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Biodiesel Feedstock literature

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  1. A Highly Stable Soybean Oil-Rich Miscella Obtained by Ethanolic Extraction as a Promising Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Bueno-Borges, L. B.; de Camargo, A. C.; Sangaletti-Gerhard, N.; dos Santos, G. C. P.; de Alencar, S. M.; Shahidi, F.; Regitano-d'Arce, M. A. B. 2017. A Highly Stable Soybean Oil-Rich Miscella Obtained by Ethanolic Extraction as a Promising Biodiesel Feedstock. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 94(8) 1101-1109

    Soybean oil is industrially obtained upon hexane extraction. In biodiesel production, soybean oil is submitted to phospholipid removal in order to improve its quality before transesterification. An extraction process was employed to produce ethanolic oil-rich miscella, which can be directly transesterified to produce biodiesel without prior refining. We assessed the oxidative stability of the miscella and three other soybean oils, namely degummed, alkali-refined, and refined-bleached-deodorized (RBD) oil. In vitro antioxidant assays as well as the identification and quantification of tocopherols and isoflavones were also performed. Although hexane-extracted oils showed higher tocopherol contents than miscella, this latter sample and its direct biodiesel demonstrated superior stability in accelerated tests. Miscella also outperformed hexane-extracted oils in all in vitro assays. This behavior can be explained by the presence of phenolic compounds with higher affinity to ethanol than hexane, which was confirmed by the identification of isoflavones glycitein, genistein, and acetyldaidzin, found only in miscella. This study showed that the ethanolic extraction of soybean oil generated a highly stable lipid feedstock for biodiesel manufacture.
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  2. A rapid enzyme-catalyzed pretreatment of the acidic oil of macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) for chemoenzymatic biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Teixeira, D. A.; da Motta, C. R.; Ribeiro, C. M. S.; de Castro, A. M. 2017. A rapid enzyme-catalyzed pretreatment of the acidic oil of macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) for chemoenzymatic biodiesel production. Process Biochemistry. 53188-193

    Macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) is a plant with high potential of oil supply for biodiesel production. However, the high acidity (35-43%) of this oil disqualifies it from use in industrial biodiesel production plants that use alkaline transesterification as the synthesis reaction. Thus, technologies such as the use of bio-catalysts to reduce oil acidity are necessary to better monetize the carbon present in that biomass. In the present study, a commercial lipase (Lipozyme 435) was used for the esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the oil to reduce the acidity. Lipozyme 435 performed well under broad temperature (20-45 degrees C) and water content (560-30000 ppm) ranges, and its performance was maximized in a substrate (methanol:FFA) molar ratio of 2. The lowest final FFA content achieved was 1.09%, corresponding to a global conversion rate of 97.22%. The fatty acid methyl esters content in the treated oil (55%), determined by C-13 NMR, indicated that Lipozyme 435 can also catalyze the transesterification of the glycerides in the oil. The versatility under different operational conditions and Stability over long use (up to 150 times) indicated that Lipozyme 435 is a very suitable biocatalyst for the proposed process, contributing to a better economic attractive option. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  3. A review on the prospects of sustainable biodiesel production: A global scenario with an emphasis on waste-oil biodiesel utilization
    Abstract

    Hajjari, M.; Tabatabaei, M.; Aghbashlo, M.; Ghanavati, H. 2017. A review on the prospects of sustainable biodiesel production: A global scenario with an emphasis on waste-oil biodiesel utilization. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 72445-464

    Due to the large amount of diesel fuel demands worldwide and the negative environmental and health impacts of its direct combustion, biodiesel production and consumption have been globally increasing as the best short-term substitute for mineral diesel. However, using edible and non-edible oil feedstocks for biodiesel production has led to several controversial issues including feedstock availability and cost, greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, land use changes (LUC), and fuel vs. food/feed competition. Fortunately, these problems can be effectively overcome using non-crop feedstocks. In this context, waste-oriented oils/fats have been proposed as the excellent options to produce biodiesel by overlooking the trivial collection/recycling costs. In this review article, a comprehensive collection plan followed by an elaborated integrated utilization strategy called "waste oil biodiesel utilization scenario" (WO-BUS) is proposed for Iran in order to achieve cost-effective and eco-friendly production/consumption of biodiesel. WO-BUS is adoptable by the countries with similar situations and infrastructures.
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  4. A sustainable second-generation biodiesel supply chain network design problem under risk
    Abstract

    Babazadeh, R.; Razmi, J.; Pishvaee, M. S.; Rabbani, M. 2017. A sustainable second-generation biodiesel supply chain network design problem under risk. Omega-International Journal of Management Science. 66258-277

    This paper presents a multi-objective possibilistic programming model to design a second-generation biodiesel supply chain network under risk. The proposed model minimizes the total costs of biodiesel supply chain from feedstock supply centers to customer centers besides minimizing the environmental impact (EI) of all involved processes under a well-to-wheel perspective. Non-edible feedstocks are considered for biodiesel production. Variable cultivation cost of non-edible feedstock is assumed to be non-linear and dependent upon the amount of cultivated area. New formulation of possibilistic programming method is developed which is able to minimize the total mean and risk values of problems with possibilistic-based uncertainty. To solve the proposed multi-objective model, a hybrid solution approach based on flexible lexicographic and augmented e-constraint methods is proposed which is capable to find appropriate efficient solutions from the Pareto-optimal set. The performance of the proposed possibilistic programming method as well as the developed solution approach are evaluated and validated through conducting a real case study in Iran. The outcome of this study demonstrates that high investment cost is required for improving the environmental impact and risk of sustainable biodiesel supply chain network design under risk. Decision maker preferences are required for suitable trade-off among total costs, risk values and environmental impact. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  5. Agronomic Evaluation of Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) Cultivars for Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Mohammed, Y. A.; Chen, C. C.; Lamb, P.; Afshar, R. K. 2017. Agronomic Evaluation of Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) Cultivars for Biodiesel Feedstock. Bioenergy Research. 10(3) 792-799

