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Biodiesel Feedstock Publicaitons

This page lists all biodiesel feedstock journal publications from University of Idaho. Please provide us a feedback feedback if you see any error in this listing or you would like to report and articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. Characterization of Microalgae for the Purpose of Biofuel Production
    Abstract

    Bi, Z.; He, B. B. 2013. Characterization of Microalgae for the Purpose of Biofuel Production. Transactions of the Asabe. 56(4) 1529-1539

    It is now widely accepted that microalgae are promising candidate feedstocks for biofuel production, especially for biodiesel. Microalgae consist of a vast number of species that contain complex chemical constituents and physical structures. The purpose of this study is to understand the physical and chemical properties of selected microalgae, which is critical to the design of appropriate processes for commercial biofuel production. ASTM standard methods were implemented to examine the microalgae properties, including proximate and ultimate analyses. Among the microalgae studied, green microalgae have more volatile matter than brown microalgae, while the latter contain much higher ash content (as high as 43.4%wt +/- 0.20%wt dry basis). The lowest ash content was found in the samples of green microalgae (14.3%wt +/- 0.10%wt dry basis). Ultimate analysis showed that brown microalgae have less carbon content (approx. 25%wt dry basis) as compared to green microalgae (49%wt to 58%wt dry basis). All samples of microalgae were high in sulfur content (0.4%wt to 1.0%wt dry basis). Mineral contents of all microalgal samples were similar to those commonly present in other biomass. Brown microalgae contain significantly higher amounts of carbohydrates (72.9%wt to 75.5%wt dry basis) than green microalgae. On the other hand, green microalgae contain more crude fat (17.1%wt to 27.8%wt dry basis) than brown microalgae. The fatty acid profiles show that the primary fatty acids in microalgal lipids are similar to those of vegetable oils such as soybean oil. However, there are also many odd-numbered fatty acids, such as C15:0, C17:0, and C19:0, which are not typically seen in other seed oils.
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  2. Life Cycle Analysis and Production Potential of Camelina Biodiesel in the Pacific Northwest
    Abstract

    Dangol, N.; Shrestha, D. S.; Duffield, J. A. 2015. Life Cycle Analysis and Production Potential of Camelina Biodiesel in the Pacific Northwest. Transactions of the ASABE. 58(2) 465-475

    Camelina sativa could be a potential feedstock to help meet the U.S. biodiesel production goal of 36 billion gallons by 2022, as set forth by Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. This research is focused on assessing the energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of camelina biodiesel production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the U.S. Field data were collected from a camelina farm in the region, and crushing and transesterification data were measured using facilities at the University of Idaho. It was estimated that use of camelina biodiesel reduces GHG emissions by 69% compared to 2005 baseline diesel. However, camelina biodiesel does not meet the ASTM D6751 specification for oxidative stability without an additive. Camelina has a smaller seed size compared to canola and required 23% more energy for crushing. The net energy ratio for camelina biodiesel was found to be 3.6, and the fossil energy ratio was found to be 4.2. From an agronomic standpoint, camelina can be incorporated into low rainfall areas of the PNW as a rotational crop. Wheat areas of the PNW with annual rainfall of 19 to 38 cm that currently incorporate fallow into their rotations were considered as potential areas for camelina production. There were 846,500 ha (2.1 million acres) of land meeting the criteria in the region that could potentially produce 443.0 million L of biodiesel (117.1 million gal) and 1.2 billion kg of meal per year. This is 12.1% of the approved amount of camelina meal that could be used in livestock feed within the PNW. It was concluded that camelina biodiesel qualifies as an advanced biofuel, and camelina meal has potential to be consumed locally as a feed mix for livestock.
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  3. A high-oleic-acid and low-palmitic-acid soybean: agronomic performance and evaluation as a feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Graef, G.; LaVallee, B. J.; Tenopir, P.; Tat, M.; Schweiger, B.; Kinney, A. J.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Clemente, T. E. 2009. A high-oleic-acid and low-palmitic-acid soybean: agronomic performance and evaluation as a feedstock for biodiesel. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 7(5) 411-421

