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Palm or Palm kernel oil as biodiesel feedstock

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  1. Evaluating the environmental impacts of bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil and fatty acid methyl ester through life cycle assessment
    Abstract

    Boonrod, B.; Prapainainar, C.; Narataruksa, P.; Kantama, A.; Saibautrong, W.; Sudsakorn, K.; Mungcharoen, T.; Prapainainar, P. 2017. Evaluating the environmental impacts of bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil and fatty acid methyl ester through life cycle assessment. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1421210-1221

    Bio-hydrogenated diesel (BHD) produced from two different raw materials palm oil fatty acid distillate and fatty acid methyl ester-was compared in terms of environmental impacts using the life cycle assessment (LCA) technique with the SimaPro 7.3 software. The energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission, and environmental impacts reported in unit points (Pt.) were assessed using the Eco-indicator 95, IPCC 2007, and CML 2 Baseline 2000 methodologies, respectively. The functional unit was 1 kg of biofuel product. The system boundary defined included three main processes in the bio-hydrogenated diesel production phase catalytic hydroprocessing, separation, and upgrading. The results indicated that the energy consumption of bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil fatty acid distillate was 1.26 times (or 9.69 x 10(-3) MJ higher) that of the bio-hydrogenated diesel production from fatty acid methyl ester. On the other hand, the greenhouse gas emission from bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil fatty acid distillate was 2.29 times lower than that from fatty acid methyl ester due to the palm trees absorption of CO2 for photosynthesis being greater than the amount released into the atmosphere during the oil palm cultivation stage. The major contributor was crude palm oil as a feedstock to produce either palm oil fatty acid distillate (physical refining) or fatty acid methyl ester (transesterification), which were about 93% and 84% of the total energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission, respectively. The results of environmental impacts showed that the bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil fatty acid distillate was 1.37 times (2.05 x 10(-12) Pt) greater than that from fatty acid methyl ester. Consumption of palm oil fatty acid distillate and fatty acid methyl ester in both processes made the largest contribution to most environmental impacts (99% of the total impact score was from both processes). The main impacts of both bio-hydrogenated diesel production from palm oil fatty acid distillate and fatty acid methyl ester were the terrestrial ecotoxicity potential, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity potential, and marine aquatic ecotoxicity potential. An essential factor which caused these impacts was the use of crude palm oil during the production of palm oil fatty acid distillate and fatty acid methyl ester. Therefore, fatty acid methyl ester was found to be a suitable raw material for biohydrogenated diesel production based on the economic evaluation and the lower environmental impacts during the production stage. This present work highlights the benefit of by-products as feedstock for alternative fuel production in order to increase the by-product marketing value. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  2. Life cycle assessment of palm-derived biodiesel in Taiwan
    Abstract

    Maharjan, S.; Wang, W. C.; Teah, H. Y. 2017. Life cycle assessment of palm-derived biodiesel in Taiwan. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 19(4) 959-969

    In Taiwan, due to the limited capacity of waste cooking oil, palm oil has been viewed as the potential low-cost imported feedstock for producing biodiesel, in the way of obtaining oil feedstock in Malaysia and producing biodiesel in Taiwan. This study aims to evaluate the cradle-to-grave life cycle environmental performance of palm biodiesel within two different Asian countries, Malaysia and Taiwan. The phases of the life cycle such as direct land-use-change impact, plantation and milling are investigated based on the Malaysia case and those of refining, and fuel production as well as engine combustion is based on Taiwan case. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption for the whole life cycle were calculated as -28.29 kg CO2-equiv. and +23.71 MJ/kg of palm-derived biodiesel. We also analyze the impacts of global warming potential (GWP) and the payback time for recovering the GHG emissions when producing and using biodiesel. Various scenarios include (1) clearing rainforest or peat-forest; (2) treating or discharging palm-oil-milling effluent (POME) are further developed to examine the effectiveness of improving the environmental impacts.
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  3. Palm fatty acid distillate as a potential source for biodiesel production-a review
    Abstract

    Kapor, N. Z. A.; Maniam, G. P.; Ab Rahim, M. H.; Yusoff, M. M. 2017. Palm fatty acid distillate as a potential source for biodiesel production-a review. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1431-9

    Steady escalating of global CO2 concentration and the findings of 2015 as the warmest year ever recorded, demanding feasible yet urgent solutions to counter those undesirable consequences. One of such solutions is biodiesel, regarded as more environment-friendly fuel, that to be used in diesel engines. Biodiesel is produced at industrial scale mainly from edible feedstock and attempts are constantly being made to lower the feedstock cost by utilizing waste or low-cost feedstock. As to realize the effort, continuous exploration of low-cost yet viable feedstock for biodiesel production is one of the focuses of the researchers. Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) is one of such potential feedstock to be utilized in biodiesel preparation. This review serves as a gauge for the use of PFAD as a source for biodiesel production. In addition, a wide range of catalysts and the corresponding optimal reaction conditions are presented. Reusability performance of the catalysts is presented too as to evaluate the overall capability of those catalysts in driving the reaction. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  4. Performance of Palm-Based C-16/18 Methyl Ester Sulphonate (MES) in Liquid Detergent Formulation
    Abstract

    Maurad, Z. A.; Idris, Z.; Ghazali, R. 2017. Performance of Palm-Based C-16/18 Methyl Ester Sulphonate (MES) in Liquid Detergent Formulation. Journal of Oleo Science. 66(7) 677-687

    Liquid detergents are more convenient than powdered detergents as they dissolve readily in water, generate less dust and dosing is easy. However, the stability of liquid detergents is an issue of concern. Therefore, the objective of this research is to study the formulation requirement to produce heavy-duty liquid detergents based on palm-based methyl esters sulphonate (MES) with desirable properties and performance. MES is produced from renewable and sustainable feedstock suitable to replace the conventional fossil-based surfactant, linear alkyl benzene sulphonates (LAS). Five palm-based liquid detergents (PBLDs) were formulated using C-16/18 MES as the primary surfactant. The physical properties, washing performance, stability and biodegradability of PBLDs were evaluated. Performance of the PBLDs was evaluated against two commercial liquid detergents which use LAS and alcohol glucoside as surfactant (benchmark product) and it was found that the PBLDs exhibited excellent performance. PBLDs can be formulated with or without phosphates and still demonstrate good detergency. The stability study of PBLDs indicated that no appreciable hydrolysis occurred. PBLDs exhibited better biodegradability profiles compared to commercial detergent containing LAS. PBLDs passed the 60% biodegradability level within 3 to 8 d, while commercial detergent took 24 d. It was shown that palm-based C-16/18 MES could be potentially formulated into liquid detergents and gave better performance than LAS based liquid detergent. Attributes of C-16/18 MES should not be overlooked, which include an abundant and naturally derived palm stearin as raw material and environmental safety profiles that are superior to most synthetic surfactants.
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  5. Response surface methodology for the optimization of the production of rubber seed/palm oil biodiesel, IDI diesel engine performance, and emissions
    Abstract

    Khalil, I.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Yusup, S.; Heikal, M.; El-Adawy, M. 2017. Response surface methodology for the optimization of the production of rubber seed/palm oil biodiesel, IDI diesel engine performance, and emissions. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 7(1) 37-49

    Emissions from diesel engines have been considered as major air pollution sources. The blending of feedstocks is motivated by the desire to enhance the properties and reduce the cost of biofuels. In this study, a rubber seed/palm oil mixture at equal blend ratios was used to produce biodiesel. The effects of irreverent parameters on transesterification were studied using the response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the maximum yield. Methyl ester at optimized conditions was produced, and its thermophysical properties were studied. Methyl ester effect on the emissions and performance of an unmodified indirect injection diesel engine (IDI) at partial and full load was examined. The results showed that the torque and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) were 1.1 and 1 % lower than diesel fuel, respectively. Compared to diesel fuel, power and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) were 1.1 and 1.3 % lower, respectively, and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was 1.4 % higher at full load. CO was also reduced by 2 % while CO2, NOx, and exhaust temperature increased on average by 1, 1.2, and 1.1 %, respectively.
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  6. Synthesis of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated palm seed cake catalyst
    Abstract

    Akinfalabi, S. I.; Rashid, U.; Yunus, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2017. Synthesis of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated palm seed cake catalyst. Renewable Energy. 111611-619

    The use of a sulfonated soaked palm seed cake (SPSC-SO3H) derived catalyst for the production of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) (the byproduct obtained during palm oil production) has been demonstrated. The activated carbon material from the soaked palm seed cake (SPSC) was sulfonated and then used for the esterification of PFAD (containing 85% of free fatty acid (FFA), 10% of triglycerides, 3% of diglycerides, 0.3% of monoglycerides and some traces of impurities). The synthesized SPSC-SO3H catalyst was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), NH3-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), N-2 physisorption and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The SPSC-SO3H catalyst showed higher acid density (12.08 mmol g(-1)) and surface area (483.07 m(2) g(-1)). The optimized reaction conditions, i.e. 9:1 methanol/PFAD molar ratio; 60 degrees C reaction temperature; 2.5 wt.% of the SPSC-SO3H catalyst and 2 h of reaction time was employed to achieve FFA conversion (98.2%) and FAME yield (97.8%). The SPSC-SO3H catalyst underwent eight reaction cycles and catalytic activity was dropped by 24% during recyclability study. The SPSC-SO3H catalyst demonstrates a promising and effective application for biodiesel synthesis especially for feedstocks containing high free fatty acid content. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  7. Synthesis of MnO-NiO-SO4-2/ZrO2 solid acid catalyst for methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate
    Abstract

    Al-Jaberi, S. H. H.; Rashid, U.; Al-Doghachi, F. A. J.; Abdulkareem-Alsultan, G.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2017. Synthesis of MnO-NiO-SO4-2/ZrO2 solid acid catalyst for methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate. Energy Conversion and Management. 139166-174

    Biodiesel is a found promising alternative biofuel to popular fossil fuel because of to its renewable and biodegradable nature and thus is considered as environmentally benign. This paper reports on the synthesis of a novel heterogeneous manganese-nickel doped on sulfated zirconia catalyst (MnO-NiO-SO4-2/ZrO2) by using simple wet impregnation method for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). The synthesized catalyst was characterized through ammonia temperature programmed desorption (TPD-NH3), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), pyridine adsorption via FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The synthesized catalyst was tested for PFAD through esterification reaction where more than 97% of biodiesel yield was observed under the optimized reaction conditions of 15:1 methanol to PFAD ratio, 70 degrees C reaction temperature, 3 wt% catalyst loading and 3 h reaction time. The reusability of the catalyst was tested and found that it could be reused for at least five times without significant reduction in activity. Hence, the catalyst was found suitable for biodiesel production from low grade feedstock. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd.
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  8. Transformation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Terpolymer Polyhydroxyalkanoate and Biodiesel Using Rummeliibacillus pycnus Strain TS8
    Abstract

    Junpadit, P.; Suksaroj, T. T.; Boonsawang, P. 2017. Transformation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent to Terpolymer Polyhydroxyalkanoate and Biodiesel Using Rummeliibacillus pycnus Strain TS8. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 8(4) 1247-1256

    This study aimed to transform wastewater from palm oil mill to the valuable products, especially the terpolymer PHA and biodiesel using Rummeliibacillus pycnus TS8. The cultivation of R. pycnus TS8 in POME was conducted in a 1-L aeration reactor. The optimization of bioproducts production was investigated by a statistical method with the central composite rotatable design. The result found that the highest cell dry weight (CDW) and bioproduct accumulation was obtained at the C/N ratio, aeration rate and phosphorus addition of 10, 1.00 vvm and 0.10 g/L, respectively. Moreover, R. pycnus TS8 accumulated P (3HB-co-3HV-co-3HHx) with 42.8 mol% 3HB, 34.9 mol% 3HV and 22.38 mol% 3HHx. In addition, R. pycnus TS8 also accumulated lipid, especially oleic acid (59.5 % CDW). In addition, the experiment was examined in a 72-L bioreactor to determine the properties of PHA and further used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Afterward, biomass and bioproducts were recovered. The terpolymer PHA and intracellular fatty acid were extracted. The characteristics of terpolymer showed that T-g, T-m, tensile strength, Young's modulus and elongation at break were -21 degrees C, 147 degrees C, 27.67 MPa, 1260 MPa and 11.7 %, respectively. The bioproducts were hydrolyzed to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) with a heating value, flash point and pour point of 32.9 kJ/g, 132 degrees C and 7 degrees C, respectively. The results illustrated that the properties of terpolymer PHA and FAME produced from this study showed a possibility for further application in biopolymer and biodiesel.
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  9. Glycerolysis of palm fatty acid distillate for biodiesel feedstock under different reactor conditions
    Abstract

    Islam, A.; Masoumi, H. R. F.; Teo, S. H.; Abdollahi, Y.; Janaun, J.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2016. Glycerolysis of palm fatty acid distillate for biodiesel feedstock under different reactor conditions. Fuel. 174133-139

    This paper deals with the comparative study on glycerolysis of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) in a solvent free system at different reaction conditions in an attempt to get maximum degree of FFA% reduction for biodiesel feedstock. Initially, optimization of varied reaction parameters was performed under all the different reaction conditions using artificial neural network (ANN) based on the genetic algorithm (GA). It has been found that the reduction of acidity varies with varying reaction conditions with maximum reaction rate observed in case of reaction carried-out in open reactor system with inert gas flow, followed by the reaction in open reactor system without inert gas flow and then in case of reaction under the close reactor system. In the most favorable case, 1.5 mgKOH/gPFAD of FFA (free fatty acid) was achieved after 90 min of reaction time with an excess glycerol of 4% at 220 degrees C. The results from the ANN model show good agreement with experimental results. Thus, the glycerolysis in open reactor system with inert gas flow (N-2) option is much-preferred option compared to acid esterification for the same biodiesel plant capacity, particularly for high-FFA feedstocks. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from land use change due to oil palm expansion in Thailand for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Permpool, N.; Bonnet, S.; Gheewala, S. H. 2016. Greenhouse gas emissions from land use change due to oil palm expansion in Thailand for biodiesel production. Journal of Cleaner Production. 134532-538

    Thailand depends heavily on importation of fossil oil to satisfy its energy demand. The transportation sector is an important contributor to energy demand; biofuels are therefore strongly promoted in Thailand, notably biodiesel from oil palm. According to the Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2012-2021) a biodiesel target of 5.97 million litres per day is to be achieved by 2021. This research focuses on assessing the implication of this on oil palm plantation area requirement, regions most suitable for its expansion and related greenhouse gas (GHG) implications as well as feedstock security. The investigations revealed that about 91,200 ha of land would be required for oil palm expansion to achieve the biodiesel target while also meeting other requirements for palm oil including domestic consumption, export, stock and surplus. The Eastern and Southern regions were identified as the two most suitable for oil palm cultivation with respectively 29,772 ha and 61,427 ha of mainly grassland and abandoned land. Oil palm expansion in the East would lead to overall land use change related GHG savings amounting to 47,214 tonnes CO2-eq per year. Oil palm expansion in the South would also bring GHG savings, 2.5 times higher than for the East. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  11. Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm, jatropha, and moringa oil methyl ester
    Abstract

    Rashed, M. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mofijur, M.; Rasul, M. G.; Zulkifli, N. W. M. 2016. Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm, jatropha, and moringa oil methyl ester. Industrial Crops and Products. 7970-76