    Recent interest in renewable energy sources and the need to diversify cropping systems have triggered research interest in camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz). Camelina is well adapted to the temperate dryland climates and can be used as an energy crop. But information on agronomic evaluation of camelina cultivars for biodiesel feedstock are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate six spring camelina cultivars (cv. Blaine Creek, Calena, Ligena, Pronghorn, Shoshone, and Suneson) on seed yield, oil concentration, and oil yield. The study was carried out from 2013 to 2015 at three locations (Havre, Moccasin, and Pendroy, MT). Over locations and years, mean seed yield differences among cultivars were significant (P < 0.05). The mean seed yield for cultivars ranging from 1295 kg ha(-1) (Suneson) to 1420 kg ha(-1) (Ligena). Ligena and Calena showed a combination of good seed yield performance and stability across environments. Environmental means for seed yield differences were substantial compared with cultivar means. The location Havre produced 45 and 32% more mean seed yield than Pendroy and Moccasin, respectively. There was no significant difference among cultivars in oil concentration and oil yield. The absence of variations in oil concentration and oil yield differences among these cultivars could indicate the need for further research to improve these qualities essential for biodiesel.
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  6. Assessing biodiesel quality parameters for wastewater grown Chlorella sp.
    Abstract

    Bagul, S. Y.; Bharti, R. K.; Dhar, D. W. 2017. Assessing biodiesel quality parameters for wastewater grown Chlorella sp.. Water Science and Technology. 76(3) 719-727

    Microalgae are reported as the efficient source of renewable biodiesel which should be able to meet the global demand of transport fuels. Present study is focused on assessment of wastewater grown indigenous microalga Chlorella sp. for fuel quality parameters. This was successfully grown in secondary treated waste water diluted with tap water (25% dilution) in glass house. The microalga showed a dry weight of 0.849 g L-1 with lipid content of 27.1% on dry weight basis on 21st day of incubation. After transesterification, the yield of fatty acid methyl ester was 80.64% with major fatty acids as palmitic, linoleic, oleic and linolenic. The physical parameters predicted from empirical equations in the biodiesel showed cetane number as 56.5, iodine value of 75.5 g I-2 100 g(-1), high heating value 40.1 MJ kg(-1), flash point 135 degrees C, kinematic viscosity 4.05 mm(2) s(-1) with density of 0.86 g cm(3) and cold filter plugging point as 0.7 degrees C. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), H-1, C-13 NMR spectrum confirmed the chemical nature of biodiesel. The results indicated that the quality of biodiesel was almost as per the criterion of ASTM standards; hence, wastewater grown Chlorella sp. can be used as a promising strain for biodiesel production.
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  7. Assessment of diesel engine performance when fueled with biodiesel from algae and microalgae: An overview
    Abstract

    Piloto-Rodriguez, R.; Sanchez-Borroto, Y.; Melo-Espinosa, E. A.; Verhelstb, S. 2017. Assessment of diesel engine performance when fueled with biodiesel from algae and microalgae: An overview. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 69833-842

    Biofuels derived from algae can have lower impact on the environment and the food supply than biofuels produced from crops. The strain selection, cultivation method, culture conditions and the chemical composition strongly influences the production costs but also the engine's performance and the exhaust gas emissions. The scope of this paper is to make a critical review about the impact of the use of biofuels produced from (micro) algae to power diesel engines. There is a huge disparity in the amount of papers published for algae culture, oil extraction, and biodiesel production compared to reporting performance on diesel engines. This paper presents an analysis of the papers published in this specific field. Generally, a reduction of torque and power output is reported. A wide range of blends up to B50 but also pure biodiesel has been tested. The blend showing results closest to diesel fuel appears to be B20. Several pollutants can be reduced if biofuels from different strains are used but an increase in NOx is generally reported, associated to higher temperatures in the combustion chamber. The use of emulsions instead of blends or neat biodiesel reveals a promising alternative with important reductions of CO2 and NOx. However, the few reports for engine tests present some contradictions, or are lacking important information about the experiments. The assessment of biodiesel produced from algae or microalgae is a field hardly explored and until today some reference papers contain contradictory results or non well studied behaviors as this survey demonstrates.
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  8. Assessment of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from the tallow biodiesel production chain including land use change (LUC)
    Abstract

    Esteves, V. P. P.; Esteves, E. M. M.; Bungenstab, D. J.; Feijo, G. L. D.; Araujo, O. D. F.; Morgado, C. D. V. 2017. Assessment of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from the tallow biodiesel production chain including land use change (LUC). Journal of Cleaner Production. 151578-591