    Phenotypic characterization of soybean event 335-13, which possesses oil with an increased oleic acid content (> 85%) and reduced palmitic acid content (< 5%), was conducted across multiple environments during 2004 and 2005. Under these conditions, the stability of the novel fatty acid profile of the oil was not influenced by environment. Importantly, the novel soybean event 335-13 was not compromised in yield in both irrigated and non-irrigated production schemes. Moreover, seed characteristics, including total oil and protein, as well as amino acid profile, were not altered as a result of the large shift in the fatty acid profile. The novel oil trait was inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. The event 335-13 was also evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel. Extruded oil from event 335-13 produced a biodiesel with improved cold flow and enhanced oxidative stability, two critical fuel parameters that can limit the utility of this renewable transportation fuel.
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  4. Sulfur Content in Selected Oils and Fats and Their Corresponding Methyl Esters
    Abstract

    He, B. B.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Thompson, J. C. 2009. Sulfur Content in Selected Oils and Fats and Their Corresponding Methyl Esters. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 25(2) 223-226

    According to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, the use of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) has been mandated for all on-highway transportation diesels since 2006. To comply with the EPA regulations, biodiesel must meet the same ULSD standard for total sulfur which is set at a maximum of 15 ppm. Generally, biodiesel contains lower sulfur than fossil diesel. However, due to the diversity of biodiesel feedstocks, questions have been raised about their sulfur content and the sulfur content of the biodiesel made from them. The objective of this research was to gain basic knowledge about how the sulfur content in biodiesel is affected by the sulfur content of different feedstocks. Sulfur in oilseeds, seed meals, oils and fats, and biodiesel were investigated according to ASTM D5453. Samples of different feedstocks for biodiesel production were investigated. Results showed that sulfur content varies greatly from one source to another The highest sulfur in seeds and meals was found in rapeseed and mustard, at the level of 9,000 and 15,000 ppm, respectively. Oils from mechanical expeller presses contained very low levels of sulfur, although some were still higher than 15 ppm. Animal fats and waste vegetable oils contained relatively higher sulfur levels and were frequently above 15 ppm. It was observed that sulfur was significantly reduced when the oils and fats were processed into biodiesel. Results showed that most of the biodiesel samples investigated in this study contained less than 15-ppm sulfur Feedstocks which contain a high percentage of free fatty acids (FFA) must be treated with sulfuric acid to reduce the FFA level before transesterification. In these cases, care is needed during phase separation to exclude sulfur from the fuel layer.
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  5. Experiments with vegetable oil expression
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Auld, D. L.; Thompson, J. C. 1983. Experiments with vegetable oil expression. Transactions of the ASAE. 26(5) 1298-1302

    University of Idaho seed processing research in centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 h or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The equipment has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78% . Winter rape, safflower, and sunflower have been the principle crops used in the study.
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  6. Processing, characterization, and performance of eight fuels from lipids
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Reece, D. L.; Hammond, B. L.; Thompson, J. C.; Beck, Sidney M. 1997. Processing, characterization, and performance of eight fuels from lipids. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 13(1) 71-79

    Test quantities of ethyl and methyl esters of four renewable fuels were processed, characterized and performance tested. Canola, rapeseed, soybean oils, and beef tallow were the feedstocks for the methyl and ethyl esters. A complete set of fuel properties and a comparison of each fuel in engine performance tests are reported. The study examines short term engine tests with both methyl and ethyl ester fuels compared to number 2 diesel fuel (D2). Three engine performance tests were conducted including an engine mapping procedure, an injector coking screening test, and an engine power study. The gross heat contents of the biodiesel fuels, on a mass basis, were 9 to 13% lower than D2. The viscosities of biodiesel were twice that of diesel. The cloud and pour points of D2 were significantly lower than the biodiesel fuels. The biodiesel fuels produced slightly lower power and torque and higher fuel consumption than D2. In general, the physical and chemical properties and the performance of ethyl esters were comparable to those of the methyl esters. Ethyl and methyl esters have almost the same energy. The viscosity of the ethyl esters is slightly higher and the cloud and pour points are slightly lower than those of methyl esters. Engine tests demonstrated that methyl esters produced slightly higher power and torque than ethyl esters. Fuel consumption when using the methyl and ethyl esters is nearly identical. Some desirable attributes of the ethyl esters over methyl esters were: significantly lower smoke opacity, lower exhaust temperatures, and lower pour point. The ethyl esters tended to have more injector coking than the methyl esters, and the ethyl esters had a higher glycerol content than the methyl esters
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  7. The effect of biodiesel feedstock on regulated emissions in chassis dynamometer tests of a pickup truck
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Taberski, J. S.; Thompson, J. C.; Chase, C. L. 2000. The effect of biodiesel feedstock on regulated emissions in chassis dynamometer tests of a pickup truck. Transactions of the ASAE. 43(6) 1371-1381

