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  1. Scleropyrum pentandrum (Dennst.) mabb-oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production-engine performance and emission studies
    Abstract

    Poojary, S.; Rao, C. V.; Venkatesh, K. H. 2017. Scleropyrum pentandrum (Dennst.) mabb-oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production-engine performance and emission studies. International Journal of Green Energy. 14(3) 279-288

    A feasibility study on utilization of non edible oil of Scleropyrum pentandrum was carried out to see its potential as a new source for biodiesel production. Nonedible oil seeds of Scleropyrum pentandrum have oil content of 55-60%. Transesterification of freshly extracted oil in the presence of anhydrous sodium hydroxide at a concentration 1% (w/v oil) and methanol-oil ratio of 40% (v/v oil) yields 90.8% methyl esters under conventional heating. Month old oil requires sulfuric acid pretreatment (esterification) before transesterification. The transesterified oil has a density 889-893 kg/m(3); kinematic viscosity of 4.21-5.7 mm(2)/s; cetane index 46.03; pour point of -15 degrees C and gross calorific value of 40.135 MJ/kg and oxidative stability of 2.35 hours. The properties are well within the Indian, European and American standard limits recommended for biodiesel except the oxidation stability, which can be improved by adding antioxidant additives. The engine performance studies of B10 and B20 blends of Scleropyrum pentandrum biodiesel (SP biodiesel) with statistical inference confirmed that it can be used as a fuel in CI engines without any engine modifications. The engine exhaust emission analysis showed that the emission of hydrocarbons can be minimized by at least 15-20%, CO emission by 15%, smoke opacity by 10-12% and moderately lesser CO2 and NOx emissions.
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  2. Screening of marine microalgae isolated from the hypersaline Bardawil lagoon for biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Abomohra, A.; El-Sheekh, M.; Hanelt, D. 2017. Screening of marine microalgae isolated from the hypersaline Bardawil lagoon for biodiesel feedstock. Renewable Energy. 1011266-1272

    Recently, microalgae have been attracting a wide attention as a source of high-lipid feedstock to produce biodiesel. A total of twenty one halophilic microalgae were isolated from the hypersaline Bardawil lagoon North Sinai, Egypt. Nine of them were further characterized with respect to biomass and fatty acid productivities. Biomass productivity as cellular dry weight (CDW), fatty acid content and, consequently, fatty acid productivity of the chlorophyte Tetraselmis elliptica was the highest among alltested strains (0.122 g CDW L-1 d(-1), 7736 mg g(-1) CDW and 14.1 mg L-1 d(-1), respectively). Lipid fractionation showed that total lipids represented 12.96 mg g(-1) CDW and neutral lipids represented 37% of the total lipids with corresponding iodine value of 70.3 g I-2/100 g oil. In all fractions, C16:0 and C18:1n-9 were predominant, being as high as 31 and 20% of total fatty acids in neutral lipids, 26 and 24% of total fatty acids in polar lipids and 28 and 26% of total fatty acids in phospholipids, respectively. This study demonstrates that the halophilic microalga T. elliptica isolated from hypersaline water is a promising species for biodiesel feedstock. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  3. Silybum marianum L. seed oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Fadhil, A. B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Dheyab, M. M. 2017. Silybum marianum L. seed oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 10S683-S690

    In the present study, biodiesel was produced from a novel non edible oil source, Silybum marianum L. seeds oil (SMSO). The acid value of the extracted oil was found to be 13.60 mg KOH/ g. Therefore, a dual step process viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification was developed to produce the biodiesel. Free fatty acids in SMSO were converted into methyl esters through the esterification of the oil by using hydrochloric acid (HCl) as an acid catalyst with 6: 1 methanol to molar ratio at 60 degrees C for 1 h, to reduce the acid value of the parent oil to below (2 mg KOH/g of oil), a value safe to produce the biodiesel through alkaline catalyzed transesterification. During alkaline-catalyzed transesterification, the parameters of this step such as alkaline catalyst type and concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction duration were optimized. The results of esterification indicated that 1.0% HCl w/w of oil was optimal for the esterification, because it lowers the acid value to the minimum. For alkaline transesterification, a maximum conversion of (95.0%) was obtained by using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst with a concentration of 0.90% w/w of oil, 6: 1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature and a reaction duration of 100 min. Biodiesel was also analyzed by using thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy. The properties of the produced biodiesel are found to conform with the ASTM standard specifications. (C) 2012 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
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  4. Simultaneous Quantitative Analysis of Six Cations in Three Biodiesel and Their Feedstock Oils by an Ion-Exchange Chromatography System without Chemical Suppression
    Abstract

    Feng, Z. H.; Li, F. S.; Huang, Y. D.; Gao, J.; Hu, J. H.; Xu, Y. 2017. Simultaneous Quantitative Analysis of Six Cations in Three Biodiesel and Their Feedstock Oils by an Ion-Exchange Chromatography System without Chemical Suppression. Energy & Fuels. 31(4) 3921-3928

    This work aimed at detecting and evaluating the contents of six cations {K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4(+), and [HN(CH2CH2OH)(3)](+)} in waste cooking oil biodieset Jatropha biodiesel, rubber-seed-oil-based biodiesel, and their feedstock oils using ion chromatography without chemical suppression conductivity detection. The analytical system cuts down costs because it is not necessary to use an expensive suppressor module. The mixed solution containing 1.7 mmol L-1 nitric acid, 0.7 mmol L-1 2,6-pyridinedicarbox-ylic acid, and 0.05 mmol L-1 18-crown-6 was used as the eluent. The proposed method uses 1.7 mmol L-1 aqueous nitric add solution and extraction- and heating-assisted separation funnels. The limits of detection (LODs, in mg L-1) were found to be as follows: Na+, 0.001; NH4+, 0.001; K+, 0.002; [HN(CH2CH2OH)(3)](+), 0:005; Ca2+, 0.001; and Mg-2+,Mg- 0.001. The results showed that r values for the correlation coefficients of linear regression equations were greater than 0:995, while:the baseline noise was under 0.005 mu S for all of the analytes. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of the retention time Was observed to be lying within the range of 0.083-0.388%, and that of the peak area was less than or equal to about 3% {except for [HN(CH2CH2OH)(3)](+)}. The observed amounts in waste cooking oil biodiesel, Jatropha biodiesel, and rubber-seect-oil-based biodiesel (in mg kg(-1)) were found to be as follows: Na+, 2.187, 2.798, and 4.320; NH4+, 1.031, 0.792, and 0.667; K+, 0.710, 1.081, and 18.814; Ca2+, 1.962, 5.047, and 1.398; and Mg2+ : 0.399, 0.915, and
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  5. Solid-acid catalyzed biodiesel production, part I: biodiesel synthesis from low quality feedstock
    Abstract

    Bala, D. D.; Misra, M.; Chidambaram, D. 2017. Solid-acid catalyzed biodiesel production, part I: biodiesel synthesis from low quality feedstock. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1424169-4177

    A series of catalysts containing phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on periodic mesoporous silica were prepared and evaluated for the production of biodiesel from used cooking oil. The catalytic and physical properties of the prepared catalysts were investigated. Mesoporous catalyst, KIT-5 (Korea Institute of Technology 5) loaded with 26% PTA showed high activity for single step esterification, resulting in the successful elimination of a second transesterification step. The yield of fatty acid methyl esters was 93% from used (waste) cooking oil and-100% from pure palmitic acid. In addition, the solid acid catalyst retained a proportion of its original catalytic activity after repeated recycling steps. Thus, the prepared solid acid catalyst has the potential to be used for the production of biodiesel from feedstock that contain high amounts of free fatty acids. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  6. Sulfonated mesoporous zinc aluminate catalyst for biodiesel production from high free fatty acid feedstock using microwave heating system
    Abstract

    Soltani, S.; Rashid, U.; Nehdi, I. A.; Al-Resayes, S. I.; Al-Muhtaseb, A. H. 2017. Sulfonated mesoporous zinc aluminate catalyst for biodiesel production from high free fatty acid feedstock using microwave heating system. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 70219-228

    Methyl ester was derived from one-step esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) in presence of mesoporous SO3H-ZnAl2O4 solid acid catalyst using microwave irradiation heating system. The catalyst characteristics were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mesoporous SO3H-ZnAl2O4 catalyst possessed unique properties such as surface area of 376.26 m(2) g(-1), total pore volume of 0.16 cm(3) g(-1), an average pore diameter of 3.55 nm and an acid density of 2.10 mmol g(-1). A sequence of experiments were carried out in order to assess the influence of reaction parameters as follows: catalyst concentration (0.5-3.0 wt%), methanol to oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1), reaction temperature (50-70 degrees C), and mixing intensity (200-500 rpm) for methyl ester production. The evaluation of the esterification was conducted by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the PFAD methyl ester at various reaction times. The highest FAME yield was achieved (94.59%) at 20 min under optimum esterification condition (catalyst concentration of 1.5 wt%, methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 9:1, reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, and mixing intensity of 300 rpm using microwave irradiation heating system. The recyclability experiments revealed that the synthesized catalyst was potential to stay stable for eight consecutive reaction runs with only 22.55% drop in ester synthesis. The quality of the produced ester was assessed by determination of some key fuel properties such as density, acid value, kinematic viscosity, water content, pour point, could point, and flash point. The PFAD methyl ester was establish to satisfy those of European (EN 14214) and American Standards for Testing Materials (ASTM) specifications. (C) 2016 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  7. Synthesis of High-Quality Biodiesel Using Feedstock and Catalyst Derived from Fish Wastes
    Abstract

    Madhu, D.; Arora, R.; Sahani, S.; Singh, V.; Sharma, Y. C. 2017. Synthesis of High-Quality Biodiesel Using Feedstock and Catalyst Derived from Fish Wastes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 65(10) 2100-2109

    A low-cost and high-purity calcium oxide (CaO) was prepared from waste crab shells, which were extracted from the dead crabs, was used as an efficient solid base catalyst in the synthesis of biodiesel. Raw fish oil was extracted from waste parts of fish through mechanical expeller followed by solvent extraction. Physical as well as chemical properties of raw fish oil were studied, and its free fatty acid composition was analyzed with GC-MS. Stable and high-purity CaO was obtained when the material was calcined at 800 degrees C for 4 h. Prepared catalyst was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and TGA/DTA. The surface structure of the catalyst was analyzed with SEM, and elemental composition was determined by EDX spectra. Esterification followed by transesterification reactions were conducted for the synthesis of biodiesel. The effect of cosolvent on biodiesel yield was studied in each experiment using different solvents such as toluene, diethyl ether, hexane, tetrahydrofuran, and acetone. High-quality and pure biodiesel was synthesized and characterized by H-1 NMR and FT-IR. Biodiesel yield was affected by parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time, molar ratio (methanol:oil), and catalyst loading. Properties of synthesized biodiesel such as density, kinematic viscosity, and cloud point were determined according to ASTM standards. Reusability of prepared CaO catalyst was checked, and the catalyst was found to be stable up to five runs without significant loss of catalytic activity.
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  8. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants
    Abstract

    Wang, Y.; Feng, S.; Bai, X. J.; Zhao, J. C.; Xia, S. Q. 2016. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants. Waste Management. 4791-97

    The main goal of this study was to compare the component and yield of biodiesel obtained by different methods from different sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. Biodiesel was produced by ex-situ and in-situ transesterification of scum, primary and secondary sludge respectively. Results showed that scum sludge had a higher calorific value and neutral lipid than that of primary and secondary sludge. The lipid yield accounted for one-third of the dried scum sludge and the maximum yield attained 22.7% under in-situ transesterification. Furthermore the gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that all sludge contained a significant amount of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) regardless of extraction solvents and sludge types used. However, the difference lay in that oleic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs produced from scum sludge while palmitic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs from primary and secondary sludge. In addition, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid ester in FAMEs from scum sludge accounted for 57.5-64.1% of the total esters, which was higher than the equivalent derived from primary and secondary sludge. In brief, scum sludge is a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel and more work is needed in the future.(c) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  9. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Zhu, L. D.; Li, Z. H.; Hiltunen, E. 2016. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock. Biomed Research International.

    In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production.
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  10. Synthesis and optimization of Hevea brasiliensis and Ricinus communis as feedstock for biodiesel production: A comparative study
    Abstract

    Silitonga, A. S.; Masjuki, H. H.; Ong, H. C.; Yusaf, T.; Kusumo, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I. 2016. Synthesis and optimization of Hevea brasiliensis and Ricinus communis as feedstock for biodiesel production: A comparative study. Industrial Crops and Products. 85274-286

    Biodiesel from non-edible seeds has attracted the attention of the authors to investigate Hevea brasiliensis (HB) and Ricinus communis (RC) as potential feedstocks. Biodiesel production was carried out using esterification-neutralization-transesterification (ENT) process. The transesterification process was carried out under variation methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time and speed agitation. On top of that, optimization was evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and a quadratic polynomial model for ENT method. The optimization results show that production biodiesel from HBME and RCME with ENT method were 99.32% and 99.07% respectively. All the properties measured for produced methyl ester met in ASTMD 6751. Moreover, the presence of ricinoleic (alpha-elaeostearic) in RCME can improve the cold point, pour point and cold filter plugging point, which resulted in -40.4 degrees C, -27.8 degrees C and -35.0 degrees C respectively. The results of the cold flow properties are better due to higher unsaturated fatty acid concentration. It is indicates that RCME has good performance during cold weather engine operation. It short, biodiesel production using ENT method can produce high methyl ester yield and good biodiesel properties. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  11. Technoeconomic analysis of small-scale farmer-owned Camelina oil extraction as feedstock for biodiesel production: A case study in the Canadian prairies
    Abstract

    Mupondwa, E.; Li, X.; Falk, K.; Gugel, R.; Tabil, L. 2016. Technoeconomic analysis of small-scale farmer-owned Camelina oil extraction as feedstock for biodiesel production: A case study in the Canadian prairies. Industrial Crops and Products. 9076-86

    This study evaluated costs and profitability associated with small scale camelina oil extraction plant in the Canadian Prairies for the purpose of selling camelina oil for further biodiesel production. In this case, Camelina sativa is targeted for production on underutilized summerfallow land to avoid displacement of crop lands. Saskatchewan soil zone 7A has the capacity to provide camelina for oil extraction based on small scale capacities of 30,000-120,000 t annum(-1) and capital investment of $10-24 million. Oil production price is reduced with increased camelina oil content, field yield, plant scale, and camelina meal price. Oil production costs range from $0.39 to $1.88 L-1 when camelina meal has a market value of $0.30 kg(-1). These results provide an informative basis for investment decisions by farmers and investors vis-a-vis the advancement of farm-adoption of camelina as a dedicated industrial crop, as well as the development of an integrated camelina-to-processing oilseed value-chain. Crown Copyright (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  12. Techno-Economic Assessment of an Alternative Process for Biodiesel Production from Feedstock Containing High Levels of Free Fatty Acids
    Abstract

    Albuquerque, A. D.; Danielski, L.; Stragevitch, L. 2016. Techno-Economic Assessment of an Alternative Process for Biodiesel Production from Feedstock Containing High Levels of Free Fatty Acids. Energy & Fuels. 30(11) 9409-9418

    The technical and economic feasibility of an alternative process for biodiesel production from residual oil and fats (ROF) was compared to two cases of the conventional two-step alkali-catalyzed process. A reliable set of thermophysical properties, kinetic data, and a rigorous thermodynamic modeling were used in the simulations. The alternative process employed liquid liquid extraction to separate the free fatty acids from triacylglycerols, with methanol as the solvent. Both processes were found to be technically feasible based on a design specification of 99.65% esters for the product. The alternative process proved to be slightly more economically viable than the conventional process based on the selected economic indicators and thus is a promising alternative for biodiesel production from ROF.
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  13. Trends in catalytic production of biodiesel from various feedstocks
    Abstract
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  14. Ultrasonic and microwave effects on crystalline Mn(II) carbonate catalyzed biodiesel production using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) seed oil and alcohol (fibrous flesh) as exclusive green feedstock
    Abstract

    Krishnaiah, G.; Pasnoori, S.; Santhoshi, P. S.; Rajanna, K. C.; Rao, Y. R.; Patnaik, K. S. K. R. 2016. Ultrasonic and microwave effects on crystalline Mn(II) carbonate catalyzed biodiesel production using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) seed oil and alcohol (fibrous flesh) as exclusive green feedstock. Biofuels-Uk. 7(6) 735-741

    Ultrasonic sonication and microwave irradiation exhibited pronounced effects on crystalline Mn (II) carbonate catalyzed biodiesel production using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) seed oil and alcohol (fibrous flesh) as exclusive green feedstock. Both ingredients, alcohol and oil, necessary for biodiesel production are extracted from watermelon fruit. Mn(II) carbonate and watermelon fruit, which are used for transesterification, are inexpensive, easily available and environmentally safe. The reactions occurred smoothly under conventional conditions and afforded good product yields. However, microwave assisted and ultrasonically assisted reactions exhibited highly significant reduction in reaction times with a trend: microwave assisted (35 min) << ultrasonically assisted (2.0 h) << conventional (8.0 h). The whole exercise is operationally simple, environmentally safe, energy saving, time saving and green, which fits well into the green chemical principles of Anastas and Warner.
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  15. Study of an energy-integrated biodiesel production process using supercritical methanol and a low-cost feedstock
    Abstract

    Manuale, D. L.; Torres, G. C.; Vera, C. R.; Yori, J. C. 2015. Study of an energy-integrated biodiesel production process using supercritical methanol and a low-cost feedstock. Fuel Processing Technology. 140252-261

    The supercritical biodiesel production process has some disadvantages such as: high reaction temperature, large molar methanol-to-oil ratios (R) and large energy consumption. To mitigate these problems, an energy integrated process in which biodiesel is obtained in a continuous tubular reactor operating at a reaction temperature of 280 degrees C, R = 20, a residence time of 1 h and a pressure of 110 bar, is proposed. A low-cost lipid feedstock (chicken oil) was used as raw material for testing the process. The enthalpy content of the stream exiting the supercritical reactor was used to eliminate the unreacted methanol in an adiabatic flash drum. The operating conditions of the adiabatic flash were optimized to meet the specification of water and methanol content in the biodiesel phase and minimize the ester and acid content in the vapor phase. These conditions were: P = 0.1 bar and T = 178 degrees C. For these conditions the methanol content is 88-90% in the vapor phase and lower than 0.2% in the biodiesel phase. A scheme was developed for an energy integrated process maximizing the heat recovery. Composition, temperature and pressure of the streams were determined and also the amount of heat exchanged in each unit. In order to fulfill the quality restrictions the final content of FFA in the biodiesel product had to be further adjusted by adsorption over bleaching silica. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  16. Synthesis of Biodiesel through Catalytic Transesterification of Various Feedstocks using Fast Solvothermal Technology: A Critical Review
    Abstract

    Soltani, S.; Rashid, U.; Yunus, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2015. Synthesis of Biodiesel through Catalytic Transesterification of Various Feedstocks using Fast Solvothermal Technology: A Critical Review. Catalysis Reviews-Science and Engineering. 57(4) 407-435

    The fossil fuel reserves are depleting at a more rapid rate as a result of the population growth and the ensuing energy utilization. Biodiesel is a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters produced from the transesterification of plant oils or animal fats. Moreover, the source of raw materials and manufacturing costs have become the major hurdle in the commercialization of biodiesel; thus, alternative sources such as the use of waste oils and non-edible oils together with biodiesel production techniques have long been considered. Selecting an appropriate feedstock and increasing production yield are two important approaches to decrease the costs of biodiesel production. Typically, biodiesel, which operates with electrical or conventional heating to generate high efficiency of the product, consumes a huge amount of power in a long reaction time. In contrast, chemical reactions speed up by microwave irradiation which results in producing high yields of product in a shorter chemical reaction time. In this extensive article, an effort has been made to review the use of microwave technology including multi-feedstock and recent studies on microwave-assisted heterogeneously catalyzed processes for biodiesel production. The heterogeneous catalyst performance has also been covered, including the measurement of their pysico-chemical properties. The microwave irradiation used for the synthesis of biodiesel is also included. In addition, the reaction variables impacting the transesterification process, such as heating system, microwave power, type and amount of heterogeneous catalyst, oil/methanol molar ratio, reaction time, temperature and mixing intensity, are covered. The final part of this article will cover the details of previously performed work on heterogeneous catalysts. Finally, energy balances for the traditional and microwave-based processes, conclusions, and recommendation on the topic are presented. The aim this article is to focus on recent studies on microwave-assisted heterogeneously catalyzed processes.
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  17. Transesterification Catalyzed By Lipozyme TLIM for Biodiesel Production from Low Cost Feedstock
    Abstract

    Halim, S. F. A.; Hassan, H.; Amri, N.; Bashah, N. A. A. 2015. Transesterification Catalyzed By Lipozyme TLIM for Biodiesel Production from Low Cost Feedstock. International Conference on Mathematics, Engineering and Industrial Applications 2014 (Icomeia 2014). 1660

    The development of new strategies to efficiently synthesize biodiesel is of extreme important. This is because biodiesel has been accepted worldwide as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel as alkyl ester derived from vegetable oil has considerable advantages in terms of environmental protection. The diminishing petroleum reserves are the major driving force for researchers to look for better strategies in producing biodiesel. The main hurdle to commercialization of biodiesel is the cost of the raw material. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oil that is more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, biodiesel produced from food-grade vegetable oil is currently not economically feasible. Use of an inexpensive raw material such as waste cooking palm oil and non edible oil sea mango are an attractive option to lower the cost of biodiesel. This study addresses an alternative method for biodiesel production which is to use an enzymatic approach in producing biodiesel fuel from low cost feedstock waste cooking palm oil and unrefined sea mango oil using immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM. tert-butanol was used as the reaction medium, which eliminated both negative effects caused by excessive methanol and glycerol as the byproduct. Two variables which is methanol to oil molar ratio and enzyme loading were examine in a batch system. Transesterification of waste cooking palm oil reach 65% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Novozyme 435 based on oil weight), while transesterification of sea mango oil can reach 90% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Lipozyme TLIM based on oil weight).
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  18. Transesterification of a novel feedstock, Cyprinus carpio fish oil: Influence of co-solvent and characterization of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Fadhil, A. B.; Al-Tikrity, E. T. B.; Albadree, M. A. 2015. Transesterification of a novel feedstock, Cyprinus carpio fish oil: Influence of co-solvent and characterization of biodiesel. Fuel. 162215-223

    The present research work explores biodiesel production from one of the novel non-edible feedstocks viz. Cyprinus carpio fish oil. Production of biodiesel from this oil was successfully performed through base-catalyzed transesterification assisted by a co-solvent. Hexane and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were chosen as the co-solvent and the catalyst, respectively. The experimental parameters included in the optimization process were type of co-solvent, type and concentration of the base catalyst, methanol to oil molar ratio, hexane to methanol volume ratio, temperature and time. The maximum yield of biodiesel from C. carpio fish oil (98.55 +/- 1.02% similar to 97.24% w/w ester content) was obtained at 0.60% KOH w/w, 5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.5:1 hexane to methanol volume ratio, 50 degrees C reaction temperature and 30 min of reaction. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography were used to ensure the conversion of fish oil into biodiesel. The biodiesel properties were within the recommended biodiesel standards as prescribed by ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. The most remarkable features of C. carpio fish oil biodiesel are the flash point and viscosity which are close to those of petro diesel. Moreover, blends of biodiesel and petro diesel were complied with the limits prescribed in the ASTM D7467 standards. Hence, the oil is a potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Co-solvent transesterification of C. carpio fish oil was found to follow first order kinetics and the activation energy was calculated to be 32.46 kJ/mol. However, it was concluded that the use of co-solvent within the reaction medium enhanced yield and properties of biodiesel comparing with that produced via nonsolvent process. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  19. Two-stage cultivation of a Nannochloropsis mutant for biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Doan, Y. T. T.; Obbard, J. P. 2015. Two-stage cultivation of a Nannochloropsis mutant for biodiesel feedstock. Journal of Applied Phycology. 27(6) 2203-2208

    Optimization of mass microalgae cultures is required for the efficient production of biodiesel feedstock in terms of total fatty acid (TFA) content and a conducive fatty acid profile. A mutant strain of Nannochloropsis sp. (MT-I5), as modified via random mutagenesis and flow cytometric cell sorting, was investigated in both a single- and two-stage cultivation using 250 L laboratory raceway ponds. Culture was based on photoautotrophic biomass production (stage 1) followed by a switch to photomixotrophic growth induced by adding sodium acetate (2 mM) (stage 2). The biomass yield of the mutant in two-stage cultivation was maintained at a level similar to that of the one-stage photoautotrophic culture, but TFA content was increased by 2.3-fold. The fatty acid profile of MT-I5 also had an increased level of desirable saturated fatty acids (SFA) for use as a biodiesel feedstock, i.e. from 43 to 48 % of TFA, as well as a decreased level of less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), i.e. from 22 to 7 % of TFA. The two-stage cultivation process is of interest for the mass culture of microalgae for biofuel feedstocks, as biomass productivity can be maximized during the first stage of culture until N-starvation is achieved, followed by the enhanced synthesis of SFA in the second stage of culture by adding sodium acetate as a fixed-carbon source.
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  20. Used Vegetable Oil (UVO) As a Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in South Africa
    Abstract

    Thaba, E. C.; Mbohwa, C.; Pradhan, A. 2015. Used Vegetable Oil (UVO) As a Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in South Africa. 2015 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (Ieom).

    Although there has been much debate about biodiesel production, only now is the government showing real interest in the sector. Small scale biodiesel production has been running for more than a decade, despite all the challenges faced by biodiesel producers. The industry remains gripped by so many challenges hampering its prospects for economic development, employment creation and alternative energy production. This paper argues that there is a need for comprehensive government support, including the protection and availing of UVO to local producers if the emerging industry should sustain.
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  21. Utilization of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass as feedstock for biodiesel and other industrially important co-products: An integrated paradigm for microalgal biorefinery
    Abstract

    Patnaik, R.; Mallick, N. 2015. Utilization of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass as feedstock for biodiesel and other industrially important co-products: An integrated paradigm for microalgal biorefinery. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 12328-336

    With an aim to design a microalgal biorefinery taking Scenedesmus obliquus as a model organism, a detailed sequential production protocol was developed for the first time for beta-carotene, biodiesel, omega-3 fatty acids, glycerol and bioethanol from S. obliquus biomass. This research study not just projects S. obliquus as a feasible option for a microalgal biorefinery but also addresses the issue of economic and environmental sustainability by suggesting an optimized nutrient condition for maximizing benefits from themicroalgal biomass. GC-MS technique has been used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the biodiesel obtained, and mass spectrophotometric technique has been used for quantitative analysis of the other co-products. The detailed process developed, yielded 0.06 g of beta-carotene, 38 g of biodiesel, 2 g of omega-3 fatty acids, 3 g of glycerol and 17 g of ethanol from 100 g of S. obliquus biomass. A comparative analysis of the total light energy consumed and costs of nutrients incurred under autotrophic and mixotrophic modes has been presented. Additionally, more than twice the number of cultivation cycles per year, producing >12 fold higher biodiesel yield and >4 fold higher yield of co-products under optimized growth condition further highlights the significance of the strategy suggested. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  22. Water-saving analysis on an effective water reuse system in biodiesel feedstock production based on Chlorella zofingiensis fed-batch cultivation
    Abstract

    Yang, K.; Qin, L.; Wang, Z. M.; Feng, W.; Feng, P. Z.; Zhu, S. N.; Xu, J. L.; Yuan, Z. H. 2015. Water-saving analysis on an effective water reuse system in biodiesel feedstock production based on Chlorella zofingiensis fed-batch cultivation. Water Science and Technology. 71(10) 1562-1568

    The micralgae-based biofuel obtained from dairy wastewater (DWW) is considered a promising source of energy. However, this process consumes water due to the concentration of wastewater being normally too high for some micoralgae cultivation, and dilution is always needed. In this work, the cultivation of microalgae has been examined in non-recirculated water (NR) and recirculated water systems (R). The growth of Chlorella zofingiensis and the nutrient removal of DWW have been recorded. The comparison indicates the R had a little more advantage in biomass and lipid output (1.55, 0.22 g, respectively) than the NR (1.51, 0.20 g, respectively). However, the total chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and total phosphorus (TP) removals of the R were lower than those of the NR system during the culture. The highest removal of total COD, TKN, and TP were 85.05%, 93.64%, and 98.45%, respectively. Furthermore, no significant difference has been observed in the higher heating value and lipid content of the biomass of the R and NR. The results show the R can save 30% of the total water input during the culture. All above results indicate the R system has great potential in industry.
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  23. Screening of Microalgae for Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Chen, Xi; He, Guoqiang; Deng, Zhiping; Wang, Nan; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Sanfeng 2014. Screening of Microalgae for Biodiesel Feedstock. Advances in Microbiology. Vol.04No.0712

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  24. Seed oils from non-conventional sources in north-east India: potential feedstock for production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Barua, P.; Dutta, K.; Basumatary, S.; Deka, D. C.; Deka, D. C. 2014. Seed oils from non-conventional sources in north-east India: potential feedstock for production of biodiesel. Natural Product Research. 28(8) 577-580

    A total of nine oilseeds with more than 15wt% oil have been investigated for evaluating them as feedstock for biodiesel industries. Fatty acid profiles of all the nine oil samples have been determined by GC-MS analysis. The saponification numbers, gross heats of combustion of the oils and those of corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as well as cetane indices of the FAMEs have been calculated empirically. Iodine values have been determined experimentally. These values have been used for predicting the quality of the corresponding biodiesels. If prepared from these oils, biodiesels are likely to meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of the USA, Germany and European Standard Organisation. Seed oil from Cucumis sativus is found rich in linoleic acid which is considered an essential fatty acid of biological significance.
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  25. Silybum marianum oil as a new potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel: A comparison of its production using conventional and ultrasonic assisted method
    Abstract

    Takase, M.; Feng, W. W.; Wang, W.; Gu, X. Y.; Zhu, Y.; Li, T.; Yang, L. Q.; Wu, X. Y. 2014. Silybum marianum oil as a new potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel: A comparison of its production using conventional and ultrasonic assisted method. Fuel Processing Technology. 12319-26

    Alkaline transesterification of Silybum marianum seed oil to biodiesel using methanol and ethanol was studied. The two methods used were conventional stirring (600 rpm) and ultrasonication (40 kHz). Oil was extracted from the seeds, followed by physico-chemical properties' determination and transesterification to biodiesel. The seeds contained 46% oil which had low free fatty acids (FFA) (0.68%). Linoleic acid (65.68%) was the main composition of the oil. Ultrasonication transesterification with methanol gave the highest yield (95.75%) after 20 min. Yields of methyl esters were higher than respective yields of ethyl esters. Using first order reaction kinetics model, the reaction rate constants were 2.3 X 10(-2) s(-1) and 7.0 X 10(-3) s(-1) for ultrasonication using methanol and ethanol, respectively. With the exception of oxidative stability (2.1 h) and iodine values (132-methyl and 133-ethyl esters), properties out of range but can easily be improved, the remaining properties including cetane number, flash point and the cold flow ones of both methyl and ethyl esters were similar and comparable to Chinese, ASTM and European Union standards. The findings of this study complement with the abundance of S. marianum oil at cultivation and silymarin industrial production as by-product indicates its potentially new non-edible feedstock for biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  26. Synthesis of racemic lactide using glycerol by-product from biodiesel fuel production process as feedstock
    Abstract

    Hasegawa, T.; Nomura, N.; Moriya, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kishida, H. 2014. Synthesis of racemic lactide using glycerol by-product from biodiesel fuel production process as feedstock. 11th Eco-Energy and Materials Science and Engineering (11th Emses). 56195-200

    To reduce CO2 emission, the utilization of biodiesel fuel (BDF) has expanded worldwide last decade. Accordingly, more and more glycerol that is a by-product of the BDF production process is discharged, and an effective conversion of glycerol into valuable substances has been desired. In this article, we describe a study of conversion from glycerol into racemic lactide which is to be a monomer of stereoblock poly(lactic acid) (sb-PLA) by using an achiral homosalen-aluminum complex as a polymerization catalyst. This sb-PLA is semi-crystalline and has high melting point (up to 210 degrees C). The glycerol was first converted into racemic lactic acid by hydrothermal reaction with an alkaline catalyst under the following conditions: temperature, 300 degrees C; pressure, 10 MPa; reaction time, 3.5 h. The conversion of glycerol into lactic acid was 62.5%. The racemic lactic acid was then converted into the mixture of lactide isomers, followed by purification process to afford racemic lactide (rac-LA). Purity of the obtained rac-LA was more than 99%. It demonstrates that glycerol can be a good feedstock of rac-LA for the first time. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
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  27. The utilization of Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oil as biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia
    Abstract

    Gunawan, S.; Wasista, H. W.; Kuswandi, K.; Widjaja, A.; Ju, Y. H. 2014. The utilization of Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oil as biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. Industrial Crops and Products. 52286-291

    In this study, the production of biodiesel from Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oil by esterification followed directly by transesterfication without employing a separation step was investigated. The composition of X. moluccensis seed oil was triacylglycerols (81.23%), diacylglycerols (3.70%), monoacylglycerols (2.26%), free fatty acids (10.5%), and wax esters and gums (1.23%). Our results suggest that FAME yield (97%) was obtained under the following operation conditions: methanol to rice bran ratio of 2 ml/g, sulfuric acid concentration in methanol of 1% (v/v) and reaction time of 20 min, an esterification operated on X. moluccensis seed oils could reduce FFA contents from 10% to 1.5%. Then, it was subjected to a second step reaction by adding potassium hydroxide of 0.3% and allowing to react for another 15 min. It was found that the content of saturated fatty acids in this study were 22%. This means that the biodiesel produced from X. moluccensis seed oil has better cold flow properties, compared to that obtained while using palm oil. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  28. Transesterification of non edible feedstock with lithium incorporated egg shell derived CaO for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Boro, J.; Konwar, L. J.; Deka, D. 2014. Transesterification of non edible feedstock with lithium incorporated egg shell derived CaO for biodiesel production. Fuel Processing Technology. 12272-78

    A series of Li doped egg shell derived CaO is prepared for biodiesel production from nonedible oil feedstock. The catalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements and their basic strengths were measured by Hammett indicators. Maximum conversion of 94% is observed with 5% of catalyst amount and 2% of Li loading is observed to be optimum for better conversions. Though the catalyst is not reusable its catalytic activity can be improved by activating it at appropriate temperature and reloading it with Li. NMR studies showed that the final product separated after transesterification is biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  29. Use of the microalga Monoraphidium sp grown in wastewater as a feedstock for biodiesel: Cultivation and fuel characteristics
    Abstract

    Holbrook, G. P.; Davidson, Z.; Tatara, R. A.; Ziemer, N. L.; Rosentrater, K. A.; Grayburn, W. S. 2014. Use of the microalga Monoraphidium sp grown in wastewater as a feedstock for biodiesel: Cultivation and fuel characteristics. Applied Energy. 131386-393

    The use of microalgae as feedstocks for biodiesel is potentially limited by climatic conditions with low light and temperature levels. Monoraphidium sp. Dek19 was identified by 18S rRNA gene sequencing. This is a species indigenous to the upper Midwestern USA which grows to high densities in wastewater with bioremediation resulting in a reduction of nitrate and phosphate levels. Mesocosm pool cultures (171L) were used to characterize growth of this species in larger volumes than typical of previous lab-based studies. The alga was shown to be cold-tolerant and to grow to workable density within 15 days at relatively low light intensities in sterilized treated effluent. It was harvested by FeCl3 flocculation and filtration, and lipid content was measured at 26% of dry weight. Pool cultures yielded enough biomass to extract lipids and transesterify them to biodiesel for testing in a stationary engine. GC analysis showed FAMEs produced from Monoraphidium sp. to have a similar fatty acid profile to soybean oil. Engine testing of this algal biodiesel in blends with petrodiesel showed a significant reduction in NOx emissions. The results of this study indicate in general that searching for species of algae adapted to local environments is a good strategy for developing biodiesel feedstocks, and specifically that Monoraphidium sp. Dek19 represents a species isolate that could be used to produce this fuel economically using wastewater in Northern locations with cool climates. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  30. Vegetable Oil Based Biodiesel Feedstock Potential in Indonesia
    Abstract

    Mayasari, F.; Dalimi, R. 2014. Vegetable Oil Based Biodiesel Feedstock Potential in Indonesia. 2014 Makassar International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (Miceei). 37-41

    Biodiesel is a renewable energy that comes from natural biodiesel feedstock, such as vegetable oil, animal fat, waste oil, algae, etc. It becomes one of the best alternative solutions for global fossil fuel energy crisis, because it has similar characteristic with diesel oil (petrodiesel).
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  31. Waste animal fats as feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bankovic-Ilie, I. B.; Stojkovic, I. J.; Stamenkovic, O. S.; Veljkovic, V. B.; Hung, Y. T. 2014. Waste animal fats as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 32238-254

    Biodiesel, an alternate and ecologically acceptable substitute for the conventional fuel, is usually produced from a wide range of edible vegetable oils, which are normally used for human consumption and whose prices are expected to increase in the future. In this regard, reliable and low-cost raw materials have increasingly drawn interest for biodiesel production, such as by-products of the meat-processing industries or waste animal fats. This paper provides a review of the different methods employed for biodiesel production from waste animal fats employing transesterification reaction. The aim of this paper is to present the exploitation possibilities of waste animal fats as low-cost feedstocks for biodiesel production. Also, the various methods for treatment of waste animal fats such as chemical (homogeneous and heterogeneous) and enzyme catalysis as well as non-catalytic processes were considered with emphasis on the influence of the operating and reaction conditions on the process rate and the ester yield. In depth discussions were given to the process optimization, kinetics and possibilities for improvement of biodiesel production from waste animal. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  32. A study on low temperature and pressure hydrogenation of cyclopropenoid-group containing non-edible oil for biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Hudaya, T.; Liana; Soerawidjaja, T. H. 2013. A study on low temperature and pressure hydrogenation of cyclopropenoid-group containing non-edible oil for biodiesel feedstock. International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (Icseea) 2012. 32209-215

    One of the potential non-edible biodiesel feedstocks in Indonesia is kapok seed oil (Ceiba pentandra). However, the biodiesel made directly from kapok seed oil will not comply with the requirement of Indonesian Biodiesel Standard, because the oil contains cyclopropenoid group, i.e. a reactive group that easily polymerizes, making the biodiesel viscous and thus could plug the fuel injection nozzle on the diesel engine. The aim of this study is to determine the suitable conditions for low T and P catalytic transfer hydrogenation process to eliminate the cyclopropenoid group in kapok seed oil. Potassium formate (10 M) was used as a hydrogen donor solution and the catalyst was a 5%-palladium on carbon (5%-Pd/C) utilized at a level of 0,5%-mass to oil. The concentrations of cyclopropenoid group at the beginning and the end of the hydrogenation were determined titrimetrically using Durbetaki reagent. The best condition for catalytic transfer hydrogenation of kapok seed oil found in this study was at 65 degrees C for 9 hours, which resulted in about 61% decrease of the cyclopropenoid group. Iodine number measurements indicated that the hydrogenation process merely occured on the cyclopropenoid group, because the group was more reactive than the monoenoic/dienoic bonds on the aliphatic fatty acid chains of the oil. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  33. A study on the effects of promising edible and non-edible biodiesel feedstocks on engine performance and emissions production: A comparative evaluation
    Abstract

    Mofijur, M.; Atabani, A. E.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Masum, B. M. 2013. A study on the effects of promising edible and non-edible biodiesel feedstocks on engine performance and emissions production: A comparative evaluation. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 23391-404

    Global energy demand is increasing due to the population growth and industrialization. In order to fulfill the energy demand with considering global concern, it is necessary to find out alternative fuel sources. Biodiesel is one of the best choices because of its immense potential to be part of energy mix in the near future as well as the capability of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This paper aims to provide information to the engineers, industrialists and researchers who are interested on biodiesel. The paper presents a comprehensive review on the impact of potential biodiesel feedstocks (edible and non-edible) on engine performance and exhaust emissions including details of engine and operating condition. A large number of literatures from highly rated journals in scientific indexes are reviewed including the most recent publications. Most of the authors showed that using biodiesel from various feedstocks in diesel engines slightly lowered brake power and brake thermal efficiency but increases BSFC than diesel fuel. It was also reported that biodiesel significantly reduced the PM, HC, CO and CO2 emissions but gives slightly higher NOx emissions. It was shown that NO can be reduced by some approaches such as blending with additives and EGR technique. The study concluded that biodiesel can be used in compression ignition engine with no or minor engine modification. Finally biodiesel can be used as a substitute of diesel fuel to fulfill the energy demand, reduce dependency on fossil fuel as well as the exhaust emissions of the engine. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  34. A Universal Procedure for Crude Glycerol Purification from Different Feedstocks in Biodiesel Production: Experimental and Simulation Study
    Abstract

    Xiao, Y.; Xiao, G. M.; Varma, A. 2013. A Universal Procedure for Crude Glycerol Purification from Different Feedstocks in Biodiesel Production: Experimental and Simulation Study. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 52(39) 14291-14296

    It is important to utilize crude glycerol, the main byproduct of biodiesel production, to manufacture high value-added chemicals. Since crude glycerol typically contains less than 65 wt % glycerol, purification is the first step for its utilization. Owing to the wide variety of triglycerides, alcohols, catalysts, and separation processes used in biodiesel production, crude glycerol composition varies widely, leading to different crude glycerol purifications. In the present work, we develop a universal procedure for crude glycerol purification, including as key steps initial microfiltration of the crude glycerol, saponification, acidification, phase separation, and biphasic extraction of upper- and lower-layer products. The procedure was utilized to purify crude glycerol samples from two biodiesel production companies, experimentally upgrading both samples to >94 wt % purity. On an Aspen Plus software platform, the purification procedure was simulated using a process model based on two submodels to obtain a good match with the experiments. The developed procedure is suitable for the purification of crude glycerol obtained from different biodiesel production technologies.
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  35. Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) as a salt-tolerant feedstock for production of biodiesel and ethanol
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R.; Dien, B. S.; Seliskar, D. M.; Gallagher, J. L. 2013. Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) as a salt-tolerant feedstock for production of biodiesel and ethanol. Renewable Energy. 50833-839

    Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) is a non-invasive perennial nonclonal halophytic oilseed-producing dicot that was investigated as a feedstock for production of biodiesel from seeds and ethanol from residual stem biomass. Seashore mallow seeds contained 19.3 mass % oil, which after extraction with hexane and pretreatment with catalytic sulfuric acid was converted into methyl esters in 94 mass % yield utilizing homogenous base catalysis. The principal components identified were methyl linoleate (48.9%), palmitate (24.4%) and oleate (18.3%). Fuel properties were characterized and compared to biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Also investigated were blends with petrodiesel. Lastly, seashore mallow stems were rich in neutral carbohydrates (51.8 mass %). After simultaneous saccharification and fermentation employing a native Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain, the stems provided ethanol and xylose yields of 104 g/kg and 47.8 g/kg, respectively. Of the four pretreatment methodologies explored, dilute ammonium hydroxide provided the highest yield of sugars. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  36. Stress-induced lipids are unsuitable as a direct biodiesel feedstock: A case study with Chlorella pyrenoidosa
    Abstract

    Shekh, A. Y.; Shrivastava, P.; Krishnamurthi, K.; Mudliar, S. N.; Devi, S. S.; Kanade, G. S.; Lokhande, S. K.; Chakrabarti, T. 2013. Stress-induced lipids are unsuitable as a direct biodiesel feedstock: A case study with Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Bioresource Technology. 138382-386

    The effects of various stresses on the suitability of lipid synthesized by Chlorella pyrenoidosa for biodiesel production were investigated. Lipids were characterized for detailed fatty acid methyl ester profiling and biodiesel properties like cetane number (CN), iodine value, cold filter plugging point (CFPP). Maximum biomass productivity (106.63 mg L-1 d(-1)) and lipid content (29.68%) were obtained at indoor cultivation (nitrate sufficient, pH 8-10, 24 h illumination). However, compared to this condition, other nitrate sufficient cultures [pH 6-8 and 10-12 (24 h illumination), and at ambient CO2 and 16:8 h light:dark photoperiod (pH unadjusted)] showed similar to 12-14% lower lipid productivity. Upon 50% nitrate depletion (at indoor and outdoor; pH unadjusted) lipid content has increased by 7.62% and 17%, respectively. Though stress conditions helped enhancing lipid accumulation, there was two-fold increase in PUFA content compared to that observed at pH 8-10. This resulted in fuel properties which did not comply with the biodiesel standards. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  37. Synthesis of Flexible Heat-Exchanger Networks for Multifeedstock Biodiesel Production Processes
    Abstract

    Pokoo-Aikins, G.; El-Halwagi, M. M. 2013. Synthesis of Flexible Heat-Exchanger Networks for Multifeedstock Biodiesel Production Processes. Integrated Biorefineries: Design, Analysis, and Optimization. 417-430

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  38. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Identifying Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Jahirul, M. I.; Brown, R. J.; Senadeera, W.; O'Hara, I. M.; Ristovski, Z. D. 2013. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Identifying Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstocks. Energies. 6(8) 3764-3806

    Over the past few decades, biodiesel produced from oilseed crops and animal fat is receiving much attention as a renewable and sustainable alternative for automobile engine fuels, and particularly petroleum diesel. However, current biodiesel production is heavily dependent on edible oil feedstocks which are unlikely to be sustainable in the longer term due to the rising food prices and the concerns about automobile engine durability. Therefore, there is an urgent need for researchers to identify and develop sustainable biodiesel feedstocks which overcome the disadvantages of current ones. On the other hand, artificial neural network (ANN) modeling has been successfully used in recent years to gain new knowledge in various disciplines. The main goal of this article is to review recent literatures and assess the state of the art on the use of ANN as a modeling tool for future generation biodiesel feedstocks. Biodiesel feedstocks, production processes, chemical compositions, standards, physio-chemical properties and in-use performance are discussed. Limitations of current biodiesel feedstocks over future generation biodiesel feedstock have been identified. The application of ANN in modeling key biodiesel quality parameters and combustion performance in automobile engines is also discussed. This review has determined that ANN modeling has a high potential to contribute to the development of renewable energy systems by accelerating biodiesel research.
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  39. Utilisation of By-Products from Sunflower-Based Biodiesel Production Processes for the Production of Fermentation Feedstock
    Abstract

    Kachrimanidou, V.; Kopsahelis, N.; Chatzifragkou, A.; Papanikolaou, S.; Yanniotis, S.; Kookos, I.; Koutinas, A. A. 2013. Utilisation of By-Products from Sunflower-Based Biodiesel Production Processes for the Production of Fermentation Feedstock. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 4(3) 529-537

    By-products streams from a sunflower-based biodiesel plant were utilised for the production of fermentation media that can be used for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). Sunflower meal was utilised as substrate for the production of crude enzyme consortia through solid state fermentation (SSF) with the fungal strain Aspergillus oryzae. Fermented solids were subsequently mixed with unprocessed sunflower meal aiming at the production of a nutrient-rich fermentation feedstock. The highest free amino nitrogen (FAN) and inorganic phosphorus concentrations achieved were 1.5 g L-1 and 246 mg L-1, respectively, when an initial proteolytic activity of 6.4 U mL(-1) was used. The FAN concentration was increased to 2.3 g L-1 when the initial proteolytic activity was increased to 16 U mL(-1). Sunflower meal hydrolysates were mixed with crude glycerol to provide fermentation media that were evaluated for the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-3HV)) using Cupriavidus necator DSM545. The P(3HB-co-3HV) (9.9 g L-1) produced contained 3HB and 3HV units with 97 and 3 mol %, respectively. Integrating PHA production in existing 1st generation biodiesel production plants through valorisation of by-product streams could improve their sustainability.
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  40. Variation in soil carbon under contrasting biodiesel feedstock crops
    Abstract

    Koide, R. T.; Peoples, M. S.; Matheson, E. T. 2013. Variation in soil carbon under contrasting biodiesel feedstock crops. Pedobiologia. 56(2) 61-67

    There is considerable interest in both soy and canola as biodiesel feedstock crops because of the net reduction in CO2 emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel in place of petroleum diesel. Whether these two crops differ in net CO2 savings is unknown, in part because of our ignorance of their impact on soil C. We, therefore, monitored soil C for three years in an experiment that included both soy and canola rotations. We found that soil C concentrations were significantly lower under canola than soy, and that the difference represented as much as 64% of the C savings of soy biodiesel over petroleum diesel. We tested two hypotheses that could explain this difference in soil C. First, because canola can acidify the soil, we determined whether a reduction in inorganic C (as carbonate) in canola plots could account for the soil C difference. Carbonate concentration did not differ significantly in soy and canola plots. Second, we determined whether soil organic matter concentration could account for the soil C difference. Soil organic matter concentration was significantly lower in canola than in soy plots, accounting for the difference in soil C. We further hypothesized that because soy is mycorrhizal and canola is not, soy soils should contain higher concentrations of glomalin, a recalcitrant substance produced by mycorrhizal fungi, and that this could help to explain the difference in soil organic matter. Glomalin concentrations were significantly lower in canola plots, but this difference accounted for only a fraction of the total soil C difference. Our results suggest that a proper accounting of life cycle C savings of biodiesel when used in place of petroleum diesel must consider soil C. (C) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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  41. Waste cooking oil: a promising feedstock for biodiesel production through power ultrasound and hydrodynamic cavitation
    Abstract

    Pal, A.; Kachhwaha, S. S. 2013. Waste cooking oil: a promising feedstock for biodiesel production through power ultrasound and hydrodynamic cavitation. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research. 72(6) 387-392

    The present research work deals with the details of development of laboratory test rigs for power ultrasound and hydrodynamic cavitation test rigs for conversion of WCO into biodiesel in comparison to conventional mechanical stirring. Results show that cavitation techniques can be successfully applied to transesterification reactions, to achieve more than 90% yield of the product for molar ratio 4.5:1 with minimum catalyst percentage of 0.5% and appears to be rapid and effective compared to the mechanical stirring method, for preparing alkyl esters from triglycerides.
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  42. A summary of the available technologies for biodiesel production based on a comparison of different feedstock's properties
    Abstract

    Marchetti, J. M. 2012. A summary of the available technologies for biodiesel production based on a comparison of different feedstock's properties. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 90(3) 157-163

    Biodiesel production is mainly done by carrying on the transesterification reaction while using refined oil, methanol and a homogeneous base catalyst. When using refined oil, a competition between oil for food and oil for fuel is then presented. Even more, the conventional technology has the disadvantage that the raw material has to be very pure, with no traces of other impurities. Otherwise, undesirable products will be produced decreasing the productivity of the process and making a large amount of waste treatment.
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  43. Screening analysis of biodiesel feedstock using UV-vis, NIR and synchronous fluorescence spectrometries and the successive projections algorithm
    Abstract

    Insausti, M.; Gomes, A. A.; Cruz, F. V.; Pistonesi, M. F.; Araujo, M. C. U.; Galvao, R. K. H.; Pereira, C. F.; Band, B. S. F. 2012. Screening analysis of biodiesel feedstock using UV-vis, NIR and synchronous fluorescence spectrometries and the successive projections algorithm. Talanta. 97579-583

    This paper investigates the use of UV-vis, near infrared (NIR) and synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectrometries coupled with multivariate classification methods to discriminate biodiesel samples with respect to the base oil employed in their production. More specifically, the present work extends previous studies by investigating the discrimination of corn-based biodiesel from two other biodiesel types (sunflower and soybean). Two classification methods are compared, namely full-spectrum SIMCA (soft independent modelling of class analogies) and SPA-LDA (linear discriminant analysis with variables selected by the successive projections algorithm). Regardless of the spectrometric technique employed, full-spectrum SIMCA did not provide an appropriate discrimination of the three biodiesel types. In contrast, all samples were correctly classified on the basis of a reduced number of wavelengths selected by SPA-LDA. It can be concluded that UV-vis, NIR and SF spectrometries can be successfully employed to discriminate corn-based biodiesel from the two other biodiesel types, but wavelength selection by SPA-LDA is key to the proper separation of the classes. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  44. Single cell oil of oleaginous fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands as a potential feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Khot, M.; Kamat, S.; Zinjarde, S.; Pant, A.; Chopade, B.; RaviKumar, A. 2012. Single cell oil of oleaginous fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands as a potential feedstock for biodiesel. Microbial Cell Factories. 11

    Background: Single cell oils (SCOs) accumulated by oleaginous fungi have emerged as a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Though fungi from mangrove ecosystem have been reported for production of several lignocellulolytic enzymes, they remain unexplored for their SCO producing ability. Thus, these oleaginous fungi from the mangrove ecosystem could be suitable candidates for production of SCOs from lignocellulosic biomass. The accumulation of lipids being species specific, strain selection is critical and therefore, it is of importance to evaluate the fungal diversity of mangrove wetlands. The whole cells of these fungi were investigated with respect to oleaginicity, cell mass, lipid content, fatty acid methyl ester profiles and physicochemical properties of transesterified SCOs in order to explore their potential for biodiesel production.
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  45. Used Frying Oil: A Proper Feedstock for Biodiesel Production?
    Abstract

    Alberici, R. M.; de Souza, V.; de Sa, G. F.; Morelli, S. R.; Eberlin, M. N.; Daroda, R. J. 2012. Used Frying Oil: A Proper Feedstock for Biodiesel Production?. Bioenergy Research. 5(4) 1002-1008

    Used frying oil seems to be an economically viable and environmentally attractive alternative for biodiesel production, but the acceptance and successful use of this and other biodiesels obtained from waste materials require careful evaluation of its fuel properties and impurities. Herein, we show that biodiesel made from used frying soybean oil display overall quality comparable to those obtained from the fresh oil as measured by standard parameters of fuel quality such as induction period, acid number, heat of combustion, and iodine value as well as at the molecular level via profiles of intact and oxidized fatty acid methyl esters. These profiles were obtained directly from the biodiesel samples by easy ambient sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry. An artificial antioxidant, N,N'-di-sec-butyl-p-phenylenediamine, was shown to significantly increase the oxidative stability of the used frying oil biodiesel at trace level.
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  46. Using headspace solid phase microextraction to evaluate the odor compounds in trap grease feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Thompson, J. G.; Bertrnan, S.; Hill, S.; Kushner, L.; Miller, J. B. 2012. Using headspace solid phase microextraction to evaluate the odor compounds in trap grease feedstock for biodiesel. Biomass & Bioenergy. 4336-41

    Trap grease is a waste grease material that can be used as a biodiesel feedstock. Its commercial viability could be limited unless its inherent odor can be mitigated. Because trap grease can have many sources and is collected in a variety of ways it possesses many challenges in developing a characterization method and biodiesel conversion process. A headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) analysis method had been developed to provide rapid and quantitative identification of odor compounds in trap grease and its biodiesel product. Six trap grease samples were evaluated and several distinct classes of compounds were identified. A significant portion of the volatile odorant compounds in trap grease was identified as short and medium chain free fatty acids (FFA). The odorant components were identified using HS-SPME sampling analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Relative response factors and calibration curves were used to analyze the short chain FFA (SC-FFA) in trap grease. The results showed that the developed method is a suitable analysis tool for the fast and reliable identification of different classes of odorant compounds and quantitation of SC-FFA from trap grease or similar biofuel feedstocks. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  47. Screening of marine microalgae for biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Thi, T. Y. D.; Sivaloganathan, B.; Obbard, J. P. 2011. Screening of marine microalgae for biodiesel feedstock. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(7) 2534-2544