    Economic uncertainties and environmental constraints regarding fossil fuels have encouraged initiatives for renewable energy sources and assessment of their life cycle impacts. Brazil ranks second worldwide in biodiesel production, despite the relatively recent organization of its national chain, marked by the creation of the National Program for Biodiesel Production and Use (PNPB). The Central-West region is responsible for the largest share of biodiesel production (44.4%) and the largest cattle slaughter (37.5%). In this scenario, beef tallow has great potential for expansion of biodiesel production, since it is a byproduct of the chain that, when not properly disposed, presents a considerable environmental burden. This work presents a method for assessing environmental performance that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with land use change (LUC) for analysis of the tallow biodiesel production chain. The results are given in terms of increment in annual greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions per hectare related to local tallow biodiesel. The system's boundary covers a representative major cattle farming area in Central-West Brazil. For the LCA segment of the method, five inventory allocations were considered: (i) without allocation, (ii) mass, (iii) market value, (iv) energy and (v) an "average allocation", calculated as the mean of mass, market value and energy. The last one is a novel approach proposed in this work, aggregating all the others, which separately result in under or over estimation of impacts. Using the "average allocation", the increment in annual GHG emission per hectare from tallow biodiesel production, is 43.2 kg CO(2)eq ha(-1) y(-1). This value is 17% less than the emission increment due to soybean biodiesel (50.2 kg CO(2)eq ha(-1) y(-1)). LUC is responsible for 96% of the emission assessed, which demonstrates the importance of including LUC assessment in life cycle assessment of tallow biodiesel. According to the sensitivity analyses performed, changes from crop to pasture have superior environmental performance among the investigated options. Land use management is essential to preserve the remaining natural areas, making tallow biodiesel more sustainable. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  9. Biodiesel fuels
    Abstract

    Knothe, G.; Razon, L. F. 2017. Biodiesel fuels. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 5836-59

    The mono-alkyl esters, most commonly the methyl esters, of vegetable oils, animal fats or other materials consisting mainly of triacylglycerols, often referred to as biodiesel, are an alternative to conventional petrodiesel for use in compression-ignition engines. The fatty acid esters that thus comprise biodiesel largely determine many important fuel properties. In turn, the composition of the biodiesel depends on the composition of the parent feedstock because feedstocks with widely varying fatty acid composition can be used for biodiesel production. The use of different feedstocks is also significant under aspects of increasing biodiesel supply and socio-economic issues. In this article, biodiesel production is briefly described, followed by a discussion of biodiesel fuel properties and the influence of varying fatty acid profiles and feedstocks. It is shown that the properties of biodiesel least influenced by minor components can be determined by a straightforward equation in which the properties of the biodiesel fuel are calculated from the amounts of the individual component fatty esters and their properties. Optimizing biodiesel composition is also addressed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  10. Biodiesel production from bitter almond oil as new non-edible oil feedstock
    Abstract

    Al-Tikrity, E. T. B.; Fadhil, A. B.; Ibraheem, K. K. 2017. Biodiesel production from bitter almond oil as new non-edible oil feedstock. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(7) 649-656

    Bitter almond (Prunus dulcis var. amara) seed oil was tested as new nonedible feedstock for producing ethylic biodiesel by base-catalyzed transesterification with ethanol. The oil was extracted from bitter almond seed with maximum yield of 42.0 wt%, which can be considered as significant feedstock for biodiesel production. The experimental parameters involved in the optimization process were the type and concentration of the catalyst, ethanol-to-oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and rate of stirring. The maximum yield of biodiesel (97.1% w/w) was obtained using 0.60 wt% KOH, 7: 1 ethanol-to-oil molar ratio, 65 degrees C reaction temperature, 60 min of reaction, and 700 rpm rate of stirring. The fuel properties of the biodiesel were within the acceptable limits prescribed by ASTM D 6751. The H-1 NMR spectroscopy assured the conversion of bitter almond oil into biodiesel. Based on these results, it was concluded that bitter almond seed oil is an acceptable non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  11. Biodiesel production from Jatropha Curcas oil using strontium-doped CaO/MgO catalyst
    Abstract

    Sudsakorn, K.; Saiwuttikul, S.; Palitsakun, S.; Seubsai, A.; Limtrakul, J. 2017. Biodiesel production from Jatropha Curcas oil using strontium-doped CaO/MgO catalyst. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 5(3) 2845-2852

    The synthesis of methyl ester (ME) as biodiesel from Jatropha oil and MeOH was investigated using CaO/MgO doped with strontium catalyst (Sr2+- CaO/MgO). This catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation method and compared with its uni-or bi-corresponding component catalysts in terms of physical properties and catalytic activities. The results indicated that the Sr2+ dopant played a key role in enhancing the catalytic performance of CaO and MgO components while MgO reduced the overall particle size and improved the catalyst reusability. The synthesized Sr2+-CaO/MgO catalyst was also studied at various transesterification conditions to determine the optimal conditions. The maximum ME content of 99.6% was obtained at 65 degrees C for 2 h and the MeOH-to-oil molar ratio of 9: 1 with the catalyst amount of 5 wt%. At these conditions, the Sr2+- CaO/MgO catalyst could be reused up to four times while maintaining high activity with the ME content higher than 90%.
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  12. Biodiesel production from one-step heterogeneous catalyzed process of Castor oil and Jatropha oil using novel sulphonated phenyl silane montmorillonite catalyst
    Abstract

    Negm, N. A.; Sayed, G. H.; Yehia, F. Z.; Habib, O. I.; Mohamed, E. A. 2017. Biodiesel production from one-step heterogeneous catalyzed process of Castor oil and Jatropha oil using novel sulphonated phenyl silane montmorillonite catalyst. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 234157-163