    This paper aims to investigate the diesel engine performance and emission characteristics fueled with moringa biodiesel and compare those with the performance and emission characteristics of palm biodiesel, jatropha biodiesel, and diesel fuel. In this study, only 20% of each biodiesel (described by MB20, PB20, and JB20, respectively) was tested in diesel engine, given that open literature indicates the possible use of biodiesel of up to 20% in a diesel engine without modification. The physical and chemical properties of all fuel samples are also presented and compared with ASTM 06751 standards. A naturally aspirated multi-cylinder, four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine was used to evaluate their performance at different speeds and full load condition. All biodiesel fuel samples reduce brake power (BP) and increase brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than diesel fuel. Engine emission results indicated that blended fuel reduces the average carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) emissions except nitric oxides (NO) emissions than diesel fuel. Among the biodiesel-blended fuel, Palm biodiesel showed better performance and minimal emission than jatropha and moringa biodiesel fuel. Although PB20 showed better performance, but performance of MB20 biodiesel blend is comparable with other fuels. Correspondingly, 20% of moringa biodiesel can be used in a diesel engine without any engine modification. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  12. Pretreatment and Bentonite-based Catalyzed Conversion of Palm-rubber Seed Oil Blends to Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Ali, B.; Yusup, S.; Quitain, A. T.; Kamil, R. N. M.; Sumigawa, Y.; Ammar, M.; Kida, T. 2016. Pretreatment and Bentonite-based Catalyzed Conversion of Palm-rubber Seed Oil Blends to Biodiesel. Proceeding of 4th International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials (Icpeam 2016). 148501-507

    Pretreatment of pre-blended palm and rubber seed oil (50: 50) was studied. A parametric study to determine the effect of alcohol-to-oil ratio, catalyst loading and reaction temperature on free fatty acid (FFA) content was also conducted. Interestingly, the FFA percentage of pre-blended feedstock has been reduced significantly from 20% to below 2%. The optimum value for the reduction of FFA was found to be 1.5 wt. % catalyst, alcohol-tooil ratio 6: 1, 62 degrees C reaction temperature at constant stirring speed (400 rpm) and reaction time 1.5 hours. NaOH/bentonite was also investigated and characterized as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification. The characterization was conducted by FTIR and XRD analysis. The catalyst showed good results by producing 92 wt% fatty acid methyl esters at reaction temperature of 62 degrees C and reaction time of 3 hours. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  13. Solid acid as catalyst for biodiesel production via simultaneous esterification and transesterification of macaw palm oil
    Abstract

    da Conceicao, L. R. V.; Carneiro, L. M.; Rivaldi, J. D.; de Castro, H. F. 2016. Solid acid as catalyst for biodiesel production via simultaneous esterification and transesterification of macaw palm oil. Industrial Crops and Products. 89416-424

    Heterogeneous catalysis applied to esterification and transesterification of non-edible oil offers a strategy to the clean synthesis of the biodiesel and is driving research interested into the development of acid catalysts for efficient conversion of low quality vegetable oils into fuels to meet future societal demands. Thus, sulfated niobium oxide catalyst was synthesized by the impregnation method and used as a heterogeneous catalyst aimed at biodiesel production via macaw palm oil through high free fatty acid content transesterification with ethanol. The effect of two reaction parameters, molar ratio of ethanol to macaw palm oil and reaction temperature, on" ester content and viscosity was studied by the response surface methodology (RSM). The ester content was determined by GC. The catalyst shows excellent activity (99.2% ester content and 4.5 mm(2)/s viscosity) towards biodiesel production. Its optimum reaction conditions were: 120:1 molar ratio of ethanol to macaw palm oil at 250 degrees C reaction temperature. The catalysts characterization was carried out by using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and N-2 Adsorption-desorption and Surface Acidity Analyses. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  14. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst
    Abstract

    Syamsuddin, Y.; Murat, M. N.; Hameed, B. H. 2016. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from the transesterification of high- and low-acid-content crude palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) and karanj oil (Pongamia pinnata) over a calcium-lanthanum-aluminum mixed-oxides catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 214248-252

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from the high- and low-acid-content feedstock of crude palm oil (CPO) and karanj oil (KO) was conducted over CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst. Various reaction parameters were investigated using a batch reactor to identify the best reaction condition that results in the highest FAME yield for each type of oil. The transesterification of CPO resulted in a 97.81% FAME yield with the process conditions of 170 degrees C reaction temperature, 15: 1 DMC-to-CPO molar ratio, 180 min reaction time, and 10 wt.% catalyst loading. The transesterification of KO resulted in a 96.77% FAME yield with the conditions of 150 degrees C reaction temperature, 9: 1 DMC-to-KO molar ratio, 180 min reaction time, and 5 wt.% catalyst loading. The properties of both products met the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standard requirements. The above results showed that the CaO-La2O3-Al2O3 mixed-oxide catalyst was suitable for high- and low-acid-content vegetable oil. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  15. Transesterification of waste cooking palm oil and palm oil to fatty acid methyl ester using cesium-modified silica catalyst
    Abstract

    Amani, H.; Asif, M.; Hameed, B. H. 2016. Transesterification of waste cooking palm oil and palm oil to fatty acid methyl ester using cesium-modified silica catalyst. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 58226-234

    The transesterification of waste cooking palm oil (WCPO) and palm oil (PO) with methanol to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was studied using CsM-SiO2 as a heterogeneous catalyst. The catalyst was prepared by an impregnation method with 10%-30% CsO2 loaded onto silica. The catalyst with 25% loading achieved the highest FAME content. The effects of catalyst on transesterification reaction parameters to FAME content were investigated. The FAME content reached 90% at 65 degrees C in 3 h with 3 wt.% catalyst loading and 20:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil for WCPO transesterification and 89% with 2 wt.% catalysts loading for PO transesterification, respectively. The solid catalyst can be reused for four batch cycles without significant deactivation. Also, the catalyst exhibited good tolerance toward 1 wt. % water content in WCPO feedstock, without significant changes in the FAME content. (C) 2015 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  16. Utilization of palm fatty acid distillate in methyl esters preparation using SO42-/TiO2-SiO2 as a solid acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Embong, N. H.; Maniam, G. P.; Rahim, M. H. A.; Lee, K. T.; Huisingh, D. 2016. Utilization of palm fatty acid distillate in methyl esters preparation using SO42-/TiO2-SiO2 as a solid acid catalyst. Journal of Cleaner Production. 116244-248

    The use of by-products, particularly in the biodiesel industry, has gained much attention owing to their potential in countering higher feedstock costs. A low-value by-product of palm oil refining, the palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), was utilized as a feedstock for biodiesel preparation with the aid of a solid acid catalyst, SO42-/TiO2-SiO2. A central composite design is applied to optimize the major influential manipulate variables. The analysis of variance identifies the methanol/PFAD molar ratio as having a dominant effect on methyl ester conversion, followed by catalyst amount and reaction time respectively. The utilization of PFAD with the aid of a solid acid catalyst results in 93.3 +/- 1.02% conversion at the most optimized reaction conditions of 2.97 +/- 0.04 wt% for the catalyst amount, 5.85 +/- 0.14 methanol/PFAD molar ratio and 3.12 +/- 0.14 h of reaction time. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  17. A novel feedstock for biodiesel production: The application of palmitic acid from Schizochytrium
    Abstract

    Chen, W.; Ma, L.; Zhou, P. P.; Zhu, Y. M.; Wang, X. P.; Luo, X. A.; Bao, Z. D.; Yu, L. J. 2015. A novel feedstock for biodiesel production: The application of palmitic acid from Schizochytrium. Energy. 86128-138

    With the growing energy crisis and environmental pollution worldwide, the environmental benefits of biodiesel have made it a more attractive product. However, the production of biodiesel feedstock can only satisfy a small fraction of the demand for transportation fuels, and the cost of this feedstock is the main obstacle to the commercialization of biodiesel. The marine microalgae Schizochytrium is a promising producer of biodiesel feedstock because of its short life cycle, high cell density, high lipid content and high palmitic acid (PA) content, all of which can improve the quality of biodiesel. In this study, a sequential optimization of the culture medium, based on response surface methodology (RSM), was employed to increase the PA production in Schizochytrium and lower the process cost. As a result, the PA production by Schizochytrium sp. S056 increased from 14.69 +/- 0.62 g/L to 25.95 +/- 0.11 g/L using the optimal conditions. In addition, the quality analysis of the crude lipid showed that the lipid produced by the microbial process is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  18. A Study of Biodiesel Produced from Palm Oil with the Assistance of CaO-La2O3
    Abstract

    Zhang, Y.; You, H. 2015. A Study of Biodiesel Produced from Palm Oil with the Assistance of CaO-La2O3. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(4) 401-406

    By using palm oil as feedstock and methanol as an esterifying agent and CaO-La2O3 as the catalyst, effects of different catalyst's activity and synthetic methods for biodiesel's yield were researched. When the ratio of CaO and La2O3 and calcination's temperature was 2.0:1.0 and 1,073 K, respectively, CaO-La2O3 had a good activity and stabilization. The co-settling method has the highest catalyst's activity and biodiesel yield than that of other methods. The optimizing reaction temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, and ratio of methanol of palm oil were 70 degrees C, 3.5 h, 2.5%, and 15:1, respectively. When CaO-La2O3 was reused five times, CaO-La2O3's activity kept above 90%.
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  19. A Study on the Kinetic Model of Biodiesel Produced from Palm Oil with Assistant of CaO-La2O3
    Abstract

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L. 2015. A Study on the Kinetic Model of Biodiesel Produced from Palm Oil with Assistant of CaO-La2O3. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(2) 134-138

    By using palm oil as feedstock, methanol as an esterifying agent, and CaO-La2O3 as the catalyst, effects of the reaction condition on concentration of methyl esters were researched. The best reaction time, amount of catalyst, and ratio of methanol and palm oil were and 3.5 h, 2.5%, and 15: 1, respectively. According to the guiding principles of reaction kinetic model mechanism, reaction kinetics model of biodiesel is pointed out. Model simulated data are close to experimental data.
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  20. Esterification of sludge palm oil as a pretreatment step for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Skrbic, B.; Predojevic, Z.; Durisic-Mladenovic, N. 2015. Esterification of sludge palm oil as a pretreatment step for biodiesel production. Waste Management & Research. 33(8) 723-729

    Acid esterification of sludge palm oil, having 50mas.% free fatty acids, i.e. 50g of dominant free fatty acid per 100g of oil, was investigated with the objective of determining conditions for the efficient reduction of free fatty acids. The influences of sulphuric acid dosage and molar ratio of methanol to oil were studied, with the final intention to obtain feedstock with a free fatty acids content acceptable for biodiesel production by alkali-transesterification. Esterification was performed using different molar ratios of methanol to oil (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1) and varying the amount of H2SO4 catalyst (0.92mas.%, 1.84mas.% and 4.60mas.%). Under the applied conditions, the sulphuric acid dosage of 4.60mas.% resulted in the satisfactory decrease of the feedstock's free fatty acids for 6:1 and 9:1 molar ratios of methanol to oil. Thus, taking into account the economic reasoning, it can be concluded that approximately 5mas.% of H2SO4 with 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oily feedstock, might be regarded as the dosage necessary for satisfactory pretreatment of the feedstock to be further subjected to the alkaline transesterification. Finally, the effort to consolidate the information on acid esterification available in literature was made, contributing to knowledge on sustainable biodiesel production using the low-grade and low-cost sources.
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  21. Intensification of biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oil (Palm Olein) in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor: Effect of operating parameters on methyl ester conversion
    Abstract

    Chuah, L. F.; Yusup, S.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Bokhari, A.; Klemes, J. J.; Abdullah, M. Z. 2015. Intensification of biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oil (Palm Olein) in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor: Effect of operating parameters on methyl ester conversion. Chemical Engineering and Processing. 95235-240

    This paper investigates a new route for intensification of methyl ester synthesis in Malaysia via alkali-catalysed transesterification of waste cooking oil derived from palm olein using a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. The effects of the oil to methanol molar ratio (1:4-1:7), catalyst loading concentration (0.5-1.25 wt%) and reaction temperature (50-65 degrees C) have been investigated using an optimised plate with 21 holes of 1 mm diameter and an inlet pressure of 2 bar in a 50 L of hydrodynamic cavitation reactor assisted by a double diaphragm pump. Optimal conversion of 98.1% was achieved in 15 min in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor with 1:6 molar ratio of oil to methanol, 1 wt% of catalyst and 60 degrees C of reaction temperature. It has been observed that a significant reduction in the optimum reaction time (about 6 fold) for transesterification from 90 min for mechanical stirring approach to 15 min for the hydrodynamic cavitation approach. Optimal yield efficiency of 12.50 x 10(-4) g/J was found using hydrodynamic cavitation and it was 8 fold higher than 1.5 x 10(-4)g/J when mechanical stirring was used. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  22. Methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst
    Abstract

    Lokman, I. M.; Rashid, U.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Yunus, R. 2015. Methyl ester production from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst. Renewable Energy. 81347-354

    A highly potential heterogeneous solid acid catalyst derived from a carbohydrate precursor was successfully developed and applied for biodiesel production from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). The catalyst was synthesized by sulfonating the incomplete carbonized D-glucose using concentrated sulfuric acid to produce a sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst. The catalyst underwent a detailed characterization analysis in terms of its functional groups of active sites, morphological structure, thermal stability, surface area and density of acid sites. For the catalytic activity test, the sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst was used to esterify PFAD which contained around 85 wt.% free fatty acids (FFA). Furthermore, it demonstrated a 95.4% conversion of FFA to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with 92.3% of FAME yield under the following optimum condition: catalyst loading of 2.5 wt.%, methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio of 10:1, reaction temperature of 75 degrees C and the reaction time was 2 h. It can be deduced from the results that a sulfonated glucose-derived acid catalyst has a high potential to esterify high FFA feedstocks, especially PFAD, to produce low cost biodiesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  23. Oil palm for biodiesel in Brazil-risks and opportunities
    Abstract

    Englund, O.; Berndes, G.; Persson, U. M.; Sparovek, G. 2015. Oil palm for biodiesel in Brazil-risks and opportunities. Environmental Research Letters. 10(4)

    Although mainly used for other purposes, and historically mainly established at the expense of tropical forests, oil palm can be the most land efficient feedstock for biodiesel. Large parts of Brazil are suitable for oil palm cultivation and a series of policy initiatives have recently been launched to promote oil palm production. These initiatives are however highly debated both in the parliament and in academia. Here we present results of a high resolution modelling study of opportunities and risks associated with oil palm production for biodiesel in Brazil, under different energy, policy, and infrastructure scenarios. Oil palm was found to be profitable on extensive areas, including areas under native vegetation where establishment would cause large land use change (LUC) emissions. However, some 40-60 Mha could support profitable biodiesel production corresponding to approximately 10% of the global diesel demand, without causing direct LUC emissions or impinging on protected areas. Pricing of LUC emissions could make oil palm production unprofitable on most lands where conversion would impact on native ecosystems and carbon stocks, if the carbon price is at the level $125/tC, or higher.
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  24. Optimization of the Colombian biodiesel supply chain from oil palm crop based on techno-economical and environmental criteria
    Abstract

    Rincon, L. E.; Valencia, M. J.; Hernandez, V.; Matallana, L. G.; Cardona, C. A. 2015. Optimization of the Colombian biodiesel supply chain from oil palm crop based on techno-economical and environmental criteria. Energy Economics. 47154-167

    During the last years the worldwide legal framework has stimulated the biofuel development, causing their production and use to be exhaustively studied. Biodiesel has been mostly produced in European countries, but the agronomic potential of the Latin-American countries has led the effort toward the biodiesel production, via regulations. This is the case of Colombia, where the oil palm has been exploited as the major biodiesel feedstock. The acts, laws and regulations indicate the mandatory expansion of biodiesel usage. Nonetheless, the laws do not explain the way in that those expansion targets will be done. In this work, the optimal conditions of the supply chain biodiesel were studied via the techno-economic and environmental analysis. Using logistic restrictions, environmental assessment and cost minimization (all of them were estimated in this work), the optimal expansion conditions were decided, taking into account the minimal emissions and the effect of the Land Use Change (LUC) for the oil palm crop expansion. The results showed that the Middle Region is the most promising zone for biodiesel expansion, as well as the Eastern Region is the most adequate zone for expansion crops since the LUC impact is lowest. Finally, the results indicated that the biodiesel based industry must be addressed toward other feedstocks. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  25. Potential of biodiesel production from palm oil at Brazilian Amazon
    Abstract