    Biodiesel production from microalgae lipids is increasingly regarded as a more sustainable and feasible alternative to conventional biodiesel feedstocks derived from terrestrial bioenergy crops. A total of ninety-six strains of marine microalgae, with an elevated biomass productivity and intracellular lipid content, were isolated from the coastal waters of Singapore using an automated flow cytometric cell-sorting technique. Cell sorting was based on the two-dimensional distribution of algal cells for red fluorescence (representing chlorophyll auto-fluorescence) against forward-light scatter (representing cell size) and red vs. green fluorescence. Twenty-one of the strains were further characterized with respect to cell growth rate, biomass concentration, lipid content (total and neutral lipid) and fatty acid profile. The growth rates of Skeletonema costatum, Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira species were greatest among the entire strains, but in terms of absolute lipid yield Nannochloropsis strains predominated. Nannochloropsis strains had a lipid content ranging from 39.4% to 44.9% of dry weight biomass. Transesterification of the lipids yielded 25-51% of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) i.e. biodiesel, where total FAME content ranged between 11 and 21% of dry weight biomass. This study describes the microalgae screening process and demonstrates that Nannochloropsis is a promising species for biodiesel feedstock. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  48. Simulation study of the production of biodiesel using feedstock mixtures of fatty acids in complex reactive distillation columns
    Abstract

    Cossio-Vargas, E.; Hernandez, S.; Segovia-Hernandez, J. G.; Cano-Rodriguez, M. I. 2011. Simulation study of the production of biodiesel using feedstock mixtures of fatty acids in complex reactive distillation columns. Energy. 36(11) 6289-6297

    Biodiesel can be produced from a number of natural, renewable sources, but vegetable oils are the main feedstocks. The current manufacturing biodiesel processes, however, have several disadvantages: expensive separation of products from the reaction mixture, and high costs due to relatively complex processes involving one to two reactors and several separation units. Therefore, to solve these problems, in recent years several researchers have developed a sustainable biodiesel production process based on reactive distillation. In this paper the production of biodiesel using feedstock mixtures of fatty acids is explored using reactive distillation sequences with thermal coupling. The results indicate that the complex reactive distillation sequences can produce a mixture of esters as bottoms product that can be used as biodiesel. In particular, the thermally coupled distillation sequence involving a side rectifier can handle the reaction and complete separation in accordance with process intensification principles. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  49. Single cell oil production from Mortierella sp for generation of biodiesel feedstock- a feasibility study
    Abstract

    Kumar, I.; Ramalakshmi, M. A.; Sivakumar, U.; Santhanakrishnan, P.; Zhan, X. M. 2011. Single cell oil production from Mortierella sp for generation of biodiesel feedstock- a feasibility study. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 5(24) 4105-4111

    Biodiesel is an alternative renewable fuel and its production rises rapidly. Microbial oils produced by oleaginous microorganisms can be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production so as to sustain the increasing demand for biodiesel and alleviate the competition with the food supply. This study investigated oil production by an oleaginous fungus, Mortierella sp., which was isolated from soils of Tamil Nadu in India. The flask culturing experiment shows that the optimal lipid production conditions were glucose as the carbon source (0.16 M), yeast extract (one percent) as the nitrogen source, temperature at 30 C and pH of 6.5. Under the optimal conditions, the oil production potential of Mortierella sp was examined in a three-litre pilot-scale fermentor. The fungus accumulated 44.1% of lipids in dry biomass and the biomass growth was 15.9 g I(-1). The fungal oil contained oleic acid of 38.2%, stearic acid of 11.5%, linolenic acid of 4.8% and palmitic acid of 19.6%, and its fatty acid composition was similar to that of vegetable oils. The crude oil had properties: density of 920 Kg/m(3) at 15 C, viscosity of 54.81 mm(2)/s at 40 degrees C, flash point of 218 degrees C, pour point of 7.0 degrees C, water content of 3.9%, ash content, 0.62%, carbon residue of 0.082%, acid value of 28.22 Mg KOH/g, calorific value of 32.05 MJ/Kg, free fatty acid of 14.55, and fire point of 230 degrees C. The oil properties were much similar to Jatropha oil and rapeseed oil.
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  50. Study on the glycerolysis reaction of high free fatty acid oils for use as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Felizardo, P.; Machado, J.; Vergueiro, D.; Correia, M. J. N.; Gomes, J. P.; Bordado, J. M. 2011. Study on the glycerolysis reaction of high free fatty acid oils for use as biodiesel feedstock. Fuel Processing Technology. 92(6) 1225-1229

    Biodiesel is the main alternative to fossil diesel and it may be produced from different feedstocks such as semi-refined vegetable oils, waste frying oils or animal fats. However, these feedstocks usually contain significant amounts of free fatty acids (FFA) that make them inadequate for the direct base catalyzed transesterification reaction (where the FFA content should be lower than 4%). The present work describes a possible method for the pre-treatment of oils with a high content of FFA (20 to 50%) by esterification with glycerol. In order to reduce the FFA content, the reaction between these FFA and an esterification agent is carried out before the transesterification reaction. The reaction kinetics was studied in terms of its main factors such as temperature, % of glycerin excess, % of catalyst used, stirring velocity and type of catalyst used. The results showed that glycerolysis is a promising pretreatment to acidic oils or fats (> 20%) as they led to the production of an intermediary material with a low content of FFA that can be used directly in the transesterification reaction for the production of biodiesel. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  51. Suitability of Carthamus oxyacantha plant as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Zadeh, A. K. A.; Almassi, M.; Meighani, H. M.; Borghei, A. M.; Azizian, J. 2011. Suitability of Carthamus oxyacantha plant as biodiesel feedstock. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 5(12) 1639-1643

    In this study, Carthamus oxyacantha (the wild species of safflower), which grows naturally without any cost and care by the time it is harvested, and is resistant to dry climate and other hard environmental conditions, is analyzed and investigated as a proper feedstock in producing biodiesel for the first time. In order to prove its suitability, its seed and oil were experimented first. The results of the experiment showed that the yield of its seed was 833-939 (kg/ha) and the amount of its oil was 24-32 %. Other properties of its oil, such as its saponification value, iodine value, and the amount of its free fatty acid content were 183, 145, and 0.18, respectively. Eventually, the methyl ester of its crude oil, which was produced through alkali transesterification reaction with methanol alcohol and NaOH as catalyst was experimented and its physicochemical properties were determined. All of the determined characteristics, namely, density (0.8816 g/ml), kinematic viscosity (4.13 mm(2)/s at 40 degrees C), flash point (179 degrees C), cloud point (-3 degrees C), pour point (-9 degrees C), sulfur content (0.01 mass %), carbon residue (0.005 mass %), vacuum distillation end point (352 degrees C at 90% volume recycle), gross calorific value 39.255 (Mj/Kg) and calculated cetane index (48.99) meet the two accepted biodiesel standards (i.e. ASTM D6751 and EN 142140). Therefore, according to the results, Carthamus oxyacantha plant, which was not reported earlier, can be utilized as a possible biodiesel feedstock.
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  52. Utilization of biodiesel waste as a feedstock for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Cupriavidus necator
    Abstract

    Sangkharak, K.; Prasertsan, P. 2011. Utilization of biodiesel waste as a feedstock for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Cupriavidus necator. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10(77) 17812-17824

    This study aimed to investigate the potential of using wastewater and crude glycerol from biodiesel refinery to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) through fermentation of Cupriavidus necator TISTR 1095. The result indicates that crude glycerol yielded high cell growth (35 to 37 g/L) and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB; 17.85 to 19.98 g/L). However, no cell growth obtained from biodiesel-wastewater due to high Na(+) presented. Among medium and experimental factors influencing PHB accumulation, crude glycerol, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and trace element concentration revealed significant effects (P<0.1). Their optimal values were 60 g/L crude glycerol, 1.32 g/L (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and 2.0 g/L trace element. Under these optimal conditions, the strain TISTR 1095 produced the highest biomass (46.25 +/- 2.10 g/L) and PHB concentration of 24.98 +/- 1.87 g/L with PHB content of 54.01% of DCW. Effect of experimental conditions including aeration rate and agitation speed as well as sterile condition on PHB accumulation was also studied. The optimal aeration rate (2 vvm) and agitation speed (150 rpm) under septic condition during cultivation gave slightly increase of biomass and PHB. The maximum biomass (46.96 +/- 0.28 g/L) and PHB concentration of 25.32 +/- 0.20 g/L (53.92% of DCW) was achieved in 20-L fermentor. Moreover, the purified PHB from C. necator TISTR 1095 was partially characterized; their properties were similar to commercial PHB.
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  53. A Single-Step Solid Acid-Catalyzed Process for the Production of Biodiesel from High Free Fatty Acid Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Baig, A.; Ng, F. T. T. 2010. A Single-Step Solid Acid-Catalyzed Process for the Production of Biodiesel from High Free Fatty Acid Feedstocks. Energy & Fuels. 244712-4720

    Biodiesel is a nontoxic, renewable, and biodegradable alternative green fuel for petroleum-based diesel. However, the major obstacle for the commercial production of biodiesel is the high cost of raw material, i.e., refined vegetable oils. This problem can be addressed using low-cost feedstocks, such as waste oils and fats. However, these feedstocks contain a high amount of free fatty acids (FFAs), which cannot be used for the production of biodiesel using a traditional homogeneous alkali-catalyzed transesterification process. A solid acid catalyst based on a supported heteropolyacid catalyst (PSA) was evaluated for the production of biodiesel from soybean oil (SBO) containing up to 25 wt % palmitic acid (PA). It was demonstrated that this solid acid catalyst catalyzed simultaneously esterification and transesterification. The total glycerin, ester content, and acid numbers were determined according to ASTM D 6584, EN 14103, and ASTM D 974, respectively. It was found that at 200 degrees C, 1:27 oil/alcohol molar ratio, and 3 wt % catalyst, a high-quality biodiesel with an ester content of 93.95 mass % was produced from a feedstock (SBO containing 10% PA) in 10 h. The PA and chemically bound glycerin (CBG), which includes triglyceride (TG), diglyceride (DG), and monoglyceride (MG), conversions of 92.44 and 99.38% were obtained, respectively. The effect of process parameters, such as catalyst amount, oil/alcohol molar ratio, and FFA content in the feedstock, has been investigated. This single-step solid acid-catalyzed process has potential for industrial-scale production of biodiesel from high FFA feedstocks.
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  54. Shaddock (Citrus grandis) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Sharma, M.; Ganguly, M. 2010. Shaddock (Citrus grandis) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment. 14(3) 43-45

    A new non-edible low cost feedstock for the production of biodiesel is reported. The study shows that the seeds of shaddock which have high oil content, can be used as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The study reveals that the methyl ester obtained from shaddock oil fulfils most of the requirements of a biodiesel fuel. The physic-chemical parameters of the oil and the methyl esters are presented.
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  55. Synthesis of biodiesel from a model waste oil feedstock using a carbon-based solid acid catalyst: Reaction and separation
    Abstract

    Shu, Q.; Nawaz, Z.; Gao, J. X.; Liao, Y. H.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, D. Z.; Wang, J. F. 2010. Synthesis of biodiesel from a model waste oil feedstock using a carbon-based solid acid catalyst: Reaction and separation. Bioresource Technology. 101(14) 5374-5384

    A solid acid catalyst that can keep high activity and stability is necessary when low cost feedstocks are utilized for biodiesel synthesis because the reaction medium contains a large amount of water. Three solid acid catalysts were prepared by the sulfonation of carbonized vegetable oil asphalt and petroleum asphalt. The structure of these catalysts was characterized by a variety of techniques. A new process that used the coupling of the reaction and separation was employed, which greatly improved the conversion of cottonseed oil (triglyceride) and free fatty acids (FFA) when a model waste oil feedstock was used. The vegetable oil asphalt-based catalyst showed the highest catalytic activity. This was due to the high density and stability of its acid sites, its loose irregular network, its hydrophobicity that prevented the hydration of -OH species, and large pores that provided more acid sites for the reactants. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  56. The US biodiesel use mandate and biodiesel feedstock markets
    Abstract

    Thompson, W.; Meyer, S.; Green, T. 2010. The US biodiesel use mandate and biodiesel feedstock markets. Biomass & Bioenergy. 34(6) 883-889

    Studies of individual biodiesel feedstocks or broad approaches that lump animal fats and vegetable oils into a single aggregate straddle the true case of imperfect but by no means inconsequential substitution among fats and oils by different users. United States biofuel policy includes a biodiesel use mandate that rises to almost 4 hm(3) by 2012, calling for biomass feedstock analysis that recognizes the complex interdependence among potential feedstocks and competition for food and industrial uses. We model biodiesel input markets to investigate the implications of the mandate for quantities and prices with and without a provision disallowing biodiesel made from soybean oil. Findings suggest a hierarchy of price effects that tends to be largest for cheaper fats and oils typically used for industrial and feed purposes and smallest for fats and oils traditionally used exclusively for direct consumption, with the cross-commodity effects and other key economic parameters playing a critical part in determining the scale in each case. Although sensitive to the exact parameters used, our results argue against overly simplifying feedstock markets by holding prices constant when considering the economics of a particular feedstock or if estimating the broader impacts of rising biodiesel production on competing uses. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  57. Solution Polymerization of Styrene Using Biodiesel as a Solvent: Effect of Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Salehpour, S.; Dube, M. A.; Murphy, M. 2009. Solution Polymerization of Styrene Using Biodiesel as a Solvent: Effect of Biodiesel Feedstock. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 87(1) 129-135

    Increasing environmental concerns regarding solvents commonly used in solution polymerization has led to a search for alternatives, such as biodiesel (a.k.a. fatty acid methyl esters or FAME). The effect of the feedstock used in biodiesel production when FAME is used as a polymerization solvent was studied for styrene. A series of homopolymerizations was carried out at different solvent concentrations for two biodiesel feedstocks: soybean oil and 50% yellow grease-50% canola oil. Results were compared to FAME produced from canola oil. Considerable differences in the rate of polymerization were observed, while chain transfer to solvent constants had comparable values. The collected kinetic experimental data were modelled using a polymerization simulator.
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  58. Steam explosion lignins; their extraction, structure and potential as feedstock for biodiesel and chemicals
    Abstract

    Li, J. B.; Gellerstedt, G.; Toven, K. 2009. Steam explosion lignins; their extraction, structure and potential as feedstock for biodiesel and chemicals. Bioresource Technology. 100(9) 2556-2561

    In the present study, a steam explosion wood pre-treatment process, optimized earlier with respect to ethanol production, has been applied to both softwoods (Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris) and hardwoods (Betula verrucosa and Populus tremula). The alkaline extractable lignins have then been isolated to investigate lignin separation efficiency and lignin structure and to evaluate their potential for producing value-added products, such as biodiesel components or chemicals, in terms of the purity, molecular size, functional groups, beta-O-4' inter-unit linkage content, and degradability in a subsequent processing treatment. The mechanism of lignin modification and possible improvements to the steam explosion pre-treatment process are discussed. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  59. Substitutable biodiesel feedstocks for the UK: a review of sustainability issues with reference to the UK RTFO
    Abstract

    Upham, P.; Thornley, P.; Tomei, J.; Boucher, P. 2009. Substitutable biodiesel feedstocks for the UK: a review of sustainability issues with reference to the UK RTFO. Journal of Cleaner Production. 17S37-S45

    The sustainability performance of five potential UK biodiesel feedstocks is reviewed and their greenhouse gas performance investigated using the carbon and sustainability reporting methods of the UK Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RITO). Of the feedstocks examined, and for which the RTFO supplies default carbon intensity values, only used cooking oil has guaranteed sustainability benefits. The other feedstocks have CO(2)e payback periods of 25-5503 years if grown on converted forest or grassland, yet the RTFO currently requires no guarantee that this conversion has not taken place and requires no avoidance of indirect effects. As currently designed, the RTFO risks substantial, adverse environmental effects. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  60. Selection of Philippine Plant Oils as Possible Feedstocks for Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Razon, L. F. 2008. Selection of Philippine Plant Oils as Possible Feedstocks for Biodiesel. Philippine Agricultural Scientist. 91(3) 278-286

    By using fatty acid profiles from literature, 27 plant species found in the Philippines were evaluated for their potential to provide feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Of the 27 considered, 15 plant species were found to have the potential of providing biodiesel that will conform to the biodiesel standards of the European Standard Organization (CEN) and the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM): Adenanthera pavonina, Calotropis grigantea, Calotropis procera, Canarium luzonicum, Canarium odontophyllum, Canarium ovatum pulp, Cerbera manghas, Cleome viscosa, Cryptostegia grandiflora, Dacryodes rostrata, Nephelium mutabile, Ptychosperma macarthuri, Psophocarpus tetragonolobus, Raphanus sativus and Sapindus saponaria.
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  61. Synthesis of Biodiesel from Mixed Feedstocks and Longer Chain Alcohols Using an Acid-Catalyzed Method
    Abstract

    Wahlen, B. D.; Barney, B. M.; Seefeldt, L. C. 2008. Synthesis of Biodiesel from Mixed Feedstocks and Longer Chain Alcohols Using an Acid-Catalyzed Method. Energy & Fuels. 22(6) 4223-4228

    Biodiesel is typically synthesized from triacylglycerides derived from seed oils (e.g., soybean) and an alcohol (e.g., methanol) with base catalysis, yielding the fatty acid methyl ester, biodiesel. Alternative oil feedstocks (e.g., used cooking oil, rice bran oil, and algae) often have significant quantities of free fatty acids, which greatly complicate the synthesis of biodiesel using the base/methanol method. Here, we have explored a wide range of reaction conditions that optimize biodiesel production from mixed feedstocks containing high free fatty acids. To rapidly survey conditions, a microwave-heated reaction was used to accelerate the reaction and the product was quantified by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Conditions were determined that allowed for rapid and high yield conversion of oil feedstocks containing significant concentrations of free fatty acids into biodiesel using an acid-catalyzed reaction with longer chain alcohols (such as n-butanol) at a slight molar excess. The conditions were replicated in a traditional heating method, where biodiesel yields greater than 98% were achieved in less than 40 min. Key properties of the resulting butyl-diesel were determined, including cetane, pour point, and viscosity. The information presented should be valuable for the large-scale production of biodiesel from mixed feedstocks that are difficult to use by the base/methanol method.
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  62. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Chhetri, A. B.; Watts, K. C.; Islam, M. R. 2008. Waste Cooking Oil as an Alternate Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Energies. 1(1) 3-18

    As crude oil price reach a new high, the need for developing alternate fuels has become acute. Alternate fuels should be economically attractive in order to compete with currently used fossil fuels. In this work, biodiesel (ethyl ester) was prepared from waste cooking oil collected from a local restaurant in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Ethyl alcohol with sodium hydroxide as a catalyst was used for the transesterification process. The fatty acid composition of the final biodiesel esters was determined by gas chromatography. The biodiesel was characterized by its physical and fuel properties including density, viscosity, acid value, flash point, cloud point, pour point, cetane index, water and sediment content, total and free glycerin content, diglycerides and monoglycerides, phosphorus content and sulfur content according to ASTM standards. The viscosity of the biodiesel ethyl ester was found to be 5.03 mm(2)/sec at 40 degrees C. The viscosity of waste cooking oil measured in room temperature (at 21 degrees C) was 72 mm(2)/sec. From the tests, the flash point was found to be 164 degrees C, the phosphorous content was 2 ppm, those of calcium and magnesium were 1 ppm combined, water and sediment was 0 %, sulfur content was 2 ppm, total acid number was 0.29 mgKOH/g, cetane index was 61, cloud point was -1 degrees C and pour point was -16 degrees C. Production of biodiesel from waste cooking oils for diesel substitute is particularly important because of the decreasing trend of economical oil reserves, environmental problems caused due to fossil fuel use and the high price of petroleum products in the international market.
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  63. The use of waste animal fats as feedstock for the production of an environmental friendly fuel for diesel engines (biodiesel)
    Abstract

    Ahn, E.; Mittelbach, M. 2002. The use of waste animal fats as feedstock for the production of an environmental friendly fuel for diesel engines (biodiesel). Food Safety Assurance in the Pre-Harvest Phase, Vol 1. 342-345

    With a newly developed process technology it is possible to produce an environmental friendly, high quality diesel fuel out of any kind of waste animal fat. A production plant successfully applying this Austrian technology was built in the USA. Basics of this technology are explained. Possible obstacles to this alternative usage of waste animal fat due to newly proposed European regulations are discussed.
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  64. Schleichera oleosa L oil as feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Silitonga, A. S.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Ong, H. C.; Kusumo, F.; Aditiya, H. B.; Ghazali, N. N. N. 2015. Schleichera oleosa L oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fuel. 15663-70

    The non-edible oil from Schleichera oleosa possesses the potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, the biodiesel production was performed using two-step transesterification process on a laboratory scale. The parameters studied were reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, catalyst concentration, reaction time and catalysts type. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the methyl ester yield. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: reaction temperature at 55 degrees C, methanol to oil molar ratio of 8:1, 1 wt.% of hydroxide catalyst (KOH and NaOH) and 1 wt.% methoxide catalyst (CH3OK and CH3ONa) for reaction time 90 min. Based from these optimum conditions, the observed ester yields from different catalysts were average 96%, 93%, 91% and 88% for KOH, NaOH, CH3OK and CH3ONa respectively as the catalyst. Schleichera oleosa methyl ester (SOME) exhibited a satisfying oxidative stability of 7.23 h and high cetane number (50.6) compared to petrol diesel (49.7). Besides, SOME has good pour and cloud point of -3.0 degrees C and -1.0 degrees C respectively due to high unsaturated fatty chain. As a conclusion, this study reveals that biodiesel production from SOME, as one of non-edible feedstock, is able to be an alternative for petrol diesel. Moreover, the produced biodiesel from SOME could be used in diesel engine without major modification due to its properties and can be used in cold regions. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  65. Rubber seed oil as potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalyst in Thailand
    Abstract

    Roschat, W.; Siritanon, T.; Yoosuk, B.; Sudyoadsuk, T.; Promarak, V. 2017. Rubber seed oil as potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalyst in Thailand. Renewable Energy. 101937-944

    This research present an alternative raw material of rubber seed which is non-edible crops as a source to produce oil for biodiesel production in Thailand. The rubber seed powder was extracted with hexane at room temperature to give rubber seed oil with the yield of 24 wt%. The composition and key properties of the extracted oil were analyzed including fatty acid compositions, density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, water content and acid value. This high FFAs oil (5.20 wt%) was successfully transesterified by various heterogeneous catalysts such as CaO-based waste coral fragment, sodium metasilicate and CaO-based eggshell to biodiesel in high yield and high %FAME of >97% in single step. Thermal stability of biodiesel obtained from rubber seed oil was evaluated by using thermogravimetric analysis and compared with petrol-diesel fuels. The biodiesel obtained from rubber seed oil was examined and found to meet the EN 14214 standard for bio-auto fuel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  66. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand
    Abstract

    Nakpong, P.; Wootthikanokkhan, S. 2010. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand. Fuel. 89(8) 1806-1811

    The production of biodiesel fuel from crude roselle oil was evaluated in this study. The process of alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol was carried out to examine the effects of reaction variables on the formation of methyl ester: variables which included methanol-to-oil molar ratios of 4: 1-10: 1, catalyst concentrations of 0.25-2.0% w/w of oil, reaction temperatures of 32-60 degrees C, and reaction times of 5-80 min. The methyl ester content from each reaction condition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), the optimum condition having been achieved at a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 8: 1, a catalyst concentration of 1.5% w/w of oil, a reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, and a reaction time of 60 min. The resultant methyl ester content of 99.4% w/w, plus all of the other measured properties of the roselle biodiesel, met the Thai biodiesel (B100) specifications and international standards EN 14214: 2008 (E) and ASTM D 6751-07b, with the exception of a higher carbon residue and lower oxidation stability. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  67. Rhazya stricta Decne seed oil as an alternative, non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Nehdi, I. A.; Sbihi, H. M.; Al-Resayes, S. I. 2014. Rhazya stricta Decne seed oil as an alternative, non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management. 81400-406

    Rhazya stricta Decne (R. stricta) is a hardy, drought-resistant, and arid land plant that is widely distributed from the Middle East to South Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of R. stricta seed oil as an alternative source of triacylglycerols that may be suitable for the synthesis of biodiesel. The oil content of the seeds was approximately 14% and was mainly composed of the fatty acids linoleic (60.95%) and oleic (25.48%) acid. R. stricta methyl esters (RSME) were prepared by a base-catalyzed transesterification reaction. The conversion rate of the triacylglycerols to the corresponding methyl esters was determined by H-1-NMR to be approximately 97%. This study showed that the fuel properties of the RSMEs are comparable to other vegetable oil methyl esters that are commonly used as biodiesels. R. stricta plantations will therefore be suitable for promoting sustainable agriculture and for producing biodiesel with viable prices in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  68. Review: examining the use of different feedstock for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Behzadi, S.; Farid, M. M. 2007. Review: examining the use of different feedstock for the production of biodiesel. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2(5) 480-486

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel produced from triglycerides and fatty acids present in naturally occurring fats and oils. However, owing to higher production costs it has had very little commercial use. It has been identified that the cost of raw materials (this refers to fats and oils) accounts for more than 70% of the biodiesel production cost. For biodiesel to play an active role in our energy needs, it requires to be produced at a much lower price while still meeting international fuel standards.
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  69. Review on Biodiesel Production from Various Feedstocks Using 12-Tungstophosphoric Acid (TPA) as a Solid Acid Catalyst Precursor
    Abstract

    Baroi, C.; Dalai, A. K. 2014. Review on Biodiesel Production from Various Feedstocks Using 12-Tungstophosphoric Acid (TPA) as a Solid Acid Catalyst Precursor. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(49) 18611-18624

    Solid acid catalysts are an important class of catalysts because of their applications in various organic reactions. A 12-tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) is a member of heteropoly acid (HPA) compounds, which grabbed attention because of its low volatility, low corrosivity, higher activity, and acidity compared to sulfuric acid. However, the major problems of using TPA are its solubility in polar media, and its lower surface area. Therefore, various techniques are applied to use it as heterogeneous catalysts. Biodiesel is a diesel substitute renewable fuel, which is produced from various renewable feedstocks through transesterification or esterification reactions. Acid catalysts can catalyze both transesterification and esterification reactions. For this reason, research has been conducted to study the catalytic activity of various TPA precursory solid acid catalysts for biodiesel production. In this Review, a data mining technique has been applied to extract valuable information from the previously published literature. For this purpose, an artificial neural network (ANN) model has been developed based on the published research data to capture the general trends or to make predictions. Both catalyst properties and reaction conditions are trended and predicted using the network model.
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  70. A review of transesterification from low-grade feedstocks for biodiesel production with supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Zeng, D.; Li, R. S.; Wang, B.; Xu, J.; Fang, T. 2014. A review of transesterification from low-grade feedstocks for biodiesel production with supercritical methanol. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 87(8) 1176-1183

    Biodiesel produced from renewable energy sources has been widely researched by different countries as a potential and ecologically acceptable substitute for the conventional fuel. Considering the increasing material cost and the human consumption of edible vegetable oils, low-grade raw materials involving non-edible oils, waste cooking oils, soapstocks and animal fats have drawn much interest for biodiesel production. This paper reviews the transesterification of low-grade feedstocks to convert into biodiesel with supercritical fluid technology that is more efficient and eco-friendly. This technonogy leads to simpler separation and purification steps compared with the conventional catalytic methods. The supercritical process is insensitive to free fatty acids or water in feedstocks and requires relatively short reaction time with high ester conversion yield. Besides, potential intensified technology has also been provided for reducing the biodiesel production cost to expect an early industrial application.
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  71. Review of process parameters for biodiesel production from different feedstocks
    Abstract

    Verma, P.; Sharma, M. P. 2016. Review of process parameters for biodiesel production from different feedstocks. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 621063-1071

    Biodiesel is one of the prospective alternatives to petroleum fuel resources because of its renewable and environment friendly nature. Transesterficiation process is used for biodiesel production. The biodiesel production process mainly depends on five parameters which includes free fatty acid (FFA) content, type of alcohol used and molar ratio (alcohol:oil), catalyst type and its concentration, reaction temperature and time. Methanol and ethanol are commonly used for biodiesel production in presence of different alkaline catalysts like sodium and potassium hydroxides. The production methodology of biodiesel is an important aspect for efficient and cost-effective production of biodiesel. The present study focuses on the various technical aspects of biodiesel production methodology. The study reveals that for optimum biodiesel production reaction temperature should be in range of 50-60 degrees C, molar ratio of alcohol to oil should be in range of 6-12:1 with the use of an alkali catalyst having optimum concentration 1% by weight. The optimal reaction time for transesterification process is 120 min. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  72. Review and prospects of bitter apricot oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production - an Indian perspective
    Abstract

    Gurau, V. S.; Sandhu, S. S.; Sarma, A. K. 2016. Review and prospects of bitter apricot oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production - an Indian perspective. International Journal of Oil Gas and Coal Technology. 12(4) 425-439

    The increasing energy demands along with the gradual depletion of fossil fuels have prompted to search for alternative fuels that can be obtained from renewable energy resource. Biodiesel as a renewable energy resource has drawn the attention of many researchers and scientists because it has immense potential to be part of a sustainable energy mix in near future. This paper explores the feasibility of converting wild/bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca Linn.) oil into biodiesel and its prospects in India and reviews the history of wild apricot, its origin, distribution, oil extraction, biodiesel processing and engine testing. The positive attributes and limitations of the bitter apricot utilisation are also discussed. It was unveiled that the production of biodiesel from wild apricot oil offers many social, economical and environmental benefits for the country and can play a great role to solve the problem of energy crisis in high altitude areas of India. The prospects of wild apricot biodiesel and its expansion for setting up biodiesel industry in the mountainous regions have also been emphasised.
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  73. Response surface modeling to predict biodiesel yield in a multi-feedstock biodiesel production plant
    Abstract

    Pinzi, S.; Lopez-Gimenez, F. J.; Ruiz, J. J.; Dorado, M. P. 2010. Response surface modeling to predict biodiesel yield in a multi-feedstock biodiesel production plant. Bioresource Technology. 101(24) 9587-9593

    For economic reasons, multi-feedstock plants are preferred to produce biodiesel. However, the optimal conditions of the transesterification reaction depend on the raw material, thus making difficult the achievement of a high yield of biodiesel when different types of feedstock are used under the same operational settings. In the present work, a response surface methodology is proposed to both predict biodiesel yield when different raw materials are used to produce biodiesel and to determine the optimal operational conditions of a multi-feedstock plant. The optimization of the transesterification reaction of five vegetable oils consisting in a wide range of fatty acid profiles has been carried out. Results provided a compromise zone where all the experimental responses satisfied the imposed specifications to achieve the goals, where the best optimal combination of parameters was selected. According to this model, the tested properties of the produced biodiesel are within the limits of the EN 14214 standard. It can be concluded that this methodology provides the most suitable operational conditions to achieve the highest biodiesel yield in a multi-feedstock biodiesel plant, also considering the economics of the process. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  74. The Research of Cultivating Chlorella Vulgaris as Biodiesel Feedstock by Using Municipal Wastewater
    Abstract

    Liu, J. Q.; Liu, Y. H.; Liu, Q.; Ruan, R.; Zhang, J. S.; Peng, H.; Wu, X. D. 2010. The Research of Cultivating Chlorella Vulgaris as Biodiesel Feedstock by Using Municipal Wastewater. 2010 the Second China Energy Scientist Forum, Vol 1-3. 924-928

    The objective of present research was to investigate the technical feasibility of using Nanchang municipal wastewater as culture media for large-scale cultivation of oil-rich microalgae to produce bio-diesel and treating the wastewater simultaneausly. Collecting the municipal wastewater without any treatment from QingShanhu sewage plant as the culture medium for Chlorella vulgaris growth. The experiment monitored the specific growth rate and biomass yield of Chlorella vulgaris and associated ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorous, COD, TSS, and VSS removal during 10 days. The experimental results showed that the level of nutrients influenced algae growth significantly. The growth rate of Chlorella vulgaris reached a maximum of OD(680nm) 2.856 after 8 days culturing and the algae biomass accumulation rate reached a maximum of 0.0100 gdw.L(-1).day(-1). The oil content of Chlorella vulgaris was 180 mg g(-1) in dry biomass weight. The removel rate of NH(4)(+)-N, TP and COD was 0.6123mg.L(-1).day(-1), 0.0540 mg.L(-1).day(-1), and 2.6387mg.L(-1).day(-1). The TSS and VSS removal rate were 0.0100mg.L(-1)day(-1) and 0.0061mg.L(-1).day(-1) respectively.
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  75. Recycled de-Oiled Algal Biomass Extract as a Feedstock for Boosting Biodiesel Production from Chlorella minutissima
    Abstract

    Arora, N.; Patel, A.; Pruthi, P. A.; Pruthi, V. 2016. Recycled de-Oiled Algal Biomass Extract as a Feedstock for Boosting Biodiesel Production from Chlorella minutissima. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 180(8) 1534-1541

    The investigation for the first time assesses the efficacy of recycled de-oiled algal biomass extract (DABE) as a cultivation media to boost lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima and its comparison with Bold's basal media (BBM) used as control. Presence of organic carbon (3.8 +/- A 0.8 g/l) in recycled DABE resulted in rapid growth with twofold increase in biomass productivity as compared to BBM. These cells expressed four folds higher lipid productivity (126 +/- A 5.54 mg/l/d) as compared to BBM. Cells cultivated in recycled DABE showed large sized lipid droplets accumulating 54.12 % of lipid content. Decrement in carbohydrate (17.76 %) and protein content (28.12 %) with loss of photosynthetic pigments compared to BBM grown cells were also recorded. The fatty acid profiles of cells cultivated in recycled DABE revealed the dominance of C16:0 (39.66 %), C18:1 (29.41 %) and C18:0 (15.82 %), respectively. This model is self-sustained and aims at neutralizing excessive feedstock consumption by exploiting recycled de-oiled algal biomass for cultivation of microalgae, making the process cost effective.
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  76. Rapid high conversion of high free fatty acid feedstock into biodiesel using continuous flow vortex fluidics
    Abstract

    Britton, J.; Raston, C. L. 2015. Rapid high conversion of high free fatty acid feedstock into biodiesel using continuous flow vortex fluidics. Rsc Advances. 5(3) 2276-2280

    Conversion of high free fatty acid (FFA) feedstock (94.4%) to biodiesel with undetectable FFA content is effective using room temperature vortex fluidic flow chemistry, with the conversion taking < 1 minute residence time, using dramatically less methanol and acid catalyst compared to other processes. Optimum conditions are 1 : 6 volumetric ratio of oil feedstock to methanol and 0.2 molar equivalents of H2SO4 catalyst loading, for a combined flow rate of 3.50 mL min(-1) in a 17.7 mm internal diameter tube rotating at 7500 rpm. This work furthers the viability of using high FFA content feedstocks for biodiesel production.
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  77. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level
    Abstract

    Satpati, G. G.; Kanjilal, S.; Narayana Prasad, R. B.; Pal, R. 2015. Rapid Accumulation of Total Lipid in Rhizoclonium africanum Kutzing as Biodiesel Feedstock under Nutrient Limitations and the Associated Changes at Cellular Level. Int J Microbiol. 2015275035

    Increase of total lipid and the proportion of the favorable fatty acids in marine green filamentous macroalga Rhizoclonium africanum (Chlorophyceae) was studied under nitrate and phosphate limitations. These stresses were given by both eliminating and doubling the required amounts of nitrate and phosphate salts in the growth media. A significant twofold increase in total lipid (193.03 mg/g) was achieved in cells in absence of nitrate in the culture medium, followed by phosphate limitation (142.65 mg/g). The intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The scanning electron microscopic study showed the major structural changes under nutrient starvation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the presence of ester (C-O-C stretching), ketone (C-C stretching), carboxylic acid (O-H bending), phosphine (P-H stretching), aromatic (C-H stretching and bending), and alcohol (O-H stretching and bending) groups in the treated cells indicating the high accumulation of lipid hydrocarbons in the treated cells. Elevated levels of fatty acids favorable for biodiesel production, that is, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C20:1, were identified under nitrate- and phosphate-deficient conditions. This study shows that the manipulation of cultural conditions could affect the biosynthetic pathways leading to increased lipid production while increasing the proportion of fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production.
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  78. Quantification of biodiesel content in diesel/biodiesel blends by fluorescence spectroscopy: Evaluation of the dependence on biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Caires, A. R. L.; Lima, V. S.; Oliveira, S. L. 2012. Quantification of biodiesel content in diesel/biodiesel blends by fluorescence spectroscopy: Evaluation of the dependence on biodiesel feedstock. Renewable Energy. 46137-140

    In a recent paper published by our group (M.D. Scherer et al. J. Fluoresc. 21 (2011) 1027-1031), we showed that fluorescence spectroscopy has a potential to be used to determine the biodiesel content in the diesel/biodiesel blends. However, this method presents some challenges that must be overcome to be successfully applied. For instance, the method must work with biodiesel produced from different vegetable oils and fats. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of fluorescence spectroscopy to quantify the biodiesel concentration in diesel/biodiesel blends prepared from different feedstocks. Four different blends prepared using biodiesel produced from four refined vegetable oils (canola, sunflower, corn, and soybean) were used in the present investigation. For all samples, the fluorescence spectra were collected between 300 and 800 nm when excited at 260 nm. Our results revealed that the four blends presented a similar emission profile with a maximum at 470 nm. Furthermore, the same fluorescence behavior (emission intensity as a function of biodiesel content) was observed for all blends. Therefore, the results showed that fluorescence-based method for quantifying the biodiesel content in the diesel/biodiesel blends is independent of the refined vegetable oil used in the biodiesel production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  79. Pyrolysis Oil-Based Lipid Production as Biodiesel Feedstock by Rhodococcus opacus
    Abstract

    Wei, Z.; Zeng, G. M.; Kosa, M.; Huang, D. L.; Ragauskas, A. J. 2015. Pyrolysis Oil-Based Lipid Production as Biodiesel Feedstock by Rhodococcus opacus. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 175(2) 1234-1246

    Light oil from pyrolysis, which accounts for similar to 10 % carbon yield of the starting biomass, is a complex aqueous product that is difficult to utilize and usually discarded. This work presents the feasibility of light oil as a sole carbon source to support the growth of Rhodococcus opacus (R. opacus) that in turn accumulate triacylglycerols as biodiesel feedstock. Two types of bacteria (R. opacus PD630 and DSM 1069) were selected in this study. Research results showed that after short adaption periods both strains can grow well on this complex carbon source, as proved by the consumption of oligomers and monomers in light oil. Lipid content by R. opacus PD630 and DSM 1069 was observed up to 25.8 % and 22.0 % of cell dry weight, respectively. Palmitic and stearic acids were found to be the predominant fatty acids in these bacterial cells. In addition, the light oil-based lipid production can be enhanced by reducing the pH value from 7 to 4, especially in case of DSM 1069.
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  80. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece
    Abstract

    Schinas, P.; Karavalakis, G.; Davaris, C.; Anastopoulos, G.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. 2009. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece. Biomass & Bioenergy. 33(1) 44-49

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as a substitute to petroleum diesel has rapidly grown in Greece. The raw materials for biodiesel production in this country mainly include traditional seed oils (cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil) and used frying oils. In the search for new low-cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the evaluation of pumpkin seed oil. The experimental results showed that the oil content of pumpkin seeds was remarkably high (45%). The fatty acid profile of the oil showed that is composed primarily of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The oil was chemically converted via an alkaline transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters, with a yield nearly 97.5wt%. All of the measured properties of the produced biodiesel met the current quality requirements according to EN 14214. Although this study showed that pumpkin oil could be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production within the EU, it is rather difficult for this production to be achieved on a large scale. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  81. Prototype scale biorefinery integration with renewable heat and power : sustainable integration of feedstock, anaerboic digestion, gasification, and solar cogen with biodiesel production : final project report
    Abstract

    Teall, Russell; Teall, Russell; Biodico; California Energy Commission. Energy Research and Development Division. 2015. Prototype scale biorefinery integration with renewable heat and power : sustainable integration of feedstock, anaerboic digestion, gasification, and solar cogen with biodiesel production : final project report. . 1 volume (various pagings)

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  82. Prospects, feedstocks and challenges of biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and castor oil: A nonedible oil sources in Australia
    Abstract

    Azad, A. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Sharma, S. C.; Mofijur, M.; Bhuiya, M. M. K. 2016. Prospects, feedstocks and challenges of biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and castor oil: A nonedible oil sources in Australia. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 61302-318

    This study critically reviewed the prospects, feedstocks and challenges of biodiesel production from two non-edible oil sources, namely Beauty leaf oil (BLT) (Calophyllum inophyllum) and Castor oil (Ricinus communis). The recent developments and the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of these species such as their habitat, growth, oil content, free fatty acid profile and biodiesel characteristics are briefly discussed. Different oil extraction techniques and biodiesel conversion methods are also presented. The properties of the pure biodiesel and their blends are compared with petroleum diesel under different ASTM and European standards. Furthermore, the literatures on engine performance and emission studies using these biodiesels are reviewed and presented in tabular form. The review found that BLT oil can be catalytically transesterified to produce biodiesel as a potential alternative transport fuel in Australia. The review concludes that castor oil is not only an alternate fuel resource, but it also holds good lubricating properties and hence is a potential bio-lubricant source for internal combustion engines. Further research is needed on combustion, corrosion, tribo-corrosion, long term engine durability tests and tribological performance tests before recommending commercial scale biodiesel production from BLT oil and Castor oil. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  83. The prospects of using Acrocomia aculeata (macauba) a non-edible biodiesel feedstock in Brazil
    Abstract

    Cesar, A. D.; Almeida, F. D.; de Souza, R. P.; Silva, G. C.; Atabani, A. E. 2015. The prospects of using Acrocomia aculeata (macauba) a non-edible biodiesel feedstock in Brazil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 491213-1220

    Biofuel production has stood out at the international level on account of its more environmentally sustainable characteristics and the potential to promote rural development in developing countries. In Brazil, biodiesel is being produced through legislation requiring the addition (currently 7%) of biofuel to petroleum diesel. The federal program (PNPB) aimed the social inclusion of small farmers and diversification of Brazilian matrix by incentives regional crops production. The possibility of broadening raw material sources for biodiesel production benefits the Brazilian competitiveness. At the same time, facing the vast varieties of raw materials available in this country, it is a challenge to figure out which crop would be more appropriate to this chain. The palm species Acrocomia aculeata (macauba) could provide an alternative resource for energy diversification in Brazil and Latin American countries. The crop species has drawn attention due to its high productivity rates and because it is not used for food purposes. In this sense, this paper examines the opportunity of biodiesel production from A. aculeata as a potential source for future energy supply, particularly for biodiesel, especially in Brazil. This paper presents A. aculeata and some points that allow compare with other crops. Several related aspects are covered in this paper, such as economics, botanical description, the extraction and compositions, physical and chemical properties of crude A. aculeata oil and fatty acid composition of A. aculeata. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  84. Prospects of 2nd generation biodiesel as a sustainable fuel Part: 1 selection of feedstocks, oil extraction techniques and conversion technologies
    Abstract

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N.; Azad, A. K. 2016. Prospects of 2nd generation biodiesel as a sustainable fuel Part: 1 selection of feedstocks, oil extraction techniques and conversion technologies. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 551109-1128

    The transport sector, which heavily depends on oil-derived liquid products such as gasoline and diesel, globally occupies the 3rd place when total energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are considered (after the industry and the building sectors). This consumption level is predicted to increase by 60% by 2030 mainly because of population growth, industrialization and exposure to better living standards. Biodiesel is one of the sustainable sources of energy for meeting increasing global transport energy demand and reducing GHG emissions significantly. The use of non-edible plant oils is very significant because it can be grown in harsh and marginal lands which require less maintenance, less soil fertility and less water as opposed to arable lands for growing edible vegetable oils. However, it is noted that the 2nd generation feedstocks can also be grown in arable lands, but this is not a general practice and is not recommended. The 2nd generation biodiesel can be considered as a promising alternative because of its feedstocks, such as non-edible vegetable oils, animal fats and waste cooking oils are cheaper in most of the countries in the world than the 1st generation feedstocks which are produced from edible-vegetable oils (food crops). Furthermore, the price of biodiesel depends on the cost of feedstocks which makes up 70-95% of the total production costs. However, extraction of non-edible oils as well as conversion process of oil into biodiesel should be well scrutinized. This paper extensively reviews on the selection of 2nd generation biodiesel feedstocks, oil extraction as well as biodiesel conversion techniques with the aim to identify the most appropriate and cost-effective feedstocks, identify the most suitable oil extraction technique and most efficient technology for producing of the 2nd generation biodiesel which will substitute the current dependence on the fossil fuel worldwide. This paper will contribute to greater understanding of the recent development and prospects of 2nd generation biodiesel as a sustainable transport fuel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  85. Prospective technologies, feedstocks and market innovations for ethanol and biodiesel production in the US
    Abstract

    Ziolkowska, J. R. 2014. Prospective technologies, feedstocks and market innovations for ethanol and biodiesel production in the US. Biotechnol Rep (Amst). 494-98

    In recent years, production and consumption of biofuels has become controversial, mainly due to the competitive use of natural resources for food/feed and fuel production. Second generation biofuels (with cellulosic ethanol being on top of developments nowadays) have a great potential to provide an economically feasible solution. However, high processing costs related to breaking down cellulosic plant material and converting it to sugar (and fuel), missing infrastructure and environmental impacts can be detrimental. This paper discusses various biofuels technologies and feedstocks that have a potential to emerge as prospective feedstocks for second generation biofuels production in the future on the US market. It also emphasizes existing challenges that could hinder the development of these technologies and their commercialization in the long-term.
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  86. Prospective Feedstock for the Production of Biodiesel in India
    Abstract

    Padhi, S. K.; Kumar, A. K.; Singh, R. K. 2012. Prospective Feedstock for the Production of Biodiesel in India. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 24(9) 3791-3796

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) which is derived from triglycerides by transesterification with methanol has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel. Several processes for biodiesel fuel production have been developed, among which transesterification using alkali as catalyst gives high level conversion of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl ester in a short duration. This process has therefore been widely utilized for biodiesel fuel production in a number of countries. In the present studies, the properties of edible oils like soybean, sunflower, mustard, palm, cotton seeds and non-edible oils like karanja and jatropha have teen determined by suitable standard methods. Refined edible oils, whose acid values were less than 3 were transesterified with methanol in the presence of sodium methoxide as catalyst. But the non-edible and raw karanja and jatropha oils having acid values more than 3.0 were esterified followed transesterified. The methyl esters produced by these methods were analyzed to ascertain their suitability as diesel fuels.
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  87. A Property Prediction Scheme for Biodiesel Derived from NonEdible Feedstock
    Abstract

    Onuh, E. I.; Inambao, F. L. 2016. A Property Prediction Scheme for Biodiesel Derived from NonEdible Feedstock. Proceedings of the Twenty Fourth Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy. 164-171

    Biodiesel's renewability, universal accessibility and milder impact on the environment has positioned it as a potential fuel of choice for transport prime movers going forward. Biodiesel's unique fuel chemistry while conferring some advantage, has shown some mismatch between it and the current compression ignition (CI) combustion strategy. Computational as well as experimental research on biodiesel combustion are presently, in large part, geared toward resolving this mismatch. Numerical property prediction, as a more efficient and cost effective tool was implemented here to determine the thermo-physical and transport properties of biodiesel derived from moringa, jatropher and waste restaurant oil. Primary and secondary experimental data obtained in accordance with biodiesel standard ASTM D6751 were used to validate the scheme. The average relative deviation (ARD) for most key properties fell within acceptable limit (<= 5%). Obtaining higher computational fidelity was observed to correlate with improved accuracy in determining the free fatty acid (FFA) composition of the different component and group contribution of the biodiesel mixture.
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  88. Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Karmakar, A.; Karmakar, S.; Mukherjee, S. 2010. Properties of various plants and animals feedstocks for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 101(19) 7201-7210

    As an alternative fuel biodiesel is becoming increasingly important due to diminishing petroleum reserves and adverse environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum-fuelled engines. Biodiesel, the non-toxic fuel, is mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable feedstock like vegetable oils, animal fats and residual oils. Choice of feedstocks depends on process chemistry, physical and chemical characteristics of virgin or used oils and economy of the process.
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  89. Properties of Manchurian apricot (Prunus mandshurica Skv.) and Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernel oils and evaluation as biodiesel feedstocks
    Abstract

    Wang, L. B. 2013. Properties of Manchurian apricot (Prunus mandshurica Skv.) and Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernel oils and evaluation as biodiesel feedstocks. Industrial Crops and Products. 50838-843

    This study presents the first reported evaluation of Manchurian apricot (Prunus mandshurica Skv.) seed kernel oil as a promising feedstock for biodiesel preparation, including a comparison with Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) oil. The oil content of the Manchurian apricot kernels (55.17 +/- 5.52%) was somewhat higher than that of the Siberian apricot kernels. Similar to Siberian apricot, Manchurian apricot oil has low acid value, indicating that the two oils enabled direct base-catalyzed transesterified for biodiesel production without acid pretreatment. The fatty acid compositions of Manchurian apricot and Siberian apricot oils determined results showed a high percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids (69.15% and 67.78%, respectively). Other than cetane number and oxidation stability, the properties of biodiesel made from the two oils conformed to EN 14214-08, ASTM D6751-10 and GB/T 20828-07 standards. In general, Manchurian apricot represents a potentially useful biodiesel feedstock. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  90. Production potential of Chlorella zofingienesis as a feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Liu, J.; Huang, J. C.; Fan, K. W.; Jiang, Y.; Zhong, Y. J.; Sun, Z.; Chen, F. 2010. Production potential of Chlorella zofingienesis as a feedstock for biodiesel. Bioresource Technology. 101(22) 8658-8663

    The lipid contents and fatty acid profiles of Chlorella zofingiensis cultured in the dark with various carbon sources were investigated. Glucose was found to be the best carbon source for the growth and lipid production. When cultivated with 50 g L(-1) glucose, C. zofingiensis accumulated lipids up to 52% of the dry biomass, with triacylglycerols (TAGs) accounting for 72.1% of the total lipids. Fatty acid profiles revealed that glucose contributed to the highest yield of total fatty acids (TFAs) and proportion of oleic acid (35.7% of TFAs), which corresponded to the strongest up-regulation of biotin carboxylase (BC) and stearoyl ACP desaturase (SAD) genes. In fed-batch cultivation based on glucose, the lipid yield and productivity of C. zofingiensis were further increased to 20.7 g L(-1) and 1.38 g d(-1) L(-1) respectively, representing 3.9-fold of those achieved in batch culture. We conclude that C zofingiensis has great potential for biodiesel production. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  91. Production of Microbial Lipids from Tomato Waste to Be Used as Feedstock for Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Yousuf, A.; Sannino, F.; Pirozzi, D. 2017. Production of Microbial Lipids from Tomato Waste to Be Used as Feedstock for Biodiesel. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. 16(1) 59-65

    In this study, the oleaginous yeasts cultured in tomato waste hydrolysates (TWH) to produce microbial lipids that offer a suitable alternative to vegetable oils as feedstock for the biodiesel synthesis. The TWH were prepared by acid hydrolysis (2.5% H2SO4). To obtain higher growth rates, as well as higher lipid contents, Lipomyces starkeyi were cultured under original nitrogen content (TWHON), lower nitrogen content (TWHLN), attained by alkaline precipitation of TWHON followed by centrifugation and filtration, and higher nitrogen content (TWHHN), prepared by addition of (NH4)(2)SO4.
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  92. Production of Microalgal Lipids as Biodiesel Feedstock with Fixation of CO2 by Chlorella vulgaris
    Abstract

    Hu, Q.; Zeng, R.; Zhang, S. X.; Yang, Z. H.; Huang, H. 2014. Production of Microalgal Lipids as Biodiesel Feedstock with Fixation of CO2 by Chlorella vulgaris. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 52(3) 285-291

    The global warming and shortage of energy are two critical problems for human social development. CO2 mitigation and replacing conventional diesel with biodiesel are effective routes to reduce these problems. Production of microalgal lipids as biodiesel feedstock by a freshwater microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, with the ability to fixate CO2 is studied in this work. The results show that nitrogen deficiency, CO2 volume fraction and photoperiod are the key factors responsible for the lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris. With 5 % CO2, 0.75 g/L of NaNO3 and 18:6 h of light/dark cycle, the lipid content and overall lipid productivity reached 14.5 % and 33.2 mg/(L.day), respectively. Furthermore, we proposed a technique to enhance the microalgal lipid productivity by activating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) with an enzyme activator. Citric acid and Mg2+ were found to be efficient enzyme activators of ACCase. With the addition of 150 mg/L of citric acid or 1.5 mmol/L of MgCl2, the lipid productivity reached 39.1 and 38.0 mg/(L.day), respectively, which was almost twofold of the control. This work shows that it is practicable to produce lipids by freshwater microalgae that can fixate CO2, and provides a potential route to solving the global warming and energy shortage problems.
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  93. Production of biodiesel using high free fatty acid feedstocks
    Abstract

    Atadashi, I. M.; Aroua, M. K.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Sulaiman, N. M. N. 2012. Production of biodiesel using high free fatty acid feedstocks. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16(5) 3275-3285

    The enormous challenges faced in the search for suitable and profitable feedstocks to produce biodiesel cannot be over-emphasis. This paper has provided an overview of different catalysts used in processing different kinds of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Although the process of biodiesel production from refined feedstocks is less cumbersome and could provide biodiesel yield of more than 98%, but its product cost is high. Thus, the recent biodiesel production from low-quality feedstocks, though presents challenges but has equally provided biodiesel yield comparable to that obtained from refined feedstocks. Furthermore the physicochemical properties of biodiesel derived from low-quality feedstocks are discussed. Additionally economic evaluation of biodiesel from low-quality feedstocks is examined. The result showed that if less expensive feedstocks are used to produce biodiesel, a 25% reduction in cost production is possible. Thus making biodiesel price reasonably closed to the price of petro-diesel. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  94. Production of biodiesel from three indigenous feedstock: Optimization of process parameters and assessment of various fuel properties
    Abstract

    Chavan, S. B.; Yadav, M.; Singh, R.; Singh, V.; Kumbhar, R. R.; Sharma, Y. C. 2017. Production of biodiesel from three indigenous feedstock: Optimization of process parameters and assessment of various fuel properties. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 36(3) 788-795

    Biodiesel is a clean and sustainable fuel which has ability to replace diesel fuel used in power generation as well in transportation. This article explores Terminalia belerica Robx seed oil as an important bioresource for biodiesel synthesis. Extraction of terminalia oil from dried seeds and degumming of crude oil are also reported. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil and chicken fat oil as low-cost biodiesel feedstocks has also been carried out. The oils are trans-esterified using base homogeneous catalyst KOH and reaction variables were optimized for biodiesel synthesis. The biodiesel yields 89%, 89%, and 82% were obtained using feedstocks Terminalia oil, chicken fat oil, and waste vegetable oils, respectively, at individually optimized parameters such as molar ratio (methanol to oil), catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and agitation speed. The investigated fatty acid profile of feedstocks and different fuel properties of biodiesel were found to be as per ASTM D6751-07b and EU 14214:2003 standards. This article deliberates the possibility of T. belerica seed oil, waste vegetable oil, and chicken fat oil as promising bioresources for biodiesel production considering the recycling and conversion of waste materials to value-added products. (c) 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 36: 788-795, 2017
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  95. The Production of Biodiesel From A Bastard Poom Feedstock
    Abstract

