Biodiesel over Heterogeneous Solid Base Catalyst. Energy & Fuels. 234630-4634

    Synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil over solid base WOW Was investigated in this paper. In process of catalyst preparation, potassium fluoride wits used as alkaline metal salt to load onto gamma-Al(2)O(3). Oyer this basic catalyst, transesterification reactions were carried out to prepare biodiesel using soybean oil and methanol as feedstock, According to experiments, the best reaction conditions were gotton as followed;, load ratio was 72.68% (by weight), molar ratio was 12:1 (methanol/oil), reaction temperature was 338 K, mass of catalyst was 2% of oil (by weight),and reaction time was 3 h, Yield of biodiesel e exceeds 99%. With X-ray diffraction (XRD) and DSC-TGA characterization, it was proved that new crystal phase synthesized by calcinations showed its favorable effect to the transesterification reaction.
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  56. An enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production from soybean oil
    Abstract

    Ting, W. J.; Huang, C. M.; Giridhar, N.; Wu, W. T. 2008. An enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production from soybean oil. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Chemical Engineers. 39(3) 203-210

    The present study is aimed at developing an enzymatic/acid-catalyzed hybrid process for biodiesel production using soybean oil as feedstock. In the enzymatic hydrolysis, 88% of the oil taken initially was hydrolyzed by binary immobilized lipase after 5 It under optimal conditions. The hydrolysate was further used in acid-catalyzed esterification for biodiesel production and the effects of temperature, catalyst concentration, feedstock to methanol molar ratio, and reaction time on biodiesel conversion were investigated. By using a feedstock to methanol molar ratio of 1: 15 and a sulfuric acid concentration of 2.5%, a biodiesel conversion of 99% was obtained after 12 h of reaction at 50 degrees C. The biodiesel produced by this process met the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard. This hybrid process may open a way for biodiesel production using unrefined and used oil as feedstock. (c) 2008 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  57. Economic cost analysis of biodiesel production: Case in soybean oil
    Abstract

    You, Y. D.; Shie, J. L.; Chang, C. Y.; Huang, S. H.; Pai, C. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Chang, C. F. H. 2008. Economic cost analysis of biodiesel production: Case in soybean oil. Energy & Fuels. 22(1) 182-189

    The economic costs of three biodiesel plants with capacities of 8000, 30 000, and 100 000 tons year(-1) were analyzed and assessed. The plants employ continuous processes using an alkali catalyst and the raw material of soybean oil. Six major economic cost factors were computed and examined. These include the fixed capital cost (FCC), total capital investment cost (TCC), total manufacturing cost (TMC), net annual profit after taxes (NNP), after-tax rate of return (ARR), and biodiesel break-even price (BBP). The NNP and ARR of plants with capacities of 8000, 30 000, and 100 000 tons year(-1) are -24 x 10(3), 1975 x 10(3), and 8879 x 10(3) U.S. dollars (USD), and - 10.44, 40.23, and 67.38%, respectively. The values of BBP of the three plants are 862, 724, and 678 USD ton(-1) (price in July 2007). The plant with a capacity of 100 000 tons year(-1) is economically feasible, providing a higher NNP and more attractive ARR with a lower BBP. Among the system variables of the plants examined, plant capacity, price of feedstock oil and diesel, and yields of glycerine and biodiesel were found to be the most significant variables affecting the economic viability of biodiesel manufacture. In summary, this study aims at the need to obtain useful information for economic cost analysis and assessment of the production process of biodiesel using soybean oil. It provides an appropriate indication for the promotion of biodiesel in the future, targeting the reduction of the cost of feedstock oil with the increase of the yields of valuable products with a reasonable plant capacity.
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  58. Fuel properties and precipitate formation at low temperature in soy-, cottonseed-, and poultry fat-based biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Tang, H. Y.; Salley, S. O.; Ng, K. Y. S. 2008. Fuel properties and precipitate formation at low temperature in soy-, cottonseed-, and poultry fat-based biodiesel blends. Fuel. 87(13-14) 3006-3017

    The formation of precipitates in biodiesel blends may have serious implications for diesel engine fuel delivery systems. Precipitates were observed in Soybean oil (SBO-), cottonseed oil (CSO-), and poultry fat (PF-) based biodiesel blends after storage at 4 degrees C. CSO- and PF-based biodiesel had a lower mass of precipitates observed than the SBO-based. Moreover, different rates of precipitate formation were observed for the B20 versus the B100. These suggested that the formation of precipitate during cold temperature storage was dependent on the feedstock and blend concentration. The solvency effects of biodiesel blends were more pronounced at low temperature than at room temperature leading to a higher amount of precipitates formed. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) chromatograms indicated that steryl glucosides are the major cause of precipitate formation in SBO-based biodiesel; while for PF-based biodiesel, the precipitates are due to monoglycerides. However, the precipitates from CSO-based biodiesel are due to both steryl glucosides and mono-glycerides. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  59. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor
    Abstract

    Cao, P. G.; Dube, M. A.; Tremblay, A. Y. 2008. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor. Biomass & Bioenergy. 32(11) 1028-1036