    Kuss, V. V.; Kuss, A. V.; da Rosa, R. G.; Aranda, D. A. G.; Cruz, Y. R. 2015. Potential of biodiesel production from palm oil at Brazilian Amazon. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 501013-1020

    The search for alternative fuel sources is indispensable to reduce the dependence from petroleum fuels. Biodiesel which is produced from oils and fats is an excellent substitute for diesel. In terms of feedstock, palm oil is highlighted as the traditional culture with best income in oil per hectare and it is one of the most consumed oils in the world. Brazil has great amount of illegally deforested areas in Amazon and these places are able to cultivate palm oil. These areas may be recovered through the palm sustainable planting, developing familiar agriculture and the region's economy, besides placing Brazil as one country with highest potential of biodiesel and palm oil production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  26. Pre-Blended Methyl Esters Production from Crude Palm and Rubber Seed Oil Via Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor
    Abstract

    Yusup, S.; Bokhari, A.; Chuah, L. F.; Ahmad, J. 2015. Pre-Blended Methyl Esters Production from Crude Palm and Rubber Seed Oil Via Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor. Icheap12: 12th International Conference on Chemical & Process Engineering. 43517-522

    Variety of transesterification processes was widely investigated for biodiesel production to enhance the fuel quality. Energy and reaction time are the major constraints to develop a more economically process with better product quality. Hydrodynamic cavitation possesses lessen the reaction time based on conversion of feedstock to biodiesel. Current study utilized pre-blended equi-volume mixture of crude palm and rubber seed oil as the feedstock. Rubber seed oil as a non-edible feedstock for biodiesel helps to reduce the dependency on crude palm oil. The esterification and transesterification process were carried out at mini scale pilot plant with hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. The cavities were produced in the reactor by passing the fluid (methanol, oil and catalyst) under reduced pressure through constriction (orifice) at higher velocity and these cavities will collapse due to recovered pressure. The sudden collapse of cavities under pressure increased the mass transfer between oil, methanol and catalyst. This mass transfer limitation in conventional transesterification processes was overcome by hydrodynamic cavitation and hence lesser reaction time achieved. In this research the conversion of fatty acid methyl esters up to 90% was observed in 20 minutes. The produced methyl esters were analyzed for its low temperature fuel properties and it meets the international standards of EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751.
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  27. Production Technology of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Mild Acid Catalyst
    Abstract

    Abd Wafti, N. S.; Lau, H. L. N.; Choo, Y. M. 2015. Production Technology of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Mild Acid Catalyst. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 27(4) 352-359

    A two-stage esterification system for the production of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has been developed using acid catalysts, i.e. sulphonic acids. The sulphonic acid catalysts have an excellent solubility property in water phase rendering easy phase separations and also can prevent the formation of undesirable by-products. The optimum reaction conditions for the first stage esterification process was achieved with 2:1 molar ratio of methanol to PFAD with 1.5 wt.% of acid catalyst, reacted for 90 min at temperature of 65 degrees C. The optimum conditions for second stage esterification process enable the reduction of remaining free fatty acids (FFA) in PFAD to less than 2% with catalyst dosage of 1.0 wt.% under similar reaction conditions. The reaction product was then purified and subjected to transesterification process; 0.5 wt. % sodium hydroxide was used as catalyst at 65 degrees C for 90 min. The fuel properties of PFAD biodiesel were found to comply with the European Biodiesel Standard, EN 14214:2008. Therefore, the developed process for production of biodiesel from low-priced feedstock PFAD is really applicable to actual biodiesel production with most competitive process due to its simplicity and excellent reaction yield.
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  28. Removal of steryl glucosides in palm oil based biodiesel using magnesium silicate and bleaching earth
    Abstract

    Na-Ranong, D.; Laungthaleongpong, P.; Khambung, S. 2015. Removal of steryl glucosides in palm oil based biodiesel using magnesium silicate and bleaching earth. Fuel. 143229-235

    Steryl glucosides (SG) may cause problems including accumulation in downstream equipment in production line, storage stability of biodiesel and filter plugging in a diesel engine. In this study, adsorption was used as a post-treatment method to reduce the amount of SG in biodiesel. Commercial grade magnesium silicate (MS) and bleaching earth (BE) were selected as potential adsorbents for SG removal and their performances were evaluated comparatively. To investigate effects of important operating parameters (adsorption time, adsorbent loading and temperature), batch adsorption experiment was performed using palm oil based biodiesel containing 97.6 mg kg (1) of SG as a feedstock. The results revealed that efficiency in SG removal of MS was higher than that of BE. In the tested range of 65-80 degrees C, by treating with 1 wt% of adsorbent, MS could reduce about 81.4-82.5% of SG, whereas BE could reduce only about 48.6-58.9% of SG. Only at low adsorbent loading, the efficiencies of both MS and BE were significantly affected by temperature and then reached the maximum values at temperatures around 70-75 degrees C. Due to the adsorption treatment, mono-, di- and triglycerides were simultaneously removed and the maximum selectivities towards SG adsorption of MS and BE were 11.8% and 13.5%, respectively. In addition, this adsorption treatment provides the higher efficiency in reduction of the concentration of SG (approx. 20 mg kg (1) within 10 min), comparing to a conventional method. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  29. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Juan, J. C.; Binti Abdullah, N. F.; Nizah Mf, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production. Chem Cent J. 830

    BACKGROUND: Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO). RESULTS: The chemical characteristic, textural properties, basicity profile and leaching test of synthesized catalysts were studied by using X-ray diffraction, BET measurement, TPD-CO2 and ICP-AES analysis, respectively. Transesterification activity of solid base catalysts showed that > 90% of palm biodiesel and > 80% of Jatropha biodiesel yield under 3 wt.% of catalyst, 3 h reaction time, methanol to oil ratio of 15:1 under 65 degrees C. This indicated that other than physicochemical characteristic of catalysts; different types of natural oil greatly influence the catalytic reaction due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs). CONCLUSIONS: Among the solid base catalysts, calcium based mixed metal oxides catalysts with binary metal system (CaMgO and CaZnO) showed capability to maintain the transesterification activity for 3 continuous runs at ~ 80% yield. These catalysts render high durability characteristic in transesterification with low active metal leaching for several cycles.
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  30. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Juan, J. C.; Abdullah, N. F. B.; Nizah, M. F. R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production. Chemistry Central Journal. 8

    Background: Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO).
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  31. Influence of anti-corrosion additive on the performance, emission and engine component wear characteristics of an IDI diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel
    Abstract

    Ashraful, A. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Rashedul, H. K.; Sajjad, H.; Abedin, M. J. 2014. Influence of anti-corrosion additive on the performance, emission and engine component wear characteristics of an IDI diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel. Energy Conversion and Management. 8748-57

    This study evaluates the effect of anti-corrosion additives such as 8% and 16% (vol.%) palm olein oil (PO) with ordinary diesel (OD) fuel on engine operation, emission behavior, engine part wear, and lubrication characteristics. This experiment was conducted on 4-cylinder and 4-stroke IDI diesel engine at different engine speed ranging from 1200 to 2800 RPM with 30% throttle setting under full load condition. The properties of the palm olein oil blends meet the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. At 2000 rpm, the experimental results revealed that the POD8A (0.2% Additive + 8% PO + 92% OD) and POD16A (0.2% Additive + 16% PO + 84% OD) blended fuels produced 0.5% and 0.51% higher brake power as well as 1.45% and 1.25% higher torque than same blends without additive, respectively. In comparison with ODE, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was found 1.8% and 3.1% higher for POD8A and POD16A blends, respectively. Anti-corrosion additive is found more effectual in enhancing the engine performance as such additive helps in timely ignition for complete burn in the combustion chamber. The results from engine emission indicated that POD8A and POD16A blended fuel reduced CO emissions by 11% and 6.6% and NOx emission by 2.5% and 1.09%, respectively in compared with OD fuel. Although HC emissions for all blended fuel and OD fuel increased at higher engine speed, the average HC emissions of all blended fuel were not higher than OD fuel. The application of anti-corrosion additives in POD blends reduced ferrous (Fe) wear debris concentration (WBC) by 17.3%. The reductions in WBC were about 16.1%, 10.8%, and 193%, 17.6% for copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al), respectively. An exception was lead (Pb) which yielded higher WBC for all POD blended fuels in compared with OD fuel. Finally, it can be concluded that palm olein oil with additives gives better engine performance, reduces unnecessary exhaust emissions and wear debris concentration of engine parts. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  32. Intensification of synthesis of biodiesel from palm oil using multiple frequency ultrasonic flow cell
    Abstract

    Manickam, S.; Arigela, V. N. D.; Gogate, P. R. 2014. Intensification of synthesis of biodiesel from palm oil using multiple frequency ultrasonic flow cell. Fuel Processing Technology. 128388-393

    Biodiesel is one of the most promising alternatives for fossil fuels but the synthesis of biodiesel is hampered by significant mass transfer and equilibrium limitations along with higher energy requirements especially for the downstream processing. The present investigation focuses on the intensification of transesterification reaction for the generation of biodiesel using palm oil as the feedstock in the presence of KOH as a catalyst. For the first time, a triple frequency ultrasonic reactor (combination of 28-40-70 kHz) has been used for the intensification using palm oil with an objective of reducing the reaction time, molar ratio as well as possibly increasing the yield of biodiesel. The optimized parameters of reaction time, reaction temperature, and the obtained yield (%) in this ultrasound assisted system have been compared with the conventional approach of mechanical stirring. Also, within this ultrasound assisted approach, single, dual and triple frequency modes of operation have been compared to achieve an effective intensification. It has been observed that the cavitation effects were higher for the triple frequency operation as compared to the dual and single frequency operations. The maximum yield of biodiesel obtained with the triple frequency approach, at 3:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil with 1 wt.% potassium hydroxide as catalyst was 93% with a significantly reduced reaction time of 15 min as compared to 3 h required in case of conventional stirring to achieve 75% yield. The results of this investigation support that using multiple frequency ultrasonic irradiation is beneficial in intensifying the transesterification reaction. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  33. Life Cycle Assessment of Palm Oil Biodiesel Production in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Ashnani, M. H. M.; Johari, A.; Hashim, H.; Hasani, E. 2014. Life Cycle Assessment of Palm Oil Biodiesel Production in Malaysia. 4th Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Pts 1 and 2. 465-4661080-1086

    Almost identical properties with petroleum-derived diesel make biodiesel one of the best options of renewable and sustainable fuel supply to the transportation sector. Thanks to plentiful sources of palm oil and reasonable cost, it can be a proper feedstock for biodiesel production in Malaysia. Still, there is a paucity of studies concerning the effects of palm biodiesel on the environment. This paper, therefore, deals with life cycle assessment (LCA) of palm biodiesel to find out and validate the common belief regarding suitability of palm biodiesel as a green and sustainable fuel. The LCA study was conducted through three main stages including agricultural activities, oil milling, and transesterification process of biodiesel production. Palm oil biodiesel production results in the production of 1627.748kgCO2-eq of GHG and energy consumption of 12449.48MJ per ton PME. The results indicate that the most relevant environmental impact of this biofuel system is depletion of fossil resources.
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  34. Performance and Emission Characteristics of an IDI Diesel Engine Fuelled Biodiesel (Rubber Seed Oil and Palm Oil Mix) Diesel Blends
    Abstract

    Adam, I. K.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Yusup, S. 2014. Performance and Emission Characteristics of an IDI Diesel Engine Fuelled Biodiesel (Rubber Seed Oil and Palm Oil Mix) Diesel Blends. Icper 2014 - 4th International Conference on Production, Energy and Reliability. 13

    In this study crude rubber seed oil and palm oil were mixed at 50: 50 vol. feedstock's blending methods is motivated by cost reduction and properties enhancement. Biodiesel was produced and thermo physical properties are studied. Blends of B5, B10 and B20 of biodiesel to diesel were prepared. Engine performance (torque, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE)) and emission (CO, NOx and exhaust gas temperature) were evaluated in a 4 cylinder, natural aspirated, indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine. The results indicated that at rated engine speed of 2500 rpm torque obtained were 87, 86, 85.3 and 85 Nm for neat diesel, B5, B10 and B20 respectively. Torque in all blends case yield between 0 to 5% lower than neat diesel. BTE were 27.58, 28.52, and 26.45% for B5, B10 and B20 compared to neat diesel 26.99%. At lower blends ratio BSFC was found to be lower and increased proportional to the blends ratio. The CO emission reduced but the exhaust gas temperature and NOx increased as blends ratio increases.
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  35. Performance, emissions, and heat losses of palm and jatropha biodiesel blends in a diesel engine
    Abstract

    Abedin, M. J.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Sanjid, A.; Rahman, S. M. A.; Fattah, I. M. R. 2014. Performance, emissions, and heat losses of palm and jatropha biodiesel blends in a diesel engine. Industrial Crops and Products. 5996-104

    After the successful implementation of B5, 5% palm (Elaeis guineensis) based biodiesel, in Malaysia on June 1,2011, the Malaysian government is now looking to phase out B5 by replacing it with B10 or even a higher blending ratio. Being non-edible feedstock, jatropha (Jatropha curcas) can play a vital role along with the existing palm oil. This experiment was conducted in a four-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with B5, 10%, and 20% blends of palm (PB10 and PB20) and jatropha (JB10 and JB20) biodiesel and compared with fossil diesel at full load and in the speed range of 1000 to 4000 RPM. The brake power was decreased on average 2.3% to 10.7% while operating on 10% and 20% blends of palm and jatropha biodiesel. An average of 26.4% BSFC increment was observed for PB20 and JB20 blends. An average of 30.7% carbon monoxide (CO) and 25.8% hydrocarbon (HC) emission reductions were found for 20% blends. On average, the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission is decreased by 3.3% while operating on PB10 and PB20 blends, whereas it is increased by 3.0% while operating on JB10 and JB20 blends. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  36. Rapid palm-biodiesel production assisted by a microwave system and sodium methoxide catalyst
    Abstract

    Lin, Y. C.; Hsu, K. H.; Lin, J. F. 2014. Rapid palm-biodiesel production assisted by a microwave system and sodium methoxide catalyst. Fuel. 115306-311

    In this study, sodium methoxide (CH3ONa) catalyst with a microwave heating system was used to improve palm methyl ester yields, and reduce both reaction time and energy consumption. The experimental results indicate that the palm methyl ester yield first increased along with the amount of catalyst, reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, and reaction power, and then decreased as these parameters rose above certain levels. In conclusion, the best methyl ester yield was 99.5% with methyl ester content of 99.8% and biodiesel yield of 99.7% at 0.75 wt% CH3ONa catalyst, a methanol to oil molar ratio of 6, reaction time of 3 min, and microwave power of 750 W. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  37. Synthesis of Biodiesel from Palm Oil in Capillary Millichannel Reactor: Effect of Temperature, Methanol to Oil Molar Ratio, and KOH Concentration on FAME Yield
    Abstract

    Ab Rashid, W. N. W.; Uemura, Y.; Kusakabe, K.; Osman, N. B.; Abdullah, B. 2014. Synthesis of Biodiesel from Palm Oil in Capillary Millichannel Reactor: Effect of Temperature, Methanol to Oil Molar Ratio, and KOH Concentration on FAME Yield. International Conference and Workshop on Chemical Engineering Unpar 2013 (Icce Unpar 2013). 9165-171