    Sinthorn, C.; Wongwuttanasatian, T. 2014. The Production of Biodiesel From A Bastard Poom Feedstock. International Journal of Green Energy. 11(9) 910-917

    This study was conducted on the production of biodiesel from bastard poom via transesterification with potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. Certain experimental conditions were set for determining the maximum biodiesel produced. The most appropriate methanol solvent per bastard poom found was 1:4 by volume and 2 mass per unit volume of potassium hydroxide at 60 degrees C for 30 min. The amount of biodiesel obtained was 88.56% by mass of crude oil. The following fuel properties were noted: the biodiesel had a golden yellow color without any residue. Its cloud point was at 2.4 degrees C, the pour point at -1 degrees C, the density at 15 degrees C of 890 kg/m(3) , and the flash point at over 290 degrees C. The acid value was 0.49 mgKOH-g, the water content was 610 mg-kg, combustion heating value was roughly 38,590 kJ-kg, the viscosity was 5.68 mm(2)-s at 40 degrees C, and copper corrosion was at 1A level. The analysis of water property of biodiesel from bastard poom showed its properties within Thai biodiesel standards. This indicates that bastard poom is suitable for developing as an alternative fuel.
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  96. Production of advanced biodiesel using renewable feedstocks
    Abstract

    Stephanopoulos, G.; Abidi, S. H. I. 2010. Production of advanced biodiesel using renewable feedstocks. International Sugar Journal. 112(1335) 134-+

    The use of microbes to convert carbohydrates to various types of substances has its origin in the millennia-old ethanol fermentation by yeast. The conversion of renewable carbohydrate such as molasses, cellulosic and hemicellulosic material as well as starches in algae hydrolyzates to biodiesel is very attractive alternative to feedstocks which competes with human food. The use of metabolic engineering to genetically alter properties of non-algae oil producing microbes is a cost-competitive process to produce biodiesel provided the yield of conversion can be maximized, which determines the feedstock cost and ultimately the total manufacturing cost. The microbial approach allows the development of "second-generation" biofuels, or liquid fuels produced from renewable sources of biomass. Promethegen Corporation is a new biotechnology company that uses metabolic engineering to develop technologies for the production of liquid fuels using cellulosic and non-cellulosic biofuels. The approach to convert sugars to oil differ from algae oil since the latter faces engineering challenges such as how to supply light economically to the huge volumes of algal biomass that must be grown in a realistic commercial process.
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  97. Production and use of lipases in bioenergy: a review from the feedstocks to biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ribeiro, B. D.; de Castro, A. M.; Coelho, M. A.; Freire, D. M. 2011. Production and use of lipases in bioenergy: a review from the feedstocks to biodiesel production. Enzyme Res. 2011615803

    Lipases represent one of the most reported groups of enzymes for the production of biofuels. They are used for the processing of glycerides and fatty acids for biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) production. This paper presents the main topics of the enzyme-based production of biodiesel, from the feedstocks to the production of enzymes and their application in esterification and transesterification reactions. Growing technologies, such as the use of whole cells as catalysts, are addressed, and as concluding remarks, the advantages, concerns, and future prospects of enzymatic biodiesel are presented.
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  98. Process optimization for production of biodiesel from hazelnut oil, sunflower oil and their hybrid feedstock
    Abstract

    Saydut, A.; Erdogan, S.; Kafadar, A. B.; Kaya, C.; Aydin, F.; Hamamci, C. 2016. Process optimization for production of biodiesel from hazelnut oil, sunflower oil and their hybrid feedstock. Fuel. 183512-517

    The most important constituent needed for biodiesel development is the feedstock. As the availability of feedstock is limited, the possibility of using the hybrid feedstock has been explored. Biodiesel has been synthesized from hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil and hybrid (hazelnut and sunflower) (50: 50 v/v) feedstocks. Ester yield of vegetable oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was found to be 97.5%, 97.3% and 97.9% for hazelnut, sunflower and hybrid feedstocks respectively. The reaction parameters were used to be 6: 1 (methanol to oil) molar ratio, KOH (0.7%), at 60 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 2 h during alkali esterification for the three feedstocks. High yield from hybrid feedstock during transesterification reaction clearly indicated that the reaction was not selective for any particular oil. The obtained results important in that in case of scarcity of feedstock both oils could be mixed as well to maintain the constant supply of the feedstock in the perspective of industrial production of biodiesel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  99. Probing Wisconsin highbush cranberry (V. trilobum), dotted horsemint (M. punctata), and American hazelnut (C. americana) as potential biodiesel feedstocks
    Abstract

    Lane, J. W.; Hlina, P.; Hukriede, K.; Jersett, A.; Koirala, D.; Stewart, A.; Waxman, M. A. 2012. Probing Wisconsin highbush cranberry (V. trilobum), dotted horsemint (M. punctata), and American hazelnut (C. americana) as potential biodiesel feedstocks. Industrial Crops and Products. 36(1) 531-535

    The need for biodiesel feedstocks growing on non-arable lands is widely recognized. We present results of the synthesis and characterization of new biodiesels we produced from oils of highbush cranberry, dotted horsemint, and American hazelnut growing in Northern Wisconsin. These biodiesels, particularly those derived from highbush cranberry, exhibited remarkably good low-temperature properties, a condition that is crucial for wider usage of any biodiesel in cold climates. We also present the results on determination of the oxidative stability of the above biodiesels and discuss the growing conditions and habitats of the related plants. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  100. Pricing model for biodiesel feedstock: A case study of Chhattisgarh in India
    Abstract

    Pohit, S.; Biswas, P. K.; Kumar, R.; Goswami, A. 2010. Pricing model for biodiesel feedstock: A case study of Chhattisgarh in India. Energy Policy. 38(11) 7487-7496

    Following the global trend, India declared its biofuel policy in which biodiesel, primarily from jatropha, would meet 20% of the diesel demand beginning with 2011-2012. To promote biofuel, Indian government has announced biodiesel purchase price as well as compulsory blending ratio. But, these measures have not worked to create large scale biodiesel production in India. With this backdrop, this paper highlights about the importance of a sound pricing policy focusing on the entire value chain of biodiesel production. The analysis is based on field level data from Chhattisgarh, the leading state in the production of jatropha. Such a sound pricing policy has to deal with the prices of feedstock, by-products and final product like biodiesel. It would also have to reflect on the business model of production of biodiesel. The simulation exercises in our model shows that the business returns from the production of biodiesel and the minimum support price (MSP) of the feedstock for biodiesel (i.e. jatropha seeds in this case) are sensitive to various parameters like seed yields, technological efficiency, by product and petro-diesel prices. An effective price policy framework has to consider all these factors to create a platform for sustainable biodiesel production in India. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  101. Preparation of Vegetable Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock Via Re-Esterification: A Suitable Catalyst
    Abstract

    Jansri, S. 2015. Preparation of Vegetable Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock Via Re-Esterification: A Suitable Catalyst. 2015 International Conference on Alternative Energy in Developing Countries and Emerging Economies. 79143-148

    A suitable heterogeneous catalyst for reducing 20 wt.% of free fatty acid (FFA) that is contained in vegetable oil to less than 3 wt.% through re-esterification was investigated. There were two groups of heterogeneous catalyst used to reduce FFA: 1) zinc compound: Zn, ZnCl2, ZnO and ZnSO4 center dot 7H(2)O, and 2) stannum compound: SnCl4 center dot 5H(2)O and SnCl2 center dot 2H(2)O. The reaction was operated at 150 degrees C under ambient pressure, stirred at 600 rpm. with spent retention time of approximately 180 min. Final FFA in re-esterification of products, which were cleaned up with centrifuging and hot wet washing, was monitored. The results after centrifuge indicated that only two catalysts (Zn and ZnO) were capable of promoting the reaction and achieving the requirement. Moreover, final FFA in re-esterification of products, which were cleaned up with hot wet washing, was also monitored. It was found that no significant differences existed in the two purification techniques except for the heterogeneous Zn catalyst in re-esterification product. The results showed that thin layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) could not detect all of the compositions in the pre-treatment product using Zn as a catalyst. Therefore, ZnO was the most suitable catalyst for effectively reducing FFA via a re-esterification process. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  102. Prediction of normalized biodiesel properties by simulation of multiple feedstock blends
    Abstract

    Garcia, M.; Gonzalo, A.; Sanchez, J. L.; Arauzo, J.; Pena, J. A. 2010. Prediction of normalized biodiesel properties by simulation of multiple feedstock blends. Bioresource Technology. 101(12) 4431-4439

    A continuous process for biodiesel production has been simulated using Aspen HYSYS V7.0 software. As fresh feed, feedstocks with a mild acid content have been used. The process flowsheet follows a traditional alkaline transesterification scheme constituted by esterification, transesterification and purification stages. Kinetic models taking into account the concentration of the different species have been employed in order to simulate the behavior of the CSTR reactors and the product distribution within the process.
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  103. Predicting the higher heating values of waste frying oils as potential biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Sanli, H.; Canakci, M.; Alptekin, E. 2014. Predicting the higher heating values of waste frying oils as potential biodiesel feedstock. Fuel. 115850-854

    In the literature, there are several empirical models to estimate the higher heating values of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels. In this study, five of these models found in the literature were used to estimate the higher heating value of waste frying oils. When some models are used to estimate HHVs of waste frying oils, the relative errors were found up to 5% compared to the values obtained experimentally. Therefore, a new empirical formula based on the fatty acid composition was developed to predict the HHV of waste frying oils. For this purpose, 35 samples taken from different facilities producing waste frying oils (fast-foods, fish restaurants and hospital restaurants) were analyzed and their properties (such as viscosity, density, iodine value, saponification value, HHV and fatty acid distributions) were determined. Subsequently, to develop an empirical formula, a regression analysis was performed between the HHVs and fatty acid compositions of the waste frying oils. When the experimentally determined and estimated values were compared, it was proven that the new empirical formula gave precise results. By using this model, the mean absolute and relative errors were found around 148.40 kJ/kg and 0.37%, respectively. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  104. Predicting feedstock and percent composition for blends of biodiesel with conventional diesel using chemometrics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
    Abstract

    Schale, S. P.; Le, T. M.; Pierce, K. M. 2012. Predicting feedstock and percent composition for blends of biodiesel with conventional diesel using chemometrics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Talanta. 94320-327

    The two main goals of the analytical method described herein were to (1) use principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering (HCA) and K-nearest neighbors (KNN) to determine the feedstock source of blends of biodiesel and conventional diesel (feedstocks were two sources of soy, two strains of jatropha, and a local feedstock) and (2) use a partial least squares (PLS) model built specifically for each feedstock to determine the percent composition of the blend. The chemometric models were built using training sets composed of total ion current chromatograms from gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) using a polar column. The models were used to semi-automatically determine feedstock and blend percent composition of independent test set samples. The PLS predictions for jatropha blends had RMSEC = 0.6, RMSECV = 1.2, and RMSEP = 1.4. The PLS predictions for soy blends had RMSEC = 0.5, RMSECV = 0.8, and RMSEP = 1.2. The average relative error in predicted test set sample compositions was 5% for jatropha blends and 4% for soy blends. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  105. Potential vegetable oils of Indian origin as biodiesel feedstock - An experimental study
    Abstract

    Agarwal, M.; Singh, K.; Upadhyaya, S.; Chaurasia, S. P. 2012. Potential vegetable oils of Indian origin as biodiesel feedstock - An experimental study. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research. 71(4) 285-289

    This study presents various vegetable oils from edible and non-edible sources for preparation of biodiesel using KOH as catalyst and methanol as alcohol. Maximum biodiesel yield from all vegetable oils was obtained under following optimum conditions: reaction temp., 70 degrees C; reaction time, 1 h; catalyst amount, 1% (by oil wt); and methanol to oil molar ratio, 6:1. Characteristics of biodiesel at optimum conditions were as per ASTM standards.
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  106. Potential plant oil feedstock for lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production in Thailand
    Abstract

    Winayanuwattikun, P.; Kaewpiboon, C.; Piriyakananon, K.; Tantong, S.; Thakernkarnkit, W.; Chulalaksananukul, W.; Yongvanich, T. 2008. Potential plant oil feedstock for lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production in Thailand. Biomass & Bioenergy. 32(12) 1279-1286

    Twenty-seven types of plants found to contain more than 25% of oil (w/w) were selectively examined from 44 species. Saponification number (SN), iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN) and viscosity (eta) of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of oils were empirically determined, and they varied from 182 to 262, 3.60 to 142.70, 39.32 to 65.80 and 2.29 to 3.95, respectively. Fatty acid compositions, IV, CN and eta were used to predict the quality of FAMEs for use as biodiesel. FAMES; of plant oils of 15 species were found to be most suitable for use as biodiesel by meeting the major specification of biodiesel standards of Thailand, USA and European Standard Organization. The oils from these 15 species were further investigated for the conversion efficiency of biodiesel in lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction with Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme RM IM. Oils of four species, palm (Elaeis guineensis), physic nut (Jatropha curcas), papaya (Carica papaya) and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), can be highly converted to biodiesel by transesterification using Novozyme 435-or Lipozyme RM IM-immobilized lipase as catalyst. Therefore, these selected plants would be economically considered as the feedstock for biodiesel production by biocatalyst. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  107. Potential of Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Silveira, E. G.; Simionatto, E.; Perez, V. H.; Justo, O. R.; Zarate, N. A. H.; Vieira, M. D. 2016. Potential of Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as feedstock for biodiesel production. Industrial Crops and Products. 89448-454

    Oil from Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was investigated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. After harvest and peanut trituration, the oil was obtained by solvent extraction. The biodiesel production was carried out by chemical transesterification using bioethanol and potassium ethoxide as catalyst at 65 degrees C in a stirred glass reactor at 200 rpm during two hours. The formed biodiesel was purified to remove glycerol and other residuals and the reaction reached 100% conversion as verified by H-1 NMR. The properties of peanut oil ethyl ester produced were characterized and found in agreement with the international ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214 standards (specific gravity = 877.1 kg/m(3), kinematic viscosity = 5.06 mm(2)/s, iodine value = 81.75 +/- 0.03, cetane number = 58.9 +/- 4.1, acid number = 0.21 mg KOH/g and oxidative stability = 4.54 h). These results suggest a good quality of produced biodiesel and thus, peanut oil can be considered as a feasible feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  108. The potential of nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) seed oil as biodiesel feedstock: effect of seed moisture content and particle size on oil yield
    Abstract

    Fadhlullah, M.; Widiyanto, N. B.; Restiawaty, E. 2015. The potential of nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) seed oil as biodiesel feedstock: effect of seed moisture content and particle size on oil yield. 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (Icseea) 2014 Sustainable Energy for Green Mobility. 68177-185

    Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) is one of the most potential plants for biodiesel feedstock because of its high oil content. Mechanical extraction using screw press is one method to get oil from nyamplung seed. Result of the extraction is affected by the seed's condition, such as moisture content and particle size. The paper presents experimental results that estimate the vegetable oil production potential of C. inophyllum. The results show the effect of C. inophyllum seed moisture content and particle size on oil yield, andthe characteristics of C. inophyllum oil. The seed moisture contents used in this experiment are 0%, 1.2%, and 20%, whereas the average seed particle size used are 0.81, 2.90, and 8.60 mm. The C. inophyllum fruits were obtained from Cipatujah Sub-district, Tasikmalaya Regency. The methods used include fruit and seed preparation, seed moisture content and particle size conditioning, mechanical extraction, oil characteristics analysis, and C. inophyllum oil production potential calculation. The optimum seed moisture content to obtain high oil yield is 1.2% which yields 33.39% oil, while the optimum seed particle size to obtain high oil yield is 8.60 mm which yields 33.46% oil. The bigger the particle size will affect on higher oil yield. From this research, it can be concluded that the trees in Cipatujahhave potential to produce C. inophyllum oil up to 5.13 L/tree/year. C. inophyllum oil yield is effected by seed moisture content and particle size, and it has characteristics that support its utilization as biodiesel feedstock. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  109. Potential of Nostoc Muscorum Cultured in Bg-Ii Medium as Biodiesel Feedstock Source: Evaluation of Nutrient Requirement for Culture and Its Daily Lipid Content
    Abstract

    Rusydi, R.; Yakupitiyage, A.; Gallardo, W. G.; Dabbadie, L.; Anal, A. K. 2015. Potential of Nostoc Muscorum Cultured in Bg-Ii Medium as Biodiesel Feedstock Source: Evaluation of Nutrient Requirement for Culture and Its Daily Lipid Content. International Symposium on Aquatic Product Processing (Isapprosh) 2013. 1103-113

    Increment of industrial development and energy demands for transportation and electricity have increased diesel-fuel uses to fulfil global energy needs. Carbon emission as impact of high fossil diesel use which pollutes the air gradually increases green house gases (GHG) and increases the intensity of acid rains. Furthermore, scarcity of fossil-fuels resources has caused high price of diesel-fuel which in turn to have increased the prices of all commodities. Nostoc muscorum is filamentous Cyanobacteria species which lives both terrestrial and freshwater aquatic environment. This strain has good ability in producing high biomass and potential in producing lipid. In where, Nostoc muscorum has potential as biodiesel feedstock alternative of food-plants sources. This study was conducting to evaluate the potential of Nostoc muscorum cultured in BG-II medium as biodiesel feedstock source. Evaluation of the nutrient requirement of Nostoc muscorum cultured in BG-II medium was done through assimilation of nitrate (NaNO3)-phosphate (K2HPO4). Biomass production as growth parameter was measured by weighing the dried biomass for 14 days of culture. Daily lipid production was evaluated by lipid extraction using Soxhlet method. The result showed that Nostoc muscorum cultured in BG-II medium required 644.6795 mg/L of NO3- and 25.1566 mg/L of HPO4- with the highest biomass production 0.21 grams/300 mL. Furthermore, Nostoc muscorum as multicellular Cyanobacteria could grow well in BG-II medium at SGR 0.0964 mu/day. Lipid production of Nostoc muscorum during cultivation in BG-II for 14 days decreased day by day. The highest lipid production was reached up in day 4th of culture that was 9.53 mg/g. Based on this study, Nostoc muscorum has good potential as biodiesel feedstock through producing high biomass in BG-II medium.
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  110. Potential of microalgae oil from Dunaliella tertiolecta as a feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Tang, H. Y.; Abunasser, N.; Garcia, M. E. D.; Chen, M.; Ng, K. Y. S.; Salley, S. O. 2011. Potential of microalgae oil from Dunaliella tertiolecta as a feedstock for biodiesel. Applied Energy. 88(10) 3324-3330

    Alternative, non-food based biomass fuel feedstock development is vital for our national security, economy and the environment. Microalgae are among the most promising of these alternatives. Microalgal cell growth rates and metabolic products are affected by a combination of environmental parameters. In this work, the influences of light source, light intensity, CO2 concentration, and photoperiod on the growth of Dunaliella tertiolecta (D. tertiolecta) were studied. The effects of these environmental parameters on the lipid content and fatty acid composition of D. tertiolecta were also investigated. Red light-emitting diodes (LEDs), white LEDs, and fluorescent lights were all found to be effective for algal growth. Increasing light intensity resulted in significantly more rapid algal growth, and increasing the period of light also significantly increased biomass productivity. Similar growth rates were observed for 2%, 4%, and 6% CO2-concentrations. The different light sources and intensities were found to have no significant effect on FAME composition of D. tertiolecto. Methyl linolenate and methyl palmitate were found to be the major components of FAME produced from D. tertiolecta oil. D. tertiolecta and its derived oils should be a suitable feedstock for biofuel production. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  111. Potential of macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a source feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Abd El Baky, H. H.; El Baroty, G. S. 2017. Potential of macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a source feedstock for biodiesel production. Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric.

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of growing of algae Ulva lactuca L under different salinity levels coupled with varied KNO3 concentrations (source of N) as a potential source of oil for biodiesel production. METHODS: U. lactuta was cultured in 10.0% NaCl coupled with either 2.5 g/L (S1+ 1N) or 1.0 g/L KNO3 (S1+ 2N) and in 30.0% NaCl coupled with 2.5 g/L (S2+ 1N) or 1.0 g/L KNO3 (S2+ 2N) nutrient medium. Among all algae cultures, biomass (dry weight) and lipid accumulation (total lipid content, TL) were significantly different (P>0.5%), with various degrees. The TL was increased (8.21% to 15.95%, g/100g) by increasing the NaCl % (from 10% to 30%) coupled with the depletion of KNO3 level (from 2.5% to 1%) in culture medium. High lipid content (15.95%) were obtained in S2+ 2N culture, this lipid showed physical (density, viscosity and average molecular weight) and chemical (iodine, acid, saponification and peroxide values) properties suitable for biodiesel production. RESULTS: The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, biodiesel) prepared by trans-esterifiction reaction under acidic condition were mainly composed of saturated (50.33%), monounsaturated (MUFA, 36.12%) and polyunsaturated (13.55%) esters. C-18:1 was found to be the main MUFA, representing 25.76 % of total FAME. On the other hand, the values of some critical of physiochemical parameter (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, acid value and oxidation stability) of biodiesel were found to meet the standards for a high quality biodiesel. CONCLUSION: Hence, U. lactuta could be serving as a valuable renewable biomass of oil for biodiesel production.
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  112. The Potential of KerniriSunan as Feedstock for the Production of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Supriyadi, S.; Purwanto; Anggoro, D. D.; Hermawan 2017. The Potential of KerniriSunan as Feedstock for the Production of Biodiesel. Advanced Science Letters. 23(3) 2524-2526

    KemiriSunan (Reutealistrisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) seed is a material that has a great potential to be used as a biodieselfeedstock. The core seeds contain high level of free fatty acid/crude oil. This paper investigates the potential of KemiriSunan in Indonesia. Comparisons of the productivity of plants producing biodiesel and processing methods for producing biodiesel from KemiriSunan seeds are analyzed. The economic prospect for developing KemiriSunan as biodiesel is also addressed. KemiriSunan's productivity is much higher when compared to other biodiesel feedstock. The option available for development of biofuels from non-food source in Indonesia is KemiriSunan and followed by Calophylluminophyllum. The esterification and trans-esterification methods used for biodiesel production yield biodiesel that is in some parameters in accordance with the biodiesel standard according to SNI-2006 standard:density at 40 degrees C: 881 kg/m(3); kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees : 4.4 cSt; cetane number: 53.9; flash point: 129.5 degrees C; cloud point: 12 degrees C; calorific value: 39.7758 MJ/kg; and iodine number: 95.24 g iodine/100 g. The economic analysis showed that NPV Rp. 521,724,254, IRR 21.78% BCR 1.3, PBP 9.2 years.
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  113. Potential of feedstock and catalysts from waste in biodiesel preparation: A review
    Abstract

    Nurfitri, I.; Maniam, G. P.; Hindryawati, N.; Yusoff, M. M.; Ganesan, S. 2013. Potential of feedstock and catalysts from waste in biodiesel preparation: A review. Energy Conversion and Management. 74395-402

    For many years, the cost of production has been the main barrier in commercializing biodiesel, globally. It has been well researched and established in the literature that the cost of feedstock is the major contributor. Biodiesel producers are forced to choose between edible and non-edible feedstock. The use of edible feedstock sparks concern in terms of food security while the inedible feedstock needs additional pretreatment steps. On the other hand, the wide availability of edible feedstock guarantees the supply while the choice of non-edible results in a non-continuous or non-ready supply. With these complications in mind, this review attempts to identify possible solutions by exploring the potential of waste edible oils and waste catalysts in biodiesel preparation. Since edible oils are available and used abundantly, waste or used edible oils have the potential to provide plentiful feedstock for biodiesel. In addition, since traditional homogeneous catalysts are less competent in transesterifying waste/used oils, this review includes the possibility of heterogeneous catalysts from waste sources that are able to aid the transesterification reaction with success. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  114. Potential non-edible oil resources as biodiesel feedstock: An Indian perspective
    Abstract

    Kumar, A.; Sharma, S. 2011. Potential non-edible oil resources as biodiesel feedstock: An Indian perspective. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(4) 1791-1800

    As the world confronts a reported food shortage and rising fuel prices, scientists around the globe are scrambling to develop biofuel feedstocks that would not divert food crops to energy. It is apparent that the demand for biodiesel is expected to increase in near future and although many edible oils might be the cheapest feedstock for biofuel production. But it may not be sustainable source to meet this increasing demand. This justifies the need to use non-edible oil seeds that can be the reliable sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. Furthermore, most of the non-edible seeds bearing trees have the potentials of reclaiming wasteland and does not compete with food crop for limited growing regions. It thus becomes imperative to search for dedicated non-edible feedstocks and their suitability for biodiesel production. This paper attempts to make an assessment of current energy scenario, potential of non-edible oil over edible oils, selected non-edible oil seeds as biodiesel feedstocks, impact of biofuel on environment and future direction. Experimental analysis by different researchers on these non-edible oils showed their great potential as feedstocks for biodiesel production. This paper also reviews the biology, distribution and chemistry of selected non-edible oil seeds plants. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  115. Potential non-edible oil feedstock for biodiesel production in Africa: A survey
    Abstract

    Yang, L. Q.; Takase, M.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, T.; Wu, X. Y. 2014. Potential non-edible oil feedstock for biodiesel production in Africa: A survey. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 38461-477

    Africa is a continent full of untapped natural resources ranging from biodiversity to vast water bodies but faced with food and energy crises. Prices of fuel are also escalating. With researchers and experts scrambling for the solution, biodiesel from vegetable oil will receive more attention. But the edible feedstock as the obvious cheapest choice will not be sustainable enough for the increasing energy and food demand; hence, there is a need for guaranteed feedstock. This study was therefore undertaken to explore feedstock that would not be suitable for food but useful for biodiesel in Africa. Among the highlight areas of the study include current energy situation in Africa, technologies of biodiesel production, current state of biodiesel in Africa, driving forces for increase in biodiesel production, current existing problems of biodiesel commercialization, potential benefits of biodiesel processes, need for non-edible oil plants, potential non-edible biodiesel feedstock, biology, distribution and chemistry of the selected non-edible oil plants. The study also throws light on the implication of biodiesel on the environment and the outlook. From the study, the use of non-edible oils can be guaranteed as sustainable feedstock for biodiesel since most of the non-edible plants can be grown on wastelands to reclaim them, not compete with food crops for limited lands, are relatively cheap, available and offer similar or even higher yields of biodiesel and fuel properties as the edibles. Developing biodiesel industry in Africa can help curb the high rate of unemployment through job creation as well as increase in income level of the rural populace. Weaning African economies from oil import dependencies could also be an economic achievement. It can be deduced from the study that there are promising non-edible oil resources in the system for biodiesel industrialization in Africa. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  116. Potential hybrid feedstock for biodiesel production in the tropics
    Abstract

    Giwa, S.; Adekomaya, O.; Nwaokocha, C. 2016. Potential hybrid feedstock for biodiesel production in the tropics. Frontiers in Energy. 10(3) 329-336

    Recently, mixture of different oils at various proportions have been used as feedstock for biodiesel production. The primary aim is to improve fuel properties which are strongly influenced by the fatty acid composition of the individual oil that makes up the feedstock mix. The tropics are renowned for abundant oil-bearing crops of which palm kernel oil (PKO) from palm seed and groundnut oil (GNO) are prominent. This present paper investigated biodiesel production from hybrid oil (HO) of PKO (medium carbon chain and highly saturated oil) and GNO (long carbon chain and highly unsaturated oil) at 50/50 (v/v) blending. The principal fatty acids (FAs) in the HO are oleic (35.62%) and lauric acids (24.23%) with 47.80% of saturated FA and 52.26% of unsaturated FA contents. The chemical conversion of the oil to methyl ester (ME) gave 86.56% yield. Fuel properties of hybrid oil methyl ester (the HOME) were determined in accordance with standard test methods and were found to comply with both ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The oxidative stability, cetane number and kinematic viscosity (KV) of HOME were observed to be improved when compared with those of GNO methyl ester from single parent oil, which could be accredited to the improved FA composition of the HO. The KV (3.69 mm(2)/s) of HOME obtained in this paper was remarkably low compared with those reported in literature for most biodiesels. This value suggests better flow, atomization, spray and combustion of this fuel. Conclusively, the binary blend of oils can be a viable option to improve the fuel properties of biodiesel feedstock coupled with reduced cost.
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  117. Potential habitat and biodiversity losses from intensified biodiesel feedstock production
    Abstract

    Koh, L. P. 2007. Potential habitat and biodiversity losses from intensified biodiesel feedstock production. Conservation Biology. 21(5) 1373-1375

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  118. Pongamia pinnata: A Candidate Tree for Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Kaushik, N.; Mann, S.; Kumar, K. 2015. Pongamia pinnata: A Candidate Tree for Biodiesel Feedstock. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(14) 1526-1533

    Biodiesel growth from non-food feedstock is gaining attention around the world. Great emphasis is being given to the production of biodiesel in view of its enormous economic, social, and environmental benefits. Biodiesel is a fast-developing alternative fuel in many developed and developing countries of the world. The biodiesel production from vegetable oils during 2004-2005 was estimated to be 2.36 million tonnes globally. Of this, EU countries accounted for about 82% and the USA about 6%. Global bio-diesel production is set to reach some 24 billion liters by 2017. Shortage of edible oil for human consumption in developing countries does not favor its use for biodiesel production. Hence, in India, the focus on tree borne oilseeds as the source of feedstock for biodiesel production has highlighted the role of Pongamia pinnata (L.). The tree is valued for shade, ornamental value, seed oil, fodder, and green manure. In recent times, the interest in this tree is mainly focused on the use of its seed oil as biodiesel, which is environmentally safe, nontoxic, and biodegradable.
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  119. Pongamia pinnata, a Sustainable Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kazakoff, S. H.; Gresshoff, P. M.; Scott, P. T. 2011. Pongamia pinnata, a Sustainable Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Energy Crops. (3) 233-258

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  120. Policy Assessment of Potential Biodiesel Feedstock Supply in Thailand
    Abstract

    Keson, J.; Ratchaniphont, A.; Wongsai, S.; Wongsai, N. 2015. Policy Assessment of Potential Biodiesel Feedstock Supply in Thailand. 2015 International Conference on Alternative Energy in Developing Countries and Emerging Economies. 79710-718

    The Thai government has promoted the Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan for 25 percent in 10 years (AEDP 2012-2021) to reduce the energy importation. This study aimed to assess the potential development of alternative source for biodiesel sector. A case study of three provinces, Krabi, Suratthani, and Nakorn si thammarat, was considered to seek for suitable areas for oil palm expansion based on the land suitability guided by the Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) of the nation. The study emphasized on the AEDP policy implementation for forest conservation and the restriction of expansion only on the pre-existing croplands, mainly the rubber plantation. The results indicated that only the land availability and land suitability in the three provinces would be sufficient for oil palm expansion target as far as any ages of rubber plantation were considered. In fact, only the old plantation with lower production should be deliberated as suitable for land conversion to energy crops. An initial investigation of the possibility of rubber plantation age classification using remote sensing data from THEOS satellite was demonstrated. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  121. A pilot plant to produce biodiesel from high free fatty acid feedstocks
    Abstract

    Canakci, M.; Van Gerpen, J. 2003. A pilot plant to produce biodiesel from high free fatty acid feedstocks. Transactions of the ASAE. 46(4) 945-954

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel consisting of the alkyl monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils or animal fats. Currently, most biodiesel is made from soybean oil, methanol, and an alkaline catalyst. However, there are large amounts of fats and oils that are unsuitable for human consumption that could be converted to biodiesel at lower cost. The problem with processing these waste oils is that they often contain large amounts of free fatty acids that cannot be converted to biodiesel using an alkaline catalyst. These free fatty acids react with the alkaline catalyst to produce soaps that inhibit the separation of the biodiesel, glycerin, and wash water. Previous research has developed a process for pretreating these high free fatty acid feedstocks using acid catalysts, which do not form soaps. The objective of this study was to construct a pilot plant to produce biodiesel from a wide variety of feedstocks including those with high free fatty acids. A 190 L batch pilot plant has been built that can process high free fatty acid feedstocks using an acid-catalyzed pretreatment followed by an alkaline-catalyzed transesterification. Case studies of pilot plant-scale production of biodiesel from soybean oil, yellow grease with 9% free fatty acids, and brown grease with 40% free fatty acids are presented. The effect of varying the reaction parameters is discussed, and the separation and washing processes are described. Estimates of the fuel cost using different feedstocks are also provided
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  122. Physio-chemical assessment of beauty leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum) as second-generation biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Jahirul, M. I.; Brown, R. J.; Senadeera, W.; Ashwath, N.; Rasul, M. G.; Rahman, M. M.; Hossain, F. M.; Moghaddam, L.; Islam, M. A.; O'Hara, I. M. 2015. Physio-chemical assessment of beauty leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum) as second-generation biodiesel feedstock. Energy Reports. 1204-215

    Recently, second-generation (non-vegetable oil) feedstocks for biodiesel production are receiving significant attention due to the cost and social effects connected with utilising food products for the production of energy products. The Beauty leaf tree (Calophyllum inophyllum) is a potential source of non-edible oil for producing second-generation biodiesel because of its suitability for production in an extensive variety of atmospheric condition, easy cultivation, high fruit production rate, and the high oil content in the seed. In this study, oil was extracted from Beauty leaf tree seeds through three different oil extraction methods. The important physical and chemical properties of these extracted Beauty leaf oils were experimentally analysed and compared with other commercially available vegetable oils. Biodiesel was produced using a two-stage esterification process combining of an acid catalysed pre-esterification process and an alkali catalysed transesterification process. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles and important physicochemical properties were experimentally measured and estimated using equations based on the FAME analysis. The quality of Beauty leaf biodiesels was assessed and compared with commercially available biodiesels through multivariate data analysis using PROMETHEE-GAIA software. The results show that mechanical extraction using a screw press produces oil at a low cost, however, results in low oil yields compared with chemical oil extraction. High pressure and temperature in the extraction process increase oil extraction performance. On the contrary, this process increases the free fatty acid content in the oil. A clear difference was found in the physical properties of Beauty leaf oils, which eventually affected the oil to biodiesel conversion process.
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  123. Physicochemical Characterization of Particulate Emissions from a Compression Ignition Engine: The Influence of Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Surawski, N. C.; Miljevic, B.; Ayoko, G. A.; Elbagir, S.; Stevanovic, S.; Fairfull-Smith, K. E.; Bottle, S. E.; Ristovski, Z. D. 2011. Physicochemical Characterization of Particulate Emissions from a Compression Ignition Engine: The Influence of Biodiesel Feedstock. Environmental Science & Technology. 45(24) 10337-10343

    This study undertook a physicochemical characterization of particle emissions from a single compression ignition engine operated at one test mode with 3 biodiesel fuels made from 3 different feedstocks (i.e., soy, tallow, and canola) at 4 different blend percentages (20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) to gain insights into their particle-related health effects. Particle physical properties were inferred by measuring particle number size distributions both with and without heating within a thermodenuder (TD) and also by measuring particulate matter (PM) emission factors with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 mu m (PM(10)). The chemical properties of particulates were investigated by measuring particle and vapor phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) concentrations. The particle number size distributions showed strong dependency on feedstock and blend percentage with some fuel types showing increased particle number emissions, while others showed particle number reductions. In addition, the median particle diameter decreased as the blend percentage was increased. Particle and vapor phase PAIL-Is were generally reduced with biodiesel, with the results being relatively independent of the blend percentage. The ROS concentrations increased monotonically with biodiesel blend percentage but did not exhibit strong feedstock variability. Furthermore, the ROS concentrations correlated quite well with the organic volume percentage of particles a quantity which increased with increasing blend percentage. At higher blend percentages, the particle surface area was significantly reduced, but the particles were internally mixed with a greater organic volume percentage (containing ROS) which has implications for using surface area as a regulatory metric for diesel particulate matter (DPM) emissions.
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  124. A perspective on incorporation of glycerin purification process in biodiesel plants using waste cooking oil as feedstock
    Abstract

    Singhabhandhu, A.; Tezuka, T. 2010. A perspective on incorporation of glycerin purification process in biodiesel plants using waste cooking oil as feedstock. Energy. 35(6) 2493-2504

    In biodiesel production through transesterification, glycerin is produced as a valuable co-product. Some biodiesel plants have incorporated a glycerin purification process since the beginning of operations. The objective of this study is to evaluate the benefits of the incorporation of a glycerin purification process to a biodiesel plant where has already been constructed without the initial consideration of including an extra process for glycerin. A cost-benefit analysis is applied to evaluate the potential benefit from the incorporation of this process, in cases of a high plant cost and a low plant cost, with and without a glycerin facility installation. Our results show that the installation of a glycerin purification process could benefit a biodiesel plant through glycerin recovery and a decrease in wastewater treatment cost. The current downward trend in the market price of glycerin could be offset by encouraging the development of new applications for glycerin in order to expand the existing market and to stabilize the market price. However, biodiesel plants using waste cooking oil in Japan still need government subsidy to sustain their business activity. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  125. Periodic variation in kernel oil content and fatty acid profiles of Calophyllum innophyllm L.: A potential biodiesel feedstock in Australia
    Abstract

    Hathurusingha, S.; Ashwath, N.; Midmore, D. 2011. Periodic variation in kernel oil content and fatty acid profiles of Calophyllum innophyllm L.: A potential biodiesel feedstock in Australia. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(8) 3448-3452

    Variation in oil content and fatty acid profiles of a native Australian biodiesel feedstock species Calophyllum inophyllum were studied in two different fruiting periods (winter 2008 and autumn 2009) and in three different northern Queensland provenances (Cardwell, Townsville, Yeppoon). Oils were extracted by standard n-hexane double extraction and fatty acid profiles were determined by ISO 5508 and 5509 methods using gas chromatography. C. inophyllum provenances have demonstrated a significant periodic variation in oil content and fatty acid profile, and as a result alter the quality of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel). FAP of majority of kernel oil sources were found to vary significantly (P < 0.05) with seasonal variation in temperature and longterm average rainfall. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  126. Performance of diesel engine using biodiesel obtained from mixed feedstocks
    Abstract

    Bora, D. K.; Baruah, D. C.; Das, L. M.; Babu, M. K. G. 2012. Performance of diesel engine using biodiesel obtained from mixed feedstocks. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16(8) 5479-5484

    Availability of identified tree species bearing non-edible oil has a region specific production characteristics and availability of sufficient amount at a given place is always uncertain. Moreover, the any prospective biodiesel production and utilization programe would need to consider more and one feedstock to meet the target. There could be another reason to investigate feasibility of mixed feedstocks considering strength and weakness of biodiesel fuel properties specific to feedstocks. Considering the above the present investigation is carried out to study the fuel characteristics of biodiesel obtain from mixed feedstocks of three species of oil feedstocks namely polonga, koroch and jatropha. An attempt has been made in this paper to give an overview of the application of mixed biodiesel in Cl Engine. Properties of biodiesel obtained from mixed feedstocks (BOMF) satisfy different biodiesel standards. Performance of BOMF fueled engine gives better result than the individual biodiesels. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  127. Performance and emission of multi-cylinder diesel engine using biodiesel blends obtained from mixed inedible feedstocks
    Abstract

    Sanjid, A.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Varman, M.; Zulkifli, N. W. B. M.; Abedin, M. J. 2016. Performance and emission of multi-cylinder diesel engine using biodiesel blends obtained from mixed inedible feedstocks. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1124114-4122

    Biodiesel production from non-edible feedstock is now being taken into careful consideration to avoid the negative impact of using edible oils as biodiesel feedstock. This is a study on the combustion, engine performance and emission of a multi cylinder diesel engine fueled with mixed biodiesel blends prepared from two non-edible feedstock kapok and moringa. The kapok moringa mixed biodiesel blends showed 6-9% higher brake specific fuel consumption and 5-7% lower brake power compared to diesel fuel (B0). However, engine performance of kapok moringa mixed biodiesel was found comparable with kapok and moringa biodiesel as the performance parameters varied slightly among all tested biodiesels. Average NO and CO2 emissions for kapok moringa mixed biodiesels were found 14-17% and 1-3% higher than B0 respectively. On the contrary average HC and CO emissions of kapok moringa mixed biodiesels were 23-38% and 16-31% lower than B0 respectively. As a conclusion, 10% and 20% kapok moringa mixed biodiesel blends can be used in diesel engines without any modifications. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  128. Performance and emission evaluation of pure biodiesel from non-edible feedstock and waste oil in a diesel engine
    Abstract

    Onuh, E. I.; Inambao, F. 2016. Performance and emission evaluation of pure biodiesel from non-edible feedstock and waste oil in a diesel engine. African Journal of Science Technology Innovation & Development. 8(5-6) 387-398

    Biodiesel prepared from Jatropha, Moringa and restaurant waste oil were evaluated in a 3.5 kw diesel engine to determine their performance and pollutant emission. The brake specific (BS) emissions across the full load spectrum were benchmarked against the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US, EPA) and the European Union (EU) emission caps. Results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiencies gave marginal differences between conventional diesel fuel (ndiesel) and the biodiesel fuel samples (+/- 4% and +/- 5 respectively at peak load). Carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and particulate matter (PM) emissions (in parts per million) showed a decreasing trend with load increase and were lower than those of ndiesel fuel samples. Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emission for the biodiesel were observed to be lower than those of ndiesel. This was because the 1650 k peak temperature to activate thermal NOX was sparingly breached for the biodiesels. BSHC for all fuel types failed the EPA as well as the EU emission caps under all loading conditions. All tested fuel samples met the regulatory standards at load conditions exceeding 65%. Brake specific particulate matter (BSPM) for all fuel type fell short of the EPA and EU standard, except those of waste oil and jatropha biodiesel, with BSPM below the EU upper limit of 0.85 g/Kwh.
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  129. Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel obtained from a hybrid feedstock
    Abstract

    Altun, S. 2011. Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel obtained from a hybrid feedstock. Energy Education Science and Technology Part a-Energy Science and Research. 27(1) 79-86

    Vegetable oils and animal fats are widely investigated as a alternative fuel for diesel engines because of their high cetane number. However, animal fats are highly viscous and mostly in solid form at ambient temperature that they need modifications before using them in diesel engines. Pre-heated, blending, transesterification and emulsification are well known to improve usage of animal fats in diesel engines. In this study, biodiesel was produced from a hybrid feedstock (60% crude canola oil/40% inedible animal tallow) by transesterification and tested in a DI diesel engine for determining exhaust emissions and comparing those of biodiesel from pure animal tallow. Biodiesel fuels were tested as blends in diesel fuel (50% biodiesel and 50% diesel fuel). The experimental results show that, compared with animal tallow biodiesel blend, hybrid feedstock biodiesel blend has higher viscosity, density, brake specific fuel consumption, CO and NO emissions and a lower cetane number, brake thermal efficiency.
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  130. Pangium edule Reinw: A Promising Non-edible Oil Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Atabani, A. E.; Badruddin, I. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Chong, W. T.; Lee, K. T. 2015. Pangium edule Reinw: A Promising Non-edible Oil Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 40(2) 583-594

    Biodiesel production from non-edible feedstocks is currently drawing much attention due to legitimate concerns about the effects of using edible oil for fuel. Pangium edule Reinw is a non-edible feedstock. Pangium is a tall tree native to the Micronesia, Melanesia and the mangrove swamps of South-East Asia. In this study, biodiesel production and characterization from P. edule oil was reported. The seeds were obtained from Bogor, Indonesia. The oil was found to have an acid value of 19.62 mg KOH/g oil. Therefore, a two-step acid-base-catalysed transesterification was used to produce biodiesel. This was followed by evaluating the physical and chemical properties of biodiesel and its blends with diesel. It has been found that the determined properties of P. edule methyl ester indicate that the oil can be considered as a future biodiesel source. The most remarkable feature of P. edule is its cloud, pour and cold filter plugging points. This biodiesel yielded cloud, pour and cold filter plugging points of -6, -4 and -8 A degrees C, respectively. This indicates the viability of using this biodiesel in cold countries. Therefore, it is suggested that more research should be conducted on P. edule for future biodiesel production.
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  131. PAH Occurrence During Combustion of Biodiesel from Various Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Llamas-Lois, A.; Al-Lal, A.; Canoira, L.; Del Campo, M.; Lapuerta, M. 2012. PAH Occurrence During Combustion of Biodiesel from Various Feedstocks. Pres 2012: 15th International Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction. 291159-1164

    PAHs are pollutants of concern since they are known carcinogenic compounds. Their occurrence is mainly related to combustion or pyrolysis of organic matter such as fossil fuels. In the current scenario where biofuels are growingly important, it is also necessary to characterize PAH emissions due to their combustion. There are a number of works concerning PAH emissions from biodiesel combustion in Diesel engines, however, there are few regarding the difference between them depending on the feedstock and type of alcohol used in the transesterification.
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  132. Oxidation stability of biodiesel from different feedstocks: Influence of commercial additives and purification step
    Abstract

    Serrano, M.; Bouaid, A.; Martinez, M.; Aracil, J. 2013. Oxidation stability of biodiesel from different feedstocks: Influence of commercial additives and purification step. Fuel. 11350-58

    The present study investigates the effectiveness of three commercial synthetic (AO1, AO2 and AO3) and one natural (AO4) antioxidants to improve the oxidation stability of various biodiesel fuels produced from different vegetable oils: soybean methyl ester (SBME), rapeseed methyl ester (RME), high oleic sunflower methyl ester (HOSME) and palm methyl ester (PME) and prepared by two different purification steps, using distilled water and acidified distilled water (0.1 M citric acid solution) wash methods. The results of this study have shown that different biodiesel samples have different levels of oxidative stability. Antioxidants can improve the oxidation stability and the antioxidant effect increases as a function of its concentration.
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  133. Oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from high free fatty acid feedstock
    Abstract

    Sorate, K. A.; Bhale, P. V.; Meena, R. N. 2016. Oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from high free fatty acid feedstock. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(10) 1410-1418

    At present, with fluctuating feedstock prices, the biodiesel manufacturing industries are facing some downfall. High free fatty acid (FFA) non-edible oil, which is a byproduct of vegetable oil refineries, is available at low price and in considerable quantities at vegetable oil refinery sites. This high FFA oil can be utilized as a potential low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. In the present work, high FFA (51.6%) oil was synthesized into biodiesel by a two-step process. Except oxidation stability, other fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were found to be comparable with that of biodiesel specifications. Oxidation stability was found to be only 2.1 h at 110 degrees C as determined by the Rancimat apparatus.
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  134. Overview properties of biodiesel diesel blends from edible and non-edible feedstock
    Abstract

    Silitonga, A. S.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Ong, H. C.; Chong, W. T.; Boosroh, M. H. 2013. Overview properties of biodiesel diesel blends from edible and non-edible feedstock. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 22346-360

    Biodiesel is biodegradable and nontoxic alternative fuel for diesel engine which has become more attractive to replace diesel fuel. In this study, vegetable oil was identified as potential sources for biodiesel production. The production of biodiesel from different non-edible oilseed crops has been extensively investigated for the past few years. Thus, the aim of this study is to critically review on the characteristic of the potential biodiesel and biodiesel diesel blends fuel properties. The aspects of this study cover the biodiesel production and fuel properties of biodiesel and biodiesel blends. Besides, some studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between fatty acid composition and biodiesel properties. The fuel properties of biodiesel blends fuel were very close to diesel fuels and satisfied ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 standards. As a final note, further study on the utilization of biodiesel blends needs to be carried out in order to ensure optimization in engine operation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  135. An Overview of Biodiesel Extraction from the Third Generation Biomass Feedstock: Prospects and Challenges
    Abstract

    Kshirsagar, C. M.; Anand, R. 2014. An Overview of Biodiesel Extraction from the Third Generation Biomass Feedstock: Prospects and Challenges. Dynamics of Machines and Mechanisms, Industrial Research. 592-5941881-1885

    Despite of the fact that the first and the second generation biomass feedstock are attractive options for the biofuel production, these production schemes are considered unsustainable. As the demand for renewable energy grows exponentially, the practicability of the production of these energy carriers becomes tentative and limited since large arable croplands in tropical and temperate regions are required for their cultivation. Moreover, the conversion processes (i.e. thermochemical and bio-chemical) associated with the second generation biomass feedstock is far more complex and sophisticated because of the recalcitrant nature of cellulosic biomass. The biofuels, thus, derived are not cost-competitive with existing petroleum derived fuels. In future, the integration of various biochemical and bioprocessing technologies will be supporting the establishment of biomass energy programs. This paper is an attempt to review the potential of microalgal biodiesel in comparison to the first and the second generation biomass feedstock and its global prospects.
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  136. Orychophragmus violaceus L., a marginal land-based plant for biodiesel feedstock: Heterogeneous catalysis, fuel properties, and potential
    Abstract

    Wang, R.; Wu, Y. Y.; Hang, H. T.; Liu, Y.; Xie, T. X.; Zhang, K. Y.; Li, H. T. 2014. Orychophragmus violaceus L., a marginal land-based plant for biodiesel feedstock: Heterogeneous catalysis, fuel properties, and potential. Energy Conversion and Management. 84497-502

    The development of biomass on marginal lands has been investigated and proven to be feasible. Orychophragmus violaceus grows naturally in the karst region and shows a stronger bicarbonate-use capacity and adaptability than some other plants. In the present study, the systemic parameters of seed samples from four locations were determined, including the oil contents (30.59-36.81 wt%), acid values (2.76-5.68 mg KOH/g), iodine values (111.02-147.58 g I-2/100 g), and fatty acid composition. O. violaceus oil was mainly composed of palmitic acid (C16:0, 10.65-13.06 wt%), stearic acid (C18:0, 6.41-8.31 wt%), oleic acid (C18:1, 16.56-25.58 wt%), and linoleic acid (C18:2, 46.07-52.16 wt%). O. violaceus seed oil from Guiyang was converted to biodiesel by calcined porous calcite. The catalyst amount was optimised, and refined biodiesel was prepared by vacuum distillation. The fuel properties of the O. violaceus biodiesel samples all met the EN 14214 (2012) standards, except for the cetane number and oxidation stability. In summary, O. violaceus from the karst marginal land is highly recommended as a biomass feedstock. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  137. Organic municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for biodiesel production: A financial feasibility analysis
    Abstract

    Gaeta-Bernardi, A.; Parente, V. 2016. Organic municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for biodiesel production: A financial feasibility analysis. Renewable Energy. 861422-1432

    The pursuit towards an alternative solution to fossil fuel has facilitated science investigation initiatives that compare various options leading to biodiesel production. Besides conventional feedstock derived from vegetable oils, alternative sources that could be produce in large scale at competitive costs are the main scope of research in this field. This paper investigates the financial feasibility using organic solid waste as a feedstock, which results in the production of biodiesel through the conversion of volatile fatty acids into lipids (VFA). As a result, based on existing references of capital and operating costs, production and extraction yields for VFA and lipids and an internal rate of return of 15% in real terms, we concluded that biodiesel production is competitive compared to subsidized biodiesel traded in regions of Europe and the United States. These results encourage research aims to examine this technology at a larger scale. The adoption of public policies for the urban waste's disposal and collection, to reduced municipality's costs associated to the treatment, is also important for the implementation of these technologies. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  138. Optimization of the cultivation conditions for Synechococcus sp PCC7942 (cyanobacterium) to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Silva, C. S. P.; Silva-Stenico, M. E.; Fiore, M. F.; de Castro, H. F.; Da Ros, P. C. M. 2014. Optimization of the cultivation conditions for Synechococcus sp PCC7942 (cyanobacterium) to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 31-7

    Cyanobacteria have several advantages as lipid feedstock for biodiesel production compared to microalgae. These benefits include the ability to increase lipid content via genetic manipulation, a high growth rate, nitrogen-fixation and a simpler cell wall, which aids in lipid extraction. Moreover, these bacteria have the capability to convert solar energy into biomass that is two times greater than microalgae and ten times greater than corn and sugar cane. The aim of this study was to optimize the cultivation conditions of Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 and to evaluate the lipid feedstock to generate biodiesel via an enzymatic route. For this purpose, the effect of light intensity (50-150 mol m(-2) s(-1)) and the concentration of Na2CO3 (0.5(-1).5 g L-1) were studied according to a 2(2) full-factorial design. Under optimized conditions, the biomass productivity (Q(P)) of 124.0 +/- 3.2 mg L-1 day(-1), lipid content of 29.0 +/- 2.1% and lipid productivity of 35.9 +/- 0.5 mg L-1 day(-1) were obtained. The fatty acid profile indicated differences when the medium was enriched with Na2CO3 and cultured in high light intensity, resulting in an increase in unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid, which accounts for 40% of the fatty acids in Synechococcus sp. PCC7942. The lipid feedstock was characterized and used as feedstock for biodiesel synthesis using Novozym (R) 435 as a catalyst and ethanol as an acyl acceptor. The biocatalyst was able to form ethyl esters from all of the fatty acids present in the lipid feedstock, attaining a conversion of 97.1%. Analysis of Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 lipids indicated the potential of this cyanobacterium as a biodiesel feedstock. The primary fatty acids of this cyanobacterium were C16-C18, which is suitable for the production of good-quality biodiesel. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
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  139. Optimization of Reducing Acid of High-acid Feedstock of Biodiesel Based on Artificial Neural Networks
    Abstract

    Su, Y. Y.; Wu, Z. F.; Wang, H. 2013. Optimization of Reducing Acid of High-acid Feedstock of Biodiesel Based on Artificial Neural Networks. 2013 International Conference on Materials for Renewable Energy and Environment (Icmree), Vols 1-3. 203-206

    In order to get the optimal conditions of reaction, based on single factor experiment, oleic acid as the high-acid feedstock of biodiesel, orthogonal experiment and artificial neural networks were applied to optimize the synthetic conditions for reducing acid of high-acid biodiesel feedstock catalyzed by SO42/ZrO2 solid super acid. Based on orthogonal experiment, the three layers error back-propagation network (BP network) model was trained to reflect correlation of experimental data. And the optimal conditions were obtained from this network model as follows: SO42-/ZrO solid super acid was 4%(W/W) as catalyst, reaction temperature was 97.5 degrees C, reaction time was 180mins, and flow rate of gaseous methanol was 1.65 L.min(-1). Under the optimal conditions, validated experiment showed that the conversion rate of oleic acid was 96.89%, and the relative error was 0.03% compared with the predicted value. Therefore, the optimal conditions obtained based on BP artificial neural network are reliable and have better practical value.
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  140. Optimization of pineapple pulp residue hydrolysis for lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis TISTR5159 using as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Tinoi, J.; Rakariyatham, N. 2016. Optimization of pineapple pulp residue hydrolysis for lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis TISTR5159 using as biodiesel feedstock. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 80(8) 1641-1649

    The higher lipid productivity of Rhodotorula glutinis TISTR5159 was achieved by optimizing the pineapple pulp hydrolysis for releasing the high sugars content. The sequential simplex method operated by varied; solid-to-liquid ratio, sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, and hydrolysis time were successfully applied and the highest sugar content (83.2g/L) evaluated at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:10.8, 3.2% sulfuric acid, 105 degrees C for 13.9min. Moreover, the (NH4)(2)SO4 supplement enhanced the lipid productivity and gave the maximum yields of biomass and lipid of 15.2g/L and 9.15g/L (60.2%), respectively. The C16 and C18 fatty acids were found as main components included oleic acid (55.8%), palmitic acid (16.6%), linoleic acid (11.9%), and stearic acid (7.8%). These results present the possibility to convert the sugars in pineapple pulp hydrolysate to lipids. The fatty acid profile was also similar to vegetable oils. Thus, it could be used as potential feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  141. Optimal design and planning of biodiesel supply chain considering non-edible feedstock
    Abstract

    Babazadeh, R. 2017. Optimal design and planning of biodiesel supply chain considering non-edible feedstock. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 751089-1100

    The rapid expansion of first-generation biodiesel production from vegetable edible oils and animal fats has triggered a sense of concern among policymakers and development practitioners about farm land allocation, food supply, and food market equilibrium. In this respect, utilization of second-generation biodiesel from non edible feedstocks has been attracted many interests in recent years. To accelerate transition towards large-scale and economic viable biofuels, systematic design and optimization of entire biofuel supply chains is crucial. In this paper, firstly the presented works for biofuel supply chains optimization are systematically reviewed and categorized. Secondly, a multi-period and multi-product biodiesel supply chain network design model is developed. The proposed model is capable to determine the optimum numbers, locations, capacity of facilities, suitable transportation modes, appropriate technology at bio-refinery, material flow, and production planning in different periods. The proposed model is applied in a real case in Iran. We consider Jatropha seeds and waste cooking oil as non-edible feedstocks for second-generation biodiesel production in the studied case. The acquired results demonstrate the efficiency and performance of the proposed model in designing biodiesel supply chain network.
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  142. Operational and policy implications of managing uncertainty in quality and emissions of multi-feedstock biodiesel systems
    Abstract

    Gül\en, Ece 2012. Operational and policy implications of managing uncertainty in quality and emissions of multi-feedstock biodiesel systems. . 182 p.