    The present study describes the preparation of novel modified montmorillonite clay in highly acidic form and its evaluation as a heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel from castor oil and jatropha oil by a one-step catalyzed transesterification reaction. The prepared catalyst was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET surface area and HRTEM. The study showed that the optimized conditions of castor oil transesterification were: 5% catalyst by weight, 1:12 oil to methanol molar ratio, at 60 degrees C for 300 min at 800 rpm; in case of jatropha oil: 5% catalyst by weight, 1:6 oil to methanol ratio, at 110 degrees C for 150 min at 800 rpm. The obtained biodiesels properties were agreed with the ASTM standard specifications. Blending of castor oil and jatropha oil biodiesels with petroleum diesel improved their fuel properties according to engine test parameters. The prepared catalyst exhibited highest activity in the transesterification reactions, and showed good stability during the reaction with a reusability for seven rounds of transesterification without considerable decrease in its activity. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  13. Biodiesel production from Spirulina microalgae feedstock using direct transesterification near supercritical methanol condition
    Abstract

    Shirazi, H. M.; Karimi-Sabet, J.; Ghotbi, C. 2017. Biodiesel production from Spirulina microalgae feedstock using direct transesterification near supercritical methanol condition. Bioresource Technology. 239378-386

    Microalgae as a candidate for production of biodiesel, possesses a hard cell wall that prevents intracellular lipids leaving out from the cells. Direct or in situ supercritical transesterification has the potential for destruction of microalgae hard cell wall and conversion of extracted lipids to biodiesel that consequently reduces the total energy consumption. Response surface methodology combined with central composite design was applied to investigate process parameters including: Temperature, Time, Methanol-to-dry algae, Hexane-to-dry algae, and Moisture content. Thirty-two experiments were designed and performed in a batch reactor, and biodiesel efficiency between 0.44% and 99.32% was obtained. According to fatty acid methyl ester yields, a quadratic experimental model was adjusted and the significance of parameters was evaluated using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Effects of single and interaction parameters were also interpreted. In addition, the effect of supercritical process on the ultrastructure of microalgae cell wall using scanning electron spectrometry (SEM) was surveyed. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  14. Biodiesel production potential of oleaginous Rhodococcus opacusgrown on biomass gasification wastewater
    Abstract

    Goswami, L.; Namboodiri, M. M. T.; Kumar, R. V.; Pakshirajan, K.; Pugazhenthi, G. 2017. Biodiesel production potential of oleaginous Rhodococcus opacusgrown on biomass gasification wastewater. Renewable Energy. 105400-406

    This study examined the valorization of biomass gasification wastewater (BGWW) for lipids accumulation by Rhodococcus opacus and potential biodiesel application. Using synthetic mineral media based BGWW, the bacterium accumulated a maximum 65.8% (w/w) of lipids. 10% (v/v) inoculum size showed a more positive effect than 5% (v/v) inoculum size on both the 'chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and lipid accumulation by R. opacus. Using the raw wastewater (untreated), the bacterium accumulated 54.3% (w/w) lipid with a wastewater COD removal efficiency of 64%. However, these values were further enhanced to 62.8% (w/w) and 74%, respectively, following supplementation of the wastewater with mineral salt media in the ratio 4:1. H-1 and C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy analyses of the accumulated lipids revealed the presence of more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the accumulated lipids showed four thermal decomposition regions each with a good stability. Transesterification of the bacterial lipids to biodiesel and its properties revealed a very good potential of the strain for the production of biodiesel from PAH containing wastewater. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  15. Bioprospecting for seed oils from wild plants in the Mediterranean Basin for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Guil-Guerrero, J. L.; Guil-Laynez, J. L.; Guil-Laynez, A. 2017. Bioprospecting for seed oils from wild plants in the Mediterranean Basin for biodiesel production. Journal of Cleaner Production. 159180-193

    In the Mediterranean Basin, petroleum energy resources are scarce. For an environmentally sustainable solution, the seeds collected from wild plants indigenous to this area could be used as biodiesel producers to meet the energy demand. For this, the fatty acid profiles of seed oils from 127 species belonging to 30 plant families, all native of the Mediterranean Basin, were surveyed in a search for fossil-fuel substitutes. The saponification number (SN, mg KOH/g), iodine value (IV, g 1(2)/100 g), cetane number (Phi), higher heating value (delta, MJ/kg), cold filter-plugging point (CFPP, degrees C), density (rho, g/cm(3)), induction period (IP, h) and kinematic viscosity (eta, mm(2)/s) were empirically determined and then used to establish the suitability of the different seed oils for biodiesel production. The aptness to serve as biodiesel was determined by applying the specification for biodiesel standard made by several organizations. In addition to three already well-characterized species, the fatty acid methyl esters from the seeds of Conium maculatum (Phi = 53.7; delta = 40.1), Dyngium maritimum (Phi = 53.2; delta= 40.2), Nigella damascena (Phi = 58.1; delta = 40.1), Portulaca oleracea (Phi = 62.9; delta = 40.5), Prangos uechtritzii (Phi= 52.8; delta = 40.1), and Tribulus terrestris (Phi = 59.4; delta= 40.1), meet the major quality standards set by several organizations, and thus are suitable for biodiesel production. Data from empirical models used for estimating biodiesel properties was compared with experimental data from biodiesel prepared with available seeds, and good correlations between the two methodologies were found. The sowing of selected species in natural habitats, in addition to providing a valuable resource, i.e. biodiesel, both the Mediterranean Basin ecoregions and unproductive agricultural lands could be improved as appropriate habitats for wildlife, and in parallel this action would create employment in rural areas using natural resources. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  16. Combined Use of a Two-Stage Packed Bed Reactor with a Glycerol Extraction Column for Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis from Macaw Palm Oil
    Abstract