    Application of microtube reactor for the continuous synthesis of biodiesel has been widely studied due to excellent performance in liquid-liquid phase reaction. In order to commercialize biodiesel production, integration of microtube reactor is highly recommended. Therefore, in this study, synthesis of biodiesel was carried out in capillary millichannel reactor with inner diameter of 1.59 mm using methanol and potassium hydroxide (KOH) as base catalyst with palm oil as a feedstock. The influences of reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, and KOH concentration on the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) were examined. The highest FAME yield was achieved at 60 degrees C with 23:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 5 wt% of KOH concentration. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ICCE UNPAR 2013
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  38. Techno-Economic Analysis of an Alkali Catalyzed Biodiesel Production using Waste Palm Oil
    Abstract

    Patle, D. S.; Ahmad, Z. 2014. Techno-Economic Analysis of an Alkali Catalyzed Biodiesel Production using Waste Palm Oil. 4th Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Pts 1 and 2. 465-466120-124

    In this contribution, we present an in-depth analysis of an alkali catalyzed biodiesel production using waste palm oil. In view of the limited availability of non-renewable energy sources and the environmental concerns due to the high polluting nature of fossil fuels, biodiesel is seen as a future fuel alternative. We consider a waste palm oil with 6 % free fatty acids as a feedstock, which makes this process economically attractive.. A complete process including esterification and transesterification is simulated using the Aspen Plus process simulator. The quality of a produced biodiesel is compared against different standards. In the subsequent part, the effect free fatty acid in feed oil on the overall biodiesel production is tested. In the last section of this paper, a techno-economic analysis and the scale-up study is carried out to determine the dependence of the feasibility of process on production capacity. The results show that higher capacity is desirable.
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  39. Urea Fractionation of Used Palm Oil Methyl Esters
    Abstract

    Idris, N. A.; Loh, S. K.; Choo, Y. M. 2014. Urea Fractionation of Used Palm Oil Methyl Esters. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 26(3) 226-231

    Urea has shown a remarkable ability in forming well-defined and easy-to-handle crystalline complexes. In general, the use of urea as a ligand provides efficient separation in fat with a wide variety of straight chain compounds but is not applicable to fat containing branched or cyclic compounds. This study was conducted to investigate the fractionation of used frying oil (palm-based) methyl esters (UFOME) with urea and the separation profile according to their degree of unsaturation. A comparison on the effectiveness of fractionation was made with the increment of the treatment level of urea. The urea was added at different ratios (UFOME: urea, w/w) i.e. 1:0.5, 1:0.75 and 1:1. It was found that the most effective fractionation of the unsaturated methyl esters (ME) was achieved when the treatment level of UFOME: urea was 1:0.75. The unsaturated ME was enriched from 58.81% to 88.03% after the urea fractionation. The enriched unsaturated ME will be a useful feedstock for oleochemicals and other processes requiring high level of unsaturation in their fatty acyl chain.
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  40. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Yunus, S.; Abdullah, N. R.; Mamat, R.; Rashid, A. A. 2013. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia. 2nd International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (Icmer 2013). 50

    The high demand to replace petroleum fuel makes renewable and sustainable sources such as Palm oil, Jatropha oil and Algae a main focus feedstock for biodiesel production in Malaysia. There are many studies conducted on Palm oil and Jatropha oil, however, the use of Algae as an alternative fuel is still in its infancy. Malaysia already implemented B5 based Palm oil as a feedstock and this biodiesel has been proven safe and can be used without any engine modification. The use of biodiesel produced from these feedstock will also developed domestic economic and provide job opportunities especially in the rural area. In addition, biodiesel has many advantages especially when dealing with the emissions produce as compared to petroleum fuel such as; it can reduce unwanted gases and particulate matter harmful to the atmosphere and mankind. Thus, this paper gathered and examines the most prominent engine emission produced from Palm oil and Jatropha feedstock and also to observe the potential of Algae to be one of the sources of alternative fuel in Malaysia.
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  41. Influence of 1-butanol addition on diesel combustion with palm oil methyl ester/gas oil blends
    Abstract

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Kinoshita, E.; Shanbu, L.; Ohmura, T. 2013. Influence of 1-butanol addition on diesel combustion with palm oil methyl ester/gas oil blends. Energy. 6144-51

    PME (Palm oil methyl ester) is a promising alternative fuel among biodiesels, because palm oil is the most produced feedstock and its yield is the highest among vegetable oil crops. However, PME has a serious drawback in its relatively high pour point. The aim of this investigation is to extend the range of utilization of PME by improving its low temperature fluidity. The present study used three kinds of blended fuels composed of PME/gas oil/1-butanol to show the effect of lower pour points. Neat PME has a pour point of 19 degrees C, for a PME blend with 20% PME (PME20) the pour point is -5 degrees C, and with 40 mass% 1-butanol blended into the PME20 the pour point is -10 degrees C. Using four kinds of PME/gas oil blends as the base fuels the influence of 1-butanol addition on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and exhaust emissions of a small single cylinder DI (direct injection) diesel engine was examined. The brake thermal efficiency of the base fuels changed little when 1-butanol was added up to 40 mass%. The results also showed that at the rated output condition the smoke emissions decreased considerably with increasing 1-butanol addition ratios. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  42. Oil palm biodiesel: Brazil's main challenges
    Abstract

    Cesar, A. D.; Batalha, M. O.; Zopelari, A. L. M. S. 2013. Oil palm biodiesel: Brazil's main challenges. Energy. 60485-491

    The National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB), launched in Brazil, is based on the diversification of its feedstock and social inclusion. Among the various oilseeds, palm was identified as the ideal one for the Northern region. However, the participation of palm is still not representative in the Brazilian biodiesel matrix. The key industrial challenges to promote oil palm in the biodiesel sector (as well as surpass them) are represented in the data presented herein. The current level of production is not enough to meet the industry's needs. The use of this oil appears to be a viable possibility in the medium-term. However technological limitations, infrastructure, transaction costs and high investments are pivotal bottlenecks to promote palm in the biodiesel chain. Concerning social promotion, there are not enough results yet. The prolonged process of economic marginalization, which family farmers have undergone in the Northern region, results in companies having to engage in social activities that aim at deeper cultural changes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  43. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM Jatropha curcas OIL AND PALM OIL
    Abstract

    Liang, Y. C.; Nang, H. L. L.; May, C. Y. 2013. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM Jatropha curcas OIL AND PALM OIL. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 25(2) 159-164

    Due to the increase in the petroleum fuel and edible oil prices and the continuous debate on fuel vs. the food Issue, effort has been taken to look into the possibility of using a cheaper non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Jatropha curcas oil is one of the non-edible feedstock which has been considered in recent years. In the present study, J. curcas oil was transesterified to jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) and subjected to a full range biodiesel characteristics analysis. It was found that the fatty acid compositions of JOME are very different compared with palm biodiesel (methyl ester of refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil, RBDPOME). JOME consists of 43% methyl oleate and 34% methyl linoleate with total unsaturation of 79%, whereas RBDPOME consists of 39% methyl oleate and 10% methyl linoleate with total unsaturation of approximately 50%. Due to the higher degree of unsaturation especially the methyl linoleate, JOME has lower cold flow properties, namely the cloud point (4.6 degrees C), pour point (3 degrees C) and cold filter plugging point (0 degrees C). JOME is more prone to oxidation and polymerisation, and possesses a lower cetane number when compared to RBDPOME.
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  44. Preparation of Polyglycerol from Palm-Biodiesel Crude Glycerin
    Abstract

    Din, N. S. M. N. M.; Idris, Z.; Kian, Y. S.; Abu Hassan, H. 2013. Preparation of Polyglycerol from Palm-Biodiesel Crude Glycerin. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 25(3) 289-297

    The demand for green energy derived from plant feedstock has been the determining factor for the abundant supply of glycerol. Concerted efforts have been made to expand the current scope of glycerol application. This study describes the rapid polymerisation of crude glycerol directly obtained from the biodiesel process to produce polyglycerol via microwave heating technology. Crude glycerol used in this study was obtained from four different biodiesel pilot plants. Commercially pure glycerol was used as the control in all the parameters studied. The highest percent yield of polyglycerol obtained was 94.94% when heated at 250 degrees C for 60 min under microwave irradiation. Crude glycerol that gave the highest polyglycerol percentage was found to contain the highest percent of soap (12.5%). It was anticipated that a high conversion of glycerol was due to the soap contained in the crude glycerol. This study showed that biodiesel-based crude glycerol with appropriate soap content could be used directly as a raw material in polyglycerol production.
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  45. Food, Fuel, and Climate Change Is Palm-Based Biodiesel a Sustainable Option for Thailand?
    Abstract

    Silalertruksa, T.; Gheewala, S. H. 2012. Food, Fuel, and Climate Change Is Palm-Based Biodiesel a Sustainable Option for Thailand?. Journal of Industrial Ecology. 16(4) 541-551

    This study evaluates the sustainability of biodiesel for transport in Thailand in terms of the availability of fresh fruit bunches (FFB) and crude palm oil (CPO) supply to satisfy the future demands for food and fuel, and the contribution of palm biodiesel to mitigating climate change if biodiesel induces land-use change (LUC). Five land conversions including rubber, cassava, paddy field, set-aside land, and forest land to oil palm are considered along with their displacement effects to other land types to evaluate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the direct and indirect land-use impacts. The net feedstock balance reveals that the policy to expand 0.4 million hectare (Mha) for new oil palm plantations accompanied with an increase of FFB yield to 22 megagrams per hectare (Mg/ha) by 2012 would help avoid a CPO shortage; however, this increase in land use needs to be strongly encouraged. The GHG analyses show a wide range of net GHG balances compared to diesel depending on which type of land is converted and which options are used to treat the oil palm wastes. Except for forest land conversion, direct LUC emissions from converting other lands to oil palm will render benefit to the GHG balance of biodiesel. Indirect LUC emissions through crop displacements, however, will generally worsen the balance. Several recommendations are therefore suggested for sustainable palm biodiesel production in the future.
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  46. Life cycle cost and sensitivity analysis of palm biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ong, H. C.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.; Honnery, D. 2012. Life cycle cost and sensitivity analysis of palm biodiesel production. Fuel. 98131-139

    Increased biodiesel production is being proposed as one solution to the need to ease the impact of increased demand for crude oil and to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Despite this, biodiesel has yet to reach its full commercial potential, especially in the developing countries. Besides technical barriers, there are several nontechnical limiting factors which impede the development of biodiesel such as feedstock price, production cost, fossil fuel price and taxation policy. This study assesses these by undertaking a techno-economic and sensitivity analysis of biodiesel production in Malaysia, the second largest producer of crude palm oil feedstock. It was found that the life cycle cost for a 50 ktons palm biodiesel production plant with an operating period of 20 years is $665 million, yielding a payback period of 3.52 years. The largest share is the feedstock cost which accounts for 79% of total production cost. Sensitivity analysis results indicate that the variation in feedstock price will significantly affect the life cycle cost for biodiesel production. One of the most important findings of this study is that biodiesel price is compatible with diesel fuel when a fiscal incentive and subsidy policy are implemented. For instance, biodiesel price with subsidies of $0.10/l and $0.18/l is compatible and lower than fossil diesel price at crude palm oil price of $1.05/kg or below. As a conclusion, further research on technical as well as nontechnical limitations for biodiesel production is needed before biodiesel can be fully utilized. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  47. Treatment of acidic palm oil for fatty acid methyl esters production
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Mjalli, F. S.; Mirghani, M. E. S.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M.; AlNashef, I. M.; Al-Zahrani, S. M. 2012. Treatment of acidic palm oil for fatty acid methyl esters production. Chemical Papers. 66(1) 39-46

    Acidic crude palm oil (ACPO) produced from palm oil mills with an acid value of 18 mg g(-1) was considered to be a possible feedstock for biodiesel production. Due to its high acidity, conventional transesterification cannot be applied directly for biodiesel production. Methane sulphonic acid (MSA, CH(3)SO(3)H) is used to reduce the acidity prior to the alkaline transesterification reaction. The laboratory-scale experiments involved an MSA to ACPO dosage of 0.25-3.5 %, a molar ratio (methanol to ACPO) from 4 : 1 to 20 : 1, reaction temperature of 40-80 degrees C, reaction time of 3-150 min, and stirrer speed of 100-500 min(-1). The optimum esterification reaction conditions were 1 % of catalyst to ACPO, with a molar ratio of methanol to ACPO of 8 : 1, a stirring speed of 300 min(-1), for 30 min and at 60 degrees C. Under these conditions, the FFA content was reduced from 18 mg g(-1) to less than 1 mg g(-1) and with a yield of 96 %. The biodiesel produced met the EN14214 standard specifications. MSA was recycled for three times without losing its activity. The biodiesel produced in a two-stage process has a low acid value (0.14 mg g(-1)). (C) 2011 Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences
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  48. A review on palm oil biodiesel as a source of renewable fuel
    Abstract

    Mekhilef, S.; Siga, S.; Saidur, R. 2011. A review on palm oil biodiesel as a source of renewable fuel. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(4) 1937-1949

    The demand of increasing price in fossil fuel has prompted the global oil industry to look at the alternative sources of fuel from renewable energy source which is biodiesel. Biodiesel is considered as better option because of its environmental friendly characteristics while giving almost the same functional properties like fossil fuels.
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  49. Immobilized lipase from potential lipolytic microbes for catalyzing biodiesel production using palm oil as feedstock
    Abstract

    Winayanuwattikun, P.; Kaewpiboon, C.; Piriyakananon, K.; Chulalaksananukul, W.; Yongvanich, T.; Svasti, J. 2011. Immobilized lipase from potential lipolytic microbes for catalyzing biodiesel production using palm oil as feedstock. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10(9) 1666-1673

    Biodiesel has been regarded as a biodegradable and non-polluting fuel. Enzymatic transesterification reaction for manufacturing biodiesel from vegetable oils with alcohol is an attractive approach. However, the cost of enzyme remains a barrier for its industrial implementation. The aim of this research was the screening of lipase-producing microorganisms and the studies of potential lipase-mediated biodiesel production using palm oil as substrate. A total of 360 strains of bacteria, yeasts and fungi were isolated and screened from the samples of oil-contaminated soil and waste water. Among all the screened microbes, the potential lipolytic bacterium, Staphylococcus warneri, unicellular yeast, Candida rugosa and filamentous fungus, Fusarium solani were selected because of their high specific activities. The lipase-producing conditions were subsequently optimized by using palm oil as an inducer and lipase activities were compared for both hydrolytic and synthetic catalysis. C. rugosa lipase, which exhibited the highest potential for catalyzing the biodiesel production, was further purified and immobilized on various hydrophobic supports. The catalysis of transesterification between methanol and palm oil by the C. rugosa immobilized lipases revealed that immobilized lipase from C. rugosa on Sepabeads EC-OD was the most promising for further development as a biocatalyst for the application of enzyme-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis.
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  50. Optimization of heterogeneous biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil via response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Omar, W. N. N. W.; Amin, N. A. S. 2011. Optimization of heterogeneous biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil via response surface methodology. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(3) 1329-1338

    Heterogeneous transesterification of waste cooking palm oil (WCPO) to biodiesel over Sr/ZrO(2) catalyst and the optimization of the process have been investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the relationships of methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst loading, reaction time, and reaction temperature on methyl ester yield and free fatty acid conversion. The experiments were designed using central composite by applying 2(4) full factorial designs with two centre points. Transesterification of WCPO produced 79.7% maximum methyl ester yield at the optimum methanol to oil molar ratio = 29:1, catalyst loading = 2.7 wt%, reaction time = 87 min and reaction temperature = 115.5 degrees C. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  51. Potential of waste palm cooking oil for catalyst-free biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Tan, K. T.; Lee, K. T.; Mohamed, A. R. 2011. Potential of waste palm cooking oil for catalyst-free biodiesel production. Energy. 36(4) 2085-2088