    Six different vegetable oil esters (coconut ethyl ester used hydrogenated soy methyl ester, rapeseed ethyl ester, mustard ethyl ester, safflower ethyl ester, and a commercial methyl ester of soy oil) were selected to represent a range of iodine numbers from 7.88 to 133. These vegetable oil esters were tested neat and in 20% biodiesel/80% diesel blends in comparison with low sulfur diesel fuel or the effect on regulated emissions. The test vehicle was a pickup truck with a 5.9 L turbo-charged and inter-cooled direct injection diesel engine. The emissions rests were conducted at the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority Emissions Testing Facility on a chassis dynamometer. It was found that lower iodine numbers correlated with reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx). As iodine number increased from 7.88 to 129.5 the NOx increased 29.3%. Fatty acids with two double bonds appeared to have more effect on increasing NOx emissions than did fatty acids with one double bond. Changes in carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and particulate matter (PM) were not linearly correlated with iodine number It is apparent that the type of feedstock oil affects the characteristics of the biodiesel fuel. The most obvious difference is that the pour point changes with fatty acid composition, however other fuel characteristics, some of which effect combustion, are also changed. This article reports on a study of biodiesel iodine number on changes in regulated emissions. The results of this and similar studies provide information for developing triglycerides specifically for optimum use in biodiesel. Modern chemical processes and/or plant breeding should make this possible
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  8. Exhaust emissions from an engine fueled with biodiesel from high-oleic soybeans
    Abstract

    Tat, M. E.; Wang, P. S.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Clemente, T. E. 2007. Exhaust emissions from an engine fueled with biodiesel from high-oleic soybeans. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 84(9) 865-869

    Biodiesel is a fuel comprising mono-alkyl esters of medium to long-chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Typically, engines operated on soybean-based biodiesel exhibit higher emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) compared with petroleum diesel. The increase in NOx emissions might be an inherent characteristic of soybean oil's polyunsaturation, because the level of saturation is known to affect the biodiesel's cetane number, which can affect NOx. A feedstock that is mostly monounsaturated (i.e. oleate) helps to balance the tradeoff between cold flow and oxidative stability. Genetic modification has produced a soybean event, designated 335-13, with a fatty acid profile high in oleic acid (> 85%) and with reduced palmitic acid (< 4%). This high-oleic soybean oil was converted to biodiesel and run in a John Deere 4045T 4.5-L four-stroke, four-cylinder, turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine. The exhaust emissions were compared with those from conventional soybean oil biodiesel and commercial No. 2 diesel fuel. There was a significant reduction in NOx emissions (alpha = 0.05) using the high-oleic soybean biodiesel compared with regular soybean oil biodiesel. No significant differences were found between the regular and high-oleic biodiesel for unburned hydrocarbon and smoke emissions.
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  9. The influence of trace components on the melting point of methyl soyate
    Abstract

    Yu, Liangping; Lee, Inmok; Hammond, Earl G.; Johnson, Lawrence A.; Van Gerpen, Jon H. 1998. The influence of trace components on the melting point of methyl soyate. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society. 75(12) 1821-1824

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various amounts of unsaponifiables and bound glycerol on the crystallization temperatures of methyl soyate used as biodiesel. The preparation of methyl esters did not affect the amount of unsaponifiable matter in biodiesel. A synthetic unsaponifiable mixture added to distilled methyl soyate and blends of methyl soyate and No. 1 diesel fuel (20:80, vol/vol) did not affect the crystallization onset temperature, cloud point, or pour point at concentrations up to 3% by weight. The amounts of monoglycerides and diglycerides in methyl soyate decreased from 2.60 and 9.87%, respectively, to 0% as the methanol/soybean oil ratio increased from 90 to 200% of the theoretical requirement. Transesterification reactions conducted with less than 130% of the theoretical amount of methanol resulted in methyl soyate with a higher cloud point because of the presence of saturated mono- and diglycerides. Pure mono- and diglycerides added to distilled methyl soyate at 0 to 1.0% did not change the pour point of the esters, but the cloud point of esters increased with increasing amount of saturated mono- or diglyceride. Pure saturated mono- or diglyceride presented in concentrations as low as 0.1% increased the cloud point of methyl soyate. Similar results were obtained with mono- and diglyceride mixtures present in incompletely converted methyl soyate.
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