    Ramos, L.; Martin, L. S.; Santos, J. C.; de Castro, H. F. 2017. Combined Use of a Two-Stage Packed Bed Reactor with a Glycerol Extraction Column for Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis from Macaw Palm Oil. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 56(1) 1-7

    Biodiesel production by ethanolysis of macaw palm oil mediated by Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on SiO2-PVA was assessed in packed bed reactors (PBRs). Reactors with different height-to-diameter ratios (l/d) were used for continuous runs carried out using an oil-to-ethanol molar ratio of 1:12 at a fixed space-time (14 h). The best performance was attained by using reactor with an lid of 15, which was further used to perform runs with different space times in a two-stage PBR by incorporating a column with cationic resin for removing the glycerol formed as byproduct. The system operation for a space-time of 16 h resulted in a productivity of 37.9 +/- 2.4 mg(ester).g(medium)(-1).h(-1) (ethyl esters yield = 96.3 +/- 2.1%). Efficient glycerol removal helped the biocatalyst stability, with a half-life (t(1/2)) of 1512 h. The results demonstrate that a continuous enzymatic production of biodiesel from macaw palm oil can generate high yield in a two-stage PBR system incorporating a glycerol extraction column.
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  17. Continuous Packed-Bed Biodiesel Polishing Using Particulate Materials
    Abstract

    Uliana, N. R.; Palliga, M.; Quadri, M. B.; Oliveira, J. V. 2017. Continuous Packed-Bed Biodiesel Polishing Using Particulate Materials. Energy & Fuels. 31(1) 627-634

    This work reports experimental data on dry-washing of biodiesel produced by enzyme-catalyzed reaction using ion exchange resins, a commercial immobilized enzyme, and a magnesium silicate adsorbent. Experiments were carried out in continuous-mode packed-bed column, varying operating temperature and pressure, and residence time toward reachihg the current specifications of the biodiesel samples tested: Besides, the amounts of free fatty acids (FFA), raw material, and products were characterized with regard to the content of monoacylglycerol (IVIAG), diacylglycerol (DAG), and triacylglycerol (TAG). It is shown that resins and the immobilized enzyme presented, to a certain extent, satisfactory results; in terms of FFA reduction, while the use of the adsorbent allowed reaching "on spec" biodiesel. It was observed that the water content dramatically affected the quality of the final product, which severely hindered one from reaching lower FFA contents. Integration of resins together with silicate adsorbent seems to be an interesting strategy for biodiesel polishing. Pilot plant tests were also conducted using the resins with replicable results from laboratoryscale assays. Results obtained in this work are relevant for the design and operation of industrial-scale plants.
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  18. Dependence of cold filter plugging point on saturated fatty acid profile of biodiesel blends derived from different feedstocks
    Abstract

    Yuan, M. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chen, J. H.; Luo, Y. M. 2017. Dependence of cold filter plugging point on saturated fatty acid profile of biodiesel blends derived from different feedstocks. Fuel. 19559-68

    One of the major technical obstacles to the practical use of biodiesel fuel is its cold flow properties. Although attempts have been made to determine the correlation between the cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles, the proposed models are valid only for certain combinations of feedstock oils. In this study, the contributing coefficients of individual saturated FAMEs used in predicting the CFPP were quantified statistically for the first time. Quantification was based on 303 most widely used biodiesel blends (125 from this work and 178 collected from previous studies) of 15 edible, non-edible, or low-molecular-weight oils and animal fats. Results based on a stepwise multiple regression method (Model 1) indicate that the amounts of myristic (C14:0), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and arachidic (C20:0) acid methyl esters significantly influence the CFPP. Considering unconverted monoglycerides as another independent variable for the stepwise analysis, the results (Model 2) indicate that the statistically significant variables are the same as those in Model 1. In order to improve the predictive power of and to reduce the number of parameters in the Models 1 and 2, several modified correlations (Models 3-5) were also established by stepwise analysis, especially for blends containing babacu/coconut methyl esters or a large amount of rapeseed methyl esters. Through these correlations, the optimum FAME profile and blends of common biodiesel feedstocks that result in a satisfactory CFPP can be determined from their C16:0, C18:0, and C20:0 content. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  19. Effective synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil using betaine assisted nanoparticle heterogeneous catalyst from eggshell of Gallus domesticus
    Abstract

    Teo, S. H.; Islam, A.; Masoumi, H. R. F.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Janaun, J.; Chan, E. S.; Khaleque, M. A. 2017. Effective synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil using betaine assisted nanoparticle heterogeneous catalyst from eggshell of Gallus domesticus. Renewable Energy. 111892-905