    Disposal of waste palm cooking oil (WPCO) via an environmental-friendly route is of major importance in the quest for sustainable development. In this study. WPCO was utilized instead of refined vegetable oils as the source of triglycerides for biodiesel production. WPCO contains several impurities, such as water and free fatty acids, which limit its application in catalytic transesterification processes. Consequently, a catalyst-free process using supercritical methanol was employed to investigate the potential of WPCO as an economical feedstock for biodiesel production. The parameters that influence the reaction, including reaction time, temperature and the molar ratio of alcohol to oil, were investigated. For comparison purposes, refined palm oil (RPO) was also subjected to supercritical methanol reaction and it was found that both processes produced comparable optimum yields of 80% at their respective optimum conditions. Hence, it can be concluded that WPCO has high potential as an economical and practical future source of biodiesel. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  52. Production of Biodiesel Using Palm Oil
    Abstract

    Lam, M. K.; Lee, K. T. 2011. Production of Biodiesel Using Palm Oil. Biofuels: Alternative Feedstocks and Conversion Processes. 353-374

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  53. Improvement potential for net energy balance of biodiesel derived from palm oil: A case study from Indonesian practice
    Abstract

    Kamahara, H.; Hasanudin, U.; Widiyanto, A.; Tachibana, R.; Atsuta, Y.; Goto, N.; Daimon, H.; Fujie, K. 2010. Improvement potential for net energy balance of biodiesel derived from palm oil: A case study from Indonesian practice. Biomass & Bioenergy. 34(12) 1818-1824

    Biodiesel derived from palm oil has been recognized as a high-productivity oil crop among the first generation of biofuels. This study evaluated and discussed the net energy balance for biodiesel in Indonesia by calculating the net energy ratio (NER) and net energy production (NEP) form the total energy input and output. The results of the calculation of energy input for the default scenario demonstrated that the primary energy inputs in the biodiesel production lifecycle were the methanol feedstock, energy input during the biodiesel production process, and urea production. These three items amounted to 85% of the total energy input. Next, we considered and evaluated ways to potentially improve the energy balance by utilizing by-products and biogas from wastewater treatment in the palm oil mill. This result emphasized the importance of utilizing the biomass residue and by-products. Finally, we discussed the need to be aware of energy balance issues between countries when biofuels are transported internationally. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  54. A high-oleic-acid and low-palmitic-acid soybean: agronomic performance and evaluation as a feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Graef, G.; LaVallee, B. J.; Tenopir, P.; Tat, M.; Schweiger, B.; Kinney, A. J.; Van Gerpen, J. H.; Clemente, T. E. 2009. A high-oleic-acid and low-palmitic-acid soybean: agronomic performance and evaluation as a feedstock for biodiesel. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 7(5) 411-421

    Phenotypic characterization of soybean event 335-13, which possesses oil with an increased oleic acid content (> 85%) and reduced palmitic acid content (< 5%), was conducted across multiple environments during 2004 and 2005. Under these conditions, the stability of the novel fatty acid profile of the oil was not influenced by environment. Importantly, the novel soybean event 335-13 was not compromised in yield in both irrigated and non-irrigated production schemes. Moreover, seed characteristics, including total oil and protein, as well as amino acid profile, were not altered as a result of the large shift in the fatty acid profile. The novel oil trait was inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. The event 335-13 was also evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel. Extruded oil from event 335-13 produced a biodiesel with improved cold flow and enhanced oxidative stability, two critical fuel parameters that can limit the utility of this renewable transportation fuel.
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  55. A high-oleic-acid and low-palmitic-acid soybean: agronomic performance and evaluation as a feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Graef, G.; LaVallee, B. J.; Tenopir, P.; Tat, M.; Schweiger, B.; Kinney, A.; Van Gerpen, J.; Clemente, T. E. 2009. A high-oleic-acid and low-palmitic-acid soybean: agronomic performance and evaluation as a feedstock for biodiesel. Plant Biotechnology Journal. 7(7) 717-717

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  56. Life cycle assessment for the production of biodiesel: A case study in Malaysia for palm oil versus jatropha oil
    Abstract

    Lam, M. K.; Lee, K. T.; Mohamed, A. R. 2009. Life cycle assessment for the production of biodiesel: A case study in Malaysia for palm oil versus jatropha oil. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 3(6) 601-612

    One of the most promising forms of renewable energy is biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, such as rapeseed, soybean and palm oil. Malaysia, being the world's second-largest producer of palm oil, therefore begins to align herself as the potential world producer of palm biodiesel apart from exporting palm oil as feedstock for the food and oleochemical industries. However, due to the recent food versus fuel debate, Malaysian palm oil has received a lot of negative attention especially from non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The sustainability of palm biodiesel production and environmental issues are constantly being questioned. Many quarters have even claimed that the use of non-edible oils, such as Jatropha curcas L., should be promoted rather than palm oil for biodiesel production. Therefore, this study aims to compare and validate the production of biodiesel from palm and jatropha using the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The assessment encompasses the cultivation of the crop, the oil extraction stage and finally, the biodiesel production stage. We found that to produce 1 tonne of jatropha biodiesel, the land area requirement is 118% higher than to produce 1 tonne of palm biodiesel. The energy output-to-input ratio for palm biodiesel is 2.27, slightly higher than jatropha biodiesel at 1.92. Furthermore, CO(2) sequestration for the whole life cycle chain of palm biodiesel is 20 times higher than jatropha biodiesel. All these results show the superiority and sustainability of palm oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production (C) Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons. Ltd
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  57. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: Revealing facts and benefits for sustainability
    Abstract

    Yee, K. F.; Tan, K. T.; Abdullah, A. Z.; Lee, K. T. 2009. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: Revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy. 86S189-S196

    Similarity between the properties of biodiesel and petroleum-derived diesel has made the former one of the most promising alternatives to a renewable and sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. In Malaysia, palm oil can be a suitable feedstock for the production of biodiesel due to its abundant availability and low production cost. However, not many assessments have been carried out regarding the impacts of palm biodiesel on the environment. Hence, in this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for palm biodiesel in order to investigate and validate the popular belief that palm biodiesel is a green and sustainable fuel. The LCA study was divided into three main stages, namely agricultural activities, oil milling and transesterification process for the production of biodiesel. For each stage, the energy balance and green house gas assessments were presented and discussed. These are important data for the techno-economical and environmental feasibility evaluation of palm biodiesel. The results obtained for palm biodiesel were then compared with rapeseed biodiesel. From this study, it was found that the utilization of palm biodiesel would generate an energy yield ratio of 3.53 (output energy/input energy), indicating a net positive energy generated and ensuring its sustainability. The energy ratio for palm biodiesel was found to be more than double that of rapeseed biodiesel which was estimated to be only 1.44, thereby indicating that palm oil would be a more sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production as compared to rapeseed oil. Moreover, combustion of palm biodiesel was found to be more environment-friendly than petroleum-derived-diesel as a significant 38% reduction Of CO(2) emission can be achieved per liter combusted. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  58. Novozym 435 for production of biodiesel from unrefined palm oil: Comparison of methanolysis methods
    Abstract

    Talukder, M. M. R.; Wu, J. C.; Van Nguyen, T. B.; Fen, N. M.; Melissa, Y. L. S. 2009. Novozym 435 for production of biodiesel from unrefined palm oil: Comparison of methanolysis methods. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 60(3-4) 106-112

    Biodiesel (BD) is commonly produced from refined vegetable oils by alkali-catalyzed methanolysis. Unrefined vegetable oils are economically attractive but not suitable for alkali catalysis because of their high content of free fatty acids (FFAs). Novozym 435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B), which accepts both FFA and oil as substrates, was, therefore, employed to convert unrefined palm oil to BD. Three different methanolysis methods, namely, t-butanol mediated system (method-1), LiCl solution based controlled release system for methanol (method-2) and solvent-free system with three successive additions of methanol (method-3), were compared. The optimal methanol to oil molar ratios in the method-1, -2 and -3 are 6:1,3:1 and 3: 1, respectively. 131) yield at an optimal methanol concentration reaches 91-92% after 10, 20 and 24 h in the method-1, -2 and -3, respectively. BD yield remains the same over five repeated cycles in the method-1, while it drops to 68 and 71% by the fifth cycle in the method-2 and -3, respectively. The results show that the method-1 is the most effective for production of BD from a low cost feedstock like unrefined palm oil. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  59. Performance and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with waste palm oil and canola oil methyl esters
    Abstract

    Ozsezen, A. N.; Canakci, M.; Turkcan, A.; Sayin, C. 2009. Performance and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with waste palm oil and canola oil methyl esters. Fuel. 88(4) 629-636

    This study discusses the performance and combustion characteristics of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine fueled with biodiesels such as waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME) and canola oil methyl ester (COME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at the constant engine speed mode (1500 rpm) under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME, the engine performance slightly weakened; the combustion characteristics slightly changed when compared to petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF). The biodiesels caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and smoke opacity, but they caused to increases in nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  60. Process integration possibilities for biodiesel production from palm oil using ethanol obtained from lignocellulosic residues of oil palm industry
    Abstract

    Gutierrez, L. F.; Sanchez, O. J.; Cardona, C. A. 2009. Process integration possibilities for biodiesel production from palm oil using ethanol obtained from lignocellulosic residues of oil palm industry. Bioresource Technology. 100(3) 1227-1237

    In this paper, integration possibilities for production of biodiesel and bioethanol using a single source of biomass as a feedstock (oil palm) were explored through process simulation. The oil extracted from Fresh Fruit Bunches was considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production. An extractive reaction process is proposed for transesterification reaction using in situ produced ethanol, which is obtained from two types of lignocellulosic residues of palm industry (Empty Fruit Bunches and Palm Press Fiber). Several ways of integration were analyzed. The integration of material flows between ethanol and biodiesel production lines allowed a reduction in unit energy costs down to 3.4%, whereas the material and energy integration leaded to 39.8% decrease of those costs. The proposed integrated configuration is an important option when the technology for ethanol production from biomass reaches such a degree of maturity that its production costs be comparable with those of grain or cane ethanol. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  61. Feasibility of palm oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production via heterogeneous transesterification
    Abstract

    Kansedo, J.; Lee, K. T.; Bhatia, S. 2008. Feasibility of palm oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production via heterogeneous transesterification. Chemical Engineering & Technology. 31(7) 993-999

    The production of biodiesel has become popular recently as a result of increasing demand for a clean, safe and renewable energy. Biodiesel is made from natural renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats. The conventional method of producing biodiesel is by reacting vegetable oil with alcohol in the presence of a homogenous catalyst (NaOH). However, this conventional method has some limitations such as the formation of soap, usage of significant quantities of wash water and complicated separation processes. Heterogeneous processes using solid catalysts have significant advantages over homogenous methods. Currently, more than 90 % of world biodiesel is produced using rapeseed oil. The production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil is considered uneconomical, considering the fact that palm oil is currently the world's cheapest vegetable oil. Therefore, the focus of this study is to show the feasibility of producing biodiesel from palm oil using montmorillonite KSF as a heterogeneous catalyst. The heterogeneous transesterification process was studied using design of experiment (DOE), specifically response surface methodology (RSM) based on a four-variable central composite design (CCD) with a = 2. The transesterification process variables were reaction temperature, x(1) (50-190 degrees C), reaction period, x(2) (60-300 min), methanol/oil ratio, x(3) (4-12 mol mol(-1)) and the amount of catalyst, x(4) (1-5 wt %). It was found that the conversion of palm oil to biodiesel can reach up to 78.7 % using the following reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 155 degrees C, reaction period of 120 min, ratio of methanol/oil at 10:1 mol mol(-1) and amount of catalyst at 4 wt %. From this study, it was shown that montmorillonite KSF catalyst can be used as a solid catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil.
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  62. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor
    Abstract

    Cao, P. G.; Dube, M. A.; Tremblay, A. Y. 2008. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor. Biomass & Bioenergy. 32(11) 1028-1036

    High-purity fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was produced from different lipids, such as soybean oil, canola oil, a hydrogenated palm oil/palm oil blend, yellow grease, and brown grease, combined with methanol using a continuous membrane reactor. The membrane reactor combines reaction and separation in a single unit, provides continuous mixing of raw materials, and maintains a high molar ratio of methanol to lipid in the reaction loop while maintaining two phases during the reaction. It was demonstrated that the membrane reactor can be operated using a very broad range of feedstocks at highly similar operating conditions to produce FAME. The total glycerine and free glycerine contents of the FAME produced were below the ASTM D6751 standard after a single reaction step. Under essentially the same reaction conditions, a conventional batch reaction was not able to achieve the same degree of FAME purity. The effect of the fatty acid composition of the lipid feedstocks on the FAME purity was also shown. it was demonstrated that, due to the fatty acid composition, FAME from virgin soybean oil and virgin canola oil was produced in the membrane reactor within ASTM specifications even without a water washing step. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  63. Jatropha-Palm biodiesel blends: An optimum mix for Asia
    Abstract

    Sarin, R.; Sharma, M.; Sinharay, S.; Malhotra, R. K. 2007. Jatropha-Palm biodiesel blends: An optimum mix for Asia. Fuel. 86(10-11) 1365-1371

    Biodiesel, an alternative renewable fuel made from transesterification of vegetable oil with alcohol, is becoming more readily available for use in blends with conventional diesel fuel for transportation applications. Soybean and Rapeseed are common feedstocks for Biodiesel production in USA and Europe, respectively. However, Asian countries are not self sufficient in edible oil and exploring non-edible seed oils, like Jatropha and Pongamia as biodiesel raw materials. However there is a gestation period of few years before these crops start yielding seeds and oil. On the other hand, South Eastern countries like Malaysia and Thailand have surplus Palm crops. But due to substantial amount of saturated fats in Palm, the Palm biodiesel has poor low temperature properties. In order to exploit the proximity of South Asian and South-East Asian countries, blends of Jatropha and Palm biodiesel have been examined to study their physico-chemical properties and to get an optimum mix of them to achieve better low temperature properties, with improved oxidation stability. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  64. Esterification of Oil Adsorbed on Palm Decanter Cake into Methyl Ester using Sulfonated Rice Husk Ash as Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst
    Abstract

    Hindryawati, N.; Erwin; Maniam, G. P. 2017. Esterification of Oil Adsorbed on Palm Decanter Cake into Methyl Ester using Sulfonated Rice Husk Ash as Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst. 1st International Conference on Mathematics, Science and Computer Science (Icmsc) 2016: Sustainability and Eco Green Innovation in Tropical Studies for Global Future. 1813

    Palm Decanter cake (PDC) which is categorized as the waste from palm oil mill has been found to contain residual crude palm oil. The oil adsorbed on the PDC (PDC-oil) can be extracted and potentially used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Feedstock from waste like PDC-oil is burdened with high free fatty acids (FFAs) which make the feedstock difficult to be converted into biodiesel using basic catalyst. Therefore, in this study, a solid acid, RHA-SO3H catalyst was synthesized by sulfonating rice husk ash (RHA) with concentrated sulfuric acid. The RHA-SO3H prepared was characterized with TGA, FTIR, BET, XRD, FE-SEM, and Hammett indicators (methyl red, bromophenol blue, and crystal violet). PDC was found to have about 11.3 wt. % oil recovered after 1 hour extraction using ultrasound method. The presence of sulfonate group was observed in IR spectrum, and the surface area of RHA-SO3H was reduced to 37 m(2).g(-1) after impregnation of sulfonate group. The RHA-SO3H catalyst showed that it can work for both esterification of free fatty acid which is present in PDC-oil, and transesterification of triglycerides into methyl ester. The results showed highest methyl ester content of 70.2 wt.% at optimal conditions, which was 6 wt.% catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio of 17: 1 for 5 hours at 120 degrees C.
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  65. Environmental performance of palm oil biodiesel - a life-cycle perspective
    Abstract

    Castanheira, E. G.; Freire, F. M. 2011. Environmental performance of palm oil biodiesel - a life-cycle perspective. 2011 Ieee International Symposium on Sustainable Systems and Technology (Issst).