    High-purity fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was produced from different lipids, such as soybean oil, canola oil, a hydrogenated palm oil/palm oil blend, yellow grease, and brown grease, combined with methanol using a continuous membrane reactor. The membrane reactor combines reaction and separation in a single unit, provides continuous mixing of raw materials, and maintains a high molar ratio of methanol to lipid in the reaction loop while maintaining two phases during the reaction. It was demonstrated that the membrane reactor can be operated using a very broad range of feedstocks at highly similar operating conditions to produce FAME. The total glycerine and free glycerine contents of the FAME produced were below the ASTM D6751 standard after a single reaction step. Under essentially the same reaction conditions, a conventional batch reaction was not able to achieve the same degree of FAME purity. The effect of the fatty acid composition of the lipid feedstocks on the FAME purity was also shown. it was demonstrated that, due to the fatty acid composition, FAME from virgin soybean oil and virgin canola oil was produced in the membrane reactor within ASTM specifications even without a water washing step. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  60. Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment of soybean-based biodiesel as an alternative automotive fuel in China
    Abstract

    Hu, Z. Y.; Tana, P. Q.; Yan, X. Y.; Lou, D. M. 2008. Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment of soybean-based biodiesel as an alternative automotive fuel in China. Energy. 33(11) 1654-1658

    Life cycle energy, environment and economic assessment for conventional diesel (CD) and soybean-based biodiesel (SB) in China was carried out in this paper. The results of the assessment have shown that compared with CD, SB has similar source-to-tank (StT) total energy consumption, 76% lower StT fossil energy consumption, 79% higher source-to-wheel (StW) nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, 31%, 44%, 36%, 29%, and 67% lower StW hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), sulfur oxides (SOx), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, respectively. SB is thus considered to be much more renewable and cleaner than CD. However, the retail price of SB at gas stations would be about 86% higher than that of CD without government subsidy according to the cost assessment and China had to import large amount of soybean to meet the demand in recent years. Therefore, although SB is one of the most promising clean and alternative fuels, currently it is not a good choice for China. It is strategically important for China to diversify the feedstock for biodiesel and to consider other kinds of alternative fuels to substitute CD. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  61. Evaluation of partially hydrogenated methyl esters of soybean oil as biodiesel
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R.; Haas, M. J.; Winkler, J. K.; Jackson, M. A.; Erhan, S. Z.; List, G. R. 2007. Evaluation of partially hydrogenated methyl esters of soybean oil as biodiesel. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 109(1) 17-24

    Biodiesel, an alternative fuel derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, continues to undergo rapid worldwide growth. Specifications mandating biodiesel quality, most notably in Europe (EN 14214) and the USA (ASTM D6751), have emerged that limit feedstock choice in the production of biodiesel fuel. For instance, EN 14214 contains a specification for iodinevalue (IV; 120g I(2)/100g maximum) that eliminates soybean oil as a potential feedstock, as it generally has an IV > 120. Therefore, partially hydrogenated soybean oil methyl esters (PHSME; IV = 116) were evaluated as biodiesel by measuring a number of fuel properties, such as oxidative stability, low-temperature performance, lubricity, kinematic viscosity, and specific gravity. Compared to soybean oil methyl esters (SME), PHSME were found to have superior oxidative stability, similar specific gravity, but inferior low-temperature performance, kinematic viscosity, and lubricity. The kinematic viscosity and lubricity of PHSME, however, were within the prescribed US and European limits. There is no universal value for low-temperature performance in biodiesel specifications, but PHSME have superior cold flow behavior when compared to other alternative feedstock fuels, such as palm oil, tallow and grease methyl esters. The production of PHSME from refined soybean oil would increase biodiesel production costs by US$ 0.04/L (US$ 0.15/gal) in comparison to SME. In summary, PHSME are within both the European and American standards for all properties measured in this study and deserve consideration as a potential biodiesel fuel.
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  62. Biodiesel fuel properties of soybean oil fatty acid esters
    Abstract

    Knothe, G. 2004. Biodiesel fuel properties of soybean oil fatty acid esters. Vii World Soybean Research Conference - Vi International Soybean Processing and Utilization Conference - Iii Congresso Brasileiro De Soja, Proceedings. 1008-1015

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, which are obtained by the transesterification of the oil or fat with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol. Soybean oil is the major feedstock for the production of biodiesel in the United States. As virtually all vegetable oils, soybean oil is mainly composed of the triacylglycerols of several fatty acids. The five main fatty acids found in soybean oil - palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids - differ in chain length and degree of (un)saturation. These structural differences impart different physical properties, many of which are of significance for fuel applications. Several other typical fuel properties are also affected. These properties can also be affected by the kind of,ester, i.e., the alcohol used for production of the mono-alkyl esters. This work summarizes some important fuel properties of biodiesel and how they are affected by the properties of the individual esters comprising it.
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  63. New uses for refinery byproducts: biodiesel from soybean soapstock
    Abstract

    Haas, M. J.; Scott, K. M.; McAloon, A.; Foglia, T. A. 2004. New uses for refinery byproducts: biodiesel from soybean soapstock. Vii World Soybean Research Conference - Vi International Soybean Processing and Utilization Conference - Iii Congresso Brasileiro De Soja, Proceedings. 994-999

    Semi-refined and refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high cost renders the resulting fuels unable to compete economically with petroleum-derived fuel. We have investigated the production of fatty acid methyl esters from soapstock, a byproduct of edible oil refining that is substantially less expensive than edible grade refined oils. The most effective method involved the complete saponification of the soapstock, followed by acidulation using methods similar to those presently employed in industry. This resulted in an acid oil with a free fatty acid content greater than 90%. These fatty acids were efficiently converted to methyl esters by acid-catalyzed esterification, resulting in a product that met the accepted US specifications for biodiesel. Engine emissions and performance during operation on soy soapstock biodiesel were comparable to those on biodiesel produced from soy oil. An economic analysis suggested that the production cost of soapstock biodiesel would be approximately US$ 1.54/gal. This is 25% lower than the estimated cost to produce biodiesel from soy oil.
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