    The recovery of waste as feedstock away from organizational limitations corresponds to a prospective supplementary revenue stream for the organization. A novel waste eggshell of Gallus domesticus derived superbasic nanocatalyst was synthesized through betaine amphoteric surfactant-assisted decomposition, adsorption and precipitation processes. By varied the duration synthesis of gel mixture, the morphology transformation from liquid-solid interconnected macro-size particles to regular spheroidal nano assemblies particles is detected. The surfactant at the liquid-solid interface facilitates the mono dispersion of nanoparticles by hindering growth of crystals. The average particle diameter of the produced superbasic nanocatalyst was in the range of 27-16 nm. The synthesized nanoparticle formation mechanism in the presence surfactant has also been addressed in this study. The catalytic activity of superbasic nanocatalyst was investigated for biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas oil KO) via glycerolysis and transesterification with methanol at atmospheric pressure. Artificial neural network (ANN) based on the genetic algorithm (GA) was applied for optimization of varied reaction parameters. It was observed that the reduction of acidity varied with varying reaction conditions. The highest fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield (97%) was obtained when the reaction was allowed to run at 60 degrees C for 300 min, while at 90 degrees C the maximal FAME yield of 98% was achieved after 120 min. The kinetic parameters of nanocatalyst were determined, and the reaction system followed pseudo first order kinetics. The results suggest that this two steps process using superbasic nanocatalyst affords a promising method to convert oils with high FFA level to biodiesel. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  20. Efficient production of biodiesel from Xanthium sibiricum Patr oil via supramolecular catalysis
    Abstract

    Chang, F.; Zhou, Q.; Pan, H.; Liu, X. F.; Zhang, H.; Yang, S. 2017. Efficient production of biodiesel from Xanthium sibiricum Patr oil via supramolecular catalysis. Renewable Energy. 111(C) 556-560

    A facile and low-cost method was developed to synthesize a series of novel heterogeneous catalysts from cyclodextrins and Mg or Zn of salts. These catalysts were demonstrated to be efficient for converting sustainable plant oils to biodiesel under mild conditions (ambient pressure, 65 degrees C). Mechanistic studies indicated that the excellent performance of the catalysts could be attributed to their unique structural characteristics, wherein both the metal ions and the cyclodextrin units worked cooperatively for synergistic activations of substrates. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  21. Efficient production of biodiesel with promising fuel properties from Koelreuteria integrifoliola oil using a magnetically recyclable acidic ionic liquid
    Abstract

    Zhang, H.; Li, H.; Pan, H.; Liu, X. F.; Yang, K. L.; Huang, S.; Yang, S. 2017. Efficient production of biodiesel with promising fuel properties from Koelreuteria integrifoliola oil using a magnetically recyclable acidic ionic liquid. Energy Conversion and Management. 13845-53

    In the present study, catalytic production of biodiesel from a new alternative non-edible feedstock Koelreuteria integrifoliola (K. integrifoliola) with a Bronsted-Lewis acidic ionic liquid (IL) immobilized on a magnetic support Fe3O4@SiO2 (FS-B-L-IL) was investigated for the first time. Excitingly, K. integrifoliola contains a high oil content (54.05%) with an average acid value (AV) of 4.66 mg KOH/g. Furthermore, the FS-B-L-IL catalyst was characterized with XRD, FT-IR, SEM, HR-TEM, TG, pyridine-IR and VSM. It was found that FS-B-L-IL possessed a uniform core-shell structure with strong magnetic responsiveness, and showed high activity in simultaneously catalytic transesterification and esterification of crude K. integrifoliola seed oil (CKISO), giving fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield of 93.7% under optimal conditions. The reaction followed pseudo-first order kinetics and the activation energy was calculated to be 62.6 kJ/mol. In addition, FS-B-L-IL exhibited a heterogeneous catalytic behavior and could be recycled for at least five times with negligible loss of activity. The main fuel properties of the obtained K. integrifoliola biodiesel were also evaluated, which were comparable to specifications prescribed in the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  22. Enhanced biodiesel production through phyco-myco co-cultivation of Chlorella minutissima and Aspergillus awamori: An integrated approach
    Abstract

    Dash, A.; Banerjee, R. 2017. Enhanced biodiesel production through phyco-myco co-cultivation of Chlorella minutissima and Aspergillus awamori: An integrated approach. Bioresource Technology. 238502-509

    Algae-fungus co-culture was investigated as an alternative biodiesel feedstock. An oleaginous filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori was co-cultured with Chlorella minutissima MCC 27 and Chlorella minutissima UTEX 2219, respectively in N11 medium furnished with different carbon and nitrogen sources. The biomass and lipid production potential of the two C. minutissima-A. awamori co-cultures was compared against the monocultures. A substantial enhancement in biomass and lipid accumulation was observed in both the co-cultures. When supplemented with different carbon and nitrogen sources, glycerol and potassium nitrate were found to be the most effective. In the presence of glycerol, a 2.6-3.9-fold increase of biomass and 3.4-5.1-fold increase of total lipid yields were observed in the co-cultures as compared to the axenic monocultures. Furthermore, C16:0 (31.26-35.02%) and C18:1 (21.14-24.21%) fatty acids were the major composites of the co-culture oils, which suggest co-culture as a promising strategy for biodiesel production. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  23. Enhanced lipid extraction from microalgae in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kim, M. G.; Hwang, H. W.; Nzioka, A. M.; Kim, Y. J. 2017. Enhanced lipid extraction from microalgae in biodiesel production. Hemijska Industrija. 71(2) 167-174

    In order to secure more effective lipid extraction method, this research investigated new lipid extraction method using laser with absorbent and sought its optimum operation control. In addition, this study compared lipid extraction efficiency and FAME conversion rate between laser extraction method at optimum condition and existing extraction method. Results from experiments for optimizing lipid extraction method using laser showed that the maximum extraction efficiency (81.8%) was attained when using laser with an output capacity of 75Wh/L. Extraction efficiency increased up to 90.8% when microwave treatment as pretreatment process was conducted. Addition of absorbents during lipid extraction process with laser showed higher extraction efficiency than laser and chemical method. It was also found that laser extraction method with absorbent had higher total fatty acid content (853.7 mg/g oil) in extracted lipid than chemical extraction method (825.4 mg/g oil). Furthermore, it had the highest FAME conversion rate (94.2%).
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  24. Esterification of free fatty acids in non-edible oils using partially sulfonated polystyrene for biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Suresh, R.; Antony, J. V.; Vengalil, R.; Kochimoolayil, G. E.; Joseph, R. 2017. Esterification of free fatty acids in non-edible oils using partially sulfonated polystyrene for biodiesel feedstock. Industrial Crops and Products. 9566-74