    The increased use of palm oil as feedstock for biodiesel production has been a focus of discussion due to several environmental problems. This paper presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of biodiesel from palm oil (PME). Alternative land use change (LUC) scenarios and fertilization types have been evaluated. A life-cycle inventory and modeling of palm plantation and oil extraction in Colombia, transportation and biodiesel production in Europe has been implemented. Life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) results in terms of global warming potential. acidification, eutrophication, ozone layer depletion and photochemical oxidation are presented for the various LUC scenarios and types of fertilization.
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  66. Effects on aerosol size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the heavy-duty diesel generator fueled with feedstock palm-biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Lin, Y. C.; Tsai, C. H.; Yang, C. R.; Wu, C. H. J.; Wu, T. Y.; Chang-Chien, G. P. 2008. Effects on aerosol size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the heavy-duty diesel generator fueled with feedstock palm-biodiesel blends. Atmospheric Environment. 42(27) 6679-6688

    Biodiesels are promoted as alternatives to fossil fuels and their applications in diesel engine have been studied extensively. However, the size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and generator particulate material (GPM) emitted from heavy-duty diesel generator fueled with biodiesel blends has seldom been addressed. Seven different biodiesel blends with Volume fractions of biodiesel ranging from 0% to 30% were studied. Experimental results indicate that the mean reductions of sum of PAHi/GPM(0.056-18) (generator particulate material with aerodynamic diameter 0.056-18 mu m) and BaP(eq)i [=(benzo[a]pyrene equivalent)i]/GPM(0.056-18) of B5, B10, B15, B20, B25 and B30 are (-8.21%, -5.72%), (-36.7%, -29.7%), (-1.25%, 2.32%), (16.2%, 18.6%). (33.4%. 35.0%) and (40.5%, 42.4), respectively, compared with BO. Both PAHi/GPMi and BaP(eq)i/GPMi in stage 1 (0.056 - 0.166 mu m) and stage 2 (0.166 - 0.31 mu m) of all test fuels are higher than those in the other stages due to higher specific Surface area of smaller particles. It is also observed that there are more highly toxic PAHs in stage 2. It Should be noticed that the trend of particle-phase PAH contents is different from the trend of particle-phase PAH concentration and opposite to the trend of total GPM(0.056-18) emission. The differences are due to a higher number of particles with diameters between 0.056 arid 0.31 mu m. The above results indicate that fuel blends with less than 15% biodiesel would increase PAH content at particle size between 0.056 and 0.31 mu m. Therefore, the blending fraction should be between 15% and 30%. Moreover, particle-size control is needed in future emission regulations which would necessitate further improvements in combustion quality. Besides, researches on health effects of biodiesel blends are needed as well. Crown Copyright (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  67. Effects of Palm-Coconut Biodiesel Blends on the Performance and Emission of a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine
    Abstract

    Habibullah, M.; Fattah, I. M. R.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A. 2015. Effects of Palm-Coconut Biodiesel Blends on the Performance and Emission of a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine. Energy & Fuels. 29(2) 734-743

    This study aims to investigate the effects of palm or coconut biodiesel blend and their combination on the performance and emissions of a single-cylinder diesel engine. A 20% v/v blend of palm biodiesel (PB20) or coconut biodiesel (CB20) and varying percentage mixtures of these two feedstocks (PB15CB5, PB10CB10, and PB5CB15) were used in the experiments. Biodiesel was produced using one-step transesterification. Physicochemical analysis showed that both palm and coconut biodiesel met the specifications of ASTM D6751. A 10 kW, horizontal, one-cylinder, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine was used to carry out tests under full load conditions at varying speeds from 1400 to 2400 rpm with an interval of 200 rpm. Burning of CB20 reduced break power by 1.72% and increased brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and NOx emission by 4.07% and 4.49%, respectively. Conversely, burning of PB20 negligibly reduced brake power and increased NOx emission by only 1.79%. Meanwhile, combined palmcoconut biodiesel at a constant final blend reduced NOx emission by 0.54% to 1.85% and slightly improved brake power and BSFC. Thus, the advantages of the high cetane number of coconut and the high ignition quality of palm biodiesel were aggregated in the combined blends
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  68. Effects of biodiesel from used frying palm oil on the exhaust emissions of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine
    Abstract

    Ozsezen, A. N.; Canakci, M.; Sayin, C. 2008. Effects of biodiesel from used frying palm oil on the exhaust emissions of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine. Energy & Fuels. 22(4) 2796-2804

    In our previous paper, the influences of biodiesel and its blends on the performance, combustion, and injection characteristics of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine have been discussed. The results have indicated that, when the test engine was fueled with biodiesel and its blends, the maximum brake torque, brake thermal efficiency, and brake power dropped, while the brake-specific fuel consumption increased compared to the petroleum-based diesel fuel (PBDF). The main differences in the combustion and injection characteristics of biodiesel and its blends are earlier premixed combustion, shorter ignition delay, higher cylinder gas pressure, and earlier start of injection in terms of the PBDF. This paper discusses the exhaust emission results obtained in the same study. The emission results showed that carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, and smoke opacity decreased with the increase of biodiesel percentage in the fuel blend for all engine speeds under the full-load condition. However, NOx and CO2 emissions showed different behaviors in terms of the engine speed.
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  69. Effects of Biodiesel from Palm Kernel Oil on the Engine Performance, Exhaust Emissions, and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine
    Abstract

    Lin, B. F.; Huang, J. H.; Huang, D. Y. 2008. Effects of Biodiesel from Palm Kernel Oil on the Engine Performance, Exhaust Emissions, and Combustion Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine. Energy & Fuels. 22(6) 4229-4234

    Palm kernel oil is extracted from palm fruit as well as palm oil and is considered to be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of using biodiesel from palm kernel oil on a direct injection (DI) diesel engine under three different engine speeds and at various gradational engine load conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased as the percentage of palm kernel oil methyl ester (PKOME) fuel in blends increased, producing the same level of engine power as petroleum diesel (PD), because of the decreased lower heating value (LHV). In addition, increasing the percentage of PKOME fuel in blends reduces the exhaust gas temperature (EGT), the amount of smoke and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions, and the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, because of the shorter carbon-chain lengths, more saturated carbon bonds, and higher oxygen content of PKOME fuel when compared with the same percentage of palm oil methyl ester (POME) fuel in blends.
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  70. Effect of ethanol-palm kernel oil ratio on alkali-catalyzed biodiesel yield
    Abstract

    Alamu, O. J.; Waheed, M. A.; Jekayinfa, S. O. 2008. Effect of ethanol-palm kernel oil ratio on alkali-catalyzed biodiesel yield. Fuel. 87(8-9) 1529-1533

    The finite nature of fossil fuel necessitates consideration of alternative fuel from renewable sources. Palm kernel oil (PKO) has been identified as a renewable resource from which biodiesel can be produced. The effect of ethanol-PKO ratio on PKO biodiesel yield was studied with a view to obtaining optimal feedstock ratio. Experiments were conducted for ethanol-PKO ratios 0.1, 0.125, 0.15, 0.175, 0.2, 0.225 and 0.25 under transesterification conditions of 60 degrees C temperature, 120 min reaction time and 1.0% KOH catalyst concentration. Results obtained gave 29.5%, 54%, 75%, 89%, 96%, 93.5% and 87.2% average PKO biodiesel yield for the respective feedstock ratios. This shows increase in biodiesel yield with ethanol-PKO ratio up to 0.2. Standard fuel test results of the PKO biodiesel are within biodiesel specifications. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  71. Effect of Croton megalocarpus, Calophyllum inophyllum, Moringa oleifera, palm and coconut biodiesel-diesel blending on their physico-chemical properties
    Abstract

    Atabani, A. E.; Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Badruddin, I. A.; Kalam, M. A.; Chong, W. T. 2014. Effect of Croton megalocarpus, Calophyllum inophyllum, Moringa oleifera, palm and coconut biodiesel-diesel blending on their physico-chemical properties. Industrial Crops and Products. 60130-137

    By 2050, it is predicted that biofuels will provide 27% of total transport fuel and avoid around 2.1 Gt CO2 emissions per year when produced sustainably. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be produced by trans-esterification in any climate using already developed agricultural practices. This paper aims to study various physical and chemical properties of biodiesel synthesized from edible and non-edible feedstocks. These feedstocks include Croton megaloccupus, Calophyllum inophyllum, Moringa (Moringa oleifera), palm (Elaeis guineensis) and coconut (Cocos nucifera). The physical and chemical properties of biodiesel-diesel blends were also presented. Furthermore, the regression analysis method was used to predict the properties of biodiesel blends. It has been found that blending of diesel with biodiesel has resulted in much improvement in kinematic viscosity, density, calorific value and oxidation stability. However, flash point and viscosity index decrease as the percentage of diesel increases. Moreover, the mathematical relationships developed in this study show a high regression values (R-2) between properties and biodiesel-diesel blends. As a conclusion, it is believed that the outcome of this study gives the readers valuable results that help to predict the properties of biodiesel and its blends with diesel which are substantial parameters in the design of fuel system for biodiesel engine. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  72. Effect of antioxidant on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Fattah, I. M. R.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Mofijur, M.; Abedin, M. J. 2014. Effect of antioxidant on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel blends. Energy Conversion and Management. 79265-272

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning alternative fuel produced from renewable resources. However, it is susceptible to oxidative degradation due to autoxidation in the presence of oxygen, which hinders its widespread use. Antioxidant addition is a prospective solution to this problem. It is expected that antioxidants may affect the clean-burning characteristic of biodiesel. Palm biodiesel (PME) is the most used biodiesel in Malaysia. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effect of antioxidant addition to palm biodiesel on engine performance and emission characteristics. PME was produced by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. Two monophenolic antioxidants, 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHA) and 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-methoxy phenol (BHT), were added at 1000 ppm concentration to 20% PME (B20) to study their effect. The addition of antioxidants increased oxidation stability without causing any significant negative effect on physicochemical properties. BHA showed greater capability to increase the stability of B20. A 42-kW, 1.8-L, four-cylinder diesel engine was used to carry out tests under conditions of constant load and varying speed. The results show that B20 and antioxidant-treated B20 produced 0.68-1.02% lower brake power (BP) and 4.03-4.71% higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) compared to diesel. Both of the antioxidants reduced NOx by a mean of 9.8-12.6% compared to B20. However, compared to B20, mean increases in carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of 8.6-12.3% and 9.1-12.0%, respectively, were observed. The emission levels of the three pollutants were lower than those of diesel. Thus, B20 blends with added antioxidant can be used in diesel engines without any modifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  73. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters
    Abstract

    Ozsezen, A. N.; Canakci, M. 2011. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters. Energy Conversion and Management. 52(1) 108-116

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  74. Conversion of waste produced by the deodorization of palm oil as feedstock for the production of biodiesel using a catalyst prepared from waste material
    Abstract

    do Nascimento, L. A. S.; Angelica, R. S.; da Costa, C. E. F.; Zamian, J. R.; da Rocha, G. N. 2011. Conversion of waste produced by the deodorization of palm oil as feedstock for the production of biodiesel using a catalyst prepared from waste material. Bioresource Technology. 102(17) 8314-8317

    The distillate produced by deodorization of palm oil (DDPO) is a waste that corresponds to 4% of the product formed in this process. DDPO is 83% free of fatty acids (FFA), making it a good material for biodiesel production. In this paper, a catalyst prepared from a waste material. Amazon flint kaolin, was used for the esterification of DDPO with methanol. Leached metakaolin treated at 950 degrees C and activated with 4 M sulfuric acid (labeled as MF9S4) offered maximum esterification activity (92.8%) at 160 degrees C with a DDPO:methanol molar ratio of 1:60 and a 4-h reaction time. The influences of reaction parameters, such as the molar ratio of the reactants, alcohol chain length, temperature, time and the presence of glycerides and unsaponifiable matter, have also been investigated. Based on the catalytic results, esterification of DDPO using MF9S4 can be a cheaper alternative for production of sustainable fuels. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  75. Conversion of free fatty acids in low grade crude palm oil to methyl esters for biodiesel production using chromosulfuric acid
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Mjalli, F. S.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M.; AlNashef, I. M. 2013. Conversion of free fatty acids in low grade crude palm oil to methyl esters for biodiesel production using chromosulfuric acid. Bulgarian Chemical Communications. 45(3) 394-399

    In this study low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO) was proposed as a potential agro-industrial raw material for biodiesel production. Chromosulfuric acid was used as a new homogenous catalyst in the pre-treatment process to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content in LGCPO to the acceptable level for producing biodiesel via alkaline transesterification reaction. The results of esterification reaction showed that the FFA of LGCPO was reduced from 7.0 % to less than 1% using optimum operating conditions. The yield of the final product after the alkaline transesterification was 85% with 0.14 % FFA content and ester content 97.5% (mol mol(-1)) which meets the international standard quality specifications for biodiesel.
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  76. Continuous Production of Biodiesel in Supercritical Ethanol: A Comparative Study between Refined and Used Palm Olein Oils as Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Ngamprasertsith, S.; Laetoheem, C. E.; Sawangkeaw, R. 2014. Continuous Production of Biodiesel in Supercritical Ethanol: A Comparative Study between Refined and Used Palm Olein Oils as Feedstocks. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 25(9) 1746-1753

    Biodiesel production from refined palm olein (RPO) and used palm olein (UPO) oils in supercritical ethanol was comparatively investigated in a continuous reactor. After use of RPO for chicken frying, levels of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased by 10 and 5%, respectively. The optimal conditions for both oils were 300 degrees C, 30 MPa and 30:1 ethanol:oil molar ratio at 60 min of residence time. Although the UFAs are inactive and sensitive to thermal degradation, the FFA in UPO catalyzed the reactions in supercritical ethanol at the same time. Due to the antagonistic effect of UFAs and FFA, the maximum ester content of UPO biodiesel (73%) was slightly lower than for RPO biodiesel (80%). The other compounds in resultant biodiesel were unreacted glycerides, mainly mono- and di-glycerides. Furthermore, UPO reaction reached equilibrium faster than RPO reaction due to the catalytic effect of FFA.
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  77. A comparison of particulate emission for rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester in perspective of their fatty ester composition
    Abstract

    Zhu, L.; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Z. 2016. A comparison of particulate emission for rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester in perspective of their fatty ester composition. Applied Thermal Engineering. 94249-255

    Three different kinds of biodiesel blended with baseline diesel fuel in 50% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads of two steady speeds. The aim of this study is to identify the effects of fatty ester composition in the particulate emission of biodiesel from different feedstocks. The smoke opacity of SME50 (Soybean oil methyl ester) is higher than that of RME50 (Rapeseed oil methyl ester) and PME50 (Palm oil methyl ester). There is no obvious relationship between total unsaturate fraction and smoke opacity, while smoke opacity is linear with polyunsaturate fraction of fuel at all test modes, which means that the unsaturated ester with two or three double bonds have greater influence in smoke formation than the counterpart with only one double bond. The SOF (soluble organic fraction) proportion of RME50, PME50 and SME50 is 5 times or 4 times larger than that of diesel fuel and ultra-low-sulfur diesel respectively. The overall sequence of SOF is PME50 > SME50 > RME50. SOF fraction is linear with saturate fraction of fuel at all test modes. PME50 has higher nucleation particle number concentration than that of RME50 and SME50. Same with SOF, the increase in total nucleation number concentration depends on saturate fraction of fuel at all test modes. Thus, the feedstocks and composition of biodiesel could be selected and optimized during production process in order to improve the emission conditions of biodiesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  78. Comparison of palm oil, Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum for biodiesel: A review
    Abstract