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been widely promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biodiesel were one of the main drivers behind extensive government support in the form of financial incentives for the industry. However, several recent studies have reported a high degree of uncertainty and variation (U&V) in these emissions, raising questions concerning the carbon benefits of biodiesel compared to petrodiesel. A smaller degree of U&V in physical feedstock characteristics emerging from compositional variation was already known to producers. Although feedstock blending has been broadly practiced by the industry to meet multiple fuel quality standards and to control costs, its implications on these U&V characteristics of biodiesel have not been explicitly addressed by researchers or policymakers. This work investigates the impact of feedstock blending on the U&V characteristics of biodiesel by using a chance-constrained (CC) blend optimization method. The objective of the optimization is minimization of feedstock costs subject to fuel standards and the decision variables are feedstock proportions. Two sets of prediction models are developed to represent the physical properties and lifecycle emissions of feedstocks within the CC model. The results indicate that blending can be used to manage U&V characteristics of biodiesel, and to achieve cost reductions through feedstock diversification. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that emission control policies which restrict the use of certain feedstocks based on their GHG estimates, overlook blending practices and benefits, lowering the quality and increasing the cost of biodiesel. In contrast, emission control policies which recognize the multi-feedstock nature of biodiesel, provides producers with feedstock selection flexibility, and enables them to manage their blend portfolios cost effectively without compromising fuel quality or emissions reductions.
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  143. One-step production of biodiesel through simultaneous esterification and transesterification from highly acidic unrefined feedstock over efficient and recyclable ZnO nanostar catalyst
    Abstract

    Kwong, T. L.; Yung, K. F. 2016. One-step production of biodiesel through simultaneous esterification and transesterification from highly acidic unrefined feedstock over efficient and recyclable ZnO nanostar catalyst. Renewable Energy. 90450-457

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostar synthesized by simple and up-scalable microwave-assisted surfactant free hydrolysis method was applied as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis through one-step simultaneous esterification and transesterification from high free fatty acid (FFA) contaminated unrefined feedstock. It was found that ZnO nanostar catalyst was reacted with FFA to yield zinc oleate (ZnO1) as intermediate and finally became zinc glycerolate (ZnGly). With the re-deposition of ZnGly back to the ZnO nanostar catalyst at the end of the reaction, the catalyst can be easily recovered and stay active for five cycles. Furthermore, the rate of transesterification is highly promoted by the presence of FFA (6 wt.%) which makes it an efficient catalyst for low grade feedstock like waste cooking oil and crude plant oils. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  144. Olive pomace oil as an alternative feedstock for the preparation of biodiesel fuel: Optimization of parameters
    Abstract

    Almlie, C. K.; Ott, L. S. 2012. Olive pomace oil as an alternative feedstock for the preparation of biodiesel fuel: Optimization of parameters. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 243

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  145. Oleaginous microorganisms as sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Raposo, S.; Pardao, J.; Lima-Costa, M. E. 2009. Oleaginous microorganisms as sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. New Biotechnology. 25S276-S276

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  146. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Abbas, J.; Hussain, S.; Iqbal, M. J.; Nadeem, H.; Qasim, M.; Hina, S.; Hafeez, F. 2016. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Environmental Technology. 37(16) 2082-2087

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6: 1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60 degrees C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.
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  147. Nutrient Requirements of Camelina for Biodiesel Feedstock in Central Montana
    Abstract

    Mohammed, Y. A.; Chen, C. C.; Afshar, R. K. 2017. Nutrient Requirements of Camelina for Biodiesel Feedstock in Central Montana. Agronomy Journal. 109(1) 309-316

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) shows potential to provide an alternative renewable energy source and enhance crop diversifi cation in temperate semiarid regions. Information on the effect of N, P, K, and S on yield and quality of camelina for biodiesel feedstock in the northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States is limited. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of the above nutrients on seed and oil yields, test weight, oil concentration and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (ANUE) of camelina on a clay loam soil in central Montana. Results showed that fertilizer treatments significantly affected seed yield, oil concentration and oil yield of camelina. The seed and oil yields ranged from 677 to 1306 kg ha(-1) and from 234 to 445 kg ha(-1), respectively. Although the highest seed and oil yields were obtained from the application of 134-22-22-28 kg ha(-1) N-P2O5-K2O-S, they were statistically in the same group with yields achieved from the application of only 45 kg ha(-1) N. Application of P and S fertilizers increased camelina seed yield compared with the control treatment. Th ere was no response to K fertilization. Simultaneous application of N and S did not show synergistic effects in enhancing ANUE. The ANUE reduced with increasing N application rates. From trend analysis, application of 60 kg ha(-1) N produced agronomic maximum seed and oil yields. Therefore, optimizing camelina seed and oil yields production with regard to nutrient management using current variety should focus on N fertilization.
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  148. NOx emissions from low-temperature combustion of biodiesel made of various feedstocks and blends
    Abstract

    Omidvarborna, H.; Kumar, A.; Kim, D. S. 2015. NOx emissions from low-temperature combustion of biodiesel made of various feedstocks and blends. Fuel Processing Technology. 140113-118

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are one of the major hazardous emissions from biodiesel-fueled engines that need to be regulated stringently. In this paper, NOx emissions from different types of biodiesel were studied using a laboratory combustion chamber. Biodiesel fuels with various portion of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO) were combusted at 330-420 degrees C simulating low-temperature combustion (LTC). Combustion analysis results show that neat biodiesel fuels had longer ignition delay and lower ignition temperatures compared to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD). The unsaturation of biodiesel samples and their blends with ULSD was analyzed for its effects on NOx emissions. The results showed that biodiesel with more unsaturated fatty acids emitted more NOx compared to biodiesel with more saturated fatty acids. A paired t-test showed that neat TO, WCO, and WCO B50 had significant reduction in the formation of NOx compared with ULSD and SME B20. It is concluded that less unsaturated FAME fuels would be preferable when reduction of NOx emissions is a critical issue. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  149. Novel heterogeneous esterification and transesterification catalysts for producing low-cost biodiesel from high-FFA feedstocks
    Abstract

    Gao, Y. 2007. Novel heterogeneous esterification and transesterification catalysts for producing low-cost biodiesel from high-FFA feedstocks. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 234

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  150. Novel green process for the production of biodiesel from multi-feedstocks
    Abstract

    Baig, A.; Rempel, G. L.; Ng, F. T. T. 2011. Novel green process for the production of biodiesel from multi-feedstocks. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 242

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  151. Non-Evaporative Solvent Recovery Step in Deacidification of Used Frying Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock by Methanol Extraction
    Abstract

    Tunc, M. F.; Gurbuz, H.; Turkay, S. Z. 2010. Non-Evaporative Solvent Recovery Step in Deacidification of Used Frying Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock by Methanol Extraction. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 87(2) 195-203

    An alternative deacidification process combining a liquid-liquid extraction with a non-evaporative solvent recovery step was proposed for preparing used frying oil (UFO) as biodiesel feedstock. The liquid-liquid extraction step using methanol was simulated for obtaining refined UFO with a final residual free fatty acids (FFA) content a parts per thousand currency sign 1%. Solvent recovery step of the process, which is based on the precipitation of FFA with Ca(OH)(2) as insoluble calcium soaps, was investigated experimentally. With the aim of maximizing the FFA removal from the methanol extract, the influence of process variables such as FFA concentration in the extract phase, Ca(OH)(2) amount, stirring rate and temperature were investigated by using model extract phases. Complete removal of FFA was achieved in 30, 20, and 15 min, from the extract phases containing 3.86, 7.78, and 11.58 wt% FFA, respectively, when the precipitation was carried out at a temperature of 65 A degrees C, stirring rate of 250 rpm and by using 18 times the stoichiometric Ca(OH)(2) amount. The precipitate quickly settled down due to the agglomeration, thereby provided an efficient and easy separation of the methanol from the solids. Provided the final residual content of FFA in methanol was too low, recovered methanol can be recycled for more FFA extraction. Although the suggested process offers a feasible method for preparing UFO as biodiesel feedstock, the effect of other decomposition products in UFO must be investigated in depth for using such a process on an industrial scale.
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  152. New mesoporous silica-supported acid catalysts for the production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing feedstocks
    Abstract

    Zafiropoulos, N. A.; Ngo, H. L.; Samulski, E. T.; Foglia, T. A.; Lin, W. B. 2007. New mesoporous silica-supported acid catalysts for the production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing feedstocks. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 234

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  153. New insights in the deactivation of sulfonic modified SBA-15 catalysts for biodiesel production from low-grade oleaginous feedstock
    Abstract

    Melero, J. A.; Bautista, L. F.; Iglesias, J.; Morales, G.; Sanchez-Vazquez, R.; Wilson, K.; Lee, A. F. 2014. New insights in the deactivation of sulfonic modified SBA-15 catalysts for biodiesel production from low-grade oleaginous feedstock. Applied Catalysis a-General. 488111-118

    Arenesulfonic-acid functionalized SBA-15 materials have been used in the production of biodiesel from low grade oleaginous feedstock. These materials display an outstanding catalytic activity, being able to promote the transformation of crude palm oil with methanol into fatty acid methyl esters with high yield (85%) under mild reaction conditions. However, high sensitivity of the catalyst against poisoning by different substances has also been detected. Thus, alkaline metal cations, such as sodium or potassium exert a negative influence on the catalytic activity of these materials, being necessary amounts around 500 ppm of sodium in the reaction media to decrease the catalytic activity of these materials to a half of its initial value in just two reaction runs. The deactivation of arenesulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 materials seems to occur in this case by ion exchange of the acid protons at the sulfonic groups. Organic unsaponifiable compounds like lecithin or retinol also induce a negative influence in the catalytic activity of these sulfonic acid-based materials, though not so intense as in the case of alkaline metals. The deactivating mechanism associated to the influence of the organic compounds seems to be linked to the adsorption of such substances onto the catalytic acid sites as well as on the silica surface. The accumulation of lecithin in the surface of catalyst, observed by means of thermogravimetric analysis, suggest the creation of a strong interaction, probably by ion pair, between this compound and the sulfonic acid group. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  154. A new generation of zirconia supported metal oxide catalysts for converting low grade renewable feedstocks to biodiesel
    Abstract

    Kim, M.; DiMaggio, C.; Salley, S. O.; Ng, K. Y. S. 2012. A new generation of zirconia supported metal oxide catalysts for converting low grade renewable feedstocks to biodiesel. Bioresource Technology. 11837-42

    A new class of zirconia supported mixed metal oxides (ZnO-TiO2-Nd2O3/ZrO2 and ZnO-SiO2-Yb2O3/ZrO2) has demonstrated the ability to convert low quality, high free fatty acid (FFA) bio-oils into biodiesel. Pelletized catalysts of ZrO2 supported metal oxides were prepared via a sol-gel process and tested in continuous flow packed bed reactors for up to 6 months. In a single pass, while operating at mild to moderate reaction conditions, 195 degrees C and 300 psi, these catalysts can perform simultaneous esterification and transesterification reactions on feedstock of 33% FFA and 67% soybean oil to achieve FAME yields higher than 90%. Catalytic activity of the ZrO2 supported metal oxide catalysts was highly dependent on the metal oxide composition. These heterogeneous catalysts will enable biodiesel manufacturers to avoid problems inherent in homogeneous processes, such as separation and washing, corrosive conditions, and excessive methanol usage. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  155. Nephelium lappaceum oil: A low-cost alternative feedstock for sustainable biodiesel production using magnetic solid acids
    Abstract

    Nguyen, H. D.; Thi Nguyen, M. H.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen, P. T. 2016. Nephelium lappaceum oil: A low-cost alternative feedstock for sustainable biodiesel production using magnetic solid acids. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 35(2) 603-610

    Waste seed of Nephelium lappaceum or rambutan fruit with high fat content is a promising raw material for low-cost biodiesel production. Solid acids, such as SiO2-SO3H/CoFe2O4 and superhydrophobic poly(vinylsulfonic-co-divinylbenzene) (PVS-DVB), were synthesized and characterized via X-ray diffraction, vibrating sampling magnetometer, field enhanced scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray, and transmission electron microscopy. The magnetic catalysts possessed a mesoporous structure with an average diameter of 100 nm. The transesterification rate could reach 39%, 68%, and 98% when SiO2-SO3H/CoFe2O4, PVS-DVB, and H2SO4 acid were used, respectively, at 65 degrees C for 4-10 h. The magnetic acids were readily recovered and reused with negligible activity loss. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of oil-to-methanol molar (O/M) ratio, reaction time, and catalyst amount on FAME conversion were studied to optimize the transesterification conditions. Rambutan oil biodiesel is within the specifications of the American Standard Test Method (ASTM D6751) and European standards (EN 14214). (c) 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 35: 603-610, 2016
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  156. Neochloris oleoabundans grown on anaerobically digested dairy manure for concomitant nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production
    Abstract

    Levine, R. B.; Costanza-Robinson, M. S.; Spatafora, G. A. 2011. Neochloris oleoabundans grown on anaerobically digested dairy manure for concomitant nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(1) 40-49

    Microalgae have been investigated as a promising biodiesel feedstock; however, large-scale production is not currently cost-competitive with petroleum diesel, and its environmental impacts have received little attention. Using wastewater to supply nutrients for algal growth obviates synthetic fertilizer use, provides on-site nutrient removal, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. In this work, anaerobically digested dairy manure was used to grow the oleaginous green alga Neochloris oleoabundans. In batch culture experiments with both synthetic media and anaerobic digester effluent, N. oleoabundans assimilated 90-95% of the initial nitrate and ammonium after 6 d and yielded 10-30% fatty acid methyl esters on a dry weight basis. Cellular lipid content and the N concentration in the growth media were inversely correlated. In addition, the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e. C16:3, C18:2, and C18:3) decreased with N concentration over time while the proportion of C18:1 fatty acid increased. Although N deficiency is likely the primary driver behind lipid accumulation, the influence of culture pH confounded results and requires further study. Other living microorganisms in the digester effluent were not observed to affect algal growth and lipid productivity, though the breakdown of organic nitrogen may have hindered lipid accumulation traditionally achieved through the manipulation of synthetic media. This work highlights the potential for waste-grown mono-algal cultures to produce high quality biodiesel while accomplishing simultaneous wastewater treatment. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  157. Neochloris oleoabundans grown in enriched natural seawater for biodiesel feedstock: Evaluation of its growth and biochemical composition
    Abstract

    Popovich, C. A.; Damiani, C.; Constenla, D.; Martinez, A. M.; Freije, H.; Giovanardi, M.; Pancaldi, S.; Leonardi, P. I. 2012. Neochloris oleoabundans grown in enriched natural seawater for biodiesel feedstock: Evaluation of its growth and biochemical composition. Bioresource Technology. 114287-293

    The freshwater microalga Neochloris oleoabundans was used to study algal lipid production in enriched natural seawater, in order to assess its suitability as biodiesel feedstock. Optimal and nitrogen-stress (N-stress) conditions were analyzed. Under optimal conditions, the strain's growth rate was 0.73 div day(-1) and the biomass concentration was 1.5 g L-1. while it had a maximum lipid yield under N-stress conditions (lipid content: 26% of dry weigh and lipid productivity: 56 mg L-1 day(-1)). Lipid accumulation was mainly due to a significant increase of triacylglycerol content. Neutral lipids were characterized by a dominance of monounsaturated fatty acids and displayed a fatty acid profile that is suitable for biodiesel. This work offers an interesting alternative for sustainable microalgal oil synthesis for biodiesel production without using freshwater resources. However, further studies are necessary in order to optimize the lipid productivities required for commercial biodiesel production. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  158. Mustard plants could make tasty new biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    2017. Mustard plants could make tasty new biodiesel feedstock. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 11(3) 406-406

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  159. Moringa stenopetala seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Ethiopia
    Abstract

    Ejigu, A.; Asfaw, A.; Asfaw, N.; Licence, P. 2010. Moringa stenopetala seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Ethiopia. Green Chemistry. 12(2) 316-320

    Moringa stenopetala seed oil was evaluated as a potential sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production in Ethiopia. Base catalyzed transesterification of M. stenopetala seed oil was carried out with methanol, ethanol and a mixture of methanol and ethanol (1: 1 molar ratios) with an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1. The physiochemical characteristics of the esters were assessed to evaluate their suitability for use in standard diesel engines. The study indicated that M. stenopetala seeds yield 45% w/w of oil. The oil contains 78% mono-unsaturated fatty acid and 22% saturated fatty acid. Oleic is the dominant fatty acid, about 76%. When mixtures of alcohols were used, the amount of ethyl ester formed was 30% that of methyl ester. The physicochemical properties of M. stenopetala oil methyl ester and mixture of esters (methyl and ethyl) were found to comply with both the American ASTM D6751 and the European standard EN 14214. Overall, the physicochemical properties of the ester mixture of M. stenopetala oil were better than that of methyl ester. The recommended way to use the oil as a fuel is as a mixture of esters. The study indicates that compared to biodiesel fuels derived from other vegetable oils, M. stenopetala has a number of advantages. Furthermore, the use of M. stenopetala seed oil for the production of biodiesel will not compete with food as neither the seeds nor the oil are used for food in Ethiopia.
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  160. Molasses-based growth and lipid production by Chlorella pyrenoidosa: A potential feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Gaurav, K.; Srivastava, R.; Sharma, J. G.; Singh, R.; Singh, V. 2016. Molasses-based growth and lipid production by Chlorella pyrenoidosa: A potential feedstock for biodiesel. International Journal of Green Energy. 13(3) 320-327

    Biodiesel provides a feasible solution to the twin crisis of energy security and environmental concerns prevalent today, and it can be extracted from conventional oil crops as well as microalgae. However, lipid productivity in case of microalgae is much higher and has several advantages as compared with crop plants, so it is a better feedstock for biodiesel. In case of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, the heterotrophic cultured cells were found to be better in terms of lipid production, and ultimately biodiesel production, but the bottleneck is that in this mode glucose is used to feed the cells, which amounts to almost 80% of the total cost of biodiesel production. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and highlight the feasibility of using the industrially cheap cane molasses as a carbon source in place of glucose for a large-scale, low-cost lipid production of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. When treated molasses was used as a carbon source instead of glucose, the biomass sharply increases from 0.89 to 1.22 g L-1. On the other hand, the total lipid content increases from 0.27 to 0.66 g g(-1). The specific growth rate and yield was higher in treated molasses as compared with that in glucose-supplemented. A mathematical model was also developed based on logistic, Luedeking-Piret, and Luedeking-Piret-like equations. Model predictions were in satisfactory agreement with the measured data, and the mode of lipid production was growth-associated.
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  161. MnO and TiO solid catalysts with low-grade feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Gombotz, K.; Parette, R.; Austic, G.; Kannan, D.; Matson, J. V. 2012. MnO and TiO solid catalysts with low-grade feedstocks for biodiesel production. Fuel. 92(1) 9-15

    Manganese (II) oxide (MnO) and titanium (II) oxide (TiO) solid catalysts were found to be robust catalysts for both the transesterification of triglycerides and esterification of free fatty acids. These metal oxides were shown to exhibit long life with little loss of activity. The ability to esterify free fatty acids (FFA) and handle high levels of water illustrates the potential of these catalysts to produce biodiesel from low quality feedstocks without the pretreatment operations required with the traditional process. Some soaps were produced in the presence of free fatty acids, but soaps were within tolerable levels and formed at concentrations that were orders of magnitude lower than the traditional process. This results in significant reductions in product washing. By utilizing a 2-stage process, high quality fuel (meeting ASTM specifications) and glycerol were produced. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  162. Mixotrophic Cultivation of Scenedesmus sp as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Wang, J. H.; Yang, H. Z.; Wang, F. 2013. Mixotrophic Cultivation of Scenedesmus sp as Biodiesel Feedstock. Environmental Biotechnology and Materials Engineering (2013). 777268-273

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. Microalgal biodiesel can be obtained under three major cultivation modes, namely, photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic cultivation. Reported studies of microalgal biodiesel production are mainly based on photoautotrophic cultivation, mixotrophic cultivation has rarely been researched. This paper compared the biomass productivity, lipid content, and lipid productivity of Scenedesmus sp. under photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic cultivation. Glucose was added as organic carbon source at five concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0% glucose w/v). Results displayed that microalgal growth was significantly improved in glucose supplied cultures. Synergetic effect of photoautotrophy and heterotrophy existed in all mixotrophic cultures. Highest biomass productivity of 1.307 g.L-1.d(-1) and highest lipid productivity of 316 mg-L-1.d(-1) was respectively observed under mixotrophic cultivation with 5.0% and 1.0% (w/v) glucose addition. Lipid content of Scenedesmus sp. under mixotrophic cultivation was mostly higher in stationary phase than in exponential phase. Highest lipid content of 27.73% was observed in 1.0% mixotrophic culture, followed by 24.66% in 1.0% heterotrophic culture.
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  163. Mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for lipid production from industrial wastes and its use as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Cheirsilp, B.; Suwannarat, W.; Niyomdecha, R. 2011. Mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris for lipid production from industrial wastes and its use as biodiesel feedstock. New Biotechnology. 28(4) 362-368

    A mixed culture of oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis and microalga Chlorella vulgaris was performed to enhance lipid production from industrial wastes. These included effluent from seafood processing plant and molasses from sugar cane plant. In the mixed culture, the yeast grew faster and the lipid production was higher than that in the pure cultures. This could be because microalga acted as an oxygen generator for yeast, while yeast provided CO(2) to microalga and both carried out the production of lipids. The optimal conditions for lipid production by the mixed culture were as follows: ratio of yeast to microalga at 1:1; initial pH at 5.0; molasses concentration at 1%; shaking speed at 200 rpm; and light intensity at 5.0 klux under 16:8 hours light and dark cycles. Under these conditions, the highest biomass of 4.63 +/- 0.15 g/L and lipid production of 2.88 +/- 0.16 g/L were obtained after five days of cultivation. In addition, the plant oil-like fatty acid composition of yeast and microalgal lipids suggested their high potential for use as biodiesel feedstock.
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  164. Microwave Irradiation Application in Biodiesel Production from Promising Biodiesel Feedstock: Microalgae (Chlorella protothecoides)
    Abstract

    Azcan, N.; Yilmaz, O. 2012. Microwave Irradiation Application in Biodiesel Production from Promising Biodiesel Feedstock: Microalgae (Chlorella protothecoides). World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science, Wcecs 2012, Vol Ii. 737-742

    Microwave irradiation effect on transesterification reaction of the new generation biofuel resource, microalgae, was studied. Experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effects of reaction variables such as catalyst amount (1-1.5% w/w), oil:methanol molar ratio (1:6-1:10), and time (5-20 min) on methyl ester content of biodiesel. A comparative study on heating system was performed to show energy-efficiency of microwave-accelerated transesterification reaction. Suitable transesterification reaction conditions were determined as 65 degrees C, 1 wt.% KOH, 5 min, 1:8 microalgae oil:methanol molar ratio using microwave heating system. At these conditions fatty acid methyl ester content was determined as 96.54%. The results show that microwave heating has effectively reduced the reaction time from 210 min to 5 min.
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  165. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Biodiesel Feedstock from the Seeds of Invasive Chinese Tallow Tree
    Abstract

    Boldor, D.; Kanitkar, A.; Terigar, B. G.; Leonard, C.; Lima, M.; Breitenbeck, G. A. 2010. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Biodiesel Feedstock from the Seeds of Invasive Chinese Tallow Tree. Environmental Science & Technology. 44(10) 4019-4025

    Chinese tallow tree (TT) seeds are a rich source of lipids and have the potential to be a biodiesel feedstock, but currently, its invasive nature does not favor large scale cultivation. Being a nonfood material, they have many advantages over conventional crops that are used for biodiesel production. The purpose of this study was to determine optimal oil extraction parameters in a batch-type and laboratory scale continuous-flow microwave system to obtain maximum oil recovery from whole IT seeds using ethanol as the extracting solvent. For the batch system, extractions were carried out for different time temperature combinations ranging from 60 to 120 degrees C for up to 20 min. The batch system was modified for continuous extractions, which were carried out at 50, 60, and 73 degrees C and maintained for various residence times of up to 20 min. Control runs were performed under similar extraction conditions and the results compared well, especially when accounting for extremely short extraction times (minutes vs hours). Maximum yields of 35.32% and 32.51% (by weight of dry mass) were obtained for the continuous and batch process, respectively. The major advantage of microwave assisted solvent extraction is the reduced time of extraction required to obtain total recoverable lipids, with corresponding reduction in energy consumption costs per unit of lipid extracted. This study indicates that microwave extraction using ethanol as a solvent can be used as a viable alternative to conventional lipid extraction techniques for TT seeds.
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  166. Microcystis aeruginosa lipids as feedstock for biodiesel synthesis by enzymatic route
    Abstract

    Da Ros, P. C. M.; Silva, C. S. P.; Silva-Stenico, M. E.; Fiore, M. F.; de Castro, H. F. 2012. Microcystis aeruginosa lipids as feedstock for biodiesel synthesis by enzymatic route. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 84177-182

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa strain NPCD-1, isolated from sewage treatment plant and characterized as a non-microcystin producer by mass spectrometry and molecular analysis, was found to be a source of lipid when cultivated in ASM-1 medium at 25 degrees C under constant white fluorescent illumination (109 mu mol photon m(-2) s(-1)). In these conditions, biomass productivity of 46.92 +/- 3.84 mg L-1 day(-1) and lipid content of 28.10 +/- 1.47% were obtained. Quantitative analysis of fatty acid methyl esters demonstrated high concentration of saturated fatty acids (50%), palmitic (24.34%) and lauric (13.21%) acids being the major components. The remaining 50% constituting unsaturated fatty acids showed higher concentrations of oleic (26.88%) and linoleic (12.53%) acids. The feasibility to produce biodiesel from this cyanobacterial lipid was demonstrated by running enzymatic transesterification reactions catalyzed by Novozym (R) 435 and using palm oil as feedstock control. Batch experiments were carried out using tert-butanol and iso-octane as solvent. Results showed similarity on the main ethyl esters formed for both feedstocks. The highest ethyl ester concentration was related to palmitate and oleate esters followed by laurate and linoleate esters. However, both reaction rates and ester yields were dependent on the solvent tested. Total ethyl ester concentrations varied in the range of 44.24-67.84 wt%, corresponding to ester yields from 80 to 100%. Iso-octane provided better solubility and miscibility, with ester yield of 98.10% obtained at 48 h for reaction using the cyanobacterium lipid, while full conversion was achieved in 12 h for reaction carried out with palm oil. These results demonstrated that cyanobacterial lipids from M. aeruginosa NPCD-1 have interesting properties for biofuel production. (c) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  167. Microbial lipid production as biodiesel feedstock from N-acetylglucosamine by oleaginous microorganisms
    Abstract

    Zhang, G. C.; French, W. T.; Hernandez, R.; Hall, J.; Sparks, D.; Holmes, W. E. 2011. Microbial lipid production as biodiesel feedstock from N-acetylglucosamine by oleaginous microorganisms. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 86(5) 642-650

    BACKGROUND: The byproducts from shrimp processing are heads and shells which contain a wealth of carbon and could be converted into oils via oleaginous microorganisms. The objective of this investigation was to determine the feasibility of using oleaginous microorganisms to convert N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), the major carbohydrate of the hydrolysate of shrimp processing waste, to triacylglycerols as a biodiesel feedstock.
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  168. Microbial lipid produced by Yarrowia lipolytica QU21 using industrial waste: A potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Poli, J. S.; da Silva, M. A. N.; Siqueira, E. P.; Pasa, V. M. D.; Rosa, C. A.; Valente, P. 2014. Microbial lipid produced by Yarrowia lipolytica QU21 using industrial waste: A potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 161320-326

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of medium composition and culture conditions on lipid content, fatty acid profile and biomass production by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica QU21. Lipid production by the yeast growing on glycerol/(NH4)(2)SO4 (10%/0.1%) reached 1.48 g/L (30.1% according to total cell dry weight). When glycerol was replaced by crude glycerol (industrial waste), the lipid yield was 1.27 g/L, with no significant difference. Some particular fatty acids were found when crude glycerol was combined with fresh yeast extract (FYE, brewery waste), as linolenic acid (C18:3n3), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3). In addition, the FYE promoted an increase of more than 300% on polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA), which is an undesirable feature for biodiesel production. The fatty acid composition of the oil produced by Y. lipolytica QU21 growing on crude glycerol/(NH4)(2)SO4 presented a potential use as biodiesel feedstock, with low PUFA content. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  169. Microbial Biodiesel Production - Oil Feedstocks Produced from Microbial Cell Cultivations
    Abstract

    Zhang, J. G.; Hu, B. 2011. Microbial Biodiesel Production - Oil Feedstocks Produced from Microbial Cell Cultivations. Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing Technologies. 93-110

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  170. Microalgal biomass production as a sustainable feedstock for biodiesel: Current status and perspectives
    Abstract

    Abomohra, A. E.; Jin, W. B.; Tu, R. J.; Han, S. F.; Eid, M.; Eladel, H. 2016. Microalgal biomass production as a sustainable feedstock for biodiesel: Current status and perspectives. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 64596-606

    Nowadays, fossil fuels; including coal, oil, and natural gas; are the world's primary energy sources required for industry, lighting, transportation and heating. Their needs increased dramatically due to the vast expansion in human population and economy. In contrast, a greenhouse gas emission is a serious problem arose from such uses that might lead to potentially catastrophic changes in the earth's climate. In addition, fossil fuels are limited non-renewable resources that will run out in few decades. These factors motivated many researchers to develop a new renewable energy sources that could replace fossil fuels. Biodiesel is considered as the best candidate for this purpose. Recently, microalgae were discussed as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. This review presents a critical overview of engineered challenges compilations related to microalgal biomass production. In addition, advantages, and current limitations of biodiesel production, quantitative and qualitative feasibility of microalgal biodiesel, and its economic feasibility are discussed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  171. Microalgae: A promising feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Deng, X. D.; Li, Y. J.; Fei, X. W. 2009. Microalgae: A promising feedstock for biodiesel. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 3(13) 1008-1014

    Biodiesel is a renewable and environmentally friendly energy source fuel produced through transesterification of plant oils or animal fats with short chain alcohols. The global market for biodiesel has been growing rapidly during the past few years, and it is poised for explosive growth in the next years. However, the lack of oil feedstocks limits the large-scale development of biodiesel to a large extent. Recently, microalgae have attracted increasing attention due to their many advantages for biodiesel production. Compared to traditional feedstocks such as rapeseed and soybean, microalgae can rapidly grow on nonagricultural land or in brackish water with high oil content and rapid growth rate. Moreover, they can absorb carbon dioxide as the carbon source for growth. Although many challenges remain in microalgal biodiesel production, more and more inventors committed to believe that the rewards would eventually outweigh the risks. To date, microalgae investments have reached over $900 million world wild. In this review paper, the related researches about microalgae as promising sources for biodiesel production were discussed.
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  172. Microalgae Versus Land Crops as Feedstock for Biodiesel: Productivity, Quality, and Standard Compliance
    Abstract

    Nascimento, I. A.; Marques, S. S. I.; Cabanelas, I. T. D.; de Carvalho, G. C.; Nascimento, M. A.; de Souza, C. O.; Druzian, J. I.; Hussain, J.; Liao, W. 2014. Microalgae Versus Land Crops as Feedstock for Biodiesel: Productivity, Quality, and Standard Compliance. Bioenergy Research. 7(3) 1002-1013

    Despite certain environmental advantages over fossil diesel, land crop-derived biodiesels may not satisfy the increasing worldwide demand for transportation fuels. As an abundant photosynthesizer, algae could be an adequate surrogate for biodiesel production. Nevertheless, high production costs, scarce selected species, and inaccurate assumptions about production yields represent industrial uncertainties. In this study, a reliable approach to analyzing algal biodiesel production has been developed based on species-to-species variations in oil productivity and quality. This approach compares biodiesels from Chlorophyta strains with land crop feedstock according to (i) potential yields, (ii) oil quality, and (iii) compliance with biodiesel quality standards. Algal yields were assessed by (i) extrapolating the strain-specific laboratory results to commercial-scale growth systems; (ii) converting volumetric to areal biomass productivity; and (iii) estimating oil yields for each strain, as the product of their projected areal biomass productivity for each growth system, and the oil percentage in biomass as determined in the laboratory. Biodiesel fuel properties were estimated by using fatty acid methyl ester profile predictive models. The Chlorophyta strains in this study provided annual oil yields that were generally higher than those of land crops by one order of magnitude. Six strains yielding more than 40 mg oil l(-1) day(-1) were identified as adequate for sustaining biodiesel production. Trebouxiophyceae algae were the most productive. Critical biodiesel parameters from both feedstock types suggest that most microalgae-derived biodiesels meet international fuel quality standards with better values than those of land crops. Because some of the highly productive feedstock does not simultaneously meet all the standards for a high quality biodiesel, optimization solutions are discussed.
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  173. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production
    Abstract

    Qin, L.; Wang, Z. M.; Sun, Y. M.; Shu, Q.; Feng, P. Z.; Zhu, L. D.; Xu, J.; Yuan, Z. H. 2016. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23(9) 8379-8387

    The potential of microalgae consortia used in dairy wastewater treatment combined with microalgae biodiesel feedstock production was evaluated by comparing the nutrient removal of dairy wastewater, the growth of cells, and the lipid content and composition of biomass between monoalgae and microalgae consortia cultivation system. Our results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (maximum, 57.01-62.86 %) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (maximum, 91.16-95.96 %) were achieved in almost microalgae consortia cultivation system than those in Chlorella sp. monoalgae cultivation system (maximum, 44.76 and 86.74 %, respectively). In addition, microalgae consortia cultivation except the mixture of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus spp. reached higher biomass concentration (5.11-5.41 g L-1), biomass productivity (730.4-773.2 mg L-1 day(-1)), and lipid productivity (143.7-150.6 mg L-1 day(-1)) than those of monoalgae cultivation (4.72 g L-1, 674.3, and 142.2 mg L-1 day(-1), respectively) on the seventh day. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles indicated the lipids produced from microalgae consortia cultivation system were more suitable for biodiesel production. The microalgae consortia display superiority in dairy wastewater treatment and the getting feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  174. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production
    Abstract

    Qin, L.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Y.; Shu, Q.; Feng, P.; Zhu, L.; Xu, J.; Yuan, Z. 2016. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 23(9) 8379-87

    The potential of microalgae consortia used in dairy wastewater treatment combined with microalgae biodiesel feedstock production was evaluated by comparing the nutrient removal of dairy wastewater, the growth of cells, and the lipid content and composition of biomass between monoalgae and microalgae consortia cultivation system. Our results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (maximum, 57.01-62.86 %) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (maximum, 91.16-95.96 %) were achieved in almost microalgae consortia cultivation system than those in Chlorella sp. monoalgae cultivation system (maximum, 44.76 and 86.74 %, respectively). In addition, microalgae consortia cultivation except the mixture of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus spp. reached higher biomass concentration (5.11-5.41 g L(-1)), biomass productivity (730.4-773.2 mg L(-1) day(-1)), and lipid productivity (143.7-150.6 mg L(-1) day(-1)) than those of monoalgae cultivation (4.72 g L(-1), 674.3, and 142.2 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively) on the seventh day. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles indicated the lipids produced from microalgae consortia cultivation system were more suitable for biodiesel production. The microalgae consortia display superiority in dairy wastewater treatment and the getting feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  175. Microalgae as Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Liu, J.; Huang, J. C.; Chen, F. 2011. Microalgae as Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production. Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing Technologies. 133-160

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  176. Microalgae as feedstock for biodiesel production: Carbon dioxide sequestration, lipid production and biofuel quality
    Abstract

    Francisco, E. C.; Neves, D. B.; Jacob-Lopes, E.; Franco, T. T. 2010. Microalgae as feedstock for biodiesel production: Carbon dioxide sequestration, lipid production and biofuel quality. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 85(3) 395-403

    BACKGROUND: The novelty of this work is the estimation of the fuel properties of biodiesel, a comparison study with conventional sources of biodiesel commonly used as feedstock, and an investigation for meeting the requirements of the standard specifications for this fuel produced by six strains of microalgae (three cyanobacteria, two green algae and one diatom), cultivated photosynthetically in a bubble column photobioreactor. Lipid productivity and biofuel quality were the criteria for species selection.
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  177. MICROALGAE AS FEEDSTOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION: Carbon dioxide sequestration, lipid production and biofuel quality
    Abstract

    Francisco, E. C.; Jacob-Lopes, E.; Neves, D. B.; Franco, T. T. 2010. MICROALGAE AS FEEDSTOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION: Carbon dioxide sequestration, lipid production and biofuel quality. Biotechniques for Air Pollution Control. 115-115

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the carbon dioxide sequestration capacity, biomass production, lipid content, lipid productivity and biodiesel quality of six microalgal strains cultivated photosynthetically in a bubble column photobioreactor. Lipid productivity was the criteria for selection species; for the best specie, carbon dioxide sequestration rates, biomass productivity, lipid content and lipid productivity of 17.8 mg/L . min, 20.1 mg/L . h, 27.0% and 5.3 mg/L . h were obtained. Qualitative analysis of the fatty acid methyl esters demonstrates the predominance on saturated (43.5%) and monounsaturated (41.9%) fatty acids. The critical parameters for quality properties of biodiesel evaluated (ester content, 99.85%; cetane number, 56.73; iodine value, 65.00 gI(2)/100 g; degree of unsaturation, 74.07% and cold filter plugging point, 4.54 degrees C) comply with the US Standard (ASTM 6751), European Standard (EN 14214), Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP 255) and Australian Standard for biodiesel. The novelty of this paper is the estimation of the fuel properties of the microalgal biodiesel and the comparative study of conventional sources used as feedstock for biodiesel manufacture, facilitating worldwide advances in this research area.
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  178. Microalgae as feedstock for biodiesel production: carbon dioxide sequestration, lipid production and biofuel quality
    Abstract

    Francisco, E. C.; Jacob-Lopes, E.; Neves, D. B.; Franco, T. T. 2009. Microalgae as feedstock for biodiesel production: carbon dioxide sequestration, lipid production and biofuel quality. New Biotechnology. 25S278-S279

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  179. Microalgae as biodiesel & biomass feedstocks: Review & analysis of the biochemistry, energetics & economics
    Abstract

    Williams, P. J. L.; Laurens, L. M. L. 2010. Microalgae as biodiesel & biomass feedstocks: Review & analysis of the biochemistry, energetics & economics. Energy & Environmental Science. 3(5) 554-590

    Following scrutiny of present biofuels, algae are seriously considered as feedstocks for next-generation biofuels production. Their high productivity and the associated high lipid yields make them attractive options. In this review, we analyse a number aspects of large-scale lipid and overall algal biomass production from a biochemical and energetic standpoint. We illustrate that the maximum conversion efficiency of total solar energy into primary photosynthetic organic products falls in the region of 10%. Biomass biochemical composition further conditions this yield: 30 and 50% of the primary product mass is lost on producing cell protein and lipid. Obtained yields are one third to one tenth of the theoretical ones. Wasted energy from captured photons is a major loss term and a major challenge in maximising mass algal production. Using irradiance data and kinetic parameters derived from reported field studies, we produce a simple model of algal biomass production and its variation with latitude and lipid content. An economic analysis of algal biomass production considers a number of scenarios and the effect of changing individual parameters. Our main conclusions are that: (i) the biochemical composition of the biomass influences the economics, in particular, increased lipid content reduces other valuable compounds in the biomass; (ii) the "biofuel only'' option is unlikely to be economically viable; and (iii) among the hardest problems in assessing the economics are the cost of the CO(2) supply and uncertain nature of downstream processing. We conclude by considering the pressing research and development needs.
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  180. Microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Demirbas, M. F. 2010. Microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel. Energy Education Science and Technology Part a-Energy Science and Research. 25(1-2) 31-43

    Microalgae have long been recognized as potentially good Sources for biofuel production because of their high oil content and rapid biomass production. The oil productivity of many microalgae exceeds the best producing oil crops. In recent years, use of microalgae as an alternative biodiesel feedstock has gained renewed interest from researchers, entrepreneurs, and the general public. Biodiesel produced from microalgae is being investigated as an alternative. The lipid and fatty acid contents of microalgae vary in accordance with culture conditions. The average fatty acid contents of the algal oils are 36% oleic (18:1), 15% palmitic (16:0), 11% stearic (18:0), 8.4% iso-17:0, and 7.4% linoleic (18:2).
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  181. Methyl ester of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kaya, C.; Hamamci, C.; Baysal, A.; Akba, O.; Erdogan, S.; Saydut, A. 2009. Methyl ester of peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy. 34(5) 1257-1260

    The peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) seed oil was extracted from the seeds of the peanut that grows in SE Anatolia of Turkey. Oil was obtained in 50 wt/wt.%, by solvent extraction. Peanut (A. hypogea L) seed oil was investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of a biodiesel fuel. Biodiesel was prepared from peanut by transesterification of the crude oil with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. A maximum oil to ester conversion was 89%. The viscosity of biodiesel oil is nearer to that of petroleum diesel and the calorific value is about 6% less than that of diesel. Peanut seed oil have about 8.3% less heating value than that of diesel oil due to the oxygen content in their molecules. The quality of biodiesel is most important for engine part of view and various standards have been specified to check the quality. The important properties of peanut oil and its methyl ester (biodiesel) such as density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, iodine number, neutralization number, pour point, cloud point, cetane number are found out and compared to those of no, 2 petroleum diesel, ASTM and EN biodiesel standards. The comparison shows that the methyl ester has relatively closer fuel properties to diesel than that of raw peanut seed oil. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  182. Mass culture of microalgae on wastewater and gases from sludge burning for production of biomass feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Kong, Q. X.; Chen, P.; Ruan, R. 2007. Mass culture of microalgae on wastewater and gases from sludge burning for production of biomass feedstock for biodiesel. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 234

    Sustainability is an essential aspect of biobased economy. The development of biofuels, an important component of biobased economy, must conform to sustainable behaviours. The work is centered on development of a new biofuel strategy, in which production of high oil content microalgae for biodiesel fuel is coupled with wastewater treatment and flue gas emission control, and thus provides significant environmental benefits and improves the economic feasibility. The work addresses the two priority areas defined "Development of new biofuel resources or technologies" and "Biofuels, the environment, and the economy", and will involve expertise in multiple areas including algae production, biology, waste treatment, water quality, engineering, biomass processing, and biofuel production. Management of wastewater and associated gaseous emission is very costly and technically challenging. With increasingly stringent regulations and limits on wastewater discharge and gaseous emission, modification of current conventional processes must be made to meet these new limits. These process modifications will require substantial capital investment and would also likely substantially increase operating costs. The present proposed project takes a creative approach in which microalgae is grown on nutrients supplied from wastewater and gaseous emission from wastewater treatment plants, harvested and extracted for oil that is converted to biodiesel fuel. This would create a win-win situation where water and air conditions are preserved while renewable energy is generated. Furthermore, savings/credits from the wastewater and emission treatments will significantly improve the economic feasibility of microalgal biodiesel.
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  183. Macauba oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel: Characterization and ester conversion by the supercritical method
    Abstract

    Navarro-Diaz, H. J.; Gonzalez, S. L.; Irigaray, B.; Vieitez, I.; Jachmanian, I.; Hense, H.; Oliveira, J. V. 2014. Macauba oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel: Characterization and ester conversion by the supercritical method. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 93130-137

    In this work different samples of Brazilian macauba oil obtained from mechanical pressing were characterized and production of esters of fatty acids using a catalyst-free continuous process under supercritical alcohols was assessed. Analysis of oil samples showed that the major fatty acid on pulp oil was oleic acid (mean value 62.8%), the amount of free fatty acid (FFA) was very high (37.4-65.4%), samples contained glycerides (7.4-16.5% TAG, 14.2-16.8% DAG and 1.0-3.4% MAG) and moisture was around 1.0%. Oil was processed in a continuous reactor using supercritical methanol or ethanol and the effects of temperature (573, 598, 623 and 648K), pressure (10,15 and 20 MPa), oil to alcohol molar ratio (1:20, 1:30 and 1:40), water concentration (0, 5 and 10 wt% added) and the flow rate of reaction mixture (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mL/min) on process efficiency were evaluated. The highest ester content achieved in reactions with supercritical methanol was 78.5% (648 K, 15 MPa, 1:30 oil:methanol molar ratio, 5 wt% water and 2.5 mL/min flow rate), while with supercritical ethanol was 69.6% (598 K, 15 MPa, 1:30 oil:ethanol molar ratio, 5 wt% water and 2.0 mL/min flow rate). The extent of the reaction was explored using a novel parameter, convertibility, which corresponds to the maximum ester content attainable from the feedstock. According to the convertibility of macauba pulp oil, the highest ester content corresponded to efficiencies of 98.0% and 86.9%, respectively. Results demonstrate that macauba oil might be a potential alternative for biodiesel production, though purification steps should be taken into account to achieve biodiesel specifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  184. Low-Quality Vegetable Oils as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production Using K-Pumice as Solid Catalyst. Tolerance of Water and Free Fatty Acids Contents
    Abstract

    Diaz, L.; Borges, M. E. 2012. Low-Quality Vegetable Oils as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production Using K-Pumice as Solid Catalyst. Tolerance of Water and Free Fatty Acids Contents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 60(32) 7928-7933

    Waste oils are a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to the decrease of the industrial production costs. However, feedstock with high free fatty acids (FFA) content presents several drawbacks when alkaline-catalyzed transesterification reaction is employed in biodiesel production process. Nowadays, to develop suitable processes capable of treating oils with high free fatty acids content, a two-step process for biodiesel production is being investigated. The major problem that it presents is that two catalysts are needed to carry out the whole process: an acidic catalyst for free fatty acids esterification (first step) and a basic catalyst for pretreated product transesterification (second step). The use of a bifunctional catalyst, which allows both reactions to take place simultaneously, could minimize the production costs and time. In the present study, the behavior of pumice, a natural volcanic material used as a heterogeneous catalyst, was tested using oils with several FFA and water contents as feedstock in the transesterification reaction to produce biodiesel. Pumice as a bifunctional solid catalyst, which can catalyze simultaneously the esterification of FFA and the transesterification of fatty acid glycerides into biodiesel, was shown to be an efficient catalyst for the conversion of low-grade, nonedible oil feedstock into biodiesel product. Using this solid catalyst for the transesterification reaction, high FAME yields were achieved when feedstock oils presented a FFA content until approximately 2% wt/wt and a water content until 2% wt/wt.
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  185. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology
    Abstract

    Babajide, O.; Petrik, L.; Amigun, B.; Ameer, F. 2010. Low-Cost Feedstock Conversion to Biodiesel via Ultrasound Technology. Energies. 3(10) 1691-1703

    Biodiesel has attracted increasing interest and has proved to be a good substitute for fossil-based fuels due to its environmental advantages and availability from renewable resources such as refined and waste vegetable oils. Several studies have shown that biodiesel is a better fuel than the fossil-derived diesel in terms of engine performance, emissions reduction, lubricity and environmental benefits. The increasing popularity of biodiesel has generated great demand for its commercial production methods, which in turn calls for the development of technically and economically sound process technologies. This paper explores the applicability of ultrasound in the optimization of low-cost feedstock - in this case waste cooking oil - in the transesterification conversion to biodiesel. It was found that the conversion efficiency of the waste oil using ultrasound was higher than with the mechanical stirring method. The optimized variables of 6.1 methanol/oil ratio at a reaction temperature of 30 degrees C and a reaction time of 30 min and 0.75% KOH (wt/wt) catalyst concentration was obtained for the transesterification of the waste oil via the use of ultrasound.
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  186. Long term storage stability of biodiesel: Influence of feedstock, commercial additives and purification step
    Abstract

    Serrano, M.; Martinez, M.; Aracil, J. 2013. Long term storage stability of biodiesel: Influence of feedstock, commercial additives and purification step. Fuel Processing Technology. 116135-141

    In the present work, the effect of four commercial additives, three synthetic (AO1, AO2 and AO3) and one natural based antioxidant (AO4), on the oxidation stability of biodiesel after six months of storage was investigated. Biodiesel fuel was obtained from different vegetable oils: Soybean, rapeseed, high oleic sunflower and palm methyl ester (SBME, RME, HOSME and PME, respectively). The influence of the washing agent used in the purification step (distilled water or a citric acid solution) was also studied. Samples were stored for a 6 month period at room temperature and not exposed to day light. Propyl gallate based antioxidant was found to provide the best oxidative stability after the storage period. Biodiesel obtained from low unsaturated feedstocks, such as palm oil, presented more oxidative stability than higher unsaturated oils, such as soybean oil. By purifying methyl ester phase with citric acid, the washing agent volume required resulted reduced. The antioxidant characteristic of citric acid enhanced the IP values of the samples, retarding the oxidation process. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  187. Lipids of Basidial Fungi as Feedstock for Biodiesel Fuel Production
    Abstract

    Al'myasheva, N. R.; Sharipova, D. A.; Barkov, A. V.; Karakhanov, E. A.; Kulikov, A. B.; Maksimov, A. L.; Vinokurov, V. A. 2015. Lipids of Basidial Fungi as Feedstock for Biodiesel Fuel Production. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 51(4) 411-421

    The scientific literature on the influence of various factors on the lipid content and composition in biomass of basidial fungi was reviewed. The influence of carbon and nitrogen sources, C:N ratio, temperature, and pH of the medium on the biomass yield and lipid fatty-acid content and composition was analyzed for various basidial fungi. The most promising substrate for biodiesel fuel production was vegetable residues and/or waste liquors. The culture conditions should be chosen with a view to maximizing the biomass yield and monounsaturated fatty-acid content in the fungal lipids.
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  188. Lipid quality of the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Navicula gregaria from the South Atlantic Coast (Argentina): evaluation of its suitability as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Popovich, C. A.; Damiani, C.; Constenla, D.; Leonardi, P. I. 2012. Lipid quality of the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Navicula gregaria from the South Atlantic Coast (Argentina): evaluation of its suitability as biodiesel feedstock. Journal of Applied Phycology. 24(1) 1-10

    Since the fatty acid ester profile of a given biofuel is relatively consistent with the source's fatty acid profile, the properties of the biodiesel produced from a particular feedstock exhibit predictable quality. Thus, lipid fractions and the fatty acid composition of stationary growth-phase cultures of the local strains of the diatoms Skeletonema costatum and Navicula gregaria were analysed to evaluate their suitability as biodiesel feedstock. Total lipid content was 20.83 pg cell(-1) in S. costatum and 19.17 pg cell(-1) in N. gregaria. Neutral lipids were the main fraction of total lipids in both species, accounting for ca. 65% and 76%, respectively. S. costatum was predominant in saturated fatty acids (SFAs; 43.48 %) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs; 40.11%), while N. gregaria was predominant in MUFAs (54.85%), followed by SFAs (33.42%). In S. costatum, the main fatty acids in neutral lipid fraction were myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic and oleic acids, while the main ones in N. gregaria were palmitic and palmitoleic acids. The oils extracted from these species presented linolenic acid contents within biodiesel's quality specifications. However, in neutral lipid fraction both species showed eicosapentaenoic acid levels higher than the required limit. The lipid quality analysed in both species suggests that a biodiesel derived from these oils may present an acceptable cetane number, but likely poor cold-flow properties. This baseline information is useful for future research tending to find more suitable conditions in order to improve oil yield. In addition, both estuarine species neither compete with agriculture for food nor require farmland nor fresh water.
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  189. Lipid analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis to assess its potential use as a biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Damiani, M. C.; Popovich, C. A.; Constenla, D.; Leonardi, P. I. 2010. Lipid analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis to assess its potential use as a biodiesel feedstock. Bioresource Technology. 101(11) 3801-3807

    The lipid content and composition of Haematococcus pluvialis exposed to stress conditions were analyzed to assess the potential of this microalga as a biodiesel feedstock. The total lipid content of control cells was 15.61% dw, whereas that of cells exposed to continuous high light intensity with nitrogen-sufficient medium (A-stress condition) or under continuous high light intensity with nitrogen-deprivation medium (B-stress condition) was 34.85% dw and 32.99% dw, respectively. The fatty acid profile was similar under all conditions and indicated that the main components were palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and linolelaidic acids. The neutral lipid fraction increased about 2-fold under both stress conditions. The percentage of saturated fatty acids in the neutral lipid fraction was 30.36% and 29.62% in cultures grown under A-stress and B-stress, respectively, and 27.81% under control conditions. The monounsaturated fatty acid content was not significantly different in control and A-stress cultures (20.07% and 19.91%, respectively), but was 18.96% under B-stress. The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was 47.23% under B-stress and 43.15% under A-stress. Growth-rate was higher under A-stress compared to B-stress. This is the first study of H. pluvialis that provides a detailed characterization of its lipid content in relation to bioenergy. The results indicate the potential of this microalga as a biodiesel feedstock; however, culture conditions still have to be improved in order to achieve an adequate energy balance in mass culture. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  190. Lipid analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis to assess its potencial use as a biodiesel feedstock (vol 101, pg 3801, 2010)
    Abstract

    Damiani, M. C.; Popovich, C. A.; Constenla, D.; Leonardi, P. I. 2010. Lipid analysis in Haematococcus pluvialis to assess its potencial use as a biodiesel feedstock (vol 101, pg 3801, 2010). Bioresource Technology. 101(18) 7190-7190

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  191. Lipase-coated K2SO4 micro-crystals: Preparation, characterization, and application in biodiesel production using various oil feedstocks
    Abstract

    Zheng, J. J.; Xu, L.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, X. Y.; Yan, Y. J. 2012. Lipase-coated K2SO4 micro-crystals: Preparation, characterization, and application in biodiesel production using various oil feedstocks. Bioresource Technology. 110224-231

    This study investigated the preparation and characteristics of protein-coated microcrystals (PCMCs) from Pseudomonas cepacia lipase (PS) and K2SO4, and their application in biodiesel synthesis, via single factorial experiments and response surface methodology (RSM), the optimized PCMC-PS exhibited high activity and stability; the optimal temperature was 60 degrees C (which gave 99.83% conversion), although fairly high activity was exhibited after incubation at different temperatures (25-70 degrees C). The organic solvents stability of the PCMC-PS was improved, and it significantly reduced ethanol toxicity. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis revealed the correlation between the conformation and the enzyme activity. The morphology of the PCMC-PS was also confirmed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When catalyzed by PCMC-PS, above 83% biodiesel yield was obtained for most of the seven oils tested. The PCMC-PS (washed with hexane) activity remained relatively stable after eight batch reactions, with only a 15.73% reduction in the conversion (from 99.02% to 83.29%). (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  192. Latest trends in feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract
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  193. A laboratory investigation on the effects of unsaturated bonds and chain lengths of different biodiesel feedstocks on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane emissions under low-temperature combustion
    Abstract