    Partially sulfonated polystyrene (PSS), synthesized from expanded polystyrene waste (EPS), was used as a catalyst for free fatty acid (FFA) conversion in non-edible oils. Acidic and water absorbing properties of the PSS facilitated the catalytic action for the FFA conversion by esterification reaction. The reaction-was done on simulated acid oil (WCO) containing oleic acid and sunflower oil, and rubber seed oil (RSO). Effects of temperature, catalyst amount and alcohol to acid molar ratio were studied. FFA conversion increased with each of these factors. The advantage of this heterogeneous catalyst is that it is efficient as commercial ion exchange resin and easily removable from the reaction mixture. PSS is found to substantially reduce the acid value of WCO and RSO from 17 to 3.2 mg KOH/g and from 28.8 to 4.8 mg KOH/g respectively at 75 degrees C. The WCO and RSO with reduced acid value may be used as a feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  25. Extrication of biodiesel feedstock from early stage of food waste liquefaction
    Abstract

    Redzwan, G.; Amin, M. M.; Zulkarnain, N. N.; Abu Mansor, M. R.; Annuar, M. S. M.; Ilham, Z. 2017. Extrication of biodiesel feedstock from early stage of food waste liquefaction. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management. 19(2) 676-681

    Biodiesel is commonly produced from vegetable oils, mostly edible and more expensive than petroleum diesel. By considering the cost of the conversion processes, cheap feedstock such as triglycerides and fatty acids (FA) extracted from early stage of food waste liquefaction has become a better choice than vegetable oils, as it could provide high yield of biodiesel without any compromise to food supply and other resources. In this study, FA from early stage of food waste liquefaction was extracted and tested for use as feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. The raw material was not pretreated but extraction was done by dry and wet methods. It was found that wet method could minimized the lost of short and medium-chained FA as well as reducing the number of steps required, thus, yielding higher amount of FA as feedstock. The effects of mixing, methanol ratio, reaction time and catalyst content were investigated for the acid-catalyzed esterification. The maximum biodiesel conversion obtained was 97.4 %.
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  26. Fluorescent fingerprints of edible oils and biodiesel by means total synchronous fluorescence and Tucker3 modeling
    Abstract

    Insausti, M.; Gomes, A. D.; Camina, J. M.; de Araujo, M. C. U.; Band, B. S. F. 2017. Fluorescent fingerprints of edible oils and biodiesel by means total synchronous fluorescence and Tucker3 modeling. Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 175185-190

    The present work proposes the use of total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (TSFS) as a discrimination methodology for fluorescent compounds in edible oils, which are preserved after the transesterification processes in the biodiesel production. In the same way, a similar study is presented to identify fluorophores that do not change in expired vegetal oils, to associate physicochemical parameters to fluorescent measures, as contribution to a fingerprint for increasing the chemical knowledge of these products. The fluorescent fingerprints were obtained by Tucker3 decomposition of a three-way array of the total synchronous fluorescence matrices. This chemometric method presents the ability for modeling non-bilinear data, as Total Synchronous Fluorescence Spectra data, and consists in the decomposition of the three way data arrays (samples (x) Delta lambda (x) lambda excitation), into four new data matrices: A (scores), B (profile in Delta lambda mode), C (profile in spectra mode) and G (relationships between A, B and C). In this study, 50 samples of oil from soybean, corn and sunflower seeds before and after its expiration time, as well as 50 biodiesel samples obtained by transesterification of the same oils were measured by TSFS. This study represents an immediate application of chemical fingerprint for the discrimination of non-expired and expired edible oils and biodiesel. This method does not require the use of reagents or laborious procedures for the chemical characterization of samples. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  27. Functional characteristics of jatropha biodiesel as a promising feedstock for engine application
    Abstract

    Nayak, S. K.; Behera, G. R.; Mishra, P. C.; Kumar, A. 2017. Functional characteristics of jatropha biodiesel as a promising feedstock for engine application. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(3) 299-305

    The current article elaborates the various emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester with fossil diesel in a direct injection (DI) diesel engine at various loading conditions for different volume proportions of test fuels. Results depicted that CO, HC, and NO emission were the lowest for jatropha biodiesel compared with diesel, while smoke opacity was more for pure biodiesel due to the high viscosity, low volatility, and low heat content compared with diesel. Jatropha biodiesel may be beneficial for reducing greenhouse gas emission without any engine modification.
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  28. Heterogeneous-catalysed direct transformation of microalga biomass into Biodiesel-Grade FAMEs
    Abstract

    Vicente, G.; Carrero, A.; Rodriguez, R.; del Peso, G. L. 2017. Heterogeneous-catalysed direct transformation of microalga biomass into Biodiesel-Grade FAMEs. Fuel. 200590-598