    Ong, H. C.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.; Norhasyima, R. S. 2011. Comparison of palm oil, Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum for biodiesel: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(8) 3501-3515

    The world today is faced with serious global warming and environmental pollution. Besides, fossil fuel will become rare and faces serious shortage in the near future. This has triggered the awareness to find alternative energy as their sustainable energy sources. Biodiesel as a cleaner renewable fuel has been considered as the best substitution for diesel fuel due to it being used in any compression ignition engine without any modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions. This paper reviews the production, performance and emission of palm oil, Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel. Palm oil is one of the most efficient oil bearing crops in terms of oil yield, land utilization, efficiency and productivity. However, competition between edible oil sources as food with fuel makes edible oil not an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, attention is shifted to non-edible oil like Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum. Calophyllum inophyllum oil can be transesterified and being considered as a potential biodiesel fuel. Compared to Palm oil and Jatropha biodiesel industry, biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum is still in a nascent state. Therefore, long term endurance research and tribological studies need to be carried out before Calophyllum inophyllum oil base biodiesel can become an alternative fuel in future. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  79. Comparison of Novozym 435 and Amberlyst 15 as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate
    Abstract

    Talukder, M. M. R.; Wu, J. C.; Lau, S. K.; Cui, L. C.; Shimin, G.; Lim, A. 2009. Comparison of Novozym 435 and Amberlyst 15 as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Production of Biodiesel from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate. Energy & Fuels. 23(1) 1-4

    Palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), a byproduct from the palm oil refinery process, has recently been utilized as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel (BD) production via homogeneous acid-catalyzed esterification. This process suffers from catalyst recovery, wastewater treatment, and BD purification. To minimize the problem, heterogeneous catalysts, Novozym 435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) and Amberlyst 15 (acidic styrene-divinylbenzene sulfonated ion-exchange resin), are tested and their catalytic activities under various reaction conditions are compared. Novozym 435 acts fast and its optimal specific activity (g BD/h/g catalyst) is 50-fold higher than that of Amberlyst 15. The maximum BD yields obtained using Novozym 435 and Amberlyst 15 are 95 and 97%, respectively. Both catalysts are recycled more than 15 cycles without losing their activities. The results suggest that both Novozym 435 and Amberlyst 15 can be effectively used for BD production from PFAD.
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  80. A Comparison of Life Cycle Assessment on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and Physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Indonesia
    Abstract

    Siregar, K.; Tambunan, A. H.; Irwanto, A. K.; Wirawan, S. S.; Araki, T. 2015. A Comparison of Life Cycle Assessment on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and Physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Indonesia. New and Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation, the 3rd Indo Ebtke-Conex 2014, Conference and Exhibition Indonesia. 65170-179

    The objective of this study was to perform and compare LCA of biodiesel production from crude palm oil and crude Jatropha curcas oil. The system boundary for LCA study from cradle to gate. The produced palm oil biodiesel has higher GWP value than Jatropha curcas biodiesel. Utilization of agrochemical, in form of fertilizer and plant protection, generate significant contribution to environmental impact of biodiesel production i.e. 50.46 % and 33.51 % for palm oil and Jatropha curcas oil, respectively. GWP emission up to five years of plantation is 1 695.36 kg-CO(2)eq./t-BDF and 740.90 kg-CO(2)eq./t-BDF for palm oil and Jatropha curcas, respectively. After production stabilised, CO2 emission of diesel fuel decreases up to 37.83 % and 63.61 % for BDF-CPO and BDF-CJCO, respectively. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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  81. Comparative Study on Two-Step Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Production from High FFA Crude Palm Oil Using Microwave Technique and Conventional Technique
    Abstract

    Abu Bakar, S.; Yusup, S.; Ahmad, M. M.; Quitain, A. T.; Sasaki, M.; Goto, M.; Uemura, Y.; Ahmad, J. 2014. Comparative Study on Two-Step Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) Production from High FFA Crude Palm Oil Using Microwave Technique and Conventional Technique. Proceedings of the International Conference on Process Engineering and Advanced Materials 2012-Icpeam 2012. 91787-95

    The production of biodiesel from crude palm oil (CPO) using microwave technique is investigated and has been compared with conventional heating. Two-step biodiesel production process is applied to maximize the highest biodiesel yield in short reaction time using microwave method. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as acid catalysts is used in pre-treatment of feedstock by esterification process followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) as base catalyst for transesterification process with low methanol to oil ratio. The main purpose of the pre-treatment process is to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content of CPO from higher value of FFA content (> 6.8%) to a minimum level for biodiesel production (< 1%). Esterification and transesterification is carried out in fully instrumented and controlled microwave reactor system to get higher yield in shorter time. This two-step esterification and transesterification process showed that the maximum conversion of palm biodiesel obtained is 95.1% with the process conditions of methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 6:1, reaction temperature 65oC, reaction time 15min, and 2% (wt/wt) KOH amount using microwave method compared to conventional heating where the palm oil methyl ester (POME) yield obtained is 81% at the same conditions. The result showed that, the biodiesel production using microwave technique proved to be a fast and easy route to get high yields of biodiesel.
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  82. Comparative study of NOx emissions of biodiesel-diesel blends from soybean, palm and waste frying oils using methyl and ethyl transesterification routes
    Abstract

    da Silva, M. A. V.; Ferreira, B. L. G.; Marques, L. G. D.; Murta, A. L. S.; de Freitas, M. A. V. D. 2017. Comparative study of NOx emissions of biodiesel-diesel blends from soybean, palm and waste frying oils using methyl and ethyl transesterification routes. Fuel. 194144-156

    The research for renewable and less polluting fuels has focused on biodiesel. This fuel can derive from vegetable, animal or waste oils, and despite its potential to decrease atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gases, its influence on NOx emissions is still uncertain. It is believed that biodiesel emissions, especially NOx vary depending on the feedstock, blend percentage and transesterification route. A better understanding of these factors can help choosing the best blend. In this context, this article aims at evaluating how the variation of these factors affects NOx emissions. Tests are carried out in a stationary internal combustion engine with 20% and 50% blends of methyl and ethyl esters made from soybean oil, palm oil and waste frying oil (collected in the University Campus). The analysis of the results with Tukey's test compare their means and lead to the conclusion that, when considering the route, ethyl blends have lower NOx emissions, and palm ethyl ester blends had the best results. Also when all factors are taken into account, B20 from soybean methyl ester has the lowest emissions of NOx. We recommend that future studies test the effect of antioxidants in NOx emissions, as well as test higher blend ratios. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  83. Comparative study of emissions from stationary engines using biodiesel made from soybean oil, palm oil and waste frying oil
    Abstract

    D'Agosto, M. D.; da Silva, M. A. V.; Franca, L. S.; de Oliveira, C. M.; Alexandre, M. O. L.; Marques, L. G. D.; Murta, A. L. S.; de Freitas, M. A. V. 2017. Comparative study of emissions from stationary engines using biodiesel made from soybean oil, palm oil and waste frying oil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 701376-1392

    This article examines the CO2 emissions from the combustion of a biodiesel-diesel blend in stationary internal combustion engines to generate electricity. Emissions were analyzed according to the feedstock used for biodiesel production-soybean oil, palm oil, waste frying oil-through the methyl and ethyl routes. The chosen blends were composed of petroleum diesel and biodiesel, with the latter accounting for 20% or 50% of the blend. The results were analyzed using the Tukey test and showed, in general, that higher engine loads led to a decrease in CO2 emissions in comparison with the standard B4 (4% biodiesel) blend mandated in Brazil. Therefore, this paper provides an original and complete approach to analyze and compare in pairs the results of CO2 emissions of different biodiesel production routes, feedstocks and engine loads in order to find the best blend option for each load level.
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  84. Comparative evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of Moringa oleifera and Palm oil based biodiesel in a diesel engine
    Abstract

    Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Atabani, A. E.; Fattah, I. M. R.; Mobarak, H. M. 2014. Comparative evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of Moringa oleifera and Palm oil based biodiesel in a diesel engine. Industrial Crops and Products. 5378-84

    Biodiesels, which are made from various crops, as well as animal fat, are renewable, bio-degradable, and non-toxic and are eco-friendly compared with fossil fuels. Currently, there are more than 350 oil-bearing crops identified as potential sources for biodiesel production. In this study, the potential of biodiesel obtained from a non-edible oil source (Moringa oleifera) was explored and compared with that of palm biodiesel and diesel fuel. The physico-chemical properties of M. oleifera methyl ester were determined, and the properties of 5% and 10% (by volume) blends thereof (MB5 and MB10, respectively) were compared with those of palm-oil blends (PB5 and PB10) and diesel fuel (B0). The performance of these fuels was assessed in a multi-cylinder diesel engine at various engine speeds and under the full-load condition whereas emissions were assessed under the both full-load and half load condition. The properties of palm and M. oleifera biodiesels and their blends meet the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. Engine performance test results indicated that the PB5 and the MB5 fuels produced slightly lower brake powers and higher brake specific fuel consumption values compared to diesel fuel over the entire range of speeds examined. Engine emission results indicated that the PB5, MB5, PB10 and MB10 fuels reduced the average emissions of carbon monoxide by 13.17%, 5.37%, 17.36%, and 10.60%, respectively, and reduced those of hydrocarbons by 14.47%, 3.94%, 18.42%, and 9.21%, respectively. However, the PB5, MB5, PB10, and MB10 fuels slightly increased nitric oxide emissions by 1.96%, 3.99%, 3.38%, and 8.46%, respectively, and increased carbon dioxide emissions by 5.60%, 2.25%, 11.73%, and 4.96%, respectively, compared to the emissions induced by BO. M. oleifera oil is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and the performance of MB5 and MB10 biodiesel is comparable to that of PB5 and PB10 biodiesel and diesel fuel. Because the MB5 and MB10 fuels produce lower exhaust emissions than diesel fuel, these fuels can replace diesel fuel in unmodified engines to reduce the global energy demand and exhaust emissions to the environment. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  85. Combined Use of a Two-Stage Packed Bed Reactor with a Glycerol Extraction Column for Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis from Macaw Palm Oil
    Abstract

    Ramos, L.; Martin, L. S.; Santos, J. C.; de Castro, H. F. 2017. Combined Use of a Two-Stage Packed Bed Reactor with a Glycerol Extraction Column for Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis from Macaw Palm Oil. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 56(1) 1-7

    Biodiesel production by ethanolysis of macaw palm oil mediated by Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on SiO2-PVA was assessed in packed bed reactors (PBRs). Reactors with different height-to-diameter ratios (l/d) were used for continuous runs carried out using an oil-to-ethanol molar ratio of 1:12 at a fixed space-time (14 h). The best performance was attained by using reactor with an lid of 15, which was further used to perform runs with different space times in a two-stage PBR by incorporating a column with cationic resin for removing the glycerol formed as byproduct. The system operation for a space-time of 16 h resulted in a productivity of 37.9 +/- 2.4 mg(ester).g(medium)(-1).h(-1) (ethyl esters yield = 96.3 +/- 2.1%). Efficient glycerol removal helped the biocatalyst stability, with a half-life (t(1/2)) of 1512 h. The results demonstrate that a continuous enzymatic production of biodiesel from macaw palm oil can generate high yield in a two-stage PBR system incorporating a glycerol extraction column.
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  86. The challenges and prospects of palm oil based biodiesel in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Johari, A.; Nyakuma, B. B.; Nor, S. H. M.; Mat, R.; Hashim, H.; Ahmad, A.; Zakaria, Z. Y.; Abdullah, T. A. T. 2015. The challenges and prospects of palm oil based biodiesel in Malaysia. Energy. 81255-261

    The NBP (National Biofuel Policy) of Malaysia was established in 2006 to promote the sustainable production and utilization of environmentally friendly biofuels. Despite numerous government incentives and subsidies, biodiesel exports have declined significantly over the years. This paper seeks to critically examine challenges afflicting the biodiesel industry in Malaysia by analysing the key policies, framework and institutions in the country. High feedstock prices, competition with food, engine compatibility, fuel subsidies and crude oil prices were identified as the challenges hindering biodiesel development in Malaysia. The authors propose that environmental, socioeconomic and technological reforms are required to address the challenges and improve the long term prospects of the Malaysian biodiesel industry. Furthermore, the utilization of biodiesel in the Real sector, biodiesel infrastructure investments and technological innovations will safeguard Malaysia's energy security, promote cleaner environment, improve living standards and stimulate stakeholder participation in the future development, diffusion and adoption of biodiesel in Malaysia. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  87. Biorefinery for the Production of Biodiesel, Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas Integrated with CHP from Oil Palm in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Ayodele, B. V.; Cheng, C. K. 2016. Biorefinery for the Production of Biodiesel, Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas Integrated with CHP from Oil Palm in Malaysia. Chemical Product and Process Modeling. 11(4) 305-314

    Malaysia is presently the world's largest exporter of palm oil with total production of 19.22 million tonnes of crude palm oil (CPO) in 2013. Aside CPO, by-products such as empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm kernel shell (PKS), palm kernel oil (PKO), palm kernel cake (PKC) and pressed palm fibres (PPF) are produced from the palm oil mills. These biomasses can be used as potential feedstock for the production of biofuels, biogas and bioelectricity. One of the ways to fully harness the potentials of these biomasses is by employing the biorefinery concepts where all the products and by-products from oil palm are utilized for production of valuable bio-products. In this study, technological feasibility of biorefinery for the production of biodiesel, hydrogen, Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTLs) integrated with combined heat and power (CHP) generation was investigated. Flowsheet was designed for each of the processes using Aspen HYSYS (R) v 8.0. Material balance was performed on a palm oil mill processing 250 tonnes per year of fresh fruit palm (FFP). Results from the material balance shows that 45.1 tonnes of refined bleached deodorized palm oil (RDBPO) and 52.4 tonnes of EFB were available for the production of biodiesel, hydrogen, FTLs and the CHP generation. The annual plant capacity of the biodiesel production is estimated to be 26,331.912 tonnes. The overall energy consumption of the whole process was estimated to be 36.0GJ/h. This energy demand was met with power generated from the CHP which is 792GJ/h leaving a surplus of 756GJ/h that can be sold to the grid. The process modelling and simulation of the biorefinery process shows technological feasibility of producing valuable products from oil palm.
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  88. Biodiesel Production via Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Sulphonated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Solid Acid Catalyst: Process Study, Catalyst Reusability and Kinetic Study
    Abstract

    Shuit, S. H.; Tan, S. H. 2015. Biodiesel Production via Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Sulphonated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Solid Acid Catalyst: Process Study, Catalyst Reusability and Kinetic Study. Bioenergy Research. 8(2) 605-617

    This study reports on biodiesel production via the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) using sulphonated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (s-MWCNTs) as a catalyst. The process parameters studied included the methanol-to-PFAD ratio (8-30), catalyst loading (1-3 wt%), reaction temperature (80-200 A degrees C) and reaction time (1-5 h). A fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield of 93.5 % was obtained at a methanol-to-PFAD ratio of 20, catalyst loading of 3 wt%, reaction temperature of 170 A degrees C and reaction time of 2 h. The s-MWCNTs exhibited good catalytic activity, with a FAME yield higher than 75 % even after five repeated runs. Moreover, the regeneration of the spent s-MWCNTs (after five runs) with sulphuric acid was able to restore the catalytic activity to its original level. The catalyst stability and activity were enhanced by acid regeneration to achieve a FAME yield of 86.2 %, even at the fifth cycle of reaction after acid regeneration. A pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model for the esterification of PFAD with methanol using s-MWCNTs as a catalyst was then developed based on the experimental results. The pre-exponential factor, molar heat and activation energy for the esterification were found to be 1.9 x 10(2) L mol(-1) min(-1), 84.1 kJ mol(-1) and 45.8 kJ mol(-1), respectively.
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  89. Biodiesel Production from Waste Palm Oil Catalyzed by Hierarchical ZSM-5 Supported Calcium Oxide
    Abstract