    Omidvarborna, H.; Kumar, A.; Kim, D. S. 2016. A laboratory investigation on the effects of unsaturated bonds and chain lengths of different biodiesel feedstocks on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane emissions under low-temperature combustion. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 4(4) 4769-4775

    Biodiesel fuel is produced from various types of feedstock and as a result, its chemical composition and exhaust emissions may vary depending on the feedstock type. In this study, combustion of three biodiesel fuels derived from soybean methyl ester (SME), waste cooking oil (WCO), and tallow oil (TO) was carried out separately in a combustion chamber to better understand the effects of feedstock type on carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH4) emissions under low-temperature combustion (LTC) and fuel-rich conditions. Additionally, blended biodiesel fuels, B20 and B50, with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) of these biodiesel fuels were examined. From the impact of different biodiesel feedstocks on combustion parameters, linear relationships were observed between the fuels and the peak combustion temperature and pressure (R-2 values ranging from 0.82 to 0.98). ULSD showed the highest emission of CO and the lowest emissions of CO2 and CH4 among the other fuels. Compared to ULSD, it was found that the use of pure biodiesel fuels reduced the CO and enhanced CO2 emissions by a factor of 1/3 and 3, respectively. Biodiesel fuel with a high degree of unsaturation and high portion of long methyl esters such as SME appeared to produce more CO and less CO2 emissions than those with low degrees of unsaturation and short chain lengths (WCO and TO). It is thought that the length of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) affects the emissions because shorter chains, which contain less unsaturated structures, have the high oxygen-to-carbon ratio. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  194. Isolation of a novel strain of Monoraphidium sp and characterization of its potential application as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Yu, X. Y.; Zhao, P.; He, C.; Li, J. J.; Tang, X. H.; Zhou, J. P.; Huang, Z. X. 2012. Isolation of a novel strain of Monoraphidium sp and characterization of its potential application as biodiesel feedstock. Bioresource Technology. 121256-262

    A novel green microalgae strain from Lake Fuxian has been isolated and identified as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The novel strain was named Monoraphidium sp. FXY-10 based on its morphological and genomic characterization. The lipid productivities, fatty acid profiles, and microalgae recovery efficiency (eta(a)) of FXY-10 were investigated and compared under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. FXY-10 under autotrophic conditions exhibited a higher cellular lipid content (56.8%) than those under heterotrophic conditions (37.56%). However, FXY-10 growing under heterotrophic conditions exhibited more than 20-fold increase in lipid productivity compared with that under autotrophic conditions (148.74 mg L-1 d(-1) versus 6.88 mg L-1 d(-1)). Moreover, higher saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (77.5%) of FXY-10 was obtained under heterotrophic culture conditions, suggesting its potential as a biodiesel feedstock. Gravity sedimentation was proposed as the harvesting biomass method based on the 97.9% microalgae recovery efficiency of heterotrophic cells after settling for 24 h. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  195. Isolation of a euryhaline microalgal strain, Tetraselmis sp CTP4, as a robust feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Pereira, H.; Gangadhar, K. N.; Schulze, P. S. C.; Santos, T.; de Sousa, C. B.; Schueler, L. M.; Custodio, L.; Malcata, F. X.; Gouveia, L.; Varela, J. C. S.; Barreira, L. 2016. Isolation of a euryhaline microalgal strain, Tetraselmis sp CTP4, as a robust feedstock for biodiesel production. Scientific Reports. 6

    Bioprospecting for novel microalgal strains is key to improving the feasibility of microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta, Chlorodendrophyceae) was isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) in order to screen novel lipid-rich microalgae. CTP4 is a robust, euryhaline strain able to grow in seawater growth medium as well as in non-sterile urban wastewater. Because of its large cell size (9-22 mu m), CTP4 settles down after a six-hour sedimentation step. This leads to a medium removal efficiency of 80%, allowing a significant decrease of biomass dewatering costs. Using a two-stage system, a 3-fold increase in lipid content (up to 33% of DW) and a 2-fold enhancement in lipid productivity (up to 52.1 mg L-1 d(-1)) were observed upon exposure to nutrient depletion for 7 days. The biodiesel synthesized from the lipids of CTP4 contained high levels of oleic acid (25.67% of total fatty acids content) and minor amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids with >= 4 double bonds (< 1%). As a result, this biofuel complies with most of the European (EN14214) and American (ASTM D6751) specifications, which commonly used microalgal feedstocks are usually unable to meet. In conclusion, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 displays promising features as feedstock with lower downstream processing costs for biomass dewatering and biodiesel refining.
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  196. Investigations on supercritical transesterification of chicken fat for biodiesel production from low-cost lipid feedstocks
    Abstract

    Marulanda, V. F.; Anitescu, G.; Tavlarides, L. L. 2010. Investigations on supercritical transesterification of chicken fat for biodiesel production from low-cost lipid feedstocks. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 54(1) 53-60

    Batch experiments on chicken fat reactions with methanol were performed at supercritical conditions to answer basic questions regarding the transesterification characteristics such as reactant ratios, lipid and reaction product thermal stability, reaction reversibility, nature of the intermediates, and glycerol consumption. The experiments were conducted at temperatures of 300-400 degrees C, pressures up to 41.1 MPa, methanol to triglyceride molar ratios of 3:1 and 6:1, and reaction times from 2 to 6 min. The results show that the transesterification process to produce biodiesel from low-cost lipid feedstocks with low excess of methanol and without glycerol generation is technically feasible. Since thermal decomposition of chicken fat at these temperatures is an important issue to be considered, batch experiments with emphasis on this aspect were also carried out. It was found that the thermal decomposition of chicken fat was not significant if heated up to 350 degrees C which will permit preheating the feedstock up to this temperature in a more practical flow process. Additional experiments showed that the overall transesterification at these conditions is not reversible and that the byproduct glycerol thermally decomposed and reacted with methanol to form ethers and other fuel components. The use of low-cost lipid feedstocks and moderate excess of methanol, associated with glycerol in situ consumption, has the potential to increase biodiesel profitability for continuous flow processes that are coupled with power generation. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  197. Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel Feedstock on the Performance and Emissions of a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine
    Abstract

    Cecrle, E.; Depcik, C.; Duncan, A.; Guo, J.; Mangus, M.; Peltier, E.; Stagg-Williams, S.; Zhong, Y. 2012. Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel Feedstock on the Performance and Emissions of a Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine. Energy & Fuels. 26(4) 2331-2341

    Biodiesel fuels may serve as a partial solution in the search for sustainable energy sources for the transportation sector. However, increased nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions are a potentially significant drawback to the use of biodiesel fuels that must be addressed if biodiesel is to gain widespread acceptance. One approach is to identify specific biodiesel fuel properties that minimize NOx formation and use these to produce lower NOx fuel blends, In this work, seven biodiesel fuels were produced from high-erucic rapeseed, olive, palm, coconut, soybean, and fresh and used canola oils, with their chemical composition determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The fuels were then burned in a single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine and evaluated for both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. While all biodiesels had higher brake-specific nitric oxide (NO) emissions than ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) at low engine loads, olive, palm, coconut, and canola biodiesels performed better than ULSD at 50% loading and above. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), CO, and unburned hydrocarbon emissions were generally lower from the biodiesel fuels than ULSD. Palm biodiesel consistently generated the lowest brake-specific NOx levels of all tested fuels. Statistical analysis of the results showed that higher fuel hydrogen/carbon molar ratios, low polyunsaturation levels, and lower fuel density were all significantly associated with reduced NO emissions in the tested biodiesel fuels but no clear trends were observed for NO2. The results suggest that pathways exist for tailoring the fuel properties of biodiesel blends to reduce nitrogen oxide emission compared to current fuels.
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  198. Investigation of physical and chemical properties of potential edible and non-edible feedstocks for biodiesel production, a comparative analysis
    Abstract

    Atabani, A. E.; Badruddin, I. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Chong, W. T.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Lee, K. T. 2013. Investigation of physical and chemical properties of potential edible and non-edible feedstocks for biodiesel production, a comparative analysis. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 21749-755

    Recently, non-edible vegetable oils have been considered as prospective feedstocks for biodiesel production. This is mainly attributed to their ability to overcome the problems of food versus fuel crisis related to edible oils. Globally, there are more than 350 oil-bearing crops identified as potential sources for biodiesel production. The evaluation of the physical and chemical properties of non-edible feedstocks is very important to assess their viability for future biodiesel production. Therefore, this paper aims to study the properties of some potential non-edible feedstocks. Moreover, the paper studies the physical and chemical properties of these promising crops and compares them with other edible oils. These oils include: crude Calophyllum inophyllum L. (CCIO), Jatropha curcas L (CJCO), Sterculia foetida L. (CSFO), Croton megalocarpus L. (CCMO), Moringa oleifera L. (CMOO), patchouli (CPO), coconut (CCO), palm (CPaO), canola (CCaO), soybean (CSO) and Pangim edule (CPEO) oils. 14 Different properties have been determined and presented in this study. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  199. Investigation of heterogeneous solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstocks for biodiesel production: A review
    Abstract

    Mansir, N.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Rashid, U.; Lokman, I. M. 2017. Investigation of heterogeneous solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstocks for biodiesel production: A review. Energy Conversion and Management. 141171-182

    The conventional fossil fuel reserves are continually declining worldwide and therefore posing greater challenges to the future of the energy sources. Biofuel alternatives were found promising to replace the diminishing fossil fuels. However, conversion of edible vegetable oils to biodiesel using homogeneous acids and base catalysts is now considered as indefensible for the future particularly due to food versus fuel competition and other environmental problems related to catalyst system and feedstock. This review has discussed the progression in research and growth related to heterogeneous catalysts used for biodiesel production for low grade feedstocks. The heterogeneous base catalysts have revealed effective way to produce biodiesel, but it has the limitation of being sensitive to high free fatty acid (FFA) or low grade feedstocks. Alternatively, solid acid catalysts are capable of converting the low grade feedstocks to biodiesel in the presence of active acid sites. The paper presents a comprehensive review towards the investigation of solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstock, their category, properties, advantages, limitations and possible remedy to their drawbacks for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  200. Investigating "Egusi" (Citrullus Colocynthis L.) Seed Oil as Potential Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Giwa, S.; Abdullah, L. C.; Adam, N. M. 2010. Investigating "Egusi" (Citrullus Colocynthis L.) Seed Oil as Potential Biodiesel Feedstock. Energies. 3(4) 607-618

    Biodiesel's acceptance as a substitute for fossil-derived diesel has grown the world over. However, the food-fuel debate over conventional vegetable oils has rekindled research interest in exploring lesser known and minor oil crops. In this work, egusi melon seed oil was studied for the first time as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Crude egusi melon seed oil was transesterified using sodium methoxide as the catalyst at 60 C and an oil/methanol ratio of 1: 6 to produce its corresponding methyl esters. Egusi melon oil methyl ester (EMOME) yield was 82%. Gas chromatographic analysis of EMOME showed that it was composed mainly of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic esters, which is similar to the profile of sunflower, soybean and safflower oil. All the measured fuel properties of EMOME satisfied both the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Fuel properties of EMOME were essentially identical with those of soybean, safflower and sunflower biodiesel. Remarkably, the kinematic viscosity of EMOME was measured to be 3.83 mm(2)/s, a value lower than most biodiesel fuels reported in the literature. The potential of egusi melon seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock is clearly presented in this study.
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  201. Integration of algae cultivation as biodiesel production feedstock with municipal wastewater treatment: Strains screening and significance evaluation of environmental factors
    Abstract

    Li, Y. C.; Zhou, W. G.; Hu, B.; Min, M.; Chen, P.; Ruan, R. R. 2011. Integration of algae cultivation as biodiesel production feedstock with municipal wastewater treatment: Strains screening and significance evaluation of environmental factors. Bioresource Technology. 102(23) 10861-10867

    The objectives of this study are to find the robust strains for the centrate cultivation system and to evaluate the effect of environmental factors including light intensity, light-dark cycle, and exogenous CO(2) concentration on biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrient removal and biodiesel production. The results showed that all 14 algae strains from the genus of Chlorella, Haematococcus, Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas, and Chloroccum were able to grow on centrate. The highest net biomass accumulation (2.01 g/L) was observed with Chlorella kessleri followed by Chlorella protothecoides (1.31 g/L), and both of them were proved to be capable of mixotrophic growth when cultivated on centrate. Environmental factors had significant effect on algal biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrients removal and biodiesel production. Higher light intensity and exogenous CO(2) concentration with longer lighting period promote biomass accumulation, biodiesel production, as well as the removal of chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen, while, lower exogenous CO(2) concentration promotes phosphorus removal. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  202. INOR 162-Mesoporous silica-supported catalysts for the production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing feedstocks
    Abstract

    Zafiropoulos, N. A.; Ngo, H. L.; Samulski, E. T.; Foglia, T. A.; Lin, W. B. 2007. INOR 162-Mesoporous silica-supported catalysts for the production of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing feedstocks. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 234

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  203. Influence of Feedstock: Air Pollution and Climate-Related Emissions from a Diesel Generator Operating on Soybean, Canola, and Yellow Grease Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Lackey, L. G.; Paulson, S. E. 2012. Influence of Feedstock: Air Pollution and Climate-Related Emissions from a Diesel Generator Operating on Soybean, Canola, and Yellow Grease Biodiesel. Energy & Fuels. 26(1) 686-700

    Global use of biodiesel is increasing rapidly. Combustion of biodiesel changes the emissions profile of diesel engines, altering their impact on both urban air pollution and climate. Here, we characterize exhaust emissions from conventional petroleum diesel and three neat biodiesels manufactured from soybean, canola, and yellow grease feedstocks. Exhaust was sampled from a fixed-speed 4.8 kW diesel generator at idle and full loads, and mass emission rates were determined for nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, and NOx, particulate matter (PM), and elemental, organic, and black carbon (EC, OC, and BC). Additionally, particle size distributions were characterized. Largely consistent with a growing body of data on emissions from biodiesel, biodiesel emissions were cleaner by most metrics than those for conventional diesel. Emissions from the two primary-oil fuels, synthesized from soy and canola feedstocks, were cleaner by most metrics than emissions from diesel, producing approximately 55, 65, and 60% less PM, EC, and OC at engine idle and 40, 20, and 15% less at engine load. In addition, while primary-oil NOx emissions were 5% higher than diesel emissions at engine idle, they were more than 30% lower at engine load. Yellow grease emissions of PM, EC, and OC were reduced in comparison to diesel at engine idle by 60, 30, and 20%. However, at engine load, most yellow grease emissions were increased in comparison to diesel, resulting in approximately 5, 60, and 70% more PM, EC, and OC. Organic vapor emissions from primary-oil biodiesels were also lower, and aromatic emissions were much lower compared to diesel. Yellow grease NOx emissions were increased in comparison to diesel by approximately 5% at engine idle and 10% at engine load. Notably, NO2 accounted for a smaller fraction of NOx for all three biodiesels compared to diesel, a difference that may be more important than the somewhat higher NOx emissions in determining the impact of biodiesel on urban ozone formation. Taken together, our results suggest that widespread implementation of primary-oil biodiesels could result in improvements in urban ozone and PM pollution. In addition, by reducing both the mass and the EC content of those particles, primary-oil biodiesels may reduce anthropogenic climate forcing.
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  204. Influence of feedstock source on the biocatalyst stability and reactor performance in continuous biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Silva, W. C. E.; Teixeira, L. F.; Carvalho, A. K. F.; Mendes, A. A.; de Castro, H. F. 2014. Influence of feedstock source on the biocatalyst stability and reactor performance in continuous biodiesel production. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 20(3) 881-886

    A biodiesel process in a packed bed reactor was used as a model system to show the strong dependence of the reactor behavior on the developing of chemical environment within the reactor. Ethanolysis runs of babassu and macaw palm oils were carried out in a solvent-free system using Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on silica-PVA matrix. The best performance was found for the reactor running on macaw palm oil, which resulted in a stable operating system and an average yield of 87.6 +/- 2.5%. This strategy also gave high biocatalyst operational stability, revealing a half-life of 478 h. (C) 2013 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  205. Influence of feedstock and process chemistry on biodiesel quality
    Abstract

    Saraf, S.; Thomas, B. 2007. Influence of feedstock and process chemistry on biodiesel quality. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 85(B5) 360-364

    Biodiesel production in the United States is anticipated to double by 2010. Biodiesel's characteristics and performance as a fuel vary depending on its composition, and the fuel composition has to be stringently monitored to avoid adverse impacts on the environment and engines. The final biodiesel composition depends on the initial feedstock, as well as on the reaction conversions and process separation efficiencies. The thermo-physical properties depend upon factors such as chain length, branching, and degree of saturation. Impurities in biodiesel, either due to side-reactions, unreacted feedstock, or non-fatty acid constituents, may increase pollutants. This paper focuses on chemical composition of commonly used feedstocks for biodiesel manufacturing and provides an overview of the process chemistry.
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  206. Inexpensive oil and fats feedstocks for production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Demirbas, A. H. 2009. Inexpensive oil and fats feedstocks for production of biodiesel. Energy Education Science and Technology Part a-Energy Science and Research. 23(1-2) 1-13

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based fuels derived from edible and inedible vegetable oils, animal fats, and used waste cooking oil including triglycerides. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petrodiesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free Of Sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future; it has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits. Biodiesel obtained from waste cooking vegetable oils, tallow fat and poultry fat have been considered promising options. Waste cooking oil is available with relatively cheap price for biodiesel production in comparison with fresh vegetable oil costs.
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  207. Industrial by-products of plum Prunus domestica L. and prunus cerasifera Ehrh. as potential biodiesel feedstock: Impact of variety
    Abstract

    Gornas, P.; Rudzinska, M.; Soliven, A. 2017. Industrial by-products of plum Prunus domestica L. and prunus cerasifera Ehrh. as potential biodiesel feedstock: Impact of variety. Industrial Crops and Products. 10077-84

    Kernels recovered from fruit pits (industrial by-products) of twenty-eight plum varieties of two species Prunus domestica L. and Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. were studied as potential biodiesel feedstock. The lowest (22.7% (w/w) on dry weight basis (dw)) and the highest (53.2% (w/w) dw) oil yields in the tested varieties differed by almost two-fold. The levels of oleic and linoleic acids, the two dominant fatty acids in plum kernel oils, were significantly (p <= 0.05) affected by the variety and ranged between 46.2-70.7% and 22.6-45.3%, respectively. Two significant correlations were found between the oil yield in kernels of different plum varieties of both species and two fatty acids, oleic and linoleic acids. The European biodiesel standards of kinematic viscosity, cetane number, density and iodine value were met for all studied samples. Recorded differences between minimum and maximum value of individual biodiesel parameters obtained for various plum Varieties were: 4.7 (cetane number), 0.20 mm(2)/s (kinematic viscosity), 0.0022 g/cm(3) (density), 0.01 MJ/kg (higher heating value), 2.63 degrees C (CFPP), 2.61 h (induction period) and 14.7 J(2)/100g (iodine value). The logarithmic regression model in comparison to linear regres-sion model, better expressed the relationship between physicochemical properties of biofuel and the Sigma PUFA/(Sigma SFA + Sigma MUFA) ratio; where Sigma PUFA, Sigma SFA and Sigma MUFA are the sure of polyunsaturated, sat-urated and monounsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Regardless of the species, P. cerasifera Ehrh. vs. P. domestica L., a similar variation of all study parameters was noted. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  208. Increased production of biodiesel feedstock in microalgae
    Abstract

    Tekinay, T.; Angun, P.; Ozkan, A. D.; Demiray, Y. E.; Cakmak, T. 2011. Increased production of biodiesel feedstock in microalgae. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 22S49-S49

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  209. Incorporating SPME and Spray Desorption Collection to evaluate the odor compounds associated with biodiesel feedstocks
    Abstract

    Thompson, J. G.; Miller, J. B.; Bertman, S.; Sarvestani, A. K.; Venter, A. 2010. Incorporating SPME and Spray Desorption Collection to evaluate the odor compounds associated with biodiesel feedstocks. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 240

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  210. Improving Acid Number Testing of Biodiesel Feedstock and Product
    Abstract

    Kovacs, A.; Czinkota, I.; Toth, J. 2012. Improving Acid Number Testing of Biodiesel Feedstock and Product. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 89(3) 409-417

    The acidity of low and high free fatty acid containing feedstock varieties and biodiesel production intermediary products were tested using a variety of standard methods by the use of manual and automatic titration apparatus. The objective was to select the optimal test method for intermediary products in biodiesel processing and to optimize the selected technique by reducing the extent of bias. We found that there are two major reasons for variations in electrode potential readings. Colloid chemistry has an impact on the initial phase of titration by breakage and reformulation of the partially disperse system. Electric and magnetic fields in the titration beaker were the main reasons for sensitive fluctuations in electrode potentials in the potential range of interest for acid number readings. Refluxing the analyte with the diluting solvent proved to be an efficient technique to offset the influence of colloid processes. Addition of a filter electrolyte to the titration solvent allowed the filter fluctuations to be related to changes in uniformity of electric and magnetic fields in the titration beaker. Addition of filter electrolyte improved signal reliability than shading the external noises by wrapping the titration beaker in aluminium foil. Mathematical interpretation of potential readings revealed the extent of improvement in electrode potential fluctuation by the techniques employed. Both the aqueous and non-aqueous titration are suitable for accurate testing the acid number of biodiesel feedstock and intermediary products.
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  211. Improvement on oxidation and storage stability of biodiesel derived from an emerging feedstock camelina
    Abstract

    Yang, J.; He, Q. S.; Corscadden, K.; Caldwell, C. 2017. Improvement on oxidation and storage stability of biodiesel derived from an emerging feedstock camelina. Fuel Processing Technology. 15790-98

    Camelina is recognized as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. Similarly to biodiesel derived from other vegetable oils, the oxidative stability is not satisfactory. This issue can be addressed by treating biodiesel with synthetic antioxidants to increase its resistance to oxidation. This study examined the effectiveness of four commonly used antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA), tert-butylhydrooquinone (TBHQ) and propyl gallate (PrG) on both oxidation stability and storage stability of camelina biodiesel. The antioxidative activity of four antioxidants was found to be in the order of BHA < BHT < PrG < TBHQ; The oil stability index (OSI) of camelina biodiesel was increased (>= 8 h), meeting the stability requirement regulated in EN 14214:2014, through adding either 2000 ppm BHT, 1000 ppm PrG or 1000 ppm TBHQ, Regarding the long term storage, it was predicted that treating camelina biodiesel with 3000 ppm TBHQ was enable satisfactory oxidation stability to be maintained for one year. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  212. Improvement of cold filter plugging point of biodiesel from alternative feedstocks
    Abstract

    Echim, C.; Maes, J.; De Greyt, W. 2012. Improvement of cold filter plugging point of biodiesel from alternative feedstocks. Fuel. 93(1) 642-648

    The present investigation evaluates the effectiveness of different strategies to improve cold flow properties of biodiesel from vegetable and animal origin containing highly saturated methyl esters. In this purpose palm, tallow, chicken and jatropha biodiesel samples were blended with higher unsaturated methyl esters such as soybean and rapeseed biodiesel samples, alongside cold flow improvers. Furthermore, the influence of removing the minor components such as steryl glucosides and monoglycerides from biodiesel samples on the CFPP was studied. Appropriate blend ratio and additive choice are discussed for practical usage at climate of maximum 0 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C. In general, the CFPP of the biodiesel samples with poor cold flow properties was improved by formulation with biodiesel samples exhibiting better cold flow properties and/or additivation. However, the removal of minor components did not improve the CFPP. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  213. Improvement of Biomass Production by Chlorella sp MJ 11/11 for Use as a Feedstock for Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Ghosh, S.; Roy, S.; Das, D. 2015. Improvement of Biomass Production by Chlorella sp MJ 11/11 for Use as a Feedstock for Biodiesel. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 175(7) 3322-3335

    Algal biomass is gaining importance for biofuel production as it is rich in lipids. It becomes more significant when biomass is produced by capturing atmospheric greenhouse gas, CO2. In the present study, the effect of different physicochemical parameters were studied on the biomass and lipid productivity in Chlorella sp. MJ 11/11. The different parameters viz. initial pH, nitrate concentration, and phosphate concentration were optimized using single-parameter studies. The interactions between the parameters were determined statistically using the Box-Behnken design of optimization. The optimal values were decided by analyzing them with response surface methodology. The optimum levels of the parameters (pH 6.5, nitrate concentration 0.375 g L-1, and phosphate concentration 0.375 mL L-1) yielded a maximum biomass concentration of 1.26 g L-1 at a constant light intensity of 100 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) and temperature of 30 A degrees C. The effect of CO2 concentration on the biomass production was also investigated and was found to be a maximum of 4 g L-1 at 5 % air-CO2 mixture (v/v). Maximum lipid content of 24.6 % (w/w) was observed at 2 % air-CO2 mixture (v/v). Fatty acid analyses of the obtained algal biomass suggested that they could be a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  214. The impacts of biodiesel feedstock production systems in South Africa: An application of a Partial Equilibrium Model to the Eastern Cape Social Accounting Matrix
    Abstract

    Adeyemo, O.; Wise, R.; Brent, A. 2011. The impacts of biodiesel feedstock production systems in South Africa: An application of a Partial Equilibrium Model to the Eastern Cape Social Accounting Matrix. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. 22(1) 2-11

    In this paper the impacts of biodiesel feedstock production in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is assessed through the application of a Partial Equilibrium Model to the Eastern Cape Social Accounting Matrix, using canola production in the Province as an 'external shock'. Six economic indicators were estimated. The results show that investment in biodiesel production in the Eastern Cape will generate, in 2007 terms, an additional GDP of R18.1 million and 410 employment opportunities per annum, R24.3 million per annum over an assumed lifetime of 20 years in capital formation, R2.1 million additional income generated in low income households, increase in government revenue, and a positive balance of payment. These indicators imply that, given the parameters that are accounted for in a Partial Equilibrium Model, every Rand invested in canola projects in the Eastern Cape will, overall, be of socio-economic advantage to the Province. It is envisaged that further applications of such models may lead to a better understanding of the implications of biofuels in the South African economy, and thereby inform decision- and policy-making in terms of the sustainability of biofuels production systems in general.
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  215. Impacts of biodiesel feedstock and additives on criteria emissions from a heavy-duty engine
    Abstract

    Hajbabaei, M.; Karavalakis, G.; Johnson, K. C.; Guthrie, J.; Mitchell, A.; Durbin, T. D. 2014. Impacts of biodiesel feedstock and additives on criteria emissions from a heavy-duty engine. Fuel Processing Technology. 126402-414

    The reduction of emissions from diesel engines has been a key element in obtaining air quality and greenhouse gas reduction goals. Biodiesel is an important alternative fuel for diesel applications, but there is a tendency for biodiesel to increase nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, which remains an issue in nonattainment areas. This study investigated the effect of using low blend level biodiesel fuels and fuel additives on emissions. Emissions from three B5 biodiesel fuels and six B20-soybean oil methyl ester (SME) with additive blends were evaluated as potential biodiesel formulations for California. B5-SME and B5-waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) both showed measurable increases in NOx emissions, while a B5-animal fat methyl ester (AFME) showed a slight reduction or no change in NOx emissions compared to the CARB diesel. The B5-AFME blend also passed the criteria of the CARE diesel emissions equivalent certification test. Of the additives tested, only one provided reductions in NOx emissions for the B20-SME blends, but the reductions were not enough to pass the CARE diesel emissions equivalent certification test at the B20 level. Biodiesel blends generally showed either reductions or no significant changes in particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  216. Impact of feedstock diversification on the cost-effectiveness of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Gulsen, E.; Olivetti, E.; Freire, F.; Dias, L.; Kirchain, R. 2014. Impact of feedstock diversification on the cost-effectiveness of biodiesel. Applied Energy. 126281-296

    While biodiesel production and consumption for use in transportation has risen considerably over the last decade, its competitiveness in the marketplace is largely due to regulatory and fiscal support from governmental bodies, exceeding $25 billion in 2010 in the EU and US alone. The price of feedstocks represent 80-85% of the total biodiesel cost, and with over 350 different oil feedstocks available for blending, there is potential to optimize feedstock blends to reduce costs. This paper presents a chanceconstrained optimization model that considers the technical constraints of conventional, first generation feedstocks, pricing trends, as well as the uncertainty and variation latent within these numbers. Further, the frequency with which a feedstock blend portfolio should be re-evaluated is considered through a case study. The model is then applied to a second case study for actual fuel constraint scenarios used in the EU and US. The results demonstrate the potential for substantial cost savings through targeted feedstock diversification, minimizing risks to producers from price fluctuations while still meeting technical fuel standards. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  217. Identification of target genes and processes involved in erucic acid accumulation during seed development in the biodiesel feedstock Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.)
    Abstract

    Claver, A.; Rey, R.; Lopez, M. V.; Picorel, R.; Alfonso, M. 2017. Identification of target genes and processes involved in erucic acid accumulation during seed development in the biodiesel feedstock Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.). Journal of Plant Physiology. 2087-16

    We studied erucic acid accumulation in the biodiesel feedstock Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) as a first step towards the development of a sustainable strategy for biofuel production in the EU territory. To that end, two inbred Pennycress lines of European origin, "NASC" and "French," were cultivated in a controlled chamber and in experimental field plots, and their growth, seed production and seed oil characteristics analyzed. Differences in some agronomical traits like vernalization (winter-French versus spring-NASC), flowering time (delayed in the French line) and seed production (higher in the French line) were detected. Both lines showed a high amount (35-39%)of erucic acid (22:1(boolean AND 13)) in their seed oil. Biochemical characterization of the Pennycress seed oil indicated that TAG was the major reservoir of 22:1(Delta 13). Incorporation of 22:1(Delta 13) to TAG occurred very early during seed maturation, concomitant with a decrease of desaturase activity. This change in the acyl fluxes towards elongation was controlled by different genes at different levels. TaFAE1 gene, encoding the fatty acid elongase, seemed to be controlled at the transcriptional level with high expression at the early stages of seed development. On the contrary, the TaFAD2 gene that encodes the Delta 12 fatty acid desaturase or TaDGAT1 that catalyzes TAG biosynthesis were controlled post-transcriptionally. TaWRI1, the master regulator of seed-oil biosynthesis, showed also high expression at the early stages of seed development. Our data identified genes and processes that might improve the biotechnological manipulation of Pennycress seeds for high-quality biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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  218. Identification of biodiesel feedstock in biodiesel/diesel blends using digital images and chemometric methods
    Abstract

    Costa, G. B.; Fernandes, D. D. S.; Almeida, V. E.; Maia, M. S.; Araujo, M. C. U.; Veras, G.; Diniz, P. H. G. D. 2016. Identification of biodiesel feedstock in biodiesel/diesel blends using digital images and chemometric methods. Analytical Methods. 8(24) 4949-4954

    This study aims to identify the biodiesel feedstock (cottonseed, sunflower, corn or soybean oil) in biodiesel/diesel blends using digital images and chemometric methods. For this purpose, colour histograms (extracted from digital images) coupled with supervised pattern recognition techniques: Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and the Successive Projections Algorithm for variable selection associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA) were used. SPA-LDA coupled with intensity histograms provided better results by selecting 12 variables alone, achieving only one error of classification in the external validation (test) set. Thus, the proposed methodology presents a noteworthy eco-friendly approach for identifying the biodiesel feedstock in biodiesel/diesel blends using a simple, fast, inexpensive and non-destructive analytical tool.
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  219. An ideal feedstock, kusum (Schleichera triguga) for preparation of biodiesel: Optimization of parameters
    Abstract

    Sharma, Y. C.; Singh, B. 2010. An ideal feedstock, kusum (Schleichera triguga) for preparation of biodiesel: Optimization of parameters. Fuel. 89(7) 1470-1474

    Kusum (Schleichera triguga), a non-edible oil bearing plant has been used as an ideal feedstock for biodiesel development in the present study. Various physical and chemical parameters of the raw oil and the fatty acid methyl esters derived have been tested to confirm its suitability as a biodiesel fuel. The fatty acid component of the oil was tested by gas chromatography. The acid value of the oil was determined by titration and was found to 21.30 mg KOH/g which required two step transesterification. Acid value was brought down by esterification using sulfuric acid (H(2)SO(4)) as a catalyst. Thereafter, alkaline transesterification was carried out using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst for conversion of kusum oil to its methyl esters. Various parameters such as molar ratio, amount of catalyst and reaction time were optimized and a high yield (95%) of biodiesel was achieved. The high conversion of the feedstock into esters was confirmed by analysis of the product on gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Viscosity and acid value of the product biodiesel were determined and found to be within the limits of ASTM D 6751 specifications. Elemental analysis of biodiesel showed presence of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and absence of nitrogen and sulfur after purification. Molar ratio of methanol to oil was optimized and found to be 10: 1 for acid esterification, and 8: 1 for alkaline transesterification. The amounts of H(2)SO(4) and KOH, 1% (v/v) and 0.7% (w/w), respectively, were found to be optimum for the reactions. The time duration of 1 h for acid esterification followed by another 1 h for alkaline transesterification at 50 +/- 0.5 degrees C was optimum for synthesis of biodiesel. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  220. A hybrid feedstock for a very efficient preparation of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Sharma, Y. C.; Singh, B. 2010. A hybrid feedstock for a very efficient preparation of biodiesel. Fuel Processing Technology. 91(10) 1267-1273

    Biodiesel has been synthesized from karanja, mahua and hybrid (karanja and mahua (50:50 v/v)) feedstocks. A high yield in the range of 95-97% was obtained with all the three feedstocks. Conversion of vegetable oil to fatty acid methyl esters was found to be 98.6%, 95.71% and 94% for karanja, mahua and hybrid feedstocks respectively. The optimized reaction parameters were found to be 6:1 (methanol to oil) molar ratio, H(2)SO(4) (1.5% v/v), at 55 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 1 h during acid esterification for the three feedstocks. During alkaline transesterification, a molar ratio of 8:1 (methanol to oil), 0.8 wt.% KOH (wt/wt) at 55 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 1 h was found to be optimum to achieve high yield for karanja oil. For mahua oil and the hybrid feedstock, 6:1 (methanol to oil) molar ratio, 0.75 (w/w) KOH at 55 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 1 h was optimum for alkaline transesterification to obtain a high yield. High yield and conversion from hybrid feedstock during transesterification reaction was an indication that the reaction was not selective for any particular oil. (1)H NMR has been used for the determination of conversion of the feedstock to biodiesel. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  221. A Highly Stable Soybean Oil-Rich Miscella Obtained by Ethanolic Extraction as a Promising Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Bueno-Borges, L. B.; de Camargo, A. C.; Sangaletti-Gerhard, N.; dos Santos, G. C. P.; de Alencar, S. M.; Shahidi, F.; Regitano-d'Arce, M. A. B. 2017. A Highly Stable Soybean Oil-Rich Miscella Obtained by Ethanolic Extraction as a Promising Biodiesel Feedstock. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 94(8) 1101-1109

    Soybean oil is industrially obtained upon hexane extraction. In biodiesel production, soybean oil is submitted to phospholipid removal in order to improve its quality before transesterification. An extraction process was employed to produce ethanolic oil-rich miscella, which can be directly transesterified to produce biodiesel without prior refining. We assessed the oxidative stability of the miscella and three other soybean oils, namely degummed, alkali-refined, and refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) oil. In vitro antioxidant assays as well as the identification and quantification of tocopherols and isoflavones were also performed. Although hexane-extracted oils showed higher tocopherol contents than miscella, this latter sample and its direct biodiesel demonstrated superior stability in accelerated tests. Miscella also outperformed hexane-extracted oils in all in vitro assays. This behavior can be explained by the presence of phenolic compounds with higher affinity to ethanol than hexane, which was confirmed by the identification of isoflavones glycitein, genistein, and acetyldaidzin, found only in miscella. This study showed that the ethanolic extraction of soybean oil generated a highly stable lipid feedstock for biodiesel manufacture.
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  222. High Yield and Conversion of Biodiesel from a Nonedible Feedstock (Pongamia pinnata)
    Abstract

    Sharma, Y. C.; Singh, B.; Korstad, J. 2010. High Yield and Conversion of Biodiesel from a Nonedible Feedstock (Pongamia pinnata). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(1) 242-247

    An efficient approach has been adopted for the synthesis of biodiesel developed from karanja, a nonedible oil feedstock. A two-step reaction was followed for synthesis of biodiesel. Karanja oil possessing a high free fatty acid content was esterified with sulfuric acid, and the product obtained was further converted to fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) by transesterification reactions. A moderate molar ratio of 6:1 (methanol/oil) was efficient for acid esterification with 1.5% v/v H(2)SO(4) and 1 h of reaction time at 60 +/- 0.5 degrees C, which resulted in reduction of FFA from 19.88 to 1.86 mg of KOH/g. During alkaline transesterification, 8:1 molar ratio (methanol/oil), 0.8 wt % sodium hydroxide (NaOH), 1.0 wt % sodium methoxide (CH(3)ONa), or 1.0 wt % potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst at 60 0.5 degrees C gave optimized yield (90-95%) and high conversion (96-100%). Optimum times for alkaline transesterification were 45 min for CH(3)ONa and 1 h for NaOH and KOH. Conversion of karanja oil feedstock to its respective fatty acid methyl esters was identified on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and determined by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography. The fuel properties, such as cetane number of the methyl ester synthesized, were studied and found to be within the limits and specification of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14112 except for oxidation stability.
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  223. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from northern australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel
    Abstract

    Duong, V. T.; Ahmed, F.; Thomas-Hall, S. R.; Quigley, S.; Nowak, E.; Schenk, P. M. 2015. High protein- and high lipid-producing microalgae from northern australia as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 353

    Microalgal biomass can be used for biodiesel, feed, and food production. Collection and identification of local microalgal strains in the Northern Territory, Australia was conducted to identify strains with high protein and lipid contents as potential feedstock for animal feed and biodiesel production, respectively. A total of 36 strains were isolated from 13 samples collected from a variety of freshwater locations, such as dams, ponds, and streams and subsequently classified by 18S rDNA sequencing. All of the strains were green microalgae and predominantly belong to Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Desmodesmus sp., Chlamydomonas sp., Pseudomuriella sp., Tetraedron caudatum, Graesiella emersonii, and Mychonastes timauensis. Among the fastest growing strains, Scenedesmus sp. NT1d possessed the highest content of protein; reaching up to 33% of its dry weight. In terms of lipid production, Chlorella sp. NT8a and Scenedesmus dimorphus NT8e produced the highest triglyceride contents of 116.9 and 99.13 mug mL(-1) culture, respectively, as measured by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy of fatty acid methyl esters. These strains may present suitable candidates for biodiesel production after further optimization of culturing conditions, while their protein-rich biomass could be used for animal feed.
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  224. High free fatty acid coconut oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand
    Abstract

    Nakpong, P.; Wootthikanokkhan, S. 2010. High free fatty acid coconut oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in Thailand. Renewable Energy. 35(8) 1682-1687

    Coconut oil having 12.8% free fatty acid (FFA) was used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel by a two-step process. In the first step, FFA level of the coconut oil was reduced to 0.6% by acid-catalyzed esterification. In the second step, triglycerides in product from the first step were transesterified with methanol by using an alkaline catalyst to produce methyl esters and glycerol. Effect of parameters related to these processes was studied and optimized, including methanol-to-oil ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time. Methyl ester content of the coconut biodiesel was determined by GC to be 98.4% under the optimum condition. The viscosity of coconut biodiesel product was very close to that of Thai petroleum diesel and other measured properties met the Thai biodiesel (B100) specification. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  225. The high flexibility of small scale biodiesel plants production of methyl esters in high quality using various feedstocks
    Abstract

    Mittelbach, M. 1996. The high flexibility of small scale biodiesel plants production of methyl esters in high quality using various feedstocks. 2nd European Motor Biofuels Forum, Proceedings. 183-187

    The high flexibility of small scale biodiesel production plants is demonstrated by means of the experience of the cooperatively organized plant in Mureck, Austria. In that plant biodiesel from rape seed oil and from used frying oil is produced. The aims and preliminary results of a pilot project for the decentralized collection and processing of used frying oil as well as the use of the produced methyl esters are presented. The requirements for an efficient quality control and the corresponding analytical methods are outlined.
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  226. High cell density cultivation of a novel Aurantiochytrium sp strain TC 20 in a fed-batch system using glycerol to produce feedstock for biodiesel and omega-3 oils
    Abstract

    Chang, K. J. L.; Dumsday, G.; Nichols, P. D.; Dunstan, G. A.; Blackburn, S. I.; Koutoulis, A. 2013. High cell density cultivation of a novel Aurantiochytrium sp strain TC 20 in a fed-batch system using glycerol to produce feedstock for biodiesel and omega-3 oils. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 97(15) 6907-6918

    A recently isolated Australian Aurantiochytrium sp. strain TC 20 was investigated using small-scale (2 L) bioreactors for the potential of co-producing biodiesel and high-value omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Higher initial glucose concentration (100 g/L compared to 40 g/L) did not result in markedly different biomass (48 g/L) or fatty acid (12-14 g/L) yields by 69 h. This comparison suggests factors other than carbon source were limiting biomass production. The effect of both glucose and glycerol as carbon sources for Aurantiochytrium sp. strain TC 20 was evaluated in a fed-batch process. Both glucose and glycerol resulted in similar biomass yields (57 and 56 g/L, respectively) by 69 h. The agro-industrial waste from biodiesel production-glycerol-is a suitable carbon source for Aurantiochytrium sp. strain TC 20. Approximately half the fatty acids from Aurantiochytrium sp. strain TC 20 are suitable for development of sustainable, low emission sources of transportation fuels and bioproducts. To further improve biomass and oil production, fortification of the feed with additional nutrients (nitrogen sources, trace metals and vitamins) improved the biomass yield from 56 g/L (34 % total fatty acids) to 71 g/L (52 % total fatty acids, cell dry weight) at 69 h; these yields are to our knowledge around 70 % of the biomass yields achieved, however, in less than half of the time by other researchers using glycerol and markedly greater than achieved using other industrial wastes. The fast growth and suitable fatty acid profile of this newly isolated Aurantiochytrium sp. strain TC 20 highlights the potential of co-producing the drop-in biodiesel and high value omega-3 oils.
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  227. Heterogeneous Catalyst and Process for the Production of Biodiesel from High Free-Fatty Acid-Containing Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Banavali, R.; Hanlon, R. T.; Jerabek, K.; Schultz, A. K. 2009. Heterogeneous Catalyst and Process for the Production of Biodiesel from High Free-Fatty Acid-Containing Feedstocks. Catalysis of Organic Reactions. 123279-+

    We will present research describing our newly developed polymeric catalyst technology which enables the production of biodiesel from feedstocks containing high levels (> 1 wt %) of free fatty acids (FFAs). Current biodiesel manufacture via alkali-catalyzed transesterification of an oil or fat is now limited by both cost and availability of refined feedstocks. While non-refined feed stocks, Such as crude palm oil, rendered animal fat, and yellow and brown greases, are inexpensive and readily available, the high FFA contents of these feedstocks limits their use since the acids unfavorably react with the base catalysts employed in transesterification. Because of this, conventional biodiesel technology typically limits feedstock FFA to < 0.1 wt %. We will present our work using a novel polymer catalyst for esterifying the FFA present in greases (1-100 wt %) to their corresponding methyl esters in quantitative yields. The resulting ester-oil stream can then be readily converted to biodiesel by base-catalyzed transesterification. The novel catalyst overcomes the drawbacks of traditional catalysts Such as limited catalyst life time, slow reaction rates, and low conversions. We will also discuss the chemistry of catalyst functionality, and flow these properties relate to improved catalytic activity, reaction rates, kinetics, and mechanisms. We will also describe a continuous process with reactor design optimized for conversion, longevity, ease of use, and economic impact.
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  228. Heterogeneous alkaline earth metal-transition metal bimetallic catalysts for synthesis of biodiesel from low grade unrefined feedstock
    Abstract

    Kwong, T. L.; Yung, K. F. 2015. Heterogeneous alkaline earth metal-transition metal bimetallic catalysts for synthesis of biodiesel from low grade unrefined feedstock. Rsc Advances. 5(102) 83748-83756

    A bimetallic alkaline earth metal-transition metal oxide, synthesized through a method of direct low-temperature decomposition of the bimetallic complex, is reported for the synthesis of biodiesel. Due to the high phase purity of the Ca/Fe catalytic system and its catalytic stability and robustness, the Ca/Fe catalyst was selected for further investigation. A transesterification conversion of 99.5% could be achieved in 1 h under the optimal conditions: feedstock to methanol, 1 : 20; catalyst loading, 6 wt%; temperature, 120 degrees C. ANOVA tests suggested that the reaction temperature was discerned as the most prominent factor which contributed 82.84% to the overall catalytic feedstock conversion. In addition, the Ca/Fe catalytic system demonstrated a high FFA tolerance of 2 wt% and a water tolerance of 1 wt% with remarkable catalytic activity in one-step biodiesel synthesis.
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  229. Heterogeneous Acid-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production from Crude Tall Oil: A Low-Grade and Less Expensive Feedstock
    Abstract

    Mkhize, N. M.; Sithole, B. B.; Ntunka, M. G. 2015. Heterogeneous Acid-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production from Crude Tall Oil: A Low-Grade and Less Expensive Feedstock. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology. 35(5) 374-385

    The present study indicates that solid acid catalysis of crude tall oil (CTO) over a WO3/ZrO2 catalyst is effective in converting the CTO fatty acids components into biodiesel in high yield. Preparation of the catalyst by an impregnation method was selected and WO3 activity was best at a loading mass fraction of 5% to ZrO2 support and activation at 500 degrees C for five hours under air at atmospheric pressure. Optimal reaction conditions were reaction temperature at 250 degrees C; methanol to CTO molar ratio at 10; reaction time four hours, catalyst mass fraction of 3%; and stirring intensity at 625 rpm. The conversion at optimal reaction conditions was 70%. The catalyst was highly active at temperatures higher than 200 degrees C. The biodiesel produced met some, but not all, the diesel quality parameters stipulated by standard specifications such as ASTM D6751 and EN14214.
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  230. Growth and lipid accumulation characteristics of Scenedesmus obliquus in semi-continuous cultivation outdoors for biodiesel feedstock production
    Abstract

    Feng, P. Z.; Yang, K.; Xu, Z. B.; Wang, Z. M.; Fan, L.; Qin, L.; Zhu, S. N.; Shang, C. H.; Chai, P.; Yuan, Z. H.; Hu, L. 2014. Growth and lipid accumulation characteristics of Scenedesmus obliquus in semi-continuous cultivation outdoors for biodiesel feedstock production. Bioresource Technology. 173406-414

    In an effort to identify suitable microalgal species for biodiesel production, seven species were isolated from various habitats and their growth characteristics were compared. The results demonstrated that a green alga Scenedesmus obliquus could grow more rapidly and synthesize more lipids than other six microalgal strains. S. obliquus grew well both indoors and outdoors, and reached higher mu(max) indoors than that outdoors. However, the cells achieved higher dry weight (4.36 g L-1), lipid content (49.6%) and productivity (183 mg L-1 day(-1)) outdoors than in indoor cultures. During the 61 days semi-continuous cultivation outdoors, high biomass productivities (450-550 mg L-1 day(-1)) and mu(max) (1.05-1.44 day(-1)) were obtained. The cells could also achieve high lipid productivities (151-193 mg L-1 day(-1)). These results indicated that S. obliquus was promising for lipids production in semi-continuous cultivation outdoors. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  231. Green microalga Chlorella vulgaris as a potential feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Mallick, N.; Mandal, S.; Singh, A. K.; Bishai, M.; Dash, A. 2012. Green microalga Chlorella vulgaris as a potential feedstock for biodiesel. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 87(1) 137-145

    BACKGROUND: A major bottleneck in microalgal biodiesel production is lipid content, which is often low in microalgal species. The present study examines Chlorella vulgaris as a potential feedstock for biodiesel by identifying and evaluating the relationships between the critical variables that enhance the lipid yield, and characterizes the biodiesel produced for various properties.
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  232. Green biodiesel production: a review on feedstock, catalyst, monolithic reactor, and supercritical fluid technology
    Abstract

    Gumba, R. E.; Saallah, S.; Misson, M.; Ongkudon, C. M.; Anton, A. 2016. Green biodiesel production: a review on feedstock, catalyst, monolithic reactor, and supercritical fluid technology. Biofuel Research Journal-Brj. 3(3) 431-447

    The advancement of alternative energy is primarily catalyzed by the negative environmental impacts and energy depletion caused by the excessive usage of fossil fuels. Biodiesel has emerged as a promising substitute to petrodiesel because it is biodegradable, less toxic, and reduces greenhouse gas emission. Apart from that, biodiesel can be used as blending component or direct replacements for diesel fuel in automotive engines. A diverse range of methods have been reported for the conversion of renewable feedstocks (vegetable oil or animal fat) into biodiesel with transesterification being the most preferred method. Nevertheless, the cost of producing biodiesel is higher compared to fossil fuel, thus impeding its commercialization potentials. The limited source of reliable feedstock and the underdeveloped biodiesel production route have prevented the full-scale commercialization of biodiesel in many parts of the world. In a recent development, a new technology that incorporates monoliths as support matrices for enzyme immobilization in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) for continuous biodiesel production has been proposed to solve the problem. The potential of SC-CO2 system to be applied in enzymatic reactors is not well documented and hence the purpose of this review is to highlight the previous studies conducted as well as the future direction of this technology. (C) 2016 BRTeam. All rights reserved.
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  233. Graphical method to select vegetable oils as potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Viola, E.; Zimbardi, F.; Valerio, V. 2011. Graphical method to select vegetable oils as potential feedstock for biodiesel production. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 113(12) 1541-1549

    Chemical compositions of 80 vegetable oils were collected from literature and the properties of the obtainable biodiesel (methyl esters) have been predicted by empirical relationships. The purpose has been to check the viability of predicting if a biodiesel could meet the EN 14214 standards knowing only the fatty acid profile (FAP) of the parent oil. Two parameters were used in this investigation: (i) average number of carbon atoms in the fatty acid chains, (ii) average number of double bonds (C=C) per molecule. Two new empirical relationships have been proposed to predict the viscosity and the cetane number of biodiesel from the two parameters. The range of values of the two parameters leading to biodiesel meeting the EN 14214 standard for viscosity, cetane number, iodine value, and cold filter plugging point have been graphically obtained by overlapping the corresponding level surfaces.
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  234. Genetic manipulation, a feasible tool to enhance unique characteristic of Chlorella vulgaris as a feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Talebi, A. F.; Tohidfar, M.; Tabatabaei, M.; Bagheri, A.; Mohsenpor, M.; Mohtashami, S. K. 2013. Genetic manipulation, a feasible tool to enhance unique characteristic of Chlorella vulgaris as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Molecular Biology Reports. 40(7) 4421-4428

    Developing a reliable technique to transform unicellular green algae, Chlorella vulgaris, could boost potentials of using microalgae feedstock in variety of applications such as biodiesel production. Volumetric lipid productivity (VLP) is a suitable variable for evaluating potential of algal species. In the present study, the highest VLP level was recorded for C. vulgaris (79.08 mg l(-1) day(-1)) followed by 3 other strains studied; C. emersonii, C. protothecoides, and C. salina by 54.41, 45 and 18.22 mg l(-1)day(-1), respectively. Having considered the high productivity of C. vulgaris, it was selected for the preliminary transformation experiment through micro-particle bombardment. Plasmid pBI 121, bearing the reporter gene under the control of CaMV 35S promoter and the kanamycin marker gene, was used in cells bombardment. Primary selection was done on a medium supplemented by 50 mg l(-1) kanamycin. After several passages, the survived cells were PCR-tested to confirm the stability of transformation and then were found to exhibit beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity in comparison with the control cells. Southern hybridization of npt II probe with genomic DNA revealed stable integration of the cassette in three different positions in the genome. The whole process was successfully implemented as a pre-step to transform the algal cells by genes involved in lipid production pathway which will be carried out in our future studies.
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  235. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Nehdi, I. A.; Sbihi, H.; Tan, C. P.; Al-Resayes, S. I. 2012. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 126193-197

    Lepidium sativum L (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  236. Functional properties of neem oil as potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bhandare, P.; Naik, G. R. 2015. Functional properties of neem oil as potential feedstock for biodiesel production. International Letters of Natural Sciences. 347-14

    Fossil fuel resources are decreasing daily while biodiesel fuels are attracting increasing attention worldwide as blending components or direct replacements for diesel fuel in vehicle engines. In this experiment the seed oils of 30 Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. juss) biotypes were screened and evaluated for their physio-chemical parameters for oil content, biodiesel yield, density, viscosity, iodine value, free fatty acid and saponification value. Hence the neem seed oil tested in this current study could be the potential sources of raw material for biodiesel production.
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  237. Fuel property enhancement of biodiesel fuels from common and alternative feedstocks via complementary blending
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R. 2016. Fuel property enhancement of biodiesel fuels from common and alternative feedstocks via complementary blending. Renewable Energy. 85819-825

    Fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) prepared from field pennycress and meadowfoam seed oils were blended with methyl esters from camelina, cottonseed, palm, and soybean oils in an effort to ameliorate technical deficiencies inherent to these biodiesel fuels. For instance, camelina, cottonseed, and soybean oil-derived biodiesels exhibited poor oxidative stabilities but satisfactory kinematic viscosities. Field pennycress and meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters yielded excellent cold flow properties but high kinematic viscosities. Thus, field pennycress and meadowfoam-derived biodiesel fuels were blended with the other biodiesels to simultaneously ameliorate cold flow, oxidative stability, and viscosity deficiencies inherent to the individual fuels. Highly linear correlations were noted between blend ratio and cold flow as well as viscosity after least squares statistical regression whereas a non-linear relationship was observed for oxidative stability. Equations generated from statistical regression were highly accurate at predicting KV, reasonably accurate for prediction of cold flow properties, and less accurate at predicting oxidative stability. In summary, complementary blending enhanced fuel properties such as cold flow, kinematic viscosity, and oxidative stability of biodiesel. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  238. FUEL 36-Catalytic production of biodiesel from high fatty acid-containing feedstocks
    Abstract

    Lin, W. B.; Zafiropoulos, N. A.; Ngo, H. L.; Samulski, E. T.; Foglia, T. A. 2007. FUEL 36-Catalytic production of biodiesel from high fatty acid-containing feedstocks. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 234

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  239. Fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans: A potential feedstock for high quality biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mandotra, S. K.; Kumar, P.; Suseela, M. R.; Ramteke, P. W. 2014. Fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans: A potential feedstock for high quality biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 15642-47

    Present investigation studied the potential of fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans as a feedstock for biodiesel production. To study the biomass and lipid yield, the culture was grown in BBM, Modified CHU-13 and BG-11 medium. Among the tested nitrogen concentration using Modified CHU-13 medium, the highest biomass and lipid yield of 1.113 +/- 0.05 g/L and 489 +/- 23 mg/L respectively was found in the culture medium with 0.32 g/L of nitrogen (KNO3). Different lipid extraction as well as transesterification methods were also tested. Fatty acid profile of alga grown in large scale indigenous made photobioreactor has shown abundance of fatty acids with carbon chain length of C16 and C18. Various biodiesel properties such as cetane number, iodine value and saponification value were found to be in accordance with Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP255) and European biodiesel standard EN14214 which makes S. abundans as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  240. Fluid properties needed in supercritical transesterification of triglyceride feedstocks to biodiesel fuels for efficient and clean combustion - A review
    Abstract

    Anitescu, G.; Bruno, T. J. 2012. Fluid properties needed in supercritical transesterification of triglyceride feedstocks to biodiesel fuels for efficient and clean combustion - A review. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 63133-149

    This review focuses on the potential synergy between fluid properties and supercritical (SC) processing/combustion of biodiesel fuels. These fuels are the extenders/expanders of choice for petroleum-derived diesel fuels (PDDF) due to overall performance in the environment, safety, feedstock, and fuel quality. A typical biodiesel fuel meets commercial specifications of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM D6751) or European Union (EN 14214). Biodiesel fuels, mainly mixtures of fatty acid methyl or ethyl esters (FAMES or FAEEs), are currently produced by base/acid catalytic transesterification (BAC-TE) of triglyceride feedstocks with methanol or ethanol. These methods require refined oil feedstocks and complex product separation/purification that leads to noncompetitive prices compared with PDDFs. Alternatively, a noncatalytic technology based on SC-TE processing of various lipid feedstocks has been reported to mitigate these drawbacks. One version of this technology, the one-step SC-TE method, potentially has major advantages over the BAC-TE, mainly due to shorter reaction times (5-9 min versus 1-6 h) and the reduction of glycerol to acceptable ASTM levels in fuels of superior quality. The latter advantage originates from glycerol and polyunsaturated FAME/FAEE thermal conversion to lighter fuel products. Based on technical and economic analyses, the manufacturing cost of biodiesel fuels from a one-step SC-TE process could be one half of the BAC-TE current cost. To optimize biodiesel fuel production and quality, leading to a more efficient and clean combustion, a close connection between fluid properties and fuel processing/combustion must be considered. Insights from recent case studies and real-world examples of applications of the principles of sustainability in the development and implementation of biodiesel fuel projects are given. The review includes sustainability metrics, resource efficiency, and sustainable process integration. These themes are woven together into a perspective on how sustainability and green-chemistry principles are being implemented for cost-effective biodiesel fuel production and advanced combustion. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  241. Feedstocks for Second-Generation Biodiesel: Microalgae's Biology and Oil Composition
    Abstract

    Leonardi, P. I.; Popovich, C. A.; Damiani, M. C. 2011. Feedstocks for Second-Generation Biodiesel: Microalgae's Biology and Oil Composition. Economic Effects of Biofuel Production. 317-346

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  242. Feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bart, J. C. J.; Palmeri, N.; Cavallaro, S. 2010. Feedstocks for biodiesel production. Biodiesel Science and Technology: From Soil to Oil. (7) 130-225

    Globally dominating feedstocks for biodiesel production nowadays are mainly rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm oils; animal fats (tallow) and recycled frying oils are minor contributors. This chapter describes the main characteristics of the major and minor first-generation foodstocks for biodiesel production and the short-to medium-term prospects of second-generation, non-edible feedstocks (in particular Jatropha and algae) and various highly acidic, low-quality oils for the same purpose. Biodiesel outlooks are differing geographically as a result of the prevailing agronomic and climatic conditions. Important developments can be observed in various parts of the world.
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  243. Feedstocks for advanced biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Pinzi, S.; Dorado, M. P. 2012. Feedstocks for advanced biodiesel production. Advances in Biodiesel Production: Processes and Technologies. (39) 69-90

    This chapter presents the most frequent vegetable-based feedstocks for biodiesel production. It introduces first generation biodiesel and focuses on second generation biodiesel with emphasis on low-cost raw materials. Vegetable oils from non-edible plants, frying oils and animal fats constitute the most extensively studied raw materials for second generation biodiesel. In this chapter, other raw materials such as soapstocks or oils for green diesel production are reviewed. Finally, feedstocks for advanced biodiesel production, such as microbial oils (also named single cell oils) or microdiesel are studied, as they are considered to be among the promising raw materials for third generation biodiesel production. The chapter finishes with a brief overview about the biorefinery concept.
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  244. Feedstock options for second-generation biodiesel mixes
    Abstract

    Weirauch, W. 2008. Feedstock options for second-generation biodiesel mixes. Hydrocarbon Processing. 87(7) 27-+

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  245. Feedstock and process influence on biodiesel produced from waste sewage sludge
    Abstract

    Capodaglio, A. G.; Callegari, A. 2017. Feedstock and process influence on biodiesel produced from waste sewage sludge. J Environ Manage.