    Zein, Y. M.; Anal, A. K.; Prasetyoko, D.; Qoniah, I. 2016. Biodiesel Production from Waste Palm Oil Catalyzed by Hierarchical ZSM-5 Supported Calcium Oxide. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry. 16(1) 98-104

    Biodiesel production from waste palm oil catalyzed by hierarchical ZSM-5 supported calcium oxide was studied. The activity of CaO increased after supported on h-ZSM-5 resulting an increase in conversion from 93.17% to 95.40%. A maximum conversion of 95.40% was achieved at 6 h reaction time, 3 wt.% catalyst amount, 12: 1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 65 degrees C reaction temperature. The waste palm oil showed a high potential as a feedstock in biodiesel production in which there was no significant different in the conversion of fresh and waste palm oil. The properties of the obtained biodiesel required the limits of biodiesel specification according to ASTM D6751-08 and EN 14214 with the methyl ester content of 97.18%, the acid value of 0.24 mg KOH/g, the kinematic viscosity of 4.64 cSt and the density of 869.9 kg/m(3).
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  90. Biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil using calcium oxide supported on activated carbon as catalyst in a fixed bed reactor
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Ksapabutr, B.; Panapoy, M.; Chaiyut, N. 2012. Biodiesel production from waste cooking palm oil using calcium oxide supported on activated carbon as catalyst in a fixed bed reactor. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 29(12) 1708-1712

    A reactor has been developed to produce high quality fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from waste cooking palm oil (WCO). Continuous transesterification of free fatty acids (FFA) from acidified oil with methanol was carried out using a calcium oxide supported on activated carbon (CaO/AC) as a heterogeneous solid-base catalyst. CaO/AC was prepared according to the conventional incipient-wetness impregnation of aqueous solutions of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)(2)center dot 4H(2)O) precursors on an activated carbon support from palm shell in a fixed bed reactor with an external diameter of 60 mm and a height of 345 mm. Methanol/oil molar ratio, feed flow rate, catalyst bed height and reaction temperature were evaluated to obtain optimum reaction conditions. The results showed that the FFA conversion increased with increases in alcohol/oil molar ratio, catalyst bed height and temperature, whereas decreased with flow rate and initial water content in feedstock increase. The yield of FAME achieved 94% at the reaction temperature 60 A degrees C, methanol/oil molar ratio of 25: 1 and residence time of 8 h. The physical and chemical properties of the produced methyl ester were determined and compared with the standard specifications. The characteristics of the product under the optimum condition were within the ASTM standard. High quality waste cooking palm oil methyl ester was produced by combination of heterogeneous alkali transesterification and separation processes in a fixed bed reactor. In sum, activated carbon shows potential for transesterification of FFA.
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  91. Biodiesel production from mixtures of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil: Optimization of fuel properties
    Abstract

    de Almeida, V. F.; Garcia-Moreno, P. J.; Guadix, A.; Guadix, E. M. 2015. Biodiesel production from mixtures of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil: Optimization of fuel properties. Fuel Processing Technology. 133152-160

    The present work studies the influence of waste fish oil, palm oil and waste frying oil as raw material on biodiesel properties. The experimental planning was executed through acid esterification (6:1 methanol to oil ratio, 1 wt.% sulfuric acid, at 60 degrees C, 1 h) followed by transesterification (9:1 methanol to oil ratio, 0.5 wt.% sodium hydroxide, at 60 degrees C for I h). Biodiesel samples showed yield higher than 82%, reaching 90% for palm oil (33.3 wt.%) and waste frying oil (66.7 wt.%) biodiesel. FAME content was higher than 92.3% and had a maximum of 98.5% for waste fish oil (333 wt.%) and palm oil (66.7 wt.%) biodiesel. Special cubic models were used to fit experimental data, and were optimized by response surface methodology and multi-objective optimization. Viscosity (4.3 mm(2)/s) and COM (2.5 degrees C) were minimized when pure fish oil was used as raw material, whereas IP maximum (22.0 h) was found for palm oil biodiesel. Multi-objective optimization evidenced that although the use of the pure oils as feedstock presented more advantages to biodiesel properties, the waste fish oil (42.1 wt.%) and waste flying oil (57.9 wt.%) mix is beneficial, if the aim is IP (20%) and COM (80%) improvement. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  92. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas Oil and Palm Oil by Using Undirect Ultrasonic Assisted
    Abstract

    Widayat; Satriadi, H.; Baharsyah, A.; Supriyandi 2016. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas Oil and Palm Oil by Using Undirect Ultrasonic Assisted. 2016 4th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (Icseea). 127-131

    The limitation of unrenewable energy required alternative renewable energy and environmental friendly. Biodiesel as one renewable energy that production from vegetable oil. The main reactions are on biodiesel production esterification and transesterification. Nevertheless, this reaction is slow, requires a lot of alcohol and a catalyst, the reaction has not been perfect. a mixing of vegetable that contain jatropha curcas oil and palm oil as feedstock. The objective of this research to optimumize of triglyceride conversion for three variable; include weight ratio jatropha curcas oil to palm oil catalyst concentration and molar ratio of methanol to oil. The experiments were carried out with ultrasonic undirect assisted.. The operation condition was included ultrasonic frequency of 40 kHz and temperature of 60 degrees C. The results showed that optimum condition was obtained in weight ratio jatropha and palm oil 2:1, 1.5 wt% catalyst, and mole ratio of 6:1 with a mixture of methanol-oil and conversion is 95.341%, where product are qualified SNI and ASTM.
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  93. Biodiesel production and performance evaluation of coconut, palm and their combined blend with diesel in a single-cylinder diesel engine
    Abstract

    Habibullah, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Fattah, I. M. R.; Ashraful, A. M.; Mobarak, H. M. 2014. Biodiesel production and performance evaluation of coconut, palm and their combined blend with diesel in a single-cylinder diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management. 87250-257

    Biodiesel is a renewable and sustainable alternative fossil fuel that is derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. This study investigates the production, characterization, and effect of biodiesel blends from two prominent feedstocks, namely, palm and coconut (PB30 and CB30), on engines. To aggregate the advantages of high ignition quality of palm and high oxygen content of coconut, combined blend of this two biodiesels (PB15CB15) is examined to evaluate its effect on engine performance and emission characteristics. Biodiesels are produced using the alkali catalyzed transesterification process. Various physicochemical properties are measured and compared with the ASTM D6751 standard. A 10 kW, horizontal, single-cylinder, four-stroke, and direct-injection diesel engine is employed under a full load and varying speed conditions. Biodiesel blends produce a low brake torque and high brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC). However, all emissions, except for NOx, are significantly reduced. PB15CB15 improves brake torque and power output while reducing BSFC and NOx emissions when compared with CB30. Meanwhile, compared with PB30, PB15CB15 reduces CO and HC emissions while improving brake thermal efficiency. The experimental analysis reveals that the combined blend of palm and coconut oil shows superior performance and emission over individual coconut and palm biodiesel blends. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  94. Biodiesel Derived from a Model Oil Enriched in Palmitoleic Acid, Macadamia Nut Oil
    Abstract

    Knothe, G. 2010. Biodiesel Derived from a Model Oil Enriched in Palmitoleic Acid, Macadamia Nut Oil. Energy & Fuels. 242098-2103

    Numerous vegetable oils, animal fats, or other feedstocks have been investigated to obtain biodiesel, defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. While biodiesel is competitive with petrodiesel, technical problems facing biodiesel include cold flow and oxidative stability. Most biodiesel fuels largely contain five fatty acids, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids, in varying amounts in their fatty acid profiles. Dependent upon the major fatty acids present, biodiesel from different feedstocks faces these technical problems with varying severity. As previous work has indicated, enrichment of other fatty acids, such as decanoic or palmitoleic acid, in the fatty acid profile may be advantageous to address the technical issues facing biodiesel. In this work, an oil moderately enriched in palmitoleic acid (approximately 16-20%), macadamia nut oil, was selected for producing the corresponding biodiesel fuel and investigating its fuel properties. Methyl esters of macadamia nut oil were prepared by conventional transesterification with sodium methoxide. Fuel properties, such as cetane number, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, cold flow, as well as lubricity, are discussed in light of biodiesel standards. The approximately 15% content of saturated fatty esters in macadamia nut oil affects cold flow. The I H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of macadamia methyl esters is also reported.
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  95. Biocatalytic esterification of palm oil fatty acids for biodiesel production using glycine-based cross-linked protein coated microcrystalline lipase
    Abstract

    Raita, M.; Laothanachareon, T.; Champreda, V.; Laosiripojana, N. 2011. Biocatalytic esterification of palm oil fatty acids for biodiesel production using glycine-based cross-linked protein coated microcrystalline lipase. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 73(1-4) 74-79

    Conversion of feedstocks containing high free fatty acid contents to alkyl esters is limited by the currently used alkali-catalyzed biodiesel synthesis process. In this study, esterification of palm fatty acids to ethyl esters was studied using heterogeneous cross-linked protein coated microcrystalline (CL-PCMC) lipase. Optimization of biocatalyst synthesis by variation of matrix components and organic solvents showed that highly active CL-PCMCs could be prepared from Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase with glycine as the core matrix in acetone. The optimized reaction contained 20% (w/w) glycine-based CL-PCMC-lipase, a 1:4 fatty acid molar equivalence to ethanol in the presence of an equimolar amount of tert-butanol which led to production of 87.2% and 81.4% (mol/mol) of ethyl ester from palmitic acid and industrial palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), respectively after incubation at 50 degrees C for 6h. CL-PCMC-lipase is more catalytically efficient than protein coated microcrystalline (PCMC) lipase, Novozyme (R) 435 and Lipolase 100T for both free fatty acids and palm fatty acid distillate. The CL-PCMC-lipase showed high operational stability with no significant loss in product yield after 8 consecutive batch cycles. The glycine-based microcrystalline lipase is thus a promising alternative economical biocatalyst for biodiesel production from inexpensive feedstocks with high free fatty acid contents. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  96. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics
    Abstract

    Yusup, S.; Khan, M. 2010. Basic properties of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil blend as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production with enhanced cold flow characteristics. Biomass & Bioenergy. 34(10) 1523-1526

    Research and development in the field of biodiesel showed that fatty acid methyl esters synthesized from agriculture or animal oils and fats, which exhibit qualifying properties, can replace diesel fuel used in internal combustion engine. However, the industry had some downfall recently with the fluctuating prices of edible oils and increasing demand for nutritional needs. Crude rubber seed oil (CRSO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used in this study since both can be extracted and produced locally in Malaysia from their abundant plantations. The benefits of introducing such blend are that CRSO is considered a non-edible feedstock with no major industrial utilizations that has the potential to reduce the usage of CPO in biodiesel industry and was found to enhance the cold flow characteristics when blended with CPO by reducing the saturated fatty acids in the feedstock. The oils and blends were characterized for density, kinematic viscosity, heating value, acid value, free fatty acid content, refractive index, mono-, di- and triglycerides and sulphur content. Fatty acids composition and iodine value were established for an equivolume blend of the oils. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  97. Application of mesoporous catalysts over palm-oil biodiesel for adjusting fuel properties
    Abstract

    Lin, C. Y.; Cheng, H. H. 2012. Application of mesoporous catalysts over palm-oil biodiesel for adjusting fuel properties. Energy Conversion and Management. 53(1) 128-134

    Biodiesel has superior fuel characteristics, including a higher flash point, better lubricity, and higher oxygen content, and is thus considered a promising alternative clean fuel to petroleum diesel. The cold filter plugging point (CFPP) is the most significant indicator of the low-temperature fluidity of biodiesel. The CFPP of biodiesel is generally higher than that of petroleum diesel primarily due to the longer carbonchain structures of the fatty acids in the former. Raw materials such as palm oil and waste cooking oil are widely used as the feedstock to produce biodiesel because of their low cost, good availability, and stable lipid provision. However, they generally have a poor low-temperature fluidity, which limits their application in colder climates. In this experimental study, the catalytic dehydrogenation and cracking reaction technique was used to reduce the CFPP of palm-oil biodiesel with an initial CFPP of as high as 14 degrees C. The catalytic variables of the type of mesoporous catalyst and operating temperature are considered in this study. The resultant fuel properties of palm-oil biodiesel catalyzed by MCM-41 and SiO(2)/Fe(3)O(4) were compared with biodiesel thermally cracked without a catalyst. The operating temperature of the catalyzed dehydrogenation and cracking reaction was controlled in the range between 400 and 600 degrees C. The CFPP decrease reached a maximum of 12 degrees C when the biodiesel was catalyzed by SiO(2)/Fe(3)O(4) at 600 degrees C. The maximum water content was produced when the biodiesel sample was thermally cracked with no catalyst at 600 degrees C. Biodiesel that was catalytically dehydrogenated and cracked with MCM-41 or SiO(2)/Fe(3)O(4) had a higher iodine value and a lower kinematic viscosity, specific gravity, and CFPP than biodiesel cracked thermally without a catalyst. Moreover, the rate of water formation was reduced when the catalysts were used in the dehydrogenation and cracking reaction. Palm-oil biodiesel catalyzed by SiO(2)/Fe(3)O(4) at 600 degrees C was found to produce the lowest CFPP (2 degrees C), specific gravity, and kinematic viscosity and the highest iodine value of all of the biodiesel samples studied. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  98. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia
    Abstract

    Acevedo, J. C.; Hernandez, J. A.; Valdes, C. F.; Khanal, S. K. 2015. Analysis of operating costs for producing biodiesel from palm oil at pilot-scale in Colombia. Bioresource Technology. 188117-123

    The present study aims to evaluate the operating costs of biodiesel production using palm oil in a pilot-scale plant with a capacity of 20,000 L/day (850 L/batch). The production plant uses crude palm oil as a feedstock, and methanol in a molar ratio of 1:10. The process incorporated acid esterification, basic transesterification, and dry washing with absorbent powder. Production costs considered in the analysis were feedstock, supplies, labor, electricity, quality and maintenance; amounting to $3.75/gal ($0.99/L) for 2013. Feedstocks required for biodiesel production were among the highest costs, namely 72.6% of total production cost. Process efficiency to convert fatty acids to biodiesel was over 99% and generated a profit of $1.08/gal (i.e., > 22% of the total income). According to sensitivity analyses, it is more economically viable for biodiesel production processes to use crude palm oil as a feedstock and take advantage of the byproducts such as glycerine and fertilizers. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  99. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluents: potential contribution to net energy yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Harsono, S. S.; Grundmann, P.; Soebronto, S. 2014. Anaerobic treatment of palm oil mill effluents: potential contribution to net energy yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from biodiesel production. Journal of Cleaner Production. 64619-627

    The effluents from palm oil mills for biodiesel production are generally treated in open ponds, causing large amounts of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This study assesses the use of palm oil mill effluents (POME) as feedstock to produce biogas via anaerobic digestion. Biogas from POME can be converted into electricity and heat to eventually reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biodiesel production from palm oil. This study is using two system boundaries, firstly, system a "gate-to-gate" concerning the POME treatments, and secondly a "cradle-to-gate/total combustion" when we assess the impact of varying POME treatments within the biodiesel chain.
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