    Disposal of sewage sludge is one of the most important issues in wastewater treatment throughout Europe, as EU sludge production, estimated at 9.5 million tons dry weight in 2005, is expected to approach 13 million tons in 2020. While sludge disposal costs may constitute 30-50% of the total operation costs of wastewater treatment processes, waste sewage sludge still contains resources that may be put to use, like nutrients and energy, that can be recovered through a variety of approaches. Research has shown that waste sewage sludge can be a valuable and very productive feedstock for biodiesel generation, containing lipids (the fats from which biofuels are extracted) in amounts that would require large areas cultivated with typical biodiesel feedstock, to produce, and at a much lower final cost. Several methods have been tested for the production of biodiesel from sewage sludge. To date, among the most efficient such process is pyrolysis, and in particular Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis (MAP), under which process conditions are more favorable in energetic and economic terms. Sludge characteristics are very variable, depending on the characteristics of the wastewater-generating service area and on the wastewater treatment process itself. Each sludge can be considered a unique case, and as such experimental determination of the optimal biodiesel yields must be conducted on a case-by-case basis. In addition to biodiesel, other pyrolysis products can add to the energetic yield of the process (and not only). This paper discusses how feedstock properties and process characteristics may influence biodiesel (and other products) yield from pyrolytic (and in particular, MAP) processes, and discusses future possible technological developments.
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  246. Feasibility of triacyiglycerol production for biodiesel, utilizing Rhodococcus opacus as a biocatalyst and fishery waste as feedstock
    Abstract

    Palmer, J. D.; Brigham, C. J. 2016. Feasibility of triacyiglycerol production for biodiesel, utilizing Rhodococcus opacus as a biocatalyst and fishery waste as feedstock. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 56922-928

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be produced via bacterial fermentation by the oleaginous Gram-positive microorganism Rhodococcus opacus strain PD630 in regulated, nutrient-deprived conditions with sufficient carbon supply. Microbially produced TAGs may be further refined via transesterification into biodiesel and glycerol, with 3 mole of biodiesel and 1 mole of glycerol produced from every 1 mole of TAG by chemical conversion. Large-scale industrial production of biodiesel has been conducted for over a decade, yet microbially derived biodiesel has been, up to this point, absent from the biodiesel market. The use of a novel feedstock, chitin, from New England fishery waste may present a viable, cost-effective, unexplored carbon feedstock source for local biodiesel development. Availability and implementation of chitin as a feedstock, along with analysis of potential fuel characteristics, yield promising results for future industrial development of biodiesel production from R. opacus PD630 TAGs in regional locations with large lobster, shrimp, and crab harvesting operations around the world. With declining resources of fossil fuels and increased societal awareness of carbon emissions and climate change, an analytical review of this nature is critically relevant. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  247. Feasibility of hydrogen production from steam reforming of biodiesel (FAME) feedstock on Ni-supported catalysts
    Abstract

    Nahar, G.; Dupont, V.; Twigg, M. V.; Dvininov, E. 2015. Feasibility of hydrogen production from steam reforming of biodiesel (FAME) feedstock on Ni-supported catalysts. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 168228-242

    The catalytic steam reforming of biodiesel was examined over Ni-alumina and Ni-ceria-zirconia catalysts at atmospheric pressure. Effects of temperatures of biodiesel preheating/vaporising (190-365 degrees C) and reforming (600-800 degrees C), molar steam to carbon ratio (S/C=2-3), and residence time in the reformer, represented by the weight hourly space velocity 'WHSV' of around 3 were examined for 2 h. Ni supported on calcium aluminate and on ceria-zirconia supports achieved steady state hydrogen product stream within 90% of the equilibrium yields, although 4% and 1% of the carbon feed had deposited on the catalysts, respectively, during the combined conditions of start-up and steady state. Addition of dopants to ceria-zirconia supported catalyst decreased the performance of the catalyst. Increase in S/C ratio had the expected positive effects of higher H-2 yield and lower carbon deposition. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  248. Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Gui, M. M.; Lee, K. T.; Bhatia, S. 2008. Feasibility of edible oil vs. non-edible oil vs. waste edible oil as biodiesel feedstock. Energy. 33(11) 1646-1653

    Biodiesel has high potential as a new and renewable energy source in the future, as a substitution fuel for petroleum-derived diesel and can be used in existing diesel engine without modification. Currently, more than 95% of the world biodiesel is produced from edible oil which is easily available on large scale from the agricultural industry. However, continuous and large-scale production of biodiesel from edible oil without proper planning may cause negative impact to the world, such as depletion of food supply leading to economic imbalance. A possible solution to overcome this problem is to use non-edible oil or waste edible oil (WEO). In this context, the next question that comes in mind would be if the use of non-edible oil overcomes the short-comings of using edible oil. Apart from that, if WEO were to be used, is it sufficient to meet the demand of biodiesel. All these issues will be addressed in this paper by discussing the advantages and disadvantages of using edible oil vs. non-edible vs. WEO as feedstock for biodiesel production. The discussion will cover various aspects ranging from oil composition, oil yield, economics, cultivation requirements, land availability and also the resources availability. Finally, a proposed solution will be presented. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  249. Fatty-Acid Compositions of Three Strains of Blue-Green Algae Biomass, a Potential Feedstock for Producing Biodiesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Ten, L. N.; Kim, J. H.; Chae, S. M.; Yoo, S. A. 2015. Fatty-Acid Compositions of Three Strains of Blue-Green Algae Biomass, a Potential Feedstock for Producing Biodiesel Fuel. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 51(4) 756-757

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  250. Fatty Acid Composition of Basidiomycetes Lipids - a Promising Feedstock for Obtaining Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Sharipova, D. A.; Kopitsyn, D. S.; Ziangirova, M. Y.; Novikov, A. A.; Vinokurov, V. A. 2016. Fatty Acid Composition of Basidiomycetes Lipids - a Promising Feedstock for Obtaining Biodiesel. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 52(3) 255-260

    Xylotrophic basidial fungi capable of accumulating lipids while growing on inedible plant materials are a promising source of feedstock for obtaining biodiesel. Thirty strains of xylotrophic basidial fungi were screened for the accumulation of lipids, and the content of fatty acids in nine strains chosen by screening was determined. It was shown that the Piptoporus betulines MT-30.04 and Russula puellaris MT-32.06 strains are characterized by maximum content of oleic acid in the lipids and are therefore most promising as lipid formers for biodiesel production.
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  251. Fatty acid composition as an efficient tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R. 2013. Fatty acid composition as an efficient tool for screening alternative feedstocks for production of biodiesel. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 246

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  252. Extrication of biodiesel feedstock from early stage of food waste liquefaction
    Abstract

    Redzwan, G.; Amin, M. M.; Zulkarnain, N. N.; Abu Mansor, M. R.; Annuar, M. S. M.; Ilham, Z. 2017. Extrication of biodiesel feedstock from early stage of food waste liquefaction. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 19(2) 676-681

    Biodiesel is commonly produced from vegetable oils, mostly edible and more expensive than petroleum diesel. By considering the cost of the conversion processes, cheap feedstock such as triglycerides and fatty acids (FA) extracted from early stage of food waste liquefaction has become a better choice than vegetable oils, as it could provide high yield of biodiesel without any compromise to food supply and other resources. In this study, FA from early stage of food waste liquefaction was extracted and tested for use as feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. The raw material was not pretreated but extraction was done by dry and wet methods. It was found that wet method could minimized the lost of short and medium-chained FA as well as reducing the number of steps required, thus, yielding higher amount of FA as feedstock. The effects of mixing, methanol ratio, reaction time and catalyst content were investigated for the acid-catalyzed esterification. The maximum biodiesel conversion obtained was 97.4 %.
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  253. Extraction and characterization of triglycerides from coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Armah-Agyeman, G.; Gyamerah, M.; Biney, P. O.; Woldesenbet, S. 2016. Extraction and characterization of triglycerides from coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 96(13) 4390-4397

    BACKGROUND: Although switchgrass has been developed as a biofuel feedstock and its potential for bioethanol and bio-oil from fast pyrolysis reported in the literature, the use of the seeds of switchgrass as a source of triglycerides for biodiesel production has not been reported. Similarly, the potential for extracting triglycerides from coffeeweed (an invasive plant of no current economic value) needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic use for biodiesel production.
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  254. Extracted fat from lamb meat by supercritical CO2 as feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Taher, H.; Al-Zuhair, S.; AlMarzouqui, A.; Hashim, I. 2011. Extracted fat from lamb meat by supercritical CO2 as feedstock for biodiesel production. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 55(1) 23-31

    The feasibility of enzymatic production of biodiesel from waste animal fats using supercritical fluid technology for the extraction and reaction has been investigated. The operating conditions that resulted in the optimum extraction and biodiesel production yields were identified. The effects of extraction temperature, pressure and supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) flow rate were investigated in the ranges of 35-55 degrees C, 300-500 bar and of 3-5 ml min(-1), respectively, and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). In addition, the effects of reaction temperature, methanol:fat molar ratio and enzyme loading on biodiesel production yield were investigated in the ranges of 35-60 degrees C, 3:1-6:1 and 10-50%, respectively. The optimum conditions for supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were determined to be 45 degrees C, 500 bar and 3 ml min(-1); at which, 87.4% of total fat content was extracted from freeze dried meat. The statistical analysis however, showed that pressure has negligible effect on the extraction yield, which is extremely important, as it allows saving energy by using lower pressure. On the other hand, biodiesel yield of 40% was obtained using extracted fat as feedstock in SC-CO2 medium at 50 degrees C, 200 bar, 4:1 methanol:fat molar ratio and 30% loading of lipase enzyme, after 24h of reaction. The experimental results were used to fit a suitable reaction kinetic model using non-linear regression analysis to estimate the model parameters. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  255. Exploring the potential of grease from yellow mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) as a novel biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Zheng, L. Y.; Hou, Y. F.; Li, W.; Yang, S.; Li, Q.; Yu, Z. N. 2013. Exploring the potential of grease from yellow mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) as a novel biodiesel feedstock. Applied Energy. 101618-621

    Biodiesel has been considered as one of the promising non-fossil fuels, but its development also have promoted a drastic debate due to its current production status, such as oilseeds dependency, arable land requirement, high cost and long-term impact on food prices. Therefore alternative resources with considerable lower cost that could be used for biodiesel production have been studied. Immature life stage of some insects is able to consume various organic wastes for fat accumulation. This high fat containing insect has the potential to serve as biodiesel feedstock. In this study, larval grease extracted from yellow mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor L) (YMB), a post-harvest scavenger, was investigated for finding its potential as a substitute of oilseeds. Decayed vegetables were used to feed YMB and after 9 weeks, then the grease was extracted for biodiesel production. About 34.2 g biodiesel was obtained from 234.8 g dried YMB larval biomass. The main fatty acids of YMB biodiesel were linolenic acid (19.7%), palmitic acid (17.6%), linoleic acid (16.3%) and stearic acid (11.4%). Most of the properties of the YMB biodiesel fed on decayed vegetables met the standard EN 14214, including ester content (96.8%), density (860 kg/m(3)), flash point (127 degrees C), cetane number (58), water content (300 mg/kg), and methanol content (0.2%). From comprehensive analysis on the effect to society, economy and environment, it can be concluded that YMB can recycle organic wastes into clean energy with low cost. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  256. Exploring a promising feedstock for biodiesel production in Mediterranean countries: A study on free fatty acid esterification of olive pomace oil
    Abstract

    Che, F.; Sarantopoulos, I.; Tsoutsos, T.; Gekas, V. 2012. Exploring a promising feedstock for biodiesel production in Mediterranean countries: A study on free fatty acid esterification of olive pomace oil. Biomass & Bioenergy. 36427-431

    Olive pomace oil is a non edible by-product stream from olive oil production process with low acquisition cost, appropriate for supporting biodiesel production in the Mediterranean countries. The main goal of this paper is to present experimental procedures carried out to optimize experimentally the pretreatment process for this feedstock in order to convert free fatty acids (FFA) to their respective methyl esters. Thus, an acid esterification process with sulfuric acid as catalyst was employed and evaluated for different acid-to-oil and methanol-to-oil ratios over the process time. The initial results are showing that olive kernel oil can be efficiently processed in order to decrease the free fatty acid concentration and improve the biodiesel potential of this feedstock. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  257. Evaluation of Waste Process Grease as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Marx, S.; Venter, R. 2014. Evaluation of Waste Process Grease as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 5(1) 75-86

    Awareness of the depletion of fossil energy reserves, the rising demand for energy in the world and the problems associated with the burning of fossil fuel encourage researchers to find alternative energy sources, such as biodiesel. The use of inedible and waste oils as feedstock for biodiesel production is an important way of converting waste into valuable energy products. In this study, waste process grease (WPG) was used to produce biodiesel via two processing routes. The traditional two-step alkaline catalyzed transesterification method (route 1) produced biodiesel that did not conform to the SANS1935 biodiesel standard of South Africa with regard to sulfur and phosphorous levels. The WPG in the second process route was modified by saponification with aqueous sodium hydroxide followed by acidulation with hydrochloric acid to be purified by means of column chromatography. A hydrophobic resin with methanol as the mobile phase was used to reduce the non-polar sulfur from the grease. The crude biodiesel produced by means of acid esterification using sulfuric acid as catalyst was purified using silica gel with hexane as the mobile phase. The sulfur level in the biodiesel was reduced to a low enough level to conform to the SANS1935 standard for biodiesel production. It was shown with this study that waste process grease from the metal working industry can be used to produce biodiesel that conforms to the SANS 1935 specification for sulfur and is suitable to be used in biodiesel blending. A preliminary economic assessment shows that owed to the complexity of the second process route, biodiesel produced by this process is not economically viable given the current petroleum diesel prices. With the rising trend in crude oil prices and the limited supply of feedstock for biodiesel, WPG is anticipated to become a viable feedstock for biodiesel production in future.
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  258. Evaluation of the dielectric properties of biodiesel fuels produced from different vegetable oil feedstocks through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
    Abstract

    M'Peko, J. C.; Reis, D. L. S.; De Souza, J. E.; Caires, A. R. L. 2013. Evaluation of the dielectric properties of biodiesel fuels produced from different vegetable oil feedstocks through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 38(22) 9355-9359

    Biodiesel fuels were prepared front different vegetable oil sources (canola, soybean, sunflower, and corn) and studied through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The dielectric constant from these biofuels evidenced no important dependence on feedstock, suggesting basically no change in fuels' polarity from varying the raw materials. In a different way, huge variations of the electrical resistivity and relaxation frequency were found when comparing among the studied biodiesels. Our findings demonstrate that these variations are Closely associated with changes in the biodiesel viscosity, which is known to modulate charge mobility and was feedstock dependent. Accordingly, the impedance spectroscopy is here revealed to be a sensitive, alternative and reliable analytical approach for distinguishing among different feedstock-related biodiesels and monitoring certain biofuels' properties, like viscosity and interrelated parameters, usually connected with fatty acid structural profiles in biodiesel fuels. Copyright (C) 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  259. Evaluation of the catalytic properties of Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on non-commercial matrices to be used in biodiesel synthesis from different feedstocks
    Abstract

    Da Ros, P. C. M.; Silva, G. A. M.; Mendes, A. A.; Santos, J. C.; de Castro, H. F. 2010. Evaluation of the catalytic properties of Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on non-commercial matrices to be used in biodiesel synthesis from different feedstocks. Bioresource Technology. 101(14) 5508-5516

    The objective of this work was to produce an immobilized form of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia (lipase PS) with advantageous catalytic properties and stability to be used in the ethanolysis of different feedstocks, mainly babassu oil and tallow beef. For this purpose lipase PS was immobilized on two different non-commercial matrices, such as inorganic matrix (niobium oxide, Nb(2)O(5)) and a hybrid matrix (polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol, SiO(2)-PVA) by covalent binding. The properties of free and immobilized enzymes were searched and compared. The best performance regarding all the analyzed parameters (biochemical properties, kinetic constants and thermal stability) were obtained when the lipase was immobilized on SiO(2)-PVA. The superiority of this immobilized system was also confirmed in the transe-sterification of both feedstocks, attained higher yields and productivities. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  260. Evaluation of single cell oil (SCO) from a tropical marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Katre, G.; Joshi, C.; Khot, M.; Zinjarde, S.; RaviKumar, A. 2012. Evaluation of single cell oil (SCO) from a tropical marine yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCIM 3589 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel. Amb Express. 2

    Single cell oils (SCOs) accumulated by oleaginous yeasts have emerged as potential alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. As lipid accumulation is species and substrate specific, selection of an appropriate strain is critical. Five strains of Y. lipolytica, a known model oleaginous yeast, were investigated to explore their potential for biodiesel production when grown on glucose and inexpensive wastes. All the strains were found to accumulate > 20% (w/w) of their dry cell mass as lipids with neutral lipid as the major fraction when grown on glucose and on wastes such as waste cooking oil (WCO), waste motor oil (WMO). However, amongst them, Y. lipolytica NCIM 3589, a tropical marine yeast, exhibited a maximal lipid/biomass coefficient, Y-L/X on 30 g L-1 glucose (0.29 g g(-1)) and on 100 g L-1 WCO (0.43 g g(-1)) with a high content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids similar to conventional vegetable oils used for biodiesel production. The experimentally determined and predicted biodiesel properties of strain 3589 when grown on glucose and WCO, such as density (0.81 and 1.04 g cm(-3)), viscosity (4.44 and 3.6 mm(2) s(-1)), SN (190.81 and 256), IV (65.7 and 37.8) and CN (56.6 and 50.8) are reported for the first time for Y. lipolytica and correlate well with specified standards. Thus, the SCO of oleaginous tropical marine yeast Y. lipolytica NCIM 3589 could be used as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  261. Evaluation of single and multi-feedstock biodiesel - diesel blends using GCMS and chemometric methods
    Abstract

    Flood, M. E.; Connolly, M. P.; Comiskey, M. C.; Hupp, A. M. 2016. Evaluation of single and multi-feedstock biodiesel - diesel blends using GCMS and chemometric methods. Fuel. 18658-67

    Single and multi-feedstock biodiesel-diesel blends were evaluated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry along with several unsupervised and supervised chemometric methods. Peak areas of diesel alkane components and/or biodiesel fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) components were evaluated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), k nearest neighbors (kNN), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and partial least squares (PLS) analysis. Using PCA (an unsupervised method), samples clustered based on feedstock type (soybean, waste grease, canola, tallow) and concentration (diesel, B2-B100). Using the supervised chemometric methods, feedstock type and concentration were validated for the training set and predicted for several unknown test samples. Concentration and feedstock were predicted using kNN, while concentration alone was predicted using SIMCA. PLS also allowed prediction of concentration but the success of the prediction heavily depended on the training model used. In addition, multi-feedstock fuel blends created from 2 and 3 feedstock components (soybean, canola, tallow) were evaluated with PCA, kNN, and SIMCA. Samples clustered based on concentration and feedstock makeup/ratio in PCA. Using kNN and SIMCA, multifeedstock blends were predicted based on concentration, while kNN could be used to predict relative ratio of multiple feedstocks. The results demonstrate the utility of chemometric analysis on a complex fuel-based data set, using methods that could be performed in a variety of laboratories and fields without the need for complex data preprocessing. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  262. Evaluation of Sinapis alba as feedstock for biodiesel production in Mediterranean climate
    Abstract

    Saez-Bastante, J.; Fernandez-Garcia, P.; Saavedra, M.; Lopez-Bellido, L.; Dorado, M. P.; Pinzi, S. 2016. Evaluation of Sinapis alba as feedstock for biodiesel production in Mediterranean climate. Fuel. 184656-664

    Most of oilseed crops used in biodiesel (BD) production are also suitable for human consumption and widely consumed in the world. For this reason, some non-governmental organizations and social movements controversially pinpoint the making of BD as the main cause of increased global edible oils prices, especially in developing countries. In this way, non-edible oilseed crops are gaining prominence for BD synthesis. Particularly, in the Mediterranean climate there is a crop that may have potential as raw material for biodiesel production, namely white mustard (Sinapis alba). In the present study, this species has been grown during two consecutive years optimizing two factors, plant density and nitrogen fertilizer dose. The influence of these factors on biomass yield and fatty acid composition is studied. S. alba oil was chemically extracted with hexane providing a yield of 25% (mass of extracted oil per mass of grain seed, on dry basis). Physical properties and FA profile of S. alba oil (by gas chromatography) were analyzed. Results show that both plant density and nitrogen fertilizer dose have influence on concentration of both linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). In addition, the presence of erucic acid (C22:1) was significantly high (above 50%). Important BD properties included in standard EN 14214 were predicted by means of mathematical models. Results showed that white mustard oil BD may provide a cetane number above 60, a density value lower than 900 kg/m(3) and a cold filter plugging point suitable for it use in temperate climates, where this plant mainly grows. However, kinematic viscosity predicted value was above the maximum one allowed by European regulation (5 mm(2)/s). (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  263. Evaluation of potential biodiesel feedstock production from oleaginous insect Solenopsis sp.
    Abstract

    Bowling, J. J.; Anderson, J. B.; Armbrust, K. L.; Hamann, M. T. 2014. Evaluation of potential biodiesel feedstock production from oleaginous insect Solenopsis sp.. Fuel. 1175-7

    Oil production from single cells has been in development since the 1980s primarily for the pharmaceutical and neutraceutical industries, but the technology for using microorganisms to convert plant cellular material directly into oil is still undeveloped. The unusual amount of oil extracted from the imported fire ant (Solenopsis sp.) may be an indication of the presence of oleaginous microorganisms or enzymes supporting the digestion of raw sugars. Yield of the ant oil is 16% dry weight and contains most of the fatty acids also found in other biomass resources. Heat of combustion of the ant oil was 133,000 BTU/gal, an amount within the range of reported values for vegetable oil and biodiesel. This investigation also explores the potential source of the oil through stable isotope labeling and offers a unique perspective of a potentially new source of microorganisms or enzymes useful for reducing the cost of producing an alternative fuel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  264. Evaluation of oil-producing algae as potential biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Zhou, X. P.; Ge, H. M.; Xia, L.; Zhang, D. L.; Hu, C. X. 2013. Evaluation of oil-producing algae as potential biodiesel feedstock. Bioresource Technology. 13424-29

    This study attempted to connect the dots between laboratory research and the outdoors. Chlorella sp. NJ-18 was selected among seven oil-producing algae cultivated in this study because it had the highest lipid productivity. The nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for cultivating this Chlorella strain were optimized indoors. This strain was incubated outdoors in a 70 L photobioreactor, containing the favorable nitrogen (8.32 mM urea) and phosphorus (0.18 mM monopotassium phosphate) concentrations. Semi-continuous cultivation was performed by harvesting 30 L biomass and replacing it with fresh medium. The maximum biomass and lipid productivity acquired outdoors were 91.84 and 24.05 mg L-1 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, biomass productivity could be maintained at a high level throughout the cultivation process when using the semi-continuous mode, whereas it decreased dramatically in batch cultures. More than 95% of the total fatty acids obtained were C16 and C18, which are the main components for biofuel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  265. Evaluation of leather industry wastes as a feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Alptekin, E.; Canakci, M.; Sanli, H. 2012. Evaluation of leather industry wastes as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Fuel. 95(1) 214-220

    In this study, animal fat obtained from leather industry fleshing wastes was used to produce methyl ester. The acid value of the fleshing oil was 24.30 mg KOH g (1) which corresponds to FFA level of about 12.15%. Therefore, it was needed to perform a pretreatment to the fleshing oil. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for pretreatment reactions. The variables affecting the FFA level including alcohol molar ratio and catalyst amount were investigated by using the fleshing oil. After reducing the FFA level of the fleshing oil to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium methoxide and sodium methoxide were used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The effects of catalyst type, catalyst amount and alcohol molar ratio on the fuel properties of produced methyl esters were investigated. The measured fuel properties of the fleshing oil methyl ester (FOME) were compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to results, the cold flow properties of FOME should be improved and the sulfur content of FOME should be investigated in detail. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  266. Evaluation of Indian milkweed (Calotropis gigantea) seed oil as alternative feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Phoo, Z. W. M. M.; Razon, L. F.; Knothe, G.; Ilham, Z.; Goembira, F.; Madrazo, C. F.; Roces, S. A.; Saka, S. 2014. Evaluation of Indian milkweed (Calotropis gigantea) seed oil as alternative feedstock for biodiesel. Industrial Crops and Products. 54226-232

    Calotropis gigantea (Indian milkweed) is a common plant in Asia that grows as a weed on open waste ground. Flowering and fruiting take place throughout the year. In this study, Indian milkweed oil was evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil was extracted from Indian milkweed seeds with hexane in a Soxhlet apparatus. The seeds were found to contain 33.3 wt% oil. The extracted oil was analyzed for the fatty acid profile and oil properties. Several previously unreported minor fatty acids were identified. Because the free fatty acid content in the oil was 27.5 wt%, acid-catalyzed esterification was conducted to esterify free fatty acids and alkali-catalyzed transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel. The triglyceride content, diglyceride content, monoglyceride content, free glycerol, methanol, ester content, carbon residue, acid value, oxidation stability, tocopherol, water content, kinematic viscosity, density, cloud point and flash point of the prepared biodiesel were determined. With the exception of oxidation stability, all fuel properties conformed to four standards (Philippine National Standard PNS2020:2003, Japanese Automotive Standards Organization JASO M360, European Standard EN 14214, American Society for Testing Materials ASTM D6751). However, it was found that this biodiesel can be only used in tropical countries due to the poor cold flow properties. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  267. Evaluation of Cyperus esculentus Oil as a Feedstock for Biodiesel Fuel Production
    Abstract

    Sendzikiene, E.; Gumbyte, M.; Makareviciene, V. 2011. Evaluation of Cyperus esculentus Oil as a Feedstock for Biodiesel Fuel Production. Rural Development in Global Changes, Vol 5, Book 1. 5(1) 437-441

    As the production of biodiesel fuel increases, the demand of raw material for its production - rapeseed oil - continuesly rise. In EU countries, including Lithuania, the amount of land available to grow rapeseed is limited because of the need for crop rotation and the suitability of the soil for rapeseed growing.
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  268. Evaluation of by-products from the biodiesel industry as fermentation feedstock for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production by Cupriavidus necator
    Abstract

    Garcia, I. L.; Lopez, J. A.; Dorado, M. P.; Kopsahelis, N.; Alexandri, M.; Papanikolaou, S.; Villar, M. A.; Koutinas, A. A. 2013. Evaluation of by-products from the biodiesel industry as fermentation feedstock for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) production by Cupriavidus necator. Bioresource Technology. 13016-22

    Utilization of by-products from oilseed-based biodiesel production (crude glycerol, rapeseed meal hydrolysates) for microbial polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production could lead to the replacement of expensive carbon sources, nutrient supplements and precursors for co-polymer production. Batch fermentations in shake flasks with varying amounts of free amino nitrogen led to the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (P(3HB-co-3HV)) with a 2.8-8% 3HV content. Fed-batch fermentations in shake flasks led to the production of 10.9 g/L P(3HB-co-3HV) and a 55.6% P(3HB-co-3HV) content. NaCl concentrations between 2 and 6 g/L gradually became inhibitory to bacterial growth and PHA formation, whereas in the case of K2SO4, the inhibitory effect was observed only at concentrations higher than 20 g/L. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nuclear magnetic resonance (C-13 NMR) demonstrated that the incorporation of 3HV into the obtained P(3HB-co-3HV) lowered glass transition temperature, crystallinity and melting point as compared to polyhydroxybutyrate. Integrating PHA production in existing oilseed-based biodiesel plants could enhance the viability and sustainability of this first generation biorefinery. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  269. Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Used Cooking Oil Using Ion-Exchange Resins as Catalysts: An Efficient Pretreatment Method for Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Abidin, S. Z.; Haigh, K. F.; Saha, B. 2012. Esterification of Free Fatty Acids in Used Cooking Oil Using Ion-Exchange Resins as Catalysts: An Efficient Pretreatment Method for Biodiesel Feedstock. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 51(45) 14653-14664

    The esterification of used cooking oil (UCO) with methanol was studied using different types of ion exchange resins, that is, Purolite D5081, Purolite D5082, and Amberlyst 36. Several catalyst characterization. analyses (elemental analysis, surface area measurement, particle size distribution analysis, scanning electron microscopy analysis, true density measurement, and acid capacity analysis) have been conducted in the screening stage. Of all of the catalysts investigated, Purolite D5081 resin showed the best catalytic performance and was selected for further experimental studies. The esterification process was carried out in a jacketed stirred batch reactor for 8 h. Elimination of mass transfer resistances and the effect of catalyst loading (0.5-1.5% w/w), reaction temperature (50-65 degrees C), and methanol to UCO feed mole ratio (4:1-12:1) on the conversion of FFAs were investigated. The highest FFAs conversion was found to be 92%, at a catalyst loading of 1.25% w/w, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 6:1 methanol to UCO molar ratio, and stirring speed of 475 rpm. During the reusability study, the conversion of catalyst dropped by 8-10% after each reutilization cycle. Several experiments have been conducted through the homogeneous contribution study, and the results confirmed that both resin pore blockage and sulfur leaching are dominant factors that decrease the catalytic performance of Purolite D5081 ion exchange resin.
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  270. Esterification of free fatty acids in non-edible oils using partially sulfonated polystyrene for biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Suresh, R.; Antony, J. V.; Vengalil, R.; Kochimoolayil, G. E.; Joseph, R. 2017. Esterification of free fatty acids in non-edible oils using partially sulfonated polystyrene for biodiesel feedstock. Industrial Crops and Products. 9566-74

    Partially sulfonated polystyrene (PSS), synthesized from expanded polystyrene waste (EPS), was used as a catalyst for free fatty acid (FFA) conversion in non-edible oils. Acidic and water absorbing properties of the PSS facilitated the catalytic action for the FFA conversion by esterification reaction. The reaction-was done on simulated acid oil (WCO) containing oleic acid and sunflower oil, and rubber seed oil (RSO). Effects of temperature, catalyst amount and alcohol to acid molar ratio were studied. FFA conversion increased with each of these factors. The advantage of this heterogeneous catalyst is that it is efficient as commercial ion exchange resin and easily removable from the reaction mixture. PSS is found to substantially reduce the acid value of WCO and RSO from 17 to 3.2 mg KOH/g and from 28.8 to 4.8 mg KOH/g respectively at 75 degrees C. The WCO and RSO with reduced acid value may be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  271. Enzymatic biodiesel production: An overview of potential feedstocks and process development
    Abstract

    Hama, S.; Kondo, A. 2013. Enzymatic biodiesel production: An overview of potential feedstocks and process development. Bioresource Technology. 135386-395

    The increased global demand for biofuels has prompted the search for alternatives to edible oils for biodiesel production. Given the abundance and cost, waste and nonedible oils have been investigated as potential feedstocks. A recent research interest is the conversion of such feedstocks into biodiesel via enzymatic processes, which have considerable advantages over conventional alkali-catalyzed processes. To expand the viability of enzymatic biodiesel production, considerable effort has been directed toward process development in terms of biodiesel productivity, application to wide ranges of contents of water and fatty acids, adding value to glycerol byproducts, and bioreactor design. A cost evaluation suggested that, with the current enzyme prices, the cost of catalysts alone is not competitive against that of alkalis. However, it can also be expected that further process optimization will lead to a reduced cost in enzyme preparation as well as in downstream processes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  272. Enhanced production of lipid as biodiesel feedstock from Botryococcus braunii by optimization of culture conditions
    Abstract

    Kim, Z.; Lee, C. G. 2010. Enhanced production of lipid as biodiesel feedstock from Botryococcus braunii by optimization of culture conditions. Journal of Biotechnology. 150S172-S172

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  273. Engine Performance and Emission Products of Pure Diesel and Multi-Feedstock Blended Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Belion, K.; Mensah, P. F.; Akwaboa, S.; Woldesenbet, E.; Stubblefield, M.; Adjaottor, A. 2015. Engine Performance and Emission Products of Pure Diesel and Multi-Feedstock Blended Biodiesel. Asme International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition. 6a

    Due to the ever-reducing conventional petroleum resources, considerable research on renewable energy sources such as biodiesel as a possible "greener" substitute fuel for internal combustion engines is needed. This study aims to compare the engine performance and emission results of various blends of pure diesel and a multi-feedstock (MFS) biodiesel when used in a naturally aspirated air-cooled, single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine. The engine was coupled to a dynamometer for torque measurement and output data transmitted to a PC for post-processing and displayed using customized programs in the computer. Engine combustion products - Nitrogen Oxide emissions (NOx), Hydrocarbons (HCs), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Carbon dioxide (CO2)- were measured and are presented alongside performance properties including brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), engine efficiency, torque and power. The experimental results show that, relative to diesel, biodiesel had approximately 3 - 24% decrease in torque, 4-11% decrease in power, 11-32% increase in BSFC and 8-29% general reduction in engine efficiency. However, biodiesel reduced the emissions of CO (1.5 - 6%), CO2 (13 - 34%) and unburned HCs (3-25%), while NOx emissions were increased significantly (12 - 48%). These results indicate that smaller percentages of biodiesel (20% or less) could be blended with pure diesel and used in a diesel engine, without any engine modifications, as an alternative and environmentally friendly fuel and without significantly compromising engine performance.
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  274. Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine Running with a Range of Biodiesel Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Tesfa, B.; Gu, F. S.; Mishra, R.; Ball, A. 2014. Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine Running with a Range of Biodiesel Feedstocks. Energies. 7(1) 334-350

    Currently, alternative fuels are being investigated in detail for application in compression ignition (CI) engines resulting in exciting potential opportunities to increase energy security and reduce gas emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels which is renewable and environmentally friendly and can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biodiesel types and biodiesel fraction on the emission characteristics of a CI engine. The experimental work was carried out on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI) and turbocharged diesel engine by using biodiesel made from waste oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil and comparing them to normal diesel. The fuels used in the analyses are B10, B20, B50, B100 and neat diesel. The engine was operated over a range of engine speeds. Based on the measured parameters, detailed analyses were carried out on major regulated emissions such as NOx, CO, CO2, and THC. It has been seen that the biodiesel types (sources) do not result in any significant differences in emissions. The results also clearly indicate that the engine running with biodiesel and blends have higher NOx emission by up to 20%. However, the emissions of the CI engine running on neat biodiesel (B100) were reduced by up to 15%, 40% and 30% for CO, CO2 and THC emissions respectively, as compared to diesel fuel at various operating conditions.
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  275. Efficient production of biodiesel from low-cost feedstock using zinc oleate as catalyst
    Abstract

    Reinoso, D. M.; Damiani, D. E.; Tonetto, G. M. 2015. Efficient production of biodiesel from low-cost feedstock using zinc oleate as catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology. 13426-31

    In this study, the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by the transesterification of low-cost feedstock containing 10 and 22 wt.% free fatty acid (FFA), using zinc oleate (ZnOl) as catalyst, was investigated. The performance of the ZnOl salt in the reaction medium was evaluated in terms of activity and stability in the presence of free fatty acids. At 140 degrees C and 2 h of reaction time, triglyceride conversion was 100%, FAME yield was close to 95%, and fatty acid conversion was 75.9% and 82.6% for feedstock with 10 and 22 wt.% FFA, respectively. The zinc carboxylic salt was able to catalyze simultaneously the triglyceride transesterification and the fatty acid esterification reactions with high activity and selectivity under moderate operating conditions and slight FAME and triglycerides hydrolysis. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  276. Efficacy of fatty acid profile as a tool for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R.; Vaughn, S. F. 2012. Efficacy of fatty acid profile as a tool for screening feedstocks for biodiesel production. Biomass & Bioenergy. 3731-41

    Fuel properties are largely dependent on the fatty acid (FA) composition of the feedstock from which biodiesel is prepared. Consequently, FA profile was employed as a screening tool for selection of feedstocks high in monounsaturated FAs for further evaluation as biodiesel. Those feedstocks included ailanthus (Ailanthus altissima L.), anise (Pimpinella anisum L.), arugula (Eruca vesicaria L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), Indian cress (Tropaeolum majus L.), shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris L.) and upland cress (Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch.). Other selection criteria included saturated FA content, iodine value (IV), content of FAs containing twenty or more carbons and content of trienoic FAs. Anise oil satisfied all selection criteria and was therefore selected for further investigation. Arugula, cumin and upland cress oils were selected as antagonists to the selection criteria. Preparation of FA methyl esters (FAMES, >= 92 wt % yield) following conventional alkaline-catalyzed methanolysis preceded fuel property determination. Of particular interest were oxidative stability and cold flow properties. Also measured were kinematic viscosity (40 C), IV, acid value, free and total glycerol content, sulfur and phosphorous content, cetane number, energy content and lubricity. FAMEs prepared from anise oil yielded properties compliant with biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 whereas the antagonists failed at least one specification contained within the standards. As a result, FA profile was an efficient predictor of compliance with biodiesel standards and is therefore recommended as a screening tool for investigation of alternative feedstocks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  277. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blend application on modern passenger cars. Part 1: Feedstock impact on regulated pollutants, fuel consumption and particle emissions
    Abstract

    Fontaras, G.; Kousoulidou, M.; Karavalakis, G.; Tzamkiozis, T.; Pistikopoulos, P.; Ntziachristos, L.; Bakeas, E.; Stournas, S.; Samaras, Z. 2010. Effects of low concentration biodiesel blend application on modern passenger cars. Part 1: Feedstock impact on regulated pollutants, fuel consumption and particle emissions. Environmental Pollution. 158(5) 1451-1460

    Five biodiesels from different feedstocks (rapeseed, soy, sunflower, palm, and used fried oils) blended with diesel at 10% vol. ratio (B10), were tested on a Euro 3 common-rail passenger car. Limited effects (-2% to +4%) were observed on CO(2) emissions. CO and HC emissions increased between 10% and 25% on average, except at high speed - high power where emissions were too low to draw conclusions. NO(x) emissions increased by up to 20% for two out of the five blends, decreased by up to 15% for two other blends, and remained unchanged for one blend. Particulate matter (PM) was reduced for all blends by up to 25% and the reductions were positively correlated with the extent of biodiesel saturation. PM reductions are associated with consistent reductions in non-volatile particle number. A variable behaviour in particle number is observed when volatile particles are also accounted. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  278. Effects of biodiesel from different feedstocks on engine performance and emissions: A review
    Abstract

    Ghazali, W. N. M. W.; Mamat, R.; Masjuki, H. H.; Najafi, G. 2015. Effects of biodiesel from different feedstocks on engine performance and emissions: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 51585-602

    This paper analyzes the performance and emissions of biodiesel from different feedstocks. The main goal of this paper is to provide information to the engineers, industrialists and researchers who are interested on biodiesel and to emphasise biodiesel as a promising alternative replacement for fossil fuels. A substantial number of literatures from highly rated journals in scientific indexes were cited preferentially since 2000. The performance and emissions indicators such as brake torque, brake power, BTE, EGT, BSFC NOx, PM, CO, CO2, HC and smoke density have been evaluated in comparison to pure diesel. The results showed that different sources of biodiesel feedstocks give different results to engine performance and emissions. Surprisingly some of the research yielded favourable results towards the biodiesel as compared to pure diesel. The study concluded that biodiesel can be used in compression ignition engine as a replacement of diesel fuel to fulfil the global energy demand. However, further research on about optimisation, cost-effectiveness and availability of biodiesel needs to be carried out to help ensure that biofuel will be able to fully replace fossil fuel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  279. Effective Parameters on Biodiesel Production from Feather fat oil as a Cost-Effective Feedstock
    Abstract

    Abdoli, M. A.; Mohamadi, F.; Ghobadian, B.; Fayyazi, E. 2014. Effective Parameters on Biodiesel Production from Feather fat oil as a Cost-Effective Feedstock. International Journal of Environmental Research. 8(1) 139-148

    Using low-cost feedstocks such as rendered animal fats in biodiesel production willreducebiodieselexpenditures. One of the low-cost feedstocksfor biodiesel production could be the fat extracted from poultry feathers producedin slaughterhouses abundantly. This paper describes a new and environmentally friendly process for developing biodiesel production technology from feather waste produced in poultry industry. In this research the crude oil of poultry feather fat was extracted by soxhlet method using hexane as a solvent. The data resulted from gas chromatography (GC) revealed these percentages for fatty acid compositions: myristic acid (3%), palmitic acid (30%), stearic acid (22%), oleic acid (8.1%), linoleic acid (3%) and arachidonic acid (7%).In this experimental research, the effects of some parameters such as alcohol to oil molar ratio (4:1,6:1, 8:1), catalyst concentration (0.75,1 and 1.25% w/w) and the transesterification reaction time(40,60 and80min) on the percentage offatty acids conversioninto methyl ester(biodiesel) are studied. The results show increasing catalyst concentration up to 1% causes the oil to biodiesel conversion percentage having an upward trend and then adownward trend byincreasing catalyst concentration up to 1.25%. With increasing molar ratio from 4:1 to 6:1 and then 8:1, oil to biodiesel conversion percentage increased16% and2%, respectively. Ultimatelythe optimum point defined by response surface method (RSM) forproducing biodiesel from feather fat is calculated catalyst concentration of 1 wt%, 7.24:1 molar ratio and in 75 minutes resulting in conversion percentage of97.62%.
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  280. An effective acid catalyst for biodiesel production from impure raw feedstocks
    Abstract

    Tran, H. L.; Ryu, Y. J.; Seong, D. H.; Lim, S. M.; Lee, C. G. 2013. An effective acid catalyst for biodiesel production from impure raw feedstocks. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 18(2) 242-247

    Biodiesel consists of fatty acids short chain alkyl esters produced through transesterification and esterification of fats and oils. Production of biodiesel is strongly affected by the purity of raw lipids, and catalysts play important role in these processes. Although direct utilization of impure feedstocks is more economical, their use necessitates development of effective catalysts to overcome hindering influences of impurities. In this study, sulfuryl chloride, thionyl chloride, acetyl chloride, p-toluenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, dimethylsulfate and sulfuric acid were investigated as catalysts for the production of biodiesel because acids have higher tolerance to water and free fatty acids in oils and can simultaneously catalyze both the esterification and transesterification reactions. Sulfuryl chloride was found to be an effective catalyst for production of biodiesel from soybean oil, its waste oil and microalgal lipids.
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  281. Effect on Particulate and Gas Emissions by Combusting Biodiesel Blend Fuels Made from Different Plant Oil Feedstocks in a Liquid Fuel Burner
    Abstract

    Rahim, N. A.; Jaafar, M. N. M.; Sapee, S.; Elraheem, H. F. 2016. Effect on Particulate and Gas Emissions by Combusting Biodiesel Blend Fuels Made from Different Plant Oil Feedstocks in a Liquid Fuel Burner. Energies. 9(8)

    This paper focuses on the combustion performance of various blends of biodiesel fuels and diesel fuel from lean to rich mixtures. The biodiesel blend fuel combustion experiments were carried out using a liquid fuel burner and biodiesel fuel made from various plant oil feedstocks, including jatropha, palm and coconut oils. The results show that jatropha oil methyl ester blend 25 (JOME B25) and coconut oil methyl ester blend 25 (COME B25) blended at 25% by volume in diesel fuel produced lower carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions due to more complete combustion. Overall, JOME B25 had the highest CO emission reduction, at about 42.25%, followed by COME B25 at 26.44% emission reduction relative to pure diesel fuel. By contrast, the palm oil methyl ester blend 25 (POME B25) showed a 48.44% increase in these emissions. The results showed that the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were slightly higher for all biodiesel blend fuels compared with pure diesel fuel combustion. In case of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and UHC emissions, all biodiesel blends fuels have significantly reduced emissions. In the case of SO2 emission, the POME B25, JOME B25 and COME B25 emissions were reduced 14.62%, 14.45% and 21.39%, respectively, relative to SO2 emission from combusting pure diesel fuel. UHC emissions of POME B25, JOME B25 and COME B25 showed 51%, 71% and 70% reductions, respectively, compared to diesel fuel. The conclusion from the results is that all the biodiesel blend fuels are suitable and can be recommended for use in liquid fuel burners in order to get better and 'greener' environmental outcomes.
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  282. Effect of storage conditions on Moringa oleifera Lam. seed oil: Biodiesel feedstock quality
    Abstract

    Fotouo-M, H.; du Toit, E. S.; Robbertse, P. S. J. 2016. Effect of storage conditions on Moringa oleifera Lam. seed oil: Biodiesel feedstock quality. Industrial Crops and Products. 8480-86

    Moringa seed oil is known as Ben oil. Recently research by several authors illustrated the potential use of Ben oil for biodiesel production. Oil quality is directly related to the physiological condition of the seeds from which it is extracted. Oil extracted from damaged and deteriorated seed can compromise fuel quality. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of various storage conditions and duration on Moringa oleifera seed oil quantity and quality as a potential source of biodiesel. Firstly, oil was extracted from fresh seeds and stored in dark bottles at room temperature. Secondly, Seeds were stored following a factorial 2 x 4 x 3 experiment with two types of containers (paper and aluminium bags), four temperatures (-19, 4, 20 and 30 degrees C) and three storage periods (6, 12 and 24 months). From the experimental results, it was observed that the oil content of moringa seed did not change significantly (p < 0.05) after 12 months of storage but decrease significantly in seed stored at 4 degrees C in paper bags and those at 20 degrees and 30 degrees C in aluminium bags at 24 months. The free fatty acid increased significantly (p < 0.05) after 12 months at all storage conditions and continued to increase above the recommended value (2%) for biodiesel parent oil at 24 months, except for that of seed stored at -19 degrees C in aluminium bags. The density of moringa seed oil remained unchanged throughout storage. The viscosity of oil extracted from seed stored in paper bags at 19 degrees C and that of the oil stored in dark bottle at room temperature decreased significantly at 24 months. Based on these results, moringa seed can be stored at any of the applied conditions for six months, but if they are stored beyond this period, the use of low temperature such as -19 degrees C and 4 degrees C and sealed containers are recommended. It is not advisable to store the extracted oil for more than 6 months. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  283. The effect of greenhouse gas policy on the design and scheduling of biodiesel plants with multiple feedstocks
    Abstract

    Elms, R. D.; El-Halwagi, M. M. 2010. The effect of greenhouse gas policy on the design and scheduling of biodiesel plants with multiple feedstocks. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy. 12(5) 547-560

    With the increasing attention to the environmental impact of discharging greenhouses gases, there has been a growing public pressure to reduce the carbon footprint associated with the use of fossil fuels. In this context, one of the key strategies is the substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels such as biodiesel. The design of biodiesel production facilities has traditionally been carried out based on technical and economic criteria. Greenhouse gas (GHG) policies (e.g., carbon tax, subsidy) have the potential to significantly alter the design of these facilities, the selection of the feedstocks, and the scheduling of multiple feedstocks. The objective of this article is to develop a systematic approach to the design and scheduling of biodiesel production processes while accounting for the effect of GHG policies in addition to the technical, economic, and environmental aspects. An optimization formulation is developed to maximize the profit of the process subject to flowsheet synthesis and performance modeling equations. Furthermore, the carbon footprint is accounted for with the help of a life cycle analysis (LCA). The objective function includes a term which reflects the impact of the LCA of a feedstock and its processing to biodiesel. A multiperiod approach is used to discretize the decision-making horizon into time periods. During each period, decisions are made on the type and flowrate of the feedstocks, as well as the associated design and operating variables. A case study is solved with several scenarios of feedstocks and GHG policies.
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  284. The effect of flux and residence time in the production of biodiesel from various feedstocks using a membrane reactor
    Abstract

    Falahati, H.; Tremblay, A. Y. 2012. The effect of flux and residence time in the production of biodiesel from various feedstocks using a membrane reactor. Fuel. 91(1) 126-133

    Biodiesel produced from lipid sources is a clean-burning, biodegradable, nontoxic fuel that is free of aromatic hydrocarbons. Current biodiesel production processes are tedious and involve two to three reaction steps each followed by separation and purification. Process integration of reaction and separation in a single step within a membrane reactor (MR) offers several advantages over conventional reactors.
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  285. The Effect of Concentrations and Volumes of Methano in Reducing Free Fatty Acid Content of Used Cooking Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Julianto, T. S.; Suratmi 2017. The Effect of Concentrations and Volumes of Methano in Reducing Free Fatty Acid Content of Used Cooking Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock. International Conference on Chemistry, Chemical Process and Engineering (Ic3pe) 2017. 1823

    The research on purification of used cooking oil as biodiesel feedstock has been done. Refining was performed using methanol with varied concentrations and volumes. A total of 10 grams of used cooking oil was extracted using methanol with a variation concentration of 100%, 70%, 50% and 30%, and a variation of volume 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mL. After extraction, the free fatty acids contents of the extracted oil were analyzed. The results showed that pure methanol has the highest ability to reduce the content of free fatty acid with a percentage of reduction for 89.23%. The optimum ratio of used cooking oil and methanol is about 1:15 (v/v).
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  286. Effect of biodiesel from various feedstocks on combustion characteristics, engine durability and materials compatibility: A review
    Abstract

    Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Atabani, A. E.; Shahabuddin, M.; Palash, S. M.; Hazrat, M. A. 2013. Effect of biodiesel from various feedstocks on combustion characteristics, engine durability and materials compatibility: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 28441-455

    The global energy consumption is expected to grow in a faster rate than the population growth. By 2030, an increase of 53% of global energy consumption and 39% of greenhouse gases emissions from fossil fuels is anticipated. Therefore, it becomes a global agenda to develop clean alternative fuels which are domestically available, environmentally acceptable and technically feasible. As an alternative fuel, biodiesel seems as one of the best choices among other sources due to its environment friendly behavior and similar functional properties with diesel. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the impact biodiesel from different edible, non-edible and waste cooking oils feedstocks on combustion characteristics, engine durability and materials compatibility with biodiesel. Moreover, this paper reviews some other important related aspects to biodiesel such as biodiesel development, biodiesel feedstocks, biodiesel standards and advantages and challenges of biodiesel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  287. The effect of biodiesel feedstock on regulated emissions in chassis dynamometer tests of a pickup truck
    Abstract

    Peterson, C. L.; Taberski, J. S.; Thompson, J. C.; Chase, C. L. 2000. The effect of biodiesel feedstock on regulated emissions in chassis dynamometer tests of a pickup truck. Transactions of the ASAE. 43(6) 1371-1381

    Six different vegetable oil esters (coconut ethyl ester used hydrogenated soy methyl ester, rapeseed ethyl ester, mustard ethyl ester, safflower ethyl ester, and a commercial methyl ester of soy oil) were selected to represent a range of iodine numbers from 7.88 to 133. These vegetable oil esters were tested neat and in 20% biodiesel/80% diesel blends in comparison with low sulfur diesel fuel or the effect on regulated emissions. The test vehicle was a pickup truck with a 5.9 L turbo-charged and inter-cooled direct injection diesel engine. The emissions rests were conducted at the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transit Authority Emissions Testing Facility on a chassis dynamometer. It was found that lower iodine numbers correlated with reduced nitrogen oxides (NOx). As iodine number increased from 7.88 to 129.5 the NOx increased 29.3%. Fatty acids with two double bonds appeared to have more effect on increasing NOx emissions than did fatty acids with one double bond. Changes in carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and particulate matter (PM) were not linearly correlated with iodine number It is apparent that the type of feedstock oil affects the characteristics of the biodiesel fuel. The most obvious difference is that the pour point changes with fatty acid composition, however other fuel characteristics, some of which effect combustion, are also changed. This article reports on a study of biodiesel iodine number on changes in regulated emissions. The results of this and similar studies provide information for developing triglycerides specifically for optimum use in biodiesel. Modern chemical processes and/or plant breeding should make this possible
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  288. Effect of antioxidants on oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from vegetable and animal based feedstocks
    Abstract

    Fattah, I. M. R.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Hazrat, M. A.; Masum, B. M.; Imtenan, S.; Ashraful, A. M. 2014. Effect of antioxidants on oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from vegetable and animal based feedstocks. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 30356-370

    The increase of energy demand coped with utilization of fossil resources have engendered serious environmental impact. The progressively stringent worldwide emission legislation and increasing greenhouse gas emission require significant research effort on alternative fuels. Therefore, biodiesels are becoming important increasingly due to its ease in adaptation, environmental benefits and prospect in energy security. Biodiesel derived from vegetable oils, waste cooking oils and animal fats are long chain fatty acid alkyl esters, which contains unsaturated portions that are susceptible to oxidation. Biodiesel oxidation is a complex process having a number of mechanisms involved. Autoxidation radical chain reactions are the primary cause of biodiesel degradation that leads to formation of hydroperoxide, which, after that decompose to form an array of secondary oxidation products like aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, oligomers, gum, sediment etc. Antioxidants are often used to inhibit biodiesel oxidative degradation. The present review attempts to cover the inhibition action of natural and synthetic antioxidants, methods used to analyze biodiesel oxidation and their effect on biodiesel derived from various feedstocks. Phenolic antioxidants are more effective compared to amine antioxidants. Pyrogallol is found to be the most effective antioxidant to improve the oxidation stability in case of almost all biodiesels reviewed. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  289. An economically viable synthesis of biodiesel from a crude Millettia pinnata oil of Jharkhand, India as feedstock and crab shell derived catalyst
    Abstract

    Madhu, D.; Chavan, S. B.; Singh, V.; Singh, B.; Sharma, Y. C. 2016. An economically viable synthesis of biodiesel from a crude Millettia pinnata oil of Jharkhand, India as feedstock and crab shell derived catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 214210-217

    Biodiesel has emerged as a prominent source to replace petroleum diesel. The cost incurred in the production of biodiesel is higher than that for refining of crude oil to obtain mineral diesel. The heterogeneous catalyst was prepared from crab shells by calcining the crushed mass at 800 degrees C. The solid waste catalyst was characterized with XRD, XPS, BET, SEM-EDS, and FT-IR. Millettia pinnata (karanja) oil extracted from its seeds was used as a feedstock for the synthesis of biodiesel. Biodiesel was synthesized through esterification followed by transesterification in a two-step process. Characterization of biodiesel was done using proton NMR spectroscopy. Reaction parameters such as reaction time, reaction temperature, concentration of catalyst and stirrer speed were optimized. Reusability of catalyst was checked and found that there was no loss of catalytic activity up to five times. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  290. Economically viable production of biodiesel from a rural feedstock from eastern India, P. pinnata oil using a recyclable laboratory synthesized heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Singh, V.; Hameed, B. H.; Sharma, Y. C. 2016. Economically viable production of biodiesel from a rural feedstock from eastern India, P. pinnata oil using a recyclable laboratory synthesized heterogeneous catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 12252-62

    Barium zirconate was synthesized by co-precipitation method and its feasibility as a heterogeneous catalyst for production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) was assessed. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized through transesterification of karanja oil with methanol. Synthesized barium zirconate was characterized by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Specific surface area and basicity of the catalyst were also deliberated. Catalyst characterization indicated formation of single phase of barium zirconate which was capable of catalyzing the transesterification of esterified karanja oil with methanol. Feedstock was characterized by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Reaction conditions such as molar ratio (oil:methanol), catalyst concentration, temperature, time, stirring speed and catalyst reusability were optimized. Calcination temperature and time significantly affected the catalytic activity of the catalyst because of variation in availability of basic sites. FAME conversion of 98.79 0.5% was obtained at catalyst concentration of 1.0 wt%, 1:27 M ratio (oil:methanol), 65 degrees C for a 3 h contact time. The catalyst could be reused up to nine cycles and >65% fatty acid methyl ester conversion was sustained at ninth cycle. Glycerol obtained as a by-product was purified and analyzed by FTIR. Effect of catalyst on various feedstock at the same reaction conditions were studied. Physicochemical properties of karanja oil and respective methyl ester in comparison with petro diesel were also deliberated as per ASTM standards. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  291. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation
    Abstract

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ramamurthy, D. 2014. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation. Biomed Research International.

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae.
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  292. Differential effects of nitrogen and sulfur deprivation on growth and biodiesel feedstock production of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    Abstract

    Cakmak, T.; Angun, P.; Demiray, Y. E.; Ozkan, A. D.; Elibol, Z.; Tekinay, T. 2012. Differential effects of nitrogen and sulfur deprivation on growth and biodiesel feedstock production of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 109(8) 1947-1957

    Biodiesel production from microalgae is a promising approach for energy production; however, high cost of its process limits the use of microalgal biodiesel. Increasing the levels of triacylglycerol (TAG) levels, which is used as a biodiesel feedstock, in microalgae has been achieved mainly by nitrogen starvation. In this study, we compared effects of sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) starvation on TAG accumulation and related parameters in wild-type Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC-124 mt(-) and CC-125 mt(+) strains. Cell division was interrupted, protein and chlorophyll levels rapidly declined while cell volume, total neutral lipid, carotenoid, and carbohydrate content increased in response to nutrient starvation. Cytosolic lipid droplets in microalgae under nutrient starvation were monitored by three-dimensional confocal laser imaging of live cells. Infrared spectroscopy results showed that relative TAG, oligosaccharide and polysaccharide levels increased rapidly in response to nutrient starvation, especially S starvation. Both strains exhibited similar levels of regulation responses under mineral deficiency, however, the degree of their responses were significantly different, which emphasizes the importance of mating type on the physiological response of algae. Neutral lipid, TAG, and carbohydrate levels reached their peak values following 4 days of N or S starvation. Therefore, 4 days of N or S starvation provides an excellent way of increasing TAG content. Although increase in these parameters was followed by a subsequent decline in N-starved strains after 4 days, this decline was not observed in S-starved ones, which shows that S starvation is a better way of increasing TAG production of C. reinhardtii than N starvation. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2012; 109:19471957. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  293. Developments in feedstocks available for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Walker, K. C. 1996. Developments in feedstocks available for biodiesel production. 2nd European Motor Biofuels Forum, Proceedings. 165-169

    Considerable developments in oilseeds are taking place on a world scale which in turn have an influence on the potential for liquid biofuels. The development of hybrids will result in much higher yielding crops which may reduce oil costs and improve the energy balance of biofuel production. Improvement of oil quality for human consumption will at the same time improve feedstock quality for biofuel production.
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  294. Development of Microsatellite Markers in the Oil-Producing Species Vernicia Fordii (Euphorbiaceae), a Potential Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Pan, Y.; Pan, L.; Chen, L.; Zhang, L. L.; Nevo, E.; Peng, J. H. 2013. Development of Microsatellite Markers in the Oil-Producing Species Vernicia Fordii (Euphorbiaceae), a Potential Biodiesel Feedstock. Applications in Plant Sciences. 1(7)

    Premise of the study: Tung tree, Vernicia fordii, is native to China. Little has been done on genetics and breeding at the molecular level in this species, let alone utilizing microsatellite (simple sequence repeat [SSR]) markers. Therefore, a set of SSR molecular markers was developed for studies on molecular genetics and breeding in tung tree.
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  295. Development of Biodiesel from Inedible Feedstock Through Various Production Processes. Review (vol 47, pg 102, 2011)
    Abstract

    Qiul, J. L.; Fan, X. H.; Zou, H. Y. 2011. Development of Biodiesel from Inedible Feedstock Through Various Production Processes. Review (vol 47, pg 102, 2011). Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 47(3) 245-245

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  296. Development of Biodiesel from Inedible Feedstock through Various Production Processes. Review
    Abstract

    Qiul, J. L.; Fan, X. H.; Zou, H. Y. 2011. Development of Biodiesel from Inedible Feedstock through Various Production Processes. Review. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 47(2) 102-111

    Fossil fuels are dwindling daily. An ever increasing demand for energy and environmental concern stimulate the search for alternative energy sources. As a renewable energy, biodiesel is one of the most attractive due to environmental advantages. However, a major hurdle in the commercialization of biodiesel from virgin oil is the raw material cost. Low-cost feedstock resources are playing a vital role in the whole biodiesel industry. This paper briefly reviews the inedible vegetable oil sources that have been explored for biodiesel production. In addition, comparisons of the advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel synthesis through homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic catalysis are also discussed in this review.
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  297. Development of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for increasing the accumulation of triacylglycerol as a microbial oil feedstock for biodiesel production using glycerol as a substrate
    Abstract

    Yu, K. O.; Jung, J.; Ramzi, A. B.; Choe, S. H.; Kim, S. W.; Park, C.; Han, S. O. 2013. Development of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for increasing the accumulation of triacylglycerol as a microbial oil feedstock for biodiesel production using glycerol as a substrate. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 110(1) 343-347

    Triacylglycerol (TAG) is a microbial oil feedstock for biodiesel production that uses an inexpensive substrate, such as glycerol. Here, we demonstrated the overproduction of TAG from glycerol in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae via the glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) pathway by overexpressing the major TAG synthesis. The G3P accumulation was increased 2.4-fold with the increased glycerol utilization gained by the overexpression of glycerol kinase (GUT1). By overexpressing diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGA1) and phospholipid diacylglycerol acyltransferase (LRO1), the engineered YPH499 (pGutDgaLro1) strain produced 23.0?mg/L lipids, whereas the YPH499 (pESC-TRP) strain produced 6.2?mg/L total lipids and showed a lipid content that was increased 1.4-fold compared with 3.6% for the wild-type strain after 96?h of cultivation. After 96?h of cultivation using glycerol, the overall content of TAG in the engineered strain, YPH499 (pGutDgaLro1), yielded 8.2% TAG, representing a 2.3-fold improvement, compared with 3.6% for the wild-type strain. The results should allow a reduction of costs and a more sustainable production of biodiesel. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 343347. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  298. Development and Scale-up of Aqueous Surfactant-Assisted Extraction of Canola Oil for Use as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Tuntiwiwattanapun, N.; Tongcumpou, C.; Haagenson, D.; Wiesenborn, D. 2013. Development and Scale-up of Aqueous Surfactant-Assisted Extraction of Canola Oil for Use as Biodiesel Feedstock. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 90(7) 1089-1099

    Aqueous surfactant-assisted extraction (ASE) has been proposed as an alternative to n-hexane for extraction of vegetable oil; however, the use of inexpensive surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the effect of ASE on the quality of biodiesel from the oil are not well understood. Therefore, the effects on total oil extraction efficiency of surfactant concentration, extraction time, oilseed to liquid ratio and other parameters were evaluated using ASE with ground canola and SDS in aqueous solution. The highest total oil extraction efficiency was 80 %, and was achieved using 0.02 M SDS at 20 A degrees C, solid-liquid ratio 1:10 (g:mL), 1,000 rpm stirring speed and 45 min contact time. Applying triple extraction with three stages reduced the amount of SDS solution needed by 50 %. The ASE method was scaled up to extract 300 g of ground canola using the best combination of extraction conditions as described above. The extracted oil from the scale-up of the ASE method passed the recommendation for biodiesel feedstock quality with respect to water content, acid value and phosphorous content. Water content, kinematic viscosity, acid value and oxidative stability index of ASE biodiesel were within the ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards.
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  299. Developing sustainable strategies for biodiesel synthesis using high fatty acid feedstock
    Abstract

    Ngo, H. L.; Zafiropoulos, N. A.; Foglia, T. A.; Samulski, E. T.; Lin, W. B. 2009. Developing sustainable strategies for biodiesel synthesis using high fatty acid feedstock. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 238482-482

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  300. Designing of a "cheap to run'' fermentation platform for an enhanced production of single cell oil from Yarrowia lipolytica DSM3286 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Nambou, K.; Zhao, C.; Wei, L. J.; Chen, J.; Imanaka, T.; Hua, Q. 2014. Designing of a "cheap to run'' fermentation platform for an enhanced production of single cell oil from Yarrowia lipolytica DSM3286 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel. Bioresource Technology. 173324-333

    In this study, the culture medium components screening and filtering were undertaken in order to set up efficient and cost effective minimal culture media for lipid production from Yarrowia lipolytica DSM3286. The basal minimal culture medium (S2) designed yielded lipid content up to 35% of the microbial dry cell weight. A set of fermentation strategies based on this minimal medium was developed and the lipid content was raised to 51%. The scale-up under different fermentation conditions based on S2 medium led to a maximum lipid content of 65%. The produced microbial oils displayed interesting properties to be used as a feedstock for high quality biodiesel production. The minimal media and operable cultivation strategies devised in this study, in association with the works done so far by other authors, could enable fast, massive, viable and more economical production of single cell oils and smooth biodiesel manufacture. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  301. Design and control of a biodiesel production process using sugar catalyst for oil feedstock with different free fatty acid concentrations.
    Abstract

    Cheng, J. K.; Chao, C. C.; Ward, J. D.; Chien, I. L. 2014. Design and control of a biodiesel production process using sugar catalyst for oil feedstock with different free fatty acid concentrations.. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 45(1) 76-84

    This manuscript reports on the plant-wide design arid control of a biodiesel process using a sugar catalyst. This catalyst is less expensive and more environmentally friendly than the conventional catalyst because it does not have to be neutralized and there is no resulting waste salt. Also, the acid catalyst can be used for simultaneous esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) and transesterification of triglyceride because there is no concern about the formation of soap, which is a problem with the conventional base catalyst. Two issues are addressed in this work. The first one is to find the effect of FFA content in oil feed to the optimal design of this process. The second one is to investigate the operability of the proposed process. The results show that total annual cost of the plant-wide process is not significantly changed when the FFA content greater than 15 wt%. As compared to a two-step process in literature, the energy consumption per tons of biodiesel production of our proposed process gives significant 65.8% saving for an oil feed with 5 wt% FFA. Dynamic simulations demonstrate that the proposed process can accommodate production rate and feed composition changes using a decentralized plant-wide control structure. 2013 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  302. Dependence of cold filter plugging point on saturated fatty acid profile of biodiesel blends derived from different feedstocks
    Abstract

    Yuan, M. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chen, J. H.; Luo, Y. M. 2017. Dependence of cold filter plugging point on saturated fatty acid profile of biodiesel blends derived from different feedstocks. Fuel. 19559-68

    One of the major technical obstacles to the practical use of biodiesel fuel is its cold flow properties. Although attempts have been made to determine the correlation between the cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles, the proposed models are valid only for certain combinations of feedstock oils. In this study, the contributing coefficients of individual saturated FAMEs used in predicting the CFPP were quantified statistically for the first time. Quantification was based on 303 most widely used biodiesel blends (125 from this work and 178 collected from previous studies) of 15 edible, non-edible, or low-molecular-weight oils and animal fats. Results based on a stepwise multiple regression method (Model 1) indicate that the amounts of myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and arachidic (C20:0) acid methyl esters significantly influence the CFPP. Considering unconverted monoglycerides as another independent variable for the stepwise analysis, the results (Model 2) indicate that the statistically significant variables are the same as those in Model 1. In order to improve the predictive power of and to reduce the number of parameters in the Models 1 and 2, several modified correlations (Models 3-5) were also established by stepwise analysis, especially for blends containing babacu/coconut methyl esters or a large amount of rapeseed methyl esters. Through these correlations, the optimum FAME profile and blends of common biodiesel feedstocks that result in a satisfactory CFPP can be determined from their C16:0, C18:0, and C20:0 content. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  303. Decanter cake as a feedstock for biodiesel production: A first report
    Abstract

    Maniam, G. P.; Hindryawati, N.; Nurfitri, I.; Jose, R.; Ab Rahim, M. H.; Dahalan, F. A.; Yusoff, M. M. 2013. Decanter cake as a feedstock for biodiesel production: A first report. Energy Conversion and Management. 76527-532

    Decanter cake (DC), with an oil content of 11.5 +/- 0.18 wt.%, was subjected to ultrasound-aided transesterification using boiler ash as a base catalyst, petroleum ether and hexane as co-solvents. Optimization work revealed that at MeOH:oil mass ratio of 6:1 and 2.3 wt.% catalyst (based on DC weight) with 1:2 co-solvents:DC mass ratio as the optimal reaction conditions. Both decanter cake and boiler ash, waste materials from oil palm mill, were successfully utilized to produce methyl ester (biodiesel) with highest conversion of 85.9 wt.% in a 1 h reaction period at 55 (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  304. Deacidification of Pistacia chinensis Oil as a Promising Non-Edible Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in China
    Abstract

    Qin, S. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Shi, C. L.; He, L. Q.; Meng, Y.; Ren, X. H. 2012. Deacidification of Pistacia chinensis Oil as a Promising Non-Edible Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in China. Energies. 5(8) 2759-2770

    Pistacia chinensis seed oil is proposed as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Different extraction methods were tested and compared to obtain crude oil from the seed of Pistacia chinensis, along with various deacidification measures of refined oil. The biodiesel was produced through catalysis of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The results showed that the acid value of Pistacia chinensis oil was successfully reduced to 0.23 mg KOH/g when it was extracted using ethanol. Consequently, the biodiesel product gave a high yield beyond 96.0%. The transesterification catalysed by KOH was also more complete. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the transesterification reaction. Analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) certified that the Pistacia chinensis biodiesel mainly consisted of C-18 fatty acid methyl esters (81.07%) with a high percentage of methyl oleate. Furthermore, the measured fuel properties of the biodiesel met the required standards for fuel use. In conclusion, the Pistacia chinensis biodiesel is a qualified and feasible substitute for fossil diesel.
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  305. De novo assembly of the pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) transcriptome provides tools for the development of a winter cover crop and biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Dorn, K. M.; Fankhauser, J. D.; Wyse, D. L.; Marks, M. D. 2013. De novo assembly of the pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) transcriptome provides tools for the development of a winter cover crop and biodiesel feedstock. Plant Journal. 75(6) 1028-1038

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) has potential as an oilseed crop that may be grown during fall (autumn) and winter months in the Midwestern United States and harvested in the early spring as a biodiesel feedstock. There has been little agronomic improvement in pennycress through traditional breeding. Recent advances in genomic technologies allow for the development of genomic tools to enable rapid improvements to be made through genomic assisted breeding. Here we report an annotated transcriptome assembly for pennycress. RNA was isolated from representative plant tissues, and 203million unique Illumina RNA-seq reads were produced and used in the transcriptome assembly. The draft transcriptome assembly consists of 33873 contigs with a mean length of 1242bp. A global comparison of homology between the pennycress and Arabidopsis transcriptomes, along with four other Brassicaceae species, revealed a high level of global sequence conservation within the family. The final assembly was functionally annotated, allowing for the identification of putative genes controlling important agronomic traits such as flowering and glucosinolate metabolism. Identification of these genes leads to testable hypotheses concerning their conserved function and to rational strategies to improve agronomic properties in pennycress. Future work to characterize isoform variation between diverse pennycress lines and develop a draft genome sequence for pennycress will further direct trait improvement.
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  306. Cyprinus carpio fish oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Al-Tikrity, E. T. B.; Fadhil, A. B.; Albadree, M. A. 2016. Cyprinus carpio fish oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(22) 3367-3374

    Biodiesel was developed from a novel nonedible oil source, namely Cyprinus carpio fish oil. The acid value of fish oil was very low (0.70 mg KOH/g oil, 0.35 free fatty acid content). As a result, biodiesel was produced through a one-step transesterifcation process, i.e. alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol. The optimal conditions for producing biodiesel from fish oil were investigated. The highest biodiesel yield (97.22% similar to 96.88% w/w ester content) was obtained under optimum conditions of 0.75% KOH w/w, 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature and 60-minute duration. Properties of the produced biodiesel as well as its blends with petro-diesel fulfilled the standard limits as prescribed by ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 indicating its suitability as a fuel for diesel engines.
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  307. Cuphea Oil as a Potential Biodiesel Feedstock to Improve Fuel Properties
    Abstract

    Knothe, G. 2014. Cuphea Oil as a Potential Biodiesel Feedstock to Improve Fuel Properties. Journal of Energy Engineering. 140(3)

    One of the approaches to improving the fuel properties of biodiesel, a fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, or other triacylglycerol-containing materials, is to use a feedstock with inherently different fatty acid profile than most common feedstocks such as commodity vegetable oils. Cuphea oil is such a feedstock as it is highly enriched in decanoic acid, which causes the biodiesel fuel derived from it to exhibit improved properties. Cuphea oil, however, faces agronomic issues before widespread commercial production is possible. This article briefly summarizes recent research results regarding cuphea oil in relation to the biodiesel fuel derived from it. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
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  308. Culture of Microalgae Chlorella minutissima for Biodiesel Feedstock Production
    Abstract

    Tang, H. Y.; Chen, M.; Garcia, M. E. D.; Abunasser, N.; Ng, K. Y. S.; Salley, S. O. 2011. Culture of Microalgae Chlorella minutissima for Biodiesel Feedstock Production. Biotechnology and Bioengineering. 108(10) 2280-2287

    Microalgae are among the most promising of non-food based biomass fuel feedstock alternatives. Algal biofuels production is challenged by limited oil content, growth rate, and economical cultivation. To develop the optimum cultivation conditions for increasing biofuels feedstock production, the effect of light source, light intensity, photoperiod, and nitrogen starvation on the growth rate, cell density, and lipid content of Chlorella minutissima were studied. The fatty acid content and composition of Chlorella minutissima were also investigated under the above conditions. Fluorescent lights were more effective than red or white light-emitting diodes for algal growth. Increasing light intensity resulted in more rapid algal growth, while increasing the period of light also significantly increased biomass productivity. Our results showed that the lipid and triacylglycerol content were increased under N starvation conditions. Thus, a two-phase strategy with an initial nutrient-sufficient reactor followed by a nutrient deprivation strategy could likely balance the desire for rapid and high biomass generation (124 mg/L) with a high oil content (50%) of Chlorella minutissima to maximize the total amount of oil produced for biodiesel production. Moreover, methyl palmitate (C16:0), methyl oleate (C18:1), methyl linoleate (C18: 2), and methyl linolenate (C18: 3) are the major components of Chlorella minutissima derived FAME, and choice of light source, intensity, and N starvation impacted the FAME composition of Chlorella minutissima. The optimized cultivation conditions resulted in higher growth rate, cell density, and oil content, making Chlorella minutissima a potentially suitable organism for biodiesel feedstock production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2011; 108: 2280-2287. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  309. A critical review on recent methods used for economically viable and eco-friendly development of microalgae as a potential feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Sharma, Y. C.; Singh, B.; Korstad, J. 2011. A critical review on recent methods used for economically viable and eco-friendly development of microalgae as a potential feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel. Green Chemistry. 13(11) 2993-3006

    Microalgae are being considered as a viable feedstock for large- scale production of biodiesel. However, though it may look simpler to obtain lipids from microalgae, the overall process of choosing an algal strain, cultivation, harvesting, dewatering, and extraction of oil is quite complicated and not economically prudent at this time. A thorough understanding of algae and the overall biodiesel production process discussed in this paper is vital so that focused research might lower the costs involved. Various diverse species of microalgae are currently being used as feedstocks for biofuel. Heterotrophic culture may be preferred over photoautotrophic cultivation. For cultivation, specially fabricated photobioreactors (PBRs) have the capability to overcome the constraints and limitations of the open raceway ponds, although the former are cost intensive as compared to the latter. Exergy analysis of algal- biodiesel- carbon dioxide cycle shows the overall process to be renewable and hence should attain global attention.
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  310. Coupled production of single cell oil as biodiesel feedstock, xylitol and xylanase from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept using fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands
    Abstract

    Kamat, S.; Khot, M.; Zinjarde, S.; RayiKumar, A.; Gade, W. N. 2013. Coupled production of single cell oil as biodiesel feedstock, xylitol and xylanase from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept using fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands. Bioresource Technology. 135246-253

    This work evaluates sugarcane bagasse (SCB) conversion, in a biorefinery approach, to coproduce biodiesel and high value products using two novel mangrove fungi. On acid pre-treatment, sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SCBH) resulted in a xylitol yield of 0.51 g/g xylose consumed in 72 h by Williopsis saturnus. After SCB pretreatment, sugarcane bagasse residue (SCBR) was utilized using Aspergillus terreus for production of xylanase (12.74 U/ml) and cell biomass (9.8 g/L) which was extracted for single cell oil (SCO; 0.19 g/g) and transesterified to biodiesel. The FAME profile exhibited long chain SFAs and PUFAs with predicted biodiesel properties lying within the range specified by international standards. This biorefining approach of SCB utilization for co-production of xylitol, xylanase and SCO gains importance in terms of sustainability and eco-friendliness. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  311. Conversion of wastewater organics into biodiesel feedstock through the predator-prey interactions between phagotrophic microalgae and bacteria
    Abstract

    Li, C.; Ju, L. K. 2014. Conversion of wastewater organics into biodiesel feedstock through the predator-prey interactions between phagotrophic microalgae and bacteria. Rsc Advances. 4(83) 44026-44029

    We herein report a new route of cultivating phagotrophic microalgae with wastewater for biodiesel feedstock production. A continuous-flow process has been developed, through which organic matter of wastewater is first converted into the biomass of bacteria and then the bacteria are consumed by phagotrophic microalgae for growth and lipid production.
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  312. Conversion of a variety of high free fatty acid containing feedstock to biodiesel using solid acid supported catalyst
    Abstract

    Bala, D. D.; de Souza, K.; Misra, M.; Chidambaram, D. 2015. Conversion of a variety of high free fatty acid containing feedstock to biodiesel using solid acid supported catalyst. Journal of Cleaner Production. 104273-281

    The present study explores the use of silicotungstic acid anchored to mesoporous siliceous support, Korean Institute of Technology-6 (KIT-6), as a catalyst to produce biodiesel. Silicotungstic acid loaded KIT-6 was synthesized and the physicochemical properties were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, surface area and pore size distribution analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy techniques. Efficiency of the silicotungstic acid loaded KIT-6 in the production of biodiesel from a variety of high free fatty acid containing feedstock was then evaluated. The composition of free fatty acids in all the feedstock oils (algae oil, coffee oil, palmitic acid and used cooking oil) and their biodiesel resulting from the feedstock were also analyzed. Compared with other solid acid catalysts, the resulting materials show stable and highly efficient catalytic performance in biodiesel production with the highest conversion reaching 99%. A sample containing 26 wt% of silicotungstic acid supported on KI1-6 was found to be the most active catalyst for esterification at 70 degrees C whilst stirring constantly, with an alcohol/acid volume ratio of 2 and 1.5 wt% loading catalyst for 3 h. Furthermore, the catalyst was reused for four cycles indicating recyclability of the catalyst. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  313. Continuous production of biodiesel from low grade feedstock in presence of Zr-SBA-15: Catalyst performance and resistance against deactivation
    Abstract

    Iglesias, J.; Melero, J. A.; Bautista, L. F.; Morales, G.; Sanchez-Vazquez, R. 2014. Continuous production of biodiesel from low grade feedstock in presence of Zr-SBA-15: Catalyst performance and resistance against deactivation. Catalysis Today. 234174-181

    Zirconium-containing SBA-15 materials have been used in the production of fatty acid methyl esters from low grade oleaginous feedstock. Its resistance against deactivation has been assessed by means of studying the effect of conventional impurities present in lipid wastes over the catalytic performance of this material. Alkaline metal cations like potassium could interact with Bronsted acid sites, causing their neutralization by ion exchange and a limited, but not complete, deactivation of the material. Additionally, organic unsaponifiable compounds like retinoids or phospholipids - being studied in this work as retinol and lecithin, respectively - strongly interact with the catalyst surface, leading to a strong deactivation of the material, though reversible, since they are fully regenerated by calcination in air. Catalytic assays in continuous mode in a fixed bed reactor suggest a higher resistance of Zr-SBA-15/bentonite pellets against catalyst deactivation. Bentonite clay, which has been used as binding agent for the preparation of the particulate catalyst, seems to be responsible for this behavior, acting as poison scavenger and preventing the access of the impurities to the catalytic acid sites and consequently their deactivation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  314. A Comprehensive Study on Chlorella pyrenoidosa for Phenol Degradation and its Potential Applicability as Biodiesel Feedstock and Animal Feed
    Abstract

    Das, B.; Mandal, T. K.; Patra, S. 2015. A Comprehensive Study on Chlorella pyrenoidosa for Phenol Degradation and its Potential Applicability as Biodiesel Feedstock and Animal Feed. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 176(5) 1382-1401

    The present work evaluates the phenol degradative performance of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that C. pyrenoidosa degrades phenol completely up to 200 mg/l. It could also metabolize phenol in refinery wastewater. Biokinetic parameters obtained are the following: growth kinetics, mu (max) (media) > mu (max) (refinery wastewater), K (s)(media) < K (s)(refinery wastewater), K (I)(media) > K (I)(refinery wastewater); degradation kinetics, q (max) (media) > q (max) (refinery wastewater), K (s)(media) < K (s)(refinery wastewater), K (I)(media) > K (I)(refinery wastewater). The microalgae could cometabolize the alkane components present in refinery wastewater. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fingerprinting of biomass indicates intercellular phenol uptake and breakdown into its intermediates. Phenol was metabolized as an organic carbon source leading to higher specific growth rate of biomass. Phenol degradation pathway was elucidated using HPLC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometry. It involved both ortho- and meta-pathway with prominence of ortho-pathway. SEM analysis shows that cell membrane gets wrinkled on phenol exposure. Phenol degradation was growth and photodependent. Infrared analysis shows increased intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids opening possibility for utilization of spent biomass as biodiesel feedstock. The biomass after lipid extraction could be used as protein supplement in animal feed owing to enhanced protein content. The phenol remediation ability coupled with potential applicability of the spent biomass as biofuel feedstock and animal feed makes it a potential candidate for an environmentally sustainable process.
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  315. Comprehensive Investigation of the Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Biodiesel and Its Feedstock Oil through TGA-FTIR
    Abstract

    Li, H.; Niu, S. L.; Lu, C. M.; Wang, Y. Z. 2015. Comprehensive Investigation of the Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Biodiesel and Its Feedstock Oil through TGA-FTIR. Energy & Fuels. 29(8) 5145-5153

    With the rapid growth of biodiesel production in recent years, it is essential to evaluate the thermal degradation characteristics of biodiesel and its feedstock oil, for they are concerned with plenty of scientific applications. This study investigates thermal degradation of biodiesel and its feedstock oil through thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR). The experiments are conducted under inert conditions from 298 to 873 K, and are operated at temperature heating rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 K min(-1). Based on TGA results, the activation energy and enthalpy are calculated via the model free approach and the reaction order is determined by the Avrami theory. Besides the pre-exponential factor, the Gibbs free energy and entropy are calculated at the initial weight loss and the maximum weight loss temperature. Finally, the evolved products during the thermal degradation of biodiesel and its feedstock oil are detected by FTIR in real time.
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  316. Composition of Carotenoids from Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp BD47 Biomass, Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Ten, L. N.; Chae, S. M.; Yoo, S. A. 2015. Composition of Carotenoids from Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp BD47 Biomass, Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 51(3) 568-570

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  317. A comparison of used cooking oils: A very heterogeneous feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Knothe, G.; Steidley, K. R. 2009. A comparison of used cooking oils: A very heterogeneous feedstock for biodiesel. Bioresource Technology. 100(23) 5796-5801

    Used cooking or frying oils are of increasing interest as inexpensive feedstock for biodiesel production. In this work, used frying oils obtained from 16 local restaurants were investigated regarding their fatty acid profile vs. the fatty acid profile of the oil or fat prior to use. The fatty acid profiles were analyzed by gas chromatography and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Besides the fatty acid profile, the acid value and dynamic viscosity of the samples were determined. Dynamic viscosity was determined because of non-Newtonian behavior of some samples. The results indicate that oils and fats experience various degrees of increase in saturation during cooking/frying use, with the magnitude of these changes varying from sample to sample, i.e., a high degree of randomness of composition is found in used frying oil samples. Properties of the samples that were investigated were acid value and viscosity which consistently increased with use, also in a random fashion. Multiple independent samples obtained from the same restaurants indicate that there is little consistency of used cooking oil obtained from the same source. These results are discussed with regards to the potential fuel properties of biodiesel derived from these used frying oils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  318. Comparison of Oil Refining and Biodiesel Production Process between Screw press and n-hexane Techniques from Beauty Leaf Feedstock
    Abstract

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N. 2016. Comparison of Oil Refining and Biodiesel Production Process between Screw press and n-hexane Techniques from Beauty Leaf Feedstock. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering (Icme 2015). 1754

    The Beauty Leaf Tree (Callophylum inophyllum) is regarded as an alternative source of energy to produce 2nd generation biodiesel due to its potentiality as well as high oil yield content in the seed kernels. The treating process is indispensable during the biodiesel production process because it can augment the yield as well as quality of the product. Oil extracted from both mechanical screw press and solvent extraction using n-hexane was refined. Five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for screw press and five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for n-hexane were selected for refining as well as biodiesel conversion processes. The oil refining processes consists of degumming, neutralization as well as dewaxing. The degumming, neutralization and dewaxing processes were performed to remove all the gums (phosphorous-based compounds), free fatty acids, and waxes from the fresh crude oil before the biodiesel conversion process carried out, respectively. The results indicated that up to 73% and 81% of mass conversion efficiency of the refined oil in the screw press and n-hexane refining processes were obtained, respectively. It was also found that up to 88% and 90% of biodiesel were yielded in terms of mass conversion efficiency in the transesterification process for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. While the entire processes (refining and transesterification) were considered, the conversion of beauty leaf tree (BLT) refined oil into biodiesel was yielded up to 65% and 73% of mass conversion efficiency for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of crude and refined oil, and biodiesel were characterized according to the ASTM standards. Overall, BLT has the potential to contribute as an alternative energy source because of high mass conversion efficiency.
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  319. Comparison of harvesting methods for microalgae Chlorella sp. and its potential use as a biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Ahmad, A. L.; Yasin, N. H. M.; Derek, C. J. C.; Lim, J. K. 2014. Comparison of harvesting methods for microalgae Chlorella sp. and its potential use as a biodiesel feedstock. Environmental Technology. 35(17) 2244-2253

    Three methods for harvesting Chlorella sp. biomass were analysed in this paper - centrifugation, membrane microfiltration and coagulation: there was no significant difference between the total amount of biomass obtained by centrifugation and membrane microfiltration, i.e. 0.1174 +/- 0.0308 and 0.1145 +/- 0.0268g, respectively. Almost the same total lipid content was obtained using both methods, i.e. 27.96 +/- 0.77 and 26.43 +/- 0.67% for centrifugation and microfiltration, respectively. However, harvesting by coagulation resulted in the lowest biomass and lipid content. Similar fatty acid profiles were obtained for all of the harvesting methods, indicating that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2). However, the amounts of the individual fatty acids were higher for microfiltration than for centrifugation and coagulation; coagulation performed the most poorly in this regard by producing the smallest amount of fatty acids (41.61 +/- 6.49mg/gdw). The harvesting method should also be selected based on the cost benefit and energy requirements. The membrane filtration method offers the advantages of currently decreasing capital costs, a high efficiency and low maintenance and energy requirements and is thus the most efficient method for microalgae harvesting.
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  320. Comparison of feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production: An environmental and techno-economic evaluation
    Abstract

    Rincon, L. E.; Jaramillo, J. J.; Cardona, C. A. 2014. Comparison of feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production: An environmental and techno-economic evaluation. Renewable Energy. 69479-487

    Due to their high productivity in both crops and algae, tropical countries are likely to be the future world suppliers of feedstocks as well as biofuels such as biodiesel. In this work five feedstocks: palm, jatropha, microalgae, tallow and waste cooking oil were analyzed and compared using techno-economic and environmental criteria. For each feedstock, technological configurations currently used in the industry were taken into account (acid catalysis, basic catalysis and cogeneration). In this work, it was found that productivities for the basic catalyzed process were comparatively higher (1.010 kg biodiesel/kg crude oil), than those catalyzed by acid (0.85-0.95 kg biodiesel/kg crude oil). After the simulation of the selected processes, the lowest production costs were obtained for jatropha (USD 0.15/L, basic catalysis) and for waste cooking oils (USD 0.23/L, acid catalysis). The PEI (Potential Environmental Impact) generated for basic catalyzed process ranged from -0.04 to -0.09, while the acid catalyzed case -0.020 and -0.06 PEI per kg of product. The jatropha and microalgae oil using basic catalyzed configuration with energy cogeneration were the best process alternative from the environmental and economical points of view. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  321. Comparative lipid profiling of two endophytic fungal isolates - Colletotrichum sp. and Alternaria sp. having potential utilities as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Dey, P.; Banerjee, J.; Maiti, M. K. 2011. Comparative lipid profiling of two endophytic fungal isolates - Colletotrichum sp. and Alternaria sp. having potential utilities as biodiesel feedstock. Bioresource Technology. 102(10) 5815-5823

    Lipid accumulation abilities of two endophytic fungal isolates - Colletotrichum sp. and Alternaria sp. grown under optimum and nutrient-stress conditions were investigated and compared. Significant variations in lipid contents, ranging from 30% to 58% of their dry biomass were found in liquid culture using various carbon sources. Since, >50% of the total lipid was estimated to be neutral lipid for both the fungal species, predicted biodiesel properties were theoretically calculated based upon the determined fatty acid profiles: and the values were found to be comparable to those of commonly used plant oils for biodiesel production. The two endophytes grew successfully on the combined rice straw and wheat bran as substrate that was degraded by their secretory enzymes including cellulase [1.21-2.51 FPU/g dry substrate (gds)] in solid state fermentation and produced substantial amount of lipid (60.32-84.30 mg/gds). Our study highlights the potential utilities of these two novel endophytic fungi as biodiesel feedstock. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  322. Coffee oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Oliveira, L. S.; Franca, A. S.; Camargos, R. R. S.; Ferraz, V. P. 2008. Coffee oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 99(8) 3244-3250

    A preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of producing biodiesel using oil extracted from defective coffee beans was conducted as an alternative means of utilizing these beans instead of roasting for consumption of beverage with depreciated quality. Direct transesterifications of triglycerides from refined soybean oil (reference) and from oils extracted from healthy and defective coffee beans were performed. Type of alcohol employed and time were the reaction parameters studied. Sodium methoxide was used as alkaline catalyst. There was optimal phase separation after reactions using both soybean and healthy coffee beans oils when methanol was used. This was not observed when using the oil from defective beans which required further processing to obtain purified alkyl esters. Nevertheless, coffee oil was demonstrated to be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, both from healthy and defective beans, since the corresponding oils were successfully converted to fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  323. Chemometric Characterization of Vegetable Oils Based on the Fatty Acid Profiles for Selection of Potential Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Skrbic, B.; Cvejanov, J.; Durisic-Mladenovic, N. 2015. Chemometric Characterization of Vegetable Oils Based on the Fatty Acid Profiles for Selection of Potential Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 9(3) 358-371

    Variation in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of 119 vegetable oils and their influence on selected fuel properties of the obtainable biodiesels were evaluated using chemometric tools like hierarchical cluster. analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The aim was to classify the oils as potential feedstocks of biodiesel that could meet the selected requirements set by the EN14214 standard. Additionally, similarities between non edible oils and those from food crops were considered in order to identify low cost non edible biodiesel feedstocks that resemble FA profiles of the suitable edible feedstocks. In this way, the work contributes to the mapping of potential (alternative) biodiesel feedstocks, which might be of special interest for practicioners interested in alternative and non edible oil sources. The literature-derived data on the contents of fourteen FAs in vegetable oils were taken into account, as well as the following fuel properties of the corresponding biodiesels, which were calculated on the base of the oils' FA composition: iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN),cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and viscosities. The groups (clusters) of similar feedstocks (e.g., "polyunsaturated," "saturated," "monounsaturated") and the oil outliers were observed and described in order to point out the potential biodiesel feedstocks worldwide, including "non-edible" alternatives and the inherent properties of the obtainable biodiesel fuels. HCA proved to be a successful tool to classify the oils with specific compositional features that would lead to the production of biodiesel in compliance with the EN14214 standard limits, while PCA clearly indicated the outlying oils with the extreme FA profiles.
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  324. CHED 799-Comparison of oil feedstocks for biodiesel (B100) production: Processing parameters and fuel properties
    Abstract

    Sampson, M.; Dodds, J.; Brown, J.; Lemus, R.; Stephens, J.; Workman, R.; Dabdoub, M. J.; Paiva, N. L. 2008. CHED 799-Comparison of oil feedstocks for biodiesel (B100) production: Processing parameters and fuel properties. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 235

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  325. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production from multiple feedstocks
    Abstract

    Thompson, J. C.; He, B. B. 2006. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production from multiple feedstocks. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 22(2) 261-265

    Glycerol is the principal by-product of biodiesel production. For each gallon of biodiesel produced, approximately 0.3 kg of crude glycerol accompanies. Such crude glycerol possesses very low value because of the impurities contained. As the demand and production of biodiesel grow exponentially, the utilization of the glycerol becomes an urgent topic. The make-up of crude glycerol varies depending on the parent feedstock and the biodiesel production process. Before the crude glycerol could be considered for possible value-added utilizations, it is necessary to characterize it on its physical, chemical, and nutritional properties. This article reports the characterization of crude glycerol obtained from different seed oil feedstocks of mustard, rapeseed, canola, crambe, soybean, and waste cooking oils. Batch processes of biodiesel production were used as the means of crude, glycerol preparation using unrefined vegetable oils, methanol, and sodium methylate as the catalyst. After separation from biodiesel, the crude glycerol from each of the oils was analyzed using ASTM and other standard test methods. Elemental impurities, nutritional value, and other chemical properties were tested.
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  326. Characterization of Chlorococcum pamirum as a potential biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Feng, P. Z.; Deng, Z. Y.; Hu, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. M.; Fan, L. 2014. Characterization of Chlorococcum pamirum as a potential biodiesel feedstock. Bioresource Technology. 162115-122

    To evaluate the potential of Chlorococcum pamirum for producing biodiesel, the effects of nitrogen, phosphate, initial cell concentrations and NaCl on lipid accumulation and growth were studied. The highest specific growth rate (mu(max)), biomass productivity and lipid content achieved was 1.888 d (1), 350.1 mg L (1) day (1), and 64.9%, respectively. Under nitrogen-deficient condition, the cells accumulated lipids faster at low initial cell concentration. Additional NaCl to nitrogen-deficient media accelerated the lipid accumulation. When adding 10 g L (1) NaCl to nitrogen-deficient media, the lipid content and productivity of cells cultured outdoors with high initial cell concentration increased from 38.2% and 153 mg L (1) day (1) to 54.3% and 192 mg L (1) day (1) respectively. Moreover, NaCl enhanced the saturated fatty acids content from 56.40% to 73.41% of total fatty acids. The results show that C. pamirum is a promising organism for biofuel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  327. Characterization of Annona cherimola Mill. Seed Oil from Madeira Island: a Possible Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Branco, P. C.; Castilho, P. C.; Rosa, M. F.; Ferreira, J. 2010. Characterization of Annona cherimola Mill. Seed Oil from Madeira Island: a Possible Biodiesel Feedstock. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 87(4) 429-436

    The possibility of using Annona seed oil as an added value product, namely as a source of biodiesel, is explored. Milled Annona seeds were extracted with hexane at room temperature (72 h) and at solvent boiling point (6 h). Oil content was found to be 25 and 22.4% respectively. The oil was characterized in terms of lipid composition (HPLC-APCI-MS and (13)C NMR), resistance to oxidation and acidity index. FAME composition was determined by GC-MS and five major peaks were identified. Production of biodiesel from Annona's seed oil was achieved by base-catalyzed transesterification. Density, viscosity, refraction coefficient, acid value, cold filter plugging point, cloud point and oxidation stability were measured. The iodine value and the "apparent cetane number" were calculated. Density, viscosity, acid value, iodine value, cold filter plugging point and cloud point were within EN14214 specifications and the calculated "apparent cetane number" was also indicative of a suitable product.
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  328. Challenges in biodiesel industry with regards to feedstock, environmental, social and sustainability issues: A critical review
    Abstract

    Anuar, M. R.; Abdullah, A. Z. 2016. Challenges in biodiesel industry with regards to feedstock, environmental, social and sustainability issues: A critical review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 58208-223

    This paper addresses the challenges in developing a sustainable biodiesel industry especially in Malaysia. The challenges discussed in this paper are divided into three main sections covering issues before, during and after biodiesel processing. The pre-processing problems concern the feedstock market, legislation through policies, fuel-food competition, deforestation issue and alternative feedstock conflict. Problems with regards to the uncontrollable glycerol production and its global market crisis are also reviewed. Besides, some suggestions on poising back the glycerol market stability are reviewed through several upgrading processes and methods that can convert glycerol to its functional chemicals. The last section covers the social issue of biodiesel in obtaining people's acceptance and capability of this industry to cultivate the sustainable practices along the processing line. Moreover, challenges in verifying its commercial value by fulfilling the global biofuel standards are also highlighted. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  329. Cerbera odollam (sea mango) oil as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kansedo, J.; Lee, K. T.; Bhatia, S. 2009. Cerbera odollam (sea mango) oil as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Fuel. 88(6) 1148-1150

    This paper explores the feasibility of converting Cerbera odollam (sea mango) oil into biodiesel. The first part of this study focused on the extraction of oil from the seeds of C. odollam fruits, whereas the second part focused on the transesterification of the extracted oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The transesterification reactions were carried out using three different catalysts; sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as a homogenous catalyst, sulfated zirconia alumina and montmorillonite KSF as heterogeneous catalysts. The seeds were found to contain high percentage of oil up to 54% while the yield of FAME can reach up to 83.8% using sulfated zirconia catalyst. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  330. Ceiba pentandra, Nigella sativa and their blend as prospective feedstocks for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Khan, T. M. Y.; Atabani, A. E.; Badruddin, I. A.; Ankalgi, R. F.; Khan, T. K. M.; Badarudin, A. 2015. Ceiba pentandra, Nigella sativa and their blend as prospective feedstocks for biodiesel. Industrial Crops and Products. 65367-373

    There are more than 350 oil-bearing crops identified as potential sources for biodiesel production around the globe. The wide range of available feedstocks for biodiesel production represents one of the most significant factors for producing biodiesel. The current research work is carried out on fuel properties of biodiesel prepared from the non-edible oils of Ceiba pentandra, Nigella sativa and their mixture. N. sativa is believed to be investigated for the first time as a biodiesel feedstock while C. pentandra has been reported recently in few studies. Owing to higher acid value, acid-esterification and alkali-transesterification processes have been carried out for biodiesel production. The fuel properties of C. pentandra methyl ester (CPME), N. sativa methyl ester (NSME) and their feedstock mixture (NSME/CPME) are determined. It has been found that the produced biodiesel from respective feedstocks matches the properties set by ASTM 6751 standards. However, the fuel properties of the C pentandra biodiesel exhibited better calorific value, viscosity and flash point while N. sativa exhibited excellent cold flow properties and oxidation stability. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  331. Catalytic synthesis of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing feedstocks
    Abstract

    Zafiropoulos, N. A.; Ngo, H. L.; Foglia, T. A.; Samulski, E. T.; Lin, W. B. 2007. Catalytic synthesis of biodiesel from high free fatty acid-containing feedstocks. Chemical Communications. (35) 3670-3672

    Recyclable and reusable heterogeneous diarylammonium catalysts are highly effective in catalyzing the esterification of the free fatty acid (FFA) present in greases to methyl esters to reduce the FFA content from 12-40 wt% to 0.5-1 wt%; the resulting ester-glyceride mixture (pretreated grease) could then be readily converted to methyl esters by base-catalyzed transesterification.
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  332. Catalytic Packed-Bed Reactor Configuration for Biodiesel Production Using Waste Oil as Feedstock
    Abstract

    Borges, M. E.; Diaz, L. 2013. Catalytic Packed-Bed Reactor Configuration for Biodiesel Production Using Waste Oil as Feedstock. Bioenergy Research. 6(1) 222-228

    Pumice, a natural porous silica material, exchanged with potassium is an efficient heterogeneous particulate catalytic material for triglycerides and free fatty acids transesterification reaction from sunflower oil and waste frying oil at low temperature. In this work, a packed-bed catalytic configuration reactor using this catalytic material was developed for biodiesel fuel production from sunflower oil and frying oil feedstock. Reactor operation variables as methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction time, and reaction temperature were studied. Results were compared with those obtained from the same transesterification reaction proceeding in a slurry batch reactor. The packed-bed catalytic reactor configuration can be useful in order to minimize catalyst mechanical damage occurring in the slurry reactor due to continuous stirring. The possibility of using a packed-bed reactor shows some advantages because the catalyst stays confined in the reactor bed and the reaction products can be easily separated, besides the mechanical stability of the catalyst particles is achieved.
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  333. Carbohydrate-derived Solid Acid Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Low-Cost Feedstocks: A Review
    Abstract

    Lokman, I. M.; Rashid, U.; Yunus, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Carbohydrate-derived Solid Acid Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Low-Cost Feedstocks: A Review. Catalysis Reviews-Science and Engineering. 56(2) 187-219

    Currently, most biodiesels are produced from virgin vegetable oils using a transesterification reaction. However, there are a number of other potential cheap sources for biodiesels, such as deep-frying oils/fats and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). PFAD is a lower-value by-product of the palm oil industry and is an economical source for biodiesel production. Due to the high cost of biodiesel production, the formulation of a new method to produce a cheaper biodiesel is imperative. Low-quality feedstocks (especially PFAD) using green and highly reusable catalysts have gained popularity due to their low production cost. High free fatty acids (HFFA) in the feedstock causes problems during the biodiesel production process, especially with the use of basic heterogeneous and homogenous catalysts. Recently, the effectiveness of a solid acid catalyst to catalyze biodiesel production from HFFA feedstock has caught the attention of researchers.
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  334. Calophyllum inophyllum L. - A prospective non-edible biodiesel feedstock. Study of biodiesel production, properties, fatty acid composition, blending and engine performance
    Abstract

    Atabani, A. E.; Cesar, A. D. 2014. Calophyllum inophyllum L. - A prospective non-edible biodiesel feedstock. Study of biodiesel production, properties, fatty acid composition, blending and engine performance. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 37644-655

    Recently, non-edible oil resources are gaining worldwide attention because they can be found easily in many parts of the world especially wastelands that are not appropriate for cultivating food crops, eliminate competition for food, more efficient, more environmentally friendly, produce useful by-products and they are more economical compared to edible oils. Jatropha curcas, Pongamia pinnata, Calophylium inophyllum, Croton megaiocarpus and Azadirachta indica are some of the major non-edible feedstocks for biodiesel production. This paper investigates the potential of Calophyllum inophyllum as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, several aspects such as physical and chemical properties of crude Calophyllum inophyllum oil and methyl ester, fatty acid composition, blending and engine performance and emissions of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester were studied. Overall, Calophyllum inophyllum appears to be an acceptable feedstock for future biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  335. Butter as a Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Haas, M. J.; Adawi, N.; Berry, W. W.; Feldman, E.; Kasprzyk, S.; Ratigan, B.; Scott, K.; Landsburg, E. B. 2010. Butter as a Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 58(13) 7680-7684

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from cow's milk (Bostaurus) butter by esterification/transesterification in the presence of methanol. The product was assayed according to the Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels (ASTM D 6751). The preparation failed to meet the specifications for flash point, free and total glycerin contents, total sulfur, and oxidation stability. Failures to meet the flash point and free/total glycerin specifications were determined to be due to interference with standard assays for these parameters by short-chain-length fatty acid esters. The oxidation stability of the butterfat FAME was improved by supplementation with a commercial antioxidant formulation. Approximately 725 ppm of antioxidant was required to meet the ASTM-specified stability value for biodiesel. This work indicates that, without further purification to reduce a slightly excessive sulfur content, fatty acid ester preparations produced from butter are unacceptable as sole components of a biodiesel fuel. However, it is possible that even without further purification a butter-based ester preparation could be mixed with biodiesel from other feedstocks to produce a blend that meets the current quality standards for biodiesel. The results presented here also illustrate some potential weaknesses in the accepted methods for biodiesel characterization when employed in the analysis of FAME preparations containing mid- and short-chain fatty acid esters.
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  336. Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Patel, A.; Pravez, M.; Deeba, F.; Pruthi, V.; Singh, R. P.; Pruthi, P. A. 2014. Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 165214-222

    Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39 +/- 0.57 g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2 +/- 0.8 g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.95 +/- 1.02 lm) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515 nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C-20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C-22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C-27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils. Crown Copyright (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  337. Biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production
    Abstract

    Chatzifragkou, A.; Papanikolaou, S.; Kopsahelis, N.; Kachrimanidou, V.; Dorado, M. P.; Koutinas, A. A. 2014. Biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production. Bioresource Technology. 159167-175

    Rapeseed meal (RSM) hydrolysate was evaluated as substitute for commercial nutrient supplements in 1,3-propanediol (PDO) fermentation using the strain Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718. RSM was enzymatically converted into a generic fermentation feedstock, enriched in amino acids, peptides and various micro-nutrients, using crude enzyme consortia produced via solid state fermentation by a fungal strain of Aspergillus oryzae. Initial free amino nitrogen concentration influenced PDO production in batch cultures. RSM hydrolysates were compared with commercial nutrient supplements regarding PDO production in fed-batch cultures carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor. The utilization of RSM hydrolysates in repeated batch cultivation resulted in a PDO concentration of 65.5 g/L with an overall productivity of 1.15 g/L/h that was almost 2 times higher than the productivity achieved when yeast extract was used as nutrient supplement. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  338. Biodiesel: A feedstock quandary - Life cycle costs will affect feedstock selection for renewable fuels
    Abstract

    Saraf, S.; Thomas, B. 2007. Biodiesel: A feedstock quandary - Life cycle costs will affect feedstock selection for renewable fuels. Hydrocarbon Processing. 86(9) 131-+

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  339. Biodiesel yields and fuel quality as criteria for algal-feedstock selection: Effects of CO2-supplementation and nutrient levels in cultures
    Abstract

    Nascimento, I. A.; Cabanelas, I. T. D.; dos Santos, J. N.; Nascimento, M. A.; Sousa, L.; Sansone, G. 2015. Biodiesel yields and fuel quality as criteria for algal-feedstock selection: Effects of CO2-supplementation and nutrient levels in cultures. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 853-60

    Microalgae-oil yields and quality, associated with CO2-fixation rates, are able to enhance the feasibility of algal-biodiesel production and economics. Those issues were used as selective criteria applied to Trebouxiophyceae strains. Chlorella vulgaris and two Botryococcus strains were confirmed to grow and to produce high quality biodiesels at distinct levels (2.5 to 20%) of CO2-supplementation. Nevertheless, under nutrient-sufficient conditions, C. vulgaris showed the highest CO2-fixation rate (0.611 g L-1 d(-1)) and biomass production at 5% CO2-supplementation, while for Botryococcus terribilis and Botryococcus braunii, the maximum rates (0.614 and 0.555 g L-1 d(-1) CO2) were obtained at 10%-supplementation. Under nutrient-deficient conditions lipids have increased to be above the contents found during the exponential growth-phase, by a maximum of 43%. The fatty-acid profiles varied according to strains and CO2-levels in cultures. Despite variation, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids predominated. The higher percentage of oleic and palmitic acids over stearic acid, tended to balance the excess of the long chain-size and saturation effects on algal biodiesels' ignition and cold-flow properties. Thus, CO2-supplemented levels from 2.5 to 10.0% made biodiesels compliant with fuel-quality standards. Based on the obtained CO2-fixation rates biodiesels were projected to minimum yields of 42 to 46 L ha(-1) d(-1). (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  340. Biodiesel via supercritical ethanolysis within a global analysis "feedstocks-conversion-engine" for a sustainable fuel alternative
    Abstract

    Coniglio, L.; Coutinho, J. A. P.; Clavier, J. Y.; Jolibert, F.; Jose, J.; Mokbel, I.; Pillot, D.; Pons, M. N.; Sergent, M.; Tschamber, V. 2014. Biodiesel via supercritical ethanolysis within a global analysis "feedstocks-conversion-engine" for a sustainable fuel alternative. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 431-35

    The challenges in reducing the world's dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, while simultaneously improving engine performance through better fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust emissions, have led to the emergence of new fuels, with formulations blending petrodiesel, biodiesel, bioethanol and water in various proportions. In parallel, the sustainability of the new biofuel industries also requires to maintain a high level of biodiversity while playing on techno-diversity, using a variety of resources that do not compete with edible crops (nor by using arable land for energy crops or food crops for energy production) and flexible conversion technologies satisfying the eco-design, eco-energy and eco-materials criteria. In addition, it would be relevant to consider blending ethyl biodiesel, instead of methyl biodiesel, with petrodiesel, particularly if the fuel formulation is completed with bioethanol (or even water). The supercritical ethanolysis of lipid resources to produce ethyl biodiesel is a simple but efficient route that should have the potential to satisfy the sustainability criteria if analyzed holistically. Therefore, this review focuses specifically on the production of ethyl biodiesel via triglyceride supercritical ethanolysis within a global analysis "feedstocks-conversion-engine". The scientific and technical bottlenecks requiring further development are highlighted by emphasizing (i) the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects (experiments and modeling) required for the process simulation, the results of which aim at securing the life cycle assessment, first at the process level and then at the fuel level; (ii) the proposals to improve the supercritical process performance in terms of eco-material and eco-energy; (iii) the impacts of ethyl vs. methyl biodiesel fuels and of biodiesel ethanol petrodiesel blends (with or without water) on the diesel engine emissions and performance; (iv) the technological flexibility of the supercritical process allowing its conversion toward production of other key products. Finally, built on the state-of-the art review, a new R&D direction combining supercritical ethanolysis of lipids with the addition of CO2, glycerol recovery, and cogeneration, according to the biorefinery concept, is proposed and discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  341. Biodiesel Synthesis via Esterification of Feedstock with High Content of Free Fatty Acids
    Abstract

    Souza, M. S.; Aguieiras, E. C. G.; da Silva, M. A. P.; Langone, M. A. P. 2009. Biodiesel Synthesis via Esterification of Feedstock with High Content of Free Fatty Acids. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 154(1-3) 253-267

    The objective of this work was to study the synthesis of ethyl esters via esterification of soybean oil deodorizer distillate with ethanol, using solid acid catalysts and commercial immobilized lipases, in a solvent-free system. Three commercially immobilized lipases were used, namely, Lipozyme RM-IM, Lipozyme TL-IM, and Novozym 435, all from Novozymes. We aimed for optimum reaction parameters: temperature, enzyme concentration, initial amount of ethanol, and its feeding technique to the reactor (stepwise ethanolysis). Reaction was faster with Novozym 435. The highest conversion (83.5%) was obtained after 90 min using 3 wt.% of Novozym 435 and two-stage stepwise addition of ethanol at 50 C. Four catalysts were also tested: zeolite CBV-780, SAPO-34, niobia, and niobic acid. The highest conversion (30%) was obtained at 100 C, with 3 wt.% of CBV-780 after 2.5 h. The effects of zeolite CBV 780 concentration were studied, resulting in a conversion of 49% using 9 wt.% of catalyst.
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  342. Biodiesel Properties and Alternative Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R. 2013. Biodiesel Properties and Alternative Feedstocks. Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers. 205-233

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  343. Biodiesel production, properties, and feedstocks
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R. 2009. Biodiesel production, properties, and feedstocks. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Plant. 45(3) 229-266

    Biodiesel, defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional petroleum diesel fuel (petrodiesel). Produced by transesterification with a monohydric alcohol, usually methanol, biodiesel has many important technical advantages over petrodiesel, such as inherent lubricity, low toxicity, derivation from a renewable and domestic feedstock, superior flash point and biodegradability, negligible sulfur content, and lower exhaust emissions. Important disadvantages of biodiesel include high feedstock cost, inferior storage and oxidative stability, lower volumetric energy content, inferior low-temperature operability, and in some cases, higher NO (x) exhaust emissions. This review covers the process by which biodiesel is prepared, the types of catalysts that may be used for the production of biodiesel, the influence of free fatty acids on biodiesel production, the use of different monohydric alcohols in the preparation of biodiesel, the influence of biodiesel composition on fuel properties, the influence of blending biodiesel with other fuels on fuel properties, alternative uses for biodiesel, and value-added uses of glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production. A particular emphasis is placed on alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Lastly, future challenges and outlook for biodiesel are discussed.
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  344. Biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock: from strains to biodiesel
    Abstract

    Gong, Y. M.; Jiang, M. L. 2011. Biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock: from strains to biodiesel. Biotechnology Letters. 33(7) 1269-1284

    Due to negative environmental influence and limited availability, petroleum-derived fuels need to be replaced by renewable biofuels. Biodiesel has attracted intensive attention as an important biofuel. Microalgae have numerous advantages for biodiesel production over many terrestrial plants. There are a series of consecutive processes for biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock, including selection of adequate microalgal strains, mass culture, cell harvesting, oil extraction and transesterification. To reduce the overall production cost, technology development and process optimization are necessary. Genetic engineering also plays an important role in manipulating lipid biosynthesis in microalgae. Many approaches, such as sequestering carbon dioxide from industrial plants for the carbon source, using wastewater for the nutrient supply, and maximizing the values of by-products, have shown a potential for cost reduction. This review provides a brief overview of the process of biodiesel production with microalgae as feedstock. The methods associated with this process (e.g. lipid determination, mass culture, oil extraction) are also compared and discussed.
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  345. Biodiesel production in Brazil and alternative biomass feedstocks
    Abstract

    Bergmann, J. C.; Tupinamba, D. D.; Costa, O. Y. A.; Almeida, J. R. M.; Barreto, C. C.; Quirino, B. F. 2013. Biodiesel production in Brazil and alternative biomass feedstocks. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 21411-420

    Renewable biofuels are increasingly important in the Brazilian energy matrix. In 2010, the country became the second world producer of biodiesel with a production of 2.4 million of m(3) in that year, only behind Germany. In 2011, both the United States and Argentina increased production and now Brazil is the fourth world producer of biodiesel. The Brazilian biodiesel production federal program has been designed so that small family farmers, as well as large agribusiness operations, are encouraged to produce vegetable oil crops for biodiesel production. Brazil is the second largest world producer of soybeans, currently the main feedstock used for biodiesel production in the country. Due to the increasing demand for biodiesel and low oil productivity from soybean, Brazil is searching for alternative oilseed crops from which biodiesel can be produced. In this review, the current scenario for biodiesel production in Brazil is discussed, as well as vegetable oil crops that are being considered as potential biodiesel feedstocks in addition to soybeans. Brazil's biodiesel industry is currently operating only at 47% of its capacity. Therefore, it is expected that biodiesel production in Brazil will further increase. Due to the size of the country's bioethanol and biodiesel industries, Brazil can already be considered one of the world powers in sustainable biofuel production, an strategic area of the world's emerging bio-based economy. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  346. Biodiesel production from wet microalgae feedstock using sequential wet extraction/transesterification and direct transesterification processes
    Abstract

    Chen, C. L.; Huang, C. C.; Ho, K. C.; Hsiao, P. X.; Wu, M. S.; Chang, J. S. 2015. Biodiesel production from wet microalgae feedstock using sequential wet extraction/transesterification and direct transesterification processes. Bioresource Technology. 194179-186

    Although producing biodiesel from microalgae seems promising, there is still a lack of technology for the quick and cost-effective conversion of biodiesel from wet microalgae. This study was aimed to develop a novel microalgal biodiesel producing method, consisting of an open system of microwave disruption, partial dewatering (via combination of methanol treatment and low-speed centrifugation), oil extraction, and transesterification without the pre-removal of the co-solvent, using Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 with 68.7 wt% water content as the feedstock. Direct transesterification with the disrupted wet microalgae was also conducted. The biomass content of the wet microalgae increased to 56.6 and 60.5 wt%, respectively, after microwave disruption and partial dewatering. About 96.2% oil recovery was achieved under the conditions of: extraction temperature, 45 degrees C; hexane/methanol ratio, 3: 1; extraction time, 80 min. Transesterification of the extracted oil reached 97.2% conversion within 15 min at 45 degrees C and 6: 1 solvent/methanol ratio with simultaneous Chlorophyll removal during the process. Nearly 100% biodiesel conversion was also obtained while conducting direct transesterification of the disrupted oil-bearing microalgal biomass. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  347. Biodiesel production from waste oil feedstocks by solid acid catalysis
    Abstract

    Peng, B. X.; Shu, Q.; Wang, J. F.; Wang, G. R.; Wang, D. Z.; Han, M. H. 2008. Biodiesel production from waste oil feedstocks by solid acid catalysis. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 86(B6) 441-447

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic and biodegradable substitute for petroleum-based diesel. However, it is impractical to use refined edible oils to produce biodiesel due to its high cost and priority for food products, especially in China, while waste oils with high free fatty acids (FFAs) can be considered as the raw materials. In the present work, a solid acid catalyst comprising SO(4)(2-)/TiO(2)-SiO(2) was prepared, characterized and studied for its activity for the production of biodiesel from several low cost feedstocks with high FFAs. The solid acid catalyst can be recycled, easily removed and can simultaneously catalyze esterification and transesterification. The influence of reaction parameters was studied, and the optimized reaction parameters are reaction temperature 200 degrees C, molar ratio of methanol to oil 9:1 and catalyst concentration 3 wt.%. The catalyst showed good stability. A continuous process for biodiesel production from cheap raw feedstocks was proposed, and a 10,000-tonnes/year biodiesel production demonstration plant has been built. (c) 2008 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier BY. All rights reserved.
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  348. Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties
    Abstract

    Canakci, M.; Sanli, H. 2008. Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology. 35(5) 431-441

    Biodiesel, which is a new, renewable and biological origin alternative diesel fuel, has been receiving more attention all over the world due to the energy needs and environmental consciousness. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using food-grade vegetable oils is not economically feasible since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. Waste cooking oils, restaurant greases, soapstocks and animal fats are potential feedstocks for biodiesel production to lower the cost of biodiesel. However, to produce fuel-grade biodiesel, the characteristics of feedstock are very important during the initial research and production stage since the fuel properties mainly depend on the feedstock properties. This review paper presents both biodiesel productions from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties.
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  349. Biodiesel production from tannery fleshings: Feedstock pretreatment and process modeling
    Abstract

    Sanek, L.; Pecha, J.; Kolomaznik, K.; Barinovaa, M. 2015. Biodiesel production from tannery fleshings: Feedstock pretreatment and process modeling. Fuel. 14816-24

    During raw hide processing, tanning industries generate large quantities of wastes containing a considerable amount of fat which can be converted into biodiesel. A typical representative of such wastes is fleshings - which however, usually contains a significant amount of free fatty acids, proteins and other impurities. Pretreatment was suggested as a means of processing this acidic feedstock, thereby enabling the reduction of the free fatty acid content under the limit value of 0.5% w/w when the alkali catalyst is then appropriate for transesterification. The feedstock pretreatment process involved the refining melting of fresh pigskin fleshings with subsequent extraction using a methanol or methanol solution with an equimolar amount of alkali i.e. tetramethylammonium hydroxide, isopropylamine and cyclohexylamine. A mathematical model of the pretreatment process was proposed, verified and used in further simulation calculations - which confirmed that deacidification employing methanolic alkali solutions is more efficient than pretreatment with pure methanol; in addition, the free fatty acids can be removed to the demanded level in just one step (fat initial acid value = 20 mg KOH/g, mass ratio of methanol to oil = 1.5). The fat pretreated by the suggested procedure was used for alkali catalyzed transesterification. The prepared biodiesel met most of the EN 14 214 requirements with respect to the limitations caused by the used fleshings fatty acid profile. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  350. Biodiesel production from Spirulina microalgae feedstock using direct transesterification near supercritical methanol condition
    Abstract

    Shirazi, H. M.; Karimi-Sabet, J.; Ghotbi, C. 2017. Biodiesel production from Spirulina microalgae feedstock using direct transesterification near supercritical methanol condition. Bioresource Technology. 239378-386

    Microalgae as a candidate for production of biodiesel, possesses a hard cell wall that prevents intracellular lipids leaving out from the cells. Direct or in situ supercritical transesterification has the potential for destruction of microalgae hard cell wall and conversion of extracted lipids to biodiesel that consequently reduces the total energy consumption. Response surface methodology combined with central composite design was applied to investigate process parameters including: Temperature, Time, Methanol-to-dry algae, Hexane-to-dry algae, and Moisture content. Thirty-two experiments were designed and performed in a batch reactor, and biodiesel efficiency between 0.44% and 99.32% was obtained. According to fatty acid methyl ester yields, a quadratic experimental model was adjusted and the significance of parameters was evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Effects of single and interaction parameters were also interpreted. In addition, the effect of supercritical process on the ultrastructure of microalgae cell wall using scanning electron spectrometry (SEM) was surveyed. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  351. Biodiesel production from renewable feedstocks: Status and opportunities
    Abstract

    Borugadda, V. B.; Goud, V. V. 2012. Biodiesel production from renewable feedstocks: Status and opportunities. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16(7) 4763-4784

    The increased demand for energy, climate change, and energy security concerns has driven the research interest for the development of alternative fuel from plant origin. Biodiesel derived from plant oils, which include edible and non-edible oil have gained interest for the last two decades as alternative for diesel around the world. Among these plant origin oils more than 95% of biodiesel production feedstocks come from edible oils, because they are readily available in many regions. The major advantage of these feedstocks is the properties of biodiesel produced from them are suitable to be used as diesel fuel substitute. But the consequence is the increase demand of the feedstock for food as well as fuel. A sustainable alternative fuel should be derived from renewable non-food biomass sources. The main objective of this review is to give an overview on the synthesis of biodiesel through esterification and transesterification using non-edible oil resources which are available in India, and available processes for synthesis of biodiesel (acid-, base-catalyzed transesterification reactions (homogeneous and heterogeneous), their importance, and which is the commercial process also discussed here. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  352. Biodiesel production from Phoenix dactylifera as a new feedstock
    Abstract

    Amani, M. A.; Davoudi, M. S.; Tahvildari, K.; Nabavi, S. M.; Davoudi, M. S. 2013. Biodiesel production from Phoenix dactylifera as a new feedstock. Industrial Crops and Products. 4340-43

    Biodiesel is one of the renewable and clean burning fuels, which can be used in diesel engines. Biodiesel is usually generated from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using the food-grade vegetable oils is not economical since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. The kind of feedstock, which is used is the most effective factor on the biodiesel characteristics and the price. So, at first finding a proper feedstock has an important role in different places. Therefore in this research the possibility of using date seed as a cheap feedstock for biodiesel production was investigated, because it is produced largely in the hot arid regions of southwestern Asia and northern Africa. After extracting oil and producing biodiesel from Phoenix dactylifera (date seed) oil, the properties of biodiesel were evaluated by fuel standard tests and the results were compared with EN14214 and ASTM D6751 standards and also compared with the properties of produced. According to the results, the important benefit of the biodiesel from the date seed oil is high cetane number (60.3), low iodine value (46), viscosity (3.84 mm(2)/s) and flash point (140 degrees C) and the only weak point is its high pouring point (-1 degrees C) which limits the use of date seed biodiesel in cold weather in comparison with other vegetable biodiesel fuels. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  353. Biodiesel production from neem towards feedstock diversification: Indian perspective
    Abstract

    Karmakar, A.; Karmakar, S.; Mukherjee, S. 2012. Biodiesel production from neem towards feedstock diversification: Indian perspective. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16(1) 1050-1060

    In developing countries like India where 70% of country's petroleum needs are met by import, energy security assumes significance in view of uncertainty of supply and increasing price of petroleum fuels. Fuels of bio origin not only provide energy security, but also reduce emissions of harmful pollutants and greenhouse gases and ensure rural upliftment by increasing employment in agricultural sector. India cannot afford to produce biodiesel from edible oil seeds as it is done in the American and European countries. Extensive focus has been given on producing biodiesel from non-edible sources, specifically from Jatropha. Discrepancies between the expectation and realities regarding Jatropha as a feedstock necessitate efforts for diversification of the feedstocks. Scientific research should therefore be directed towards oilseeds like Karanja. Sal, Mahua, Neem, etc. that are widely available and sustainable to the diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions of rural India. Among them the evergreen neem with its wide availability and various useful uses may be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper attempts have been made to overview the morphology of neem tree, various useful uses, physical and chemical characteristics of neem oil and optimized production process for biodiesel production from neem oil. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  354. Biodiesel Production from Multi Feedstock as Feed with Direct Ultrasound Assisted
    Abstract

    Widayat; Satriadi, H.; Nafiega, N. F.; Dipo, R.; Okvitarini; Alimin, A. J.; Ali, M. F. M. 2015. Biodiesel Production from Multi Feedstock as Feed with Direct Ultrasound Assisted. International Conference of Chemical and Material Engineering (Iccme) 2015: Green Technology for Sustainable Chemical Products and Processes. 1699

    The objective of this study was to optimize of ratio oil type, ratio oil to methanol and catalyst concentration. The optimization was used Central Composite Design (CCD). Biodiesel was produced with multi stock oil as feed and conducted in direct ultrasonic radiation. Biosonic equiped with ultrasonic generator with a frequency of 28 kHz. Biodiesel produced at a pressure of 1 atm, reaction time of 60 min and temperature 60 degrees C. The optimum conditions of volume ratio for Palm and Coconut oil 4: 1, KOH catalyst concentration 0.3% and methanol to oil mole ratio 7:1. Biodiesel yield was determined under this condition and obtained 81.105%.
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  355. Biodiesel production from leather industry wastes as an alternative feedstock and its use in diesel engines
    Abstract

    Altun, S.; Yasar, F. 2013. Biodiesel production from leather industry wastes as an alternative feedstock and its use in diesel engines. Energy Exploration & Exploitation. 31(5) 759-770

    Waste leather fat is produced by the leather industry in fleshing processing and discarded as waste. These wastes can be used as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to their considerable fat content. In this work, raw fleshing oil which is a fat-originated waste of the leather industry was transesterified using methanol in the presence of an alkali catalyst to obtain biodiesel. The obtained biodiesel was then used in a four-stroke and direct injection diesel engine to evaluate the biodiesel behavior as an alternative diesel fuel, at a constant speed under variable load conditions. Blends [20 and 50% (v/v)] of biodiesel with diesel reference fuel were tested too. The emissions test results compared with diesel reference fuel showed that diesel engine fueled by biodiesel emitted significantly lower opacity and gaseous emissions than the same engine fueled by diesel reference fuel, and with very similar performance. The obtained data indicated that biodiesel from leather industry wastes is promising as an alternative fuel for diesel engines, and can be used to substitute diesel fuel in terms of performance and emission parameters without any engine modification.
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  356. Biodiesel production from highly unsaturated feedstock via simultaneous transesterification and partial hydrogenation in supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Shin, H. Y.; Ryu, J. H.; Bae, S. Y.; Kim, Y. C. 2013. Biodiesel production from highly unsaturated feedstock via simultaneous transesterification and partial hydrogenation in supercritical methanol. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 82251-255

    In this study, a supercritical one-pot process combining transesterification and partial hydrogenation was proposed to test its technical feasibility. Simultaneous transesterification of soybean oil and partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated compounds over Cu catalyst in supercritical methanol was performed at 320 degrees C and 20 MPa. Hydrogenation proceeded simultaneously during the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical methanol, and hydrogenation occurred during the reaction despite the absence of hydrogen gas. The polyunsaturated methyl esters obtained in the biodiesel were mainly converted to monounsaturated methyl esters by partial hydrogenation. Key properties of the partially hydrogenated methyl esters were improved and complied with standard specifications for biodiesel. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  357. Biodiesel Production from Different Feedstocks in Pilot Scale System
    Abstract

    Ma, L. L.; Lu, P. M.; Li, L. H.; Luo, W.; Kong, X. Y.; Yuan, Z. H. 2008. Biodiesel Production from Different Feedstocks in Pilot Scale System. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 16-21

    In this study, the preparations of biodiesel from three different feedstocks, including rapeseed oil, high acidified Chinese wood oil and trap grease, were carried out in a pilot scale of 200 t yr(-1) biodiesel production system. The optimum operating conditions for transesterification of rapeseed oil in plug flow reactor were found to be as follows: the catalyst dosage is 1.2 wt%; the retention time is about 17 min; the bed temperature is 65 degrees C; the oil/methanol ratio is 1:6; the content of methyl ester is 96.33% under these conditions. A kind of ion exchange resin, a solid acid catalyst, filled in the fixed bed reactor was used as the esterification catalyst for the pretreating of high acidified oil. The acid value of Chinese wood oil could be reduced from 7 to 0.8 mg KOH.g(-1) after 88 min, the optimum operating conditions were obtained as follow: molar ratio of methanol to oil is about 6:1, the temperature of the fixed bed, 65 degrees C and the retention time, about 88 min. Also a kind of acidified oil, namely trap grease, with the acid value being 114 mg KOH.g(-1) could be equally converted to a good biodiesel product through this system. Generally, the refined biodiesel product generated through this system could meet China #0 Biodiesel Standard, as well as Germany Biodiesel Standard for most indexes. It indicates that the designed process in this system has a good adaptability for different kinds of oil.
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  358. Biodiesel production from bitter almond oil as new non-edible oil feedstock
    Abstract

    Al-Tikrity, E. T. B.; Fadhil, A. B.; Ibraheem, K. K. 2017. Biodiesel production from bitter almond oil as new non-edible oil feedstock. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(7) 649-656

    Bitter almond (Prunus dulcis var. amara) seed oil was tested as new nonedible feedstock for producing ethylic biodiesel by base-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol. The oil was extracted from bitter almond seed with maximum yield of 42.0 wt%, which can be considered as significant feedstock for biodiesel production. The experimental parameters involved in the optimization process were the type and concentration of the catalyst, ethanol-to-oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and rate of stirring. The maximum yield of biodiesel (97.1% w/w) was obtained using 0.60 wt% KOH, 7: 1 ethanol-to-oil molar ratio, 65 degrees C reaction temperature, 60 min of reaction, and 700 rpm rate of stirring. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were within the acceptable limits prescribed by ASTM D 6751. The H-1 NMR spectroscopy assured the conversion of bitter almond oil into biodiesel. Based on these results, it was concluded that bitter almond seed oil is an acceptable non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  359. Biodiesel production from algal oil using cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as feedstock
    Abstract

    Lu, Y.; Zhai, Y.; Liu, M. S.; Wu, Q. Y. 2010. Biodiesel production from algal oil using cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as feedstock. Journal of Applied Phycology. 22(5) 573-578

    As a potential source of biomass supplies, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) has been studied for bioethanol production, but not for the production of biodiesel. In this study, we used cassava hydrolysate as an alternative carbon source for the growth of microalgae (Chlorella protothecoides) which accumulated oil in vivo, with high oil content up to 53% by dry mass under a 5-L scale fermentation condition. The oils were extracted and converted into biodiesel by transesterification. The biodiesel obtained consisted of mainly unsaturated fatty acids methyl ester (over 82%), cetane acid methyl ester, linoleic acid methyl ester, and oleic acid methyl ester. This work suggests the feasibility of an alternative choice for producing biodiesel from cassava by microalgae fermentation. We report herewith the optimized condition for the fermentation and for the hydrolysis of cassava as the carbon source.
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  360. Biodiesel preparation, optimization, and fuel properties from non-edible feedstock, Datura stramonium L.
    Abstract

    Wang, R.; Zhou, W. W.; Hanna, M. A.; Zhang, Y. P.; Bhadury, P. S.; Wang, Y.; Song, B. A.; Yang, S. 2012. Biodiesel preparation, optimization, and fuel properties from non-edible feedstock, Datura stramonium L.. Fuel. 91(1) 182-186

    This is a study on the feasibility of biodiesel preparation from a new and promising non-edible feedstock, Datura stramonium L. oil (DSO). First, important physical-chemical properties, such as oil content of seed (21.4 wt%), acid value (7.93 mg KOH/g) and fatty acid composition of expressed oil, were determined. Second, under the optimal two-step catalyzed reaction conditions, the maximum fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield (87%) and FAME content of more than 98 wt% were obtained. Furthermore, the fuel properties of DSO biodiesel were determined and evaluated. Compared with Jatrpha curcas L. (JC) and beef tallow (BT) biodiesel, DSO biodiesel possessed the best kinematic viscosity (4.33 mm(2)/s) and cold filter plug point (-5 degrees C). Based on the results, D. stramonium L. was identified as a promising species for biodiesel feedstock. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  361. Biodiesel Fuel Quality of Canola Feedstock Grown on Saline Land
    Abstract

    Steppuhn, H.; Stumborg, M. A.; McDonald, T.; Dunn, R. 2009. Biodiesel Fuel Quality of Canola Feedstock Grown on Saline Land. 2009 Bioenergy Engineering Conference.

    Vegetable oil from canola-grade feedstock ranks among the best in the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME or biodiesel). FAME produced from canola-quality oilseed grown on salt-affected lands offer new opportunities for increased production and counter fuel-versus-food concerns provided the biodiesel product meets quality standards. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has set the North American fuel quality standards (D6751) for 100% biodiesel (B100) to be blended with petrodiesel fuel. Canola-quality feedstock yield oil low in free fatty acids, acids which are not bonded to parent oil molecules. These free acids may negatively affect diesel engine components, especially at biodiesel oil blends greater than 20%. Also, solid and dissolved impurities, alkali/alkaline earth metals, and oxidation stability are of concern to fuel injection equipment manufacturers. Ultimately, purity, composition, and biodiesel utility depend on the quality of the feedstock supplied. Processing can improve purity, but not composition. Contaminants in biodiesel fuel may include water, sediment, S, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, carbon residue, and various other constituents in its sulphated ash. Canterra 1818 canola feedstock grown on negligibly, slightly, moderately, and severely salinized soil were crushed and tested for biodiesel fuel quality. All samples from saline soil yielded biofuel within the ASTM International specifications.
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  362. Biodiesel from low cost feedstocks: The effects of process parameters on the biodiesel yield
    Abstract

    Hoque, M. E.; Singh, A.; Chuan, Y. L. 2011. Biodiesel from low cost feedstocks: The effects of process parameters on the biodiesel yield. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(4) 1582-1587

    Biofuel (e.g. biodiesel) has attracted increasing attention worldwide as blending component or direct replacement for fossil fuel in fuel energized engines. The substitution of petroleum-based diesel with biodiesel has already attained commercial value in many of the developed countries around the world. However, the use of biodiesel has not expanded in developing countries mostly due to the high production cost which is associated with the expensive high-quality virgin oil feedstocks. This research focuses on producing of biodiesel from low cost feedstocks such as used cooking oil (UCO) and animal fat (AF) via alkaline catalyzed transesterification process investigating the effects of process parameters, for example (i) molar ratio of feedstock to methanol (ii) catalyst concentration (iii) reaction temperature and (iv) reaction period on the biodiesel yield. The biodiesel was successfully produced via transesterification process from low cost feedstocks. It was also observed that the process parameters directly influenced the biodiesel yield. The optimum parameters for maximum biodiesel yields were found to be methanol/oil molar ratio of 6:1, catalyst concentration of 1.25 wt% of oil, reaction temperature of 65 degrees C, reaction period of 2 h and stirring speed of 150 rpm. The maximum biodiesel yields at the optimum conditions were 87.4%, 89% and 88.3% for beef fat, chicken fat and UCO, respectively. The results demonstrate high potential of producing economically viable biodiesel from low cost feedstocks with proper optimization of the process parameters. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  363. Biodiesel From Conventional Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Du, W.; Liu, D. H. 2012. Biodiesel From Conventional Feedstocks. Biotechnology in China Iii: Biofuels and Bioenergy. 12853-68

    At present, traditional fossil fuels are used predominantly in China, presenting the country with challenges that include sustainable energy supply, energy efficiency improvement, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In 2007, China issued The Strategic Plan of the Mid-and-Long Term Development of Renewable Energy, which aims to increase the share of clean energy in the country's energy consumption to 15% by 2020 from only 7.5% in 2005. Biodiesel, an important renewable fuel with significant advantages over fossil diesel, has attracted great attention in the USA and European countries. However, biodiesel is still in its infancy in China, although its future is promising. This chapter reviews biodiesel production from conventional feedstocks in the country, including feedstock supply and state of the art technologies for the transesterification reaction through which biodiesel is made, particularly the enzymatic catalytic process developed by Chinese scientists. Finally, the constraints and perspectives for China's biodiesel development are highlighted.
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  364. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock
    Abstract

    Rashid, U.; Ibrahim, M.; Yasin, S.; Yunus, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Knothe, G. 2013. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock. Industrial Crops and Products. 45355-359

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane number, cloud, pour, and cold filter plugging points, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, flash point, sulfur content, ash content, density and acid value. The citrus seed oil methyl esters were found to satisfy both ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. The NMR spectra of the methyl esters of C. reticulata seed oil are reported. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  365. Biodiesel Feedstock from Emulsions Produced by Aqueous Processing of Yellow Mustard
    Abstract

    Tabtabaei, S.; Boocock, D. G. B.; Diosady, L. L. 2014. Biodiesel Feedstock from Emulsions Produced by Aqueous Processing of Yellow Mustard. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 91(7) 1269-1282

    The multi-stage treatment of stable oil-in-water emulsions produced during non-enzymatic aqueous processing of dehulled yellow mustard flour with cyclic ethers [tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 1,4-dioxane] was investigated to produce a single-phase oil-solvent-water miscella suitable for biodiesel production. While the single-stage treatment of yellow mustard emulsion recovered 97 % and 95 % of the oil by using 4:1 THF:oil and 9:1 dioxane:oil weight ratios, respectively, miscella phases containing more than 7 % water formed, which made them unsuitable as biodiesel feedstock. Multi-stage treatments of the emulsion using lower THF:oil and dioxane:oil weight ratios were further developed to produce oil-solvent-water miscella phases with low water content. While three-stage extraction of emulsions using 0.5:1, 1:1, 1.5:1, and 2:1 dioxane:oil weight ratios did not destabilize the emulsion, three-stage extraction using 0.5:1 and 0.75:1 THF:oil weight ratios effectively recovered over 97 % of the oil, resulting in the production of oil-rich miscella phases containing only 1 % and 1.5 % water, respectively. These miscella phases were analyzed for free fatty acid and phosphorus contents and proved to be excellent feedstocks for the preparation of high-purity methyl esters through single-phase base-catalyzed transmethylation.
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  366. Biodiesel Feedstock and Blend Level Sensing Using Visible Light Spectra and Neural Network
    Abstract

    Zawadzki, A.; Shrestha, D. S. 2009. Biodiesel Feedstock and Blend Level Sensing Using Visible Light Spectra and Neural Network. Transactions of the Asabe. 52(2) 539-542

    Even after biodiesel meets ASTM D6751 specifications, biodiesels from different feedstocks may have different properties. Biodiesel blend level influences the fuel properties, such as cloud point and emissions. Therefore, whether for performance reasons or other reasons, it is often required to detect the biodiesel percentage in a diesel-biodiesel blend. This research used a spectrophotometer to scan the blends of U.S. No. 2 diesel and biodiesel from three different feedstocks (rapeseed, soybean. and mustard. oil) in the visible wavelength range of 380-530 nm. It was found that the shape of the absorption curve varied according to biodiesel feedstock; however, relative absorbance was proportional to the blend level. If the absorbance of the parent biodiesel can be measured, such as in a blending facility, then a single wavelength between 470 and 490 nm could be used to measure the biodiesel blend level with +/- 1.85% standard error at 95% confidence interval. A neural network was trained to measure the blend level when the parent biodiesel spectrum was unknown. It was concluded that even if the absorption spectrum of the parent biodiesel is not known, the absorption spectrum of the blend from 380530 nm can be used along with a neural network to detect the biodiesel feedstock and for rough blend level estimation.
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  367. Biodiesel catalysts for algal oil and other low quality feedstocks
    Abstract

    Adams, D.; Chuck, C.; Davidson, M. 2013. Biodiesel catalysts for algal oil and other low quality feedstocks. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 246

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  368. Biodiesel - feedstocks, production and applications
    Abstract

    Sabbas, Radley 2017. Biodiesel - feedstocks, production and applications. . pages cm

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  369. BIODIESEL - FEEDSTOCKS AND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES
    Abstract

    Stoytcheva, M.; Montero, G. 2011. BIODIESEL - FEEDSTOCKS AND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES . Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing Technologies. Ix-X

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  370. Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing Technologies
    Abstract

    Montero, G.; Stoytcheva, M. 2011. Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing Technologies. Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing Technologies.

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  371. Assessment of the effects of medium composition on growth, lipid accumulation and lipid profile of Chlorella vulgaris as a biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Coban, E. K.; Gencoglu, C.; Kirman, D.; Pinar, O.; Kazan, D.; Sayar, A. A. 2015. Assessment of the effects of medium composition on growth, lipid accumulation and lipid profile of Chlorella vulgaris as a biodiesel feedstock. 2015 International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (Icrera). 793-796

    Microalgae serve as a potential feedstock for renewable energy-biodiesel production due to their lipid content. Nowadays, it is possible to maximize the lipid content of microalgal cells via biochemical engineering methods. The aim of the presented study is to observe the effects of six different medium compositions on the growth, lipid content and lipid profile of Chlorella vulgaris.
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  372. Assessing the Potential of Some Freshwater and Saline Microalgae as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Selvarajan, R.; Felfoldi, T.; Sanniyasi, E.; Tekere, M. 2016. Assessing the Potential of Some Freshwater and Saline Microalgae as Biodiesel Feedstock. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 10(1) 50-62

    Microalgae have attracted a major interest in biofuel, food and feed stock sectors as they can accumulate lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts within short periods of time. The selection of the most suitable algal species for biofuel production is based on key parameters such as lipids, fatty acids composition and characteristics. This paper describes the bioprospecting and molecular screening of 21 microalgal strains isolated from different fresh and saline water habitats by analysing their biomass, lipids and fatty acid profiles, used for estimating biodiesel properties. Biomass productivity amongst the strains varied from 142.5 +/- 13.4 to 622.8 +/- 14.0 mg/L. Seven strains viz. Acutodesmus sp. TST2, Scenedesmus sp. PK1, Desmodesmus armatus TTT1, Desmodesmus armatus FW005, Neochloris sp. RP2, Stichococcus bacillaris LU1 and Hegewaldia sp. LC1 showed a lipid mass fraction of >25% on a dry basis. Fatty acid profiling showed that fatty acids with carbon chain length of C16-C18 such as palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were major fatty acids in all the isolated species. Three strains viz. Acutodesmus sp. TST2, Stichococcus bacillaris LU1 and Hegewaldia sp. LC1 accumulated high lipid content (>28% dwt), with higher levels of fatty acid profiles of C16-C18 (>70%) indicating their potential as sources of biodiesel with suitable biodiesel properties of high cetane number (57-59), low viscosity (4.73-4.85 mm(2)/s), lower iodine value (54.4-68.5 gl(2)/100 g), relative cloud point (9-13 degrees C) and negative cold filter plugging point (-2 to -6 degrees C) in accordance with international standards.
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  373. Application of low-level biodiesel blends on heavy-duty (diesel) engines: Feedstock implications on NOx and particulate emissions
    Abstract

    Karavalakis, G.; Johnson, K. C.; Hajbabaei, M.; Durbin, T. D. 2016. Application of low-level biodiesel blends on heavy-duty (diesel) engines: Feedstock implications on NOx and particulate emissions. Fuel. 181259-268

    The use of low levels of biodiesel in diesel fuel is becoming more widespread throughout the world, and yet there is still limited information on the actual impact of low concentration biodiesel blends on NOx emissions. For this purpose, two different methyl ester feedstocks produced from soybean oil and animal tallow were tested at B5 and B10 levels in a 2006 Cummins ISM engine and a 1991 DDC Series 60 engine over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and the Supplementary Emission Test (SET) cycles. Increases in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were found for the unsaturated soy B5/B10 blends for the 2006 Cummins engine over the FTP and UDDS cycles and for the 1991 DDC engine over different combinations of all three cycles. Unlike the unsaturated soy blends, the higher saturated animal fat-based biodiesel did not show consistent NOx increases, with only the B10-animal blend showing a statistical significant increase for the FTP on the 1991 DDC engine. The differences in NOx emissions between the biodiesel feedstocks were likely due to differences in the degree of unsaturation in the ester. The low level biodiesel blends also showed reductions in particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, consistent with the trends seen for higher biodiesel blend levels. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  374. AOCS methods for biodiesel feedstock quality
    Abstract

    American Oil Chemists' Society. 2009. AOCS methods for biodiesel feedstock quality. Technical services AOCS. 1 CD-ROM

    22 AOCS methods for: Guidelines, sampling, cleanliness, impurities (acidity, phosphorus, sulfur, water), purity, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition.
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  375. ANYL 61-A nonaqueous reverse phase HPLC method for evaluation of biodiesel feedstock and feedstock adulteration using evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD)
    Abstract

    Gaita, R. 2007. ANYL 61-A nonaqueous reverse phase HPLC method for evaluation of biodiesel feedstock and feedstock adulteration using evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD). Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 234

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  376. Annona diversifolia seed oil as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Reyes-Trejo, B.; Guerra-Ramirez, D.; Zuleta-Prada, H.; Cuevas-Sanchez, J. A.; Reyes, L.; Reyes-Chumacero, A.; Rodriguez-Salazar, J. A. 2014. Annona diversifolia seed oil as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Industrial Crops and Products. 52400-404

    In this work, Annona diversifolia seed oil (ADO) is evaluated for the first time as potential biodiesel feedstock. ADO was found to contain 21% oil (w/w) after extraction, and the low acid value of the oil was 0.666 mg KOH/g. Therefore, ADO was considered suitable for alkali-catalyzed transesterification. A. diversifolia biodiesel (ADB) was obtained from ADO by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol, and alkali catalyst. ADO has a high content of oleic acid (70%) and palmitic acid (16%). The fuel properties of the oil and biodiesel made from ADO were evaluated, including density, iodine value, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flash point, pour point, cloud point, acid value, and gross heating value. The ADB properties were compared with several limits prescribed in the ASTM D6751 standards. The comparison shows that the biodiesel obtained from A. diversifolia oil could be used as an alternative fuel in conventional diesel engines. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  377. Analyzing alternative bio-waste feedstocks for potential biodiesel production using time domain (TD)-NMR
    Abstract

    Willson, R. M.; Wiesman, Z.; Brenner, A. 2010. Analyzing alternative bio-waste feedstocks for potential biodiesel production using time domain (TD)-NMR. Waste Management. 30(10) 1881-1888

    Production of biodiesel is currently limited due to lack of economically beneficial feedstocks. Suitability of municipal wastewater sludge and olive mill waste as feedstocks for biodiesel production was evaluated. The various bio-waste sources were analyzed for their oil content and fatty acid composition using conventional analyses complemented with time domain (TD)-NMR analysis. TD-NMR, a rapid non-destructive method newly applied in this field, yielded good correlations with conventional methods. Overall biodiesel yields obtained by TD-NMR analysis were 7.05% and 9.18% (dry wt) for olive mill pomace and liquid wastes, and 11.92%, 7.07%, and 4.65% (dry wt) for primary, secondary, and anaerobically stabilized sludge, respectively. Fatty acid analysis indicated fundamental suitability of these agro-industrial waste resources for biodiesel production. Evaluation of bio-waste materials by TD-NMR revealed the potential of this tool to identify waste-oil sources cost effectively and quickly, supporting expansion of a sustainable biodiesel industry in Israel and other regions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  378. Analysis of metals and phosphorus in biodiesel B100 from different feedstock using a Flow Blurring((R)) multinebulizer in inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry
    Abstract

    Orozco, F. D. A.; Kovachev, N.; Pastor, M. A. A.; Domini, C. E.; Band, B. S. F.; Hernandez, A. C. 2014. Analysis of metals and phosphorus in biodiesel B100 from different feedstock using a Flow Blurring((R)) multinebulizer in inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta. 82715-21

    A simple and fast method for determining the content of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, and 20 heavy metals in biodiesel samples with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) using a two-nozzle Flow Blurring((R)) multinebulizer prototype and on-line internal standard calibration, are proposed. The biodiesel samples were produced from different feedstock such as sunflower, corn, soybean and grape seed oils, via a base catalyst transesterification. The analysis was carried out without any sample pretreatment. The standards and samples were introduced through one of the multinebulizer nozzles, while the aqueous solution containing yttrium as an internal standard was introduced through the second nozzle. Thus, the spectral interferences were compensated and the formation of carbon deposits on the ICP torch was prevented. The determination coefficients (R-2) were greater than 0.99 for the studied analytes, in the range 0.21-14.75 mg kg (1). Short-term and long-term precisions were estimated as relative standard deviation. These were acceptable, their values being lower than 10%. The LOQ for major components such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P, were within a range between 4.9 ng g (1) for Mg (279.553 nm) and 531.1 ng g (1) for Na (588.995 nm), and for the other 20 minor components they were within a range between 1.1 ng g (1) for Ba (455.403 nm) and 2913.9 ng g (1) for Pb (220.353 nm). Recovery values ranged between 95% and 106%. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  379. Analysis of Biodiesel Feedstock Using GCMS and Unsupervised Chemometric Methods
    Abstract

    Flood, M. E.; Goding, J. C.; O'Connor, J. B.; Ragon, D. Y.; Hupp, A. M. 2014. Analysis of Biodiesel Feedstock Using GCMS and Unsupervised Chemometric Methods. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 91(8) 1443-1452

    Various biodiesel feedstocks were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data combined with unsupervised chemometric methods of analysis. Peak areas of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) present in the biodiesel feedstocks (soybean oil, canola oil, waste grease, animal tallow, etc.) were utilized. The importance of chromatographic parameters, such as temperature program and column polarity, was examined with respect to the clustering that was observed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Biodiesels in this study clustered based on feedstock type regardless of temperature program or column type, as long as FAME isomers were resolved from one another. As such, the number and type of FAME components required to observe this clustering was investigated further. In general, the minor components in the sample did not provide improved clustering and thus did not need to be included. In addition, data from various temperature programs or column types were combined to yield similar clustering, showing potential versatility in analyzing similar samples across laboratories using different columns and column properties. Overall, we determined that (1) minor FAME components are non-essential for feedstock identification and (2) PCA and HCA clustering is based on feedstock, regardless of column selection, so long as resolution of FAME isomers is achieved.
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  380. Analysing the status, obstacles and recommendations for WCOs of restaurants as biodiesel feedstocks in China from supply chain' perspectives
    Abstract

    Zhang, Y.; Bao, X. T.; Ren, G.; Cai, X. H.; Li, J. 2012. Analysing the status, obstacles and recommendations for WCOs of restaurants as biodiesel feedstocks in China from supply chain' perspectives. Resources Conservation and Recycling. 6020-37

    The raw material supply bottleneck is one of the obstacles currently facing the development of China's biodiesel industry. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the demands, possibilities, difficulties and suggestions surrounding the participation of restaurant enterprises in the biodiesel supply chain. Based on an analysis of the overall situation of China's biodiesel supply chain, the authors designed a structured questionnaire to survey 246 restaurant enterprises in Nanjing. The questionnaire mainly included basic aspects of restaurant enterprises, disposal of waste cooking oil (WCO), awareness and attitudes towards WCO recycling, understanding and opinion of biodiesel, and willingness and requirements for participating in the production of biodiesel. Factor analysis was then conducted on the motives of industrial restaurant enterprises for disposing of or recycling their WCO, and cluster analysis was used to classify the 246 restaurant enterprises into three clusters. Finally, the authors suggested ways to promote the development of Nanjing's biodiesel supply chain. The significant findings obtained in this paper will help to encourage restaurant enterprises to become suppliers of biodiesel production and promote the healthy development of the biodiesel industry in China. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  381. Alternative oilseed crops for biodiesel feedstock on the Canadian prairies
    Abstract

    Blackshaw, R. E.; Johnson, E. N.; Gan, Y. T.; May, W. E.; McAndrews, D. W.; Barthet, V.; McDonald, T.; Wispinski, D. 2011. Alternative oilseed crops for biodiesel feedstock on the Canadian prairies. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 91(5) 889-896

    Blackshaw, R. E., Johnson, E. N., Gan, Y., May, W. E., McAndrew, D. W., Barthet, V., McDonald, T. and Wispinski, D. 2011. Alternative oilseed crops for biodiesel feedstock on the Canadian prairies. Can. J. Plant Sci. 91: 889-896. increased demand for biodiesel feedstock has encouraged greater napus canola (Brassica napus L.) production, but there may be a need for greater production of other oilseed crops for this purpose. A multi-site field study was conducted to determine the oil yield potential of various crops relative to that of napus canola in the semi-arid, short-season environment of the Canadian prairies. Oilseed crops evaluated included rapa canola (Brassica rapa L.), juncea canola (Brassica juncea L.), Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.), oriental mustard (Brassica juncea L.), yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), camelina (Camelina swim L.), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Max.]. Crop emergence and growth were generally good for all crops, but soybean did not fully mature at some locations. The number of site-years (out of a total of 9) that crops attained similar or greater yields compared to napus canola were camelina (6), oriental mustard (5), juncea canola (3), flax (3), soybean (3), rapa canola (2), yellow mustard (2), and Ethiopian mustard (1). The ranking of seed oil concentration was napus canola =rapa canola =juncea canola =flax >camelina =oriental mustard > Ethiopian mustard >yellow mustard >soybean. Considering yield and oil concentration, the alternative oilseed crops exhibiting the most potential for biodiesel feedstock were camelina, flax, rapa canola and oriental mustard. Oils of all crops were easily converted to biodiesel and quality analyses indicated that all crops would be suitable for biodiesel feedstock with the addition of antioxidants that are routinely utilized in biodiesel fuels.
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  382. Alternative Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Ribeiro, A.; Carvalho, J.; Castro, J.; Araujo, J.; Vilarinho, C.; Castro, F. 2013. Alternative Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production. Advanced Materials Forum Vi, Pts 1 and 2. 730-732623-+

    The increasing in the world population has continuously increased the energy demand. As an effective fuel, petroleum has been serving the world to meet its energy needs. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and all the environmental issues around its use could be responsible for a major deficit in the future. Thus, the development of alternative energy sources, are to be welcomed. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has many benefits. It is biodegradable, non-toxic and compared to petroleum-based diesel, has a more favorable combustion emission profile, such as low emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons. In brief, these merits make biodiesel a good alternative to petroleum based fuel.
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  383. Alternative feedstock for the biodiesel and energy production: The OVEST project
    Abstract

    Prussi, M.; Chiaramonti, D.; Recchia, L.; Martelli, F.; Guidotti, F.; Pari, L. 2013. Alternative feedstock for the biodiesel and energy production: The OVEST project. Energy. 582-8

    A large share of the vegetable oil market is today shifting from food to the energy sector. This trend led to discussions about the chance of confliction between these two chains and its possible social and environmental consequences. Moreover the increasing interest in pure vegetable oils for energy and biodiesel production are associated to a period of market volatilities and high prices. The economics of the biodiesel production is suffering the actual market situation.
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  384. Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kolodziejczyk, K.; Owczuk, M. 2011. Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Rural Development in Global Changes, Vol 5, Book 1. 5(1) 354-358

    This paper presents the preliminary analysis of physical and chemical properties of methyl esters produced from oil crops (Camelina sativa, palm and soybean) as an alternative biofuel or biocomponent for methyl esters of rapeseed (canola) oil. Special attention was paid for some parameters which are listed in quality standard for biofuel using in diesel engines (PN-EN 14214). General information about cultivation of rapeseed in Poland was presented as well as some factors depending on the increasing of biofuel production.
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  385. Almond nut oil as an alternative feedstock for the preparation of biodiesel fuel: Optimization of parameters
    Abstract

    Ott, L. S.; Allen, S. J. 2011. Almond nut oil as an alternative feedstock for the preparation of biodiesel fuel: Optimization of parameters. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 241

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  386. Algal diversity as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Kaur, S.; Gogoi, H. K.; Srivastava, R. B.; Kalita, M. C. 2009. Algal diversity as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel. Current Science. 96(2) 182-182

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  387. Algaculture as a Feedstock Source for Biodiesel Fuel - a Life Cycle Analysis
    Abstract

    Curtiss, P. S.; Kreider, J. F. 2009. Algaculture as a Feedstock Source for Biodiesel Fuel - a Life Cycle Analysis. Es2009: Proceedings of the Asme 3rd International Conference on Energy Sustainability, Vol 1. 171-179

    This research investigates algae as a feedstock for producing liquid fuels for the light vehicle sector. It is in the interest of national economic security to investigate alternative sources of transportation energy before the extraction of existing supplies becomes prohibitively expensive. Biofuels are one such alternative liquid fuel supply. The research used the Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach for evaluating the production of biodiesel fuel from algae as a feedstock, including processes for growing algae in conventional and accelerated processes in bioreactors. An energy return on investment and comparison with conventional fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel) on an LCA basis and on a resource consumption basis (e.g., land, water, feedstock) is also presented.
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  388. Alga-Based Biodiesel Production and Optimization Using Sugar Cane as the Feedstock
    Abstract

    Cheng, Y.; Lu, Y.; Gao, C. F.; Wu, Q. Y. 2009. Alga-Based Biodiesel Production and Optimization Using Sugar Cane as the Feedstock. Energy & Fuels. 23(8) 4166-4173

    The alga Chlorella protothecoides is known to produce oil suitable for biodiesel preparation by heterotrophic cultivation in media containing glucose as a carbon source. In this study, sugar cane juice was used as alternative carbon supply for oil production. As a result, the highest oil content of 53.0% by cell dry weight was achieved. Fermentation in a 5 L bioreactor showed that algae using sugar cane juice hydrolysate (SCH) grow faster thin) that using glucose. Conversion ratios of sugar/biomass and sugar/oil using SCH were 15.2 and 8.8% higher than that using glucose, respectively. Biodiesel prepared from algal oil by transesterification is mainly composed of 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, and hexadecenoic acid methyl ester. Our results suggest that sugar cane is a good feedstock for biodiesel production. Response surface methodology upon exploring the effect of C/N and concentration of yeast extraction (YE) on the yield of biomass and oil was performed. The optimal production with the highest output-cost coefficient of 0.061 +/- 0.004 was achieved when C/N was 26.9 and YE was 0.60 g L(-1).
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  389. Agronomic Evaluation of Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) Cultivars for Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Mohammed, Y. A.; Chen, C. C.; Lamb, P.; Afshar, R. K. 2017. Agronomic Evaluation of Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) Cultivars for Biodiesel Feedstock. Bioenergy Research. 10(3) 792-799

    Recent interest in renewable energy sources and the need to diversify cropping systems have triggered research interest in camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz). Camelina is well adapted to the temperate dryland climates and can be used as an energy crop. But information on agronomic evaluation of camelina cultivars for biodiesel feedstock are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate six spring camelina cultivars (cv. Blaine Creek, Calena, Ligena, Pronghorn, Shoshone, and Suneson) on seed yield, oil concentration, and oil yield. The study was carried out from 2013 to 2015 at three locations (Havre, Moccasin, and Pendroy, MT). Over locations and years, mean seed yield differences among cultivars were significant (P < 0.05). The mean seed yield for cultivars ranging from 1295 kg ha(-1) (Suneson) to 1420 kg ha(-1) (Ligena). Ligena and Calena showed a combination of good seed yield performance and stability across environments. Environmental means for seed yield differences were substantial compared with cultivar means. The location Havre produced 45 and 32% more mean seed yield than Pendroy and Moccasin, respectively. There was no significant difference among cultivars in oil concentration and oil yield. The absence of variations in oil concentration and oil yield differences among these cultivars could indicate the need for further research to improve these qualities essential for biodiesel.
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  390. Agro-industrial acidic oil as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production using (1R)-(-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M. 2014. Agro-industrial acidic oil as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production using (1R)-(-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid. Chemical Engineering Science. 116223-227

    A mixture of low grade industrial oils such as acidic crude palm oil (ACPO) and sludge palm oil (SPO) was used for biodiesel production. A novel organic acid, (1R)-(-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid (10-CSA), was introduced as a catalyst for esterification reaction. 10-CSA shows high activity as a catalyst in the reduction of free fatty acid (FFA) and high conversion of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and molar ratio on FFA reduction and FAME conversion were studied. The FFA content was reduced from 8% to less than 1% under optimum conditions. The final product (biodiesel fuel) produced from treated oils (ACPO and SPO) meets international biodiesel standards. This is the first time 10-CSA has been introduced as a catalyst for esterification reaction. This catalyst can treat a wide range of acidic raw materials for biodiesel production. 10-CSA is a promising catalyst and can be used for various chemical reactions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  391. AGRO 153-FT-IR analysis of oil feedstock and biodiesel quality
    Abstract

    Barone, J. R. 2007. AGRO 153-FT-IR analysis of oil feedstock and biodiesel quality. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 233228-228

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  392. Advances in the feedstocks, processes, reactors and catalysts for producing biodiesel
    Abstract

    Feng, S. B.; Zhang, B. Z.; Zheng, E. L. 2010. Advances in the feedstocks, processes, reactors and catalysts for producing biodiesel. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 239

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  393. Advanced distillation curve method applied to volatility characterization of biodiesel fuels produced by supercritical fluid transesterification of various lipid feedstocks
    Abstract

    Anitescu, G.; Tavlarides, L. L.; Bruno, T. J. 2011. Advanced distillation curve method applied to volatility characterization of biodiesel fuels produced by supercritical fluid transesterification of various lipid feedstocks. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 242

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  394. Acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) Kernel Oil as an Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Turkey
    Abstract

    Karabas, H. 2013. Acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) Kernel Oil as an Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Turkey. Journal of Energy Resources Technology-Transactions of the Asme. 135(1)

    The acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) kernel oil is extracted from the kernels of the acorn that is grown in Sakarya which is in the Marmara region, Turkey. Acorn kernel oil (AKO) is obtained in 10 wt. %, by solvent extraction. Acorn kernel oil is investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of a biodiesel fuel. The fatty acid profile of the oil consists primarily of oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Before processing alkalin transesterification reaction, the high free fatty acid (FFA) of the crude acorn kernel oil is decreased by using acid esterification method. Biodiesel is prepared from acorn kernel (AK) by transesterification of the acid esterified oil with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. The maximum oil to ester conversion was 90%. The viscosity of biodiesel is closer to that of diesel and the heating value is about 6.4% less than that of petroleum diesel No. 2. All of the measured properties of the produced acorn kernel oil methyl ester (AKOME) are being compared to the current quality requirements according to EN14214 and ASTM D 6751. The comparison shows that the methyl esters of acorn kernel oil could be possible used as diesel fuel replacements. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4007692]
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