    The production of biodiesel using microbial lipids is attractive as oleaginous microorganisms can accumulate significant amounts of lipids (>20%) and they do not compete with food production. However, the poor economic viability of the production process involving cell harvest, microalga oil extraction, lipid transesterification and esterification reactions as well as biodiesel purification leads to a nonviable biodiesel production process. Thus, lipid transesterification and esterification optimization in addition to biodiesel purification, are important limiting factors for this process. The present research is focused on the optimization of the reaction conditions in order to obtain a high conversion to FAMEs in the direct biodiesel production from the microalgae N. gaditana using the CT-269 ion-exchange resin. The process was analysed by following the factorial design and response surface methodology concluding that optimum values of the variables are a temperature of 95 degrees C, a mass ratio of catalyst to microalga of 0.52/1, and a mass ratio of methanol to microalga of 33/1. Besides, the properties of the crude biodiesel were evaluated according to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards, indicating that it is necessary an additional downstream purification step to remove all components that defile the final biodiesel. After an a two-step purification method that combined wet and dry treatments, ASTM D6751 biodiesel grade-FAMEs were obtained for the properties evaluated. The biodiesel also met all the properties determined according to EN 14214 except for the content of polyunsaturated FAMEs, the iodine value, oxidation stability and the cetane number. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  29. Identification of target genes and processes involved in erucic acid accumulation during seed development in the biodiesel feedstock Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.)
    Abstract

    Claver, A.; Rey, R.; Lopez, M. V.; Picorel, R.; Alfonso, M. 2017. Identification of target genes and processes involved in erucic acid accumulation during seed development in the biodiesel feedstock Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.). Journal of Plant Physiology. 2087-16

    We studied erucic acid accumulation in the biodiesel feedstock Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) as a first step towards the development of a sustainable strategy for biofuel production in the EU territory. To that end, two inbred Pennycress lines of European origin, "NASC" and "French," were cultivated in a controlled chamber and in experimental field plots, and their growth, seed production and seed oil characteristics analyzed. Differences in some agronomical traits like vernalization (winter-French versus spring-NASC), flowering time (delayed in the French line) and seed production (higher in the French line) were detected. Both lines showed a high amount (35-39%)of erucic acid (22:1(boolean AND 13)) in their seed oil. Biochemical characterization of the Pennycress seed oil indicated that TAG was the major reservoir of 22:1(Delta 13). Incorporation of 22:1(Delta 13) to TAG occurred very early during seed maturation, concomitant with a decrease of desaturase activity. This change in the acyl fluxes towards elongation was controlled by different genes at different levels. TaFAE1 gene, encoding the fatty acid elongase, seemed to be controlled at the transcriptional level with high expression at the early stages of seed development. On the contrary, the TaFAD2 gene that encodes the Delta 12 fatty acid desaturase or TaDGAT1 that catalyzes TAG biosynthesis were controlled post-transcriptionally. TaWRI1, the master regulator of seed-oil biosynthesis, showed also high expression at the early stages of seed development. Our data identified genes and processes that might improve the biotechnological manipulation of Pennycress seeds for high-quality biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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  30. Improvement on oxidation and storage stability of biodiesel derived from an emerging feedstock camelina
    Abstract

    Yang, J.; He, Q. S.; Corscadden, K.; Caldwell, C. 2017. Improvement on oxidation and storage stability of biodiesel derived from an emerging feedstock camelina. Fuel Processing Technology. 15790-98

    Camelina is recognized as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. Similarly to biodiesel derived from other vegetable oils, the oxidative stability is not satisfactory. This issue can be addressed by treating biodiesel with synthetic antioxidants to increase its resistance to oxidation. This study examined the effectiveness of four commonly used antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA), tert-butylhydrooquinone (TBHQ) and propyl gallate (PrG) on both oxidation stability and storage stability of camelina biodiesel. The antioxidative activity of four antioxidants was found to be in the order of BHA < BHT < PrG < TBHQ; The oil stability index (OSI) of camelina biodiesel was increased (>= 8 h), meeting the stability requirement regulated in EN 14214:2014, through adding either 2000 ppm BHT, 1000 ppm PrG or 1000 ppm TBHQ, Regarding the long term storage, it was predicted that treating camelina biodiesel with 3000 ppm TBHQ was enable satisfactory oxidation stability to be maintained for one year. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  31. Industrial by-products of plum Prunus domestica L. and prunus cerasifera Ehrh. as potential biodiesel feedstock: Impact of variety
    Abstract

    Gornas, P.; Rudzinska, M.; Soliven, A. 2017. Industrial by-products of plum Prunus domestica L. and prunus cerasifera Ehrh. as potential biodiesel feedstock: Impact of variety. Industrial Crops and Products. 10077-84

    Kernels recovered from fruit pits (industrial by-products) of twenty-eight plum varieties of two species Prunus domestica L. and Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. were studied as potential biodiesel feedstock. The lowest (22.7% (w/w) on dry weight basis (dw)) and the highest (53.2% (w/w) dw) oil yields in the tested varieties differed by almost two-fold. The levels of oleic and linoleic acids, the two dominant fatty acids in plum kernel oils, were significantly (p <= 0.05) affected by the variety and ranged between 46.2-70.7% and 22.6-45.3%, respectively. Two significant correlations were found between the oil yield in kernels of different plum varieties of both species and two fatty acids, oleic and linoleic acids. The European biodiesel standards of kinematic viscosity, cetane number, density and iodine value were met for all studied samples. Recorded differences between minimum and maximum value of individual biodiesel parameters obtained for various plum Varieties were: 4.7 (cetane number), 0.20 mm(2)/s (kinematic viscosity), 0.0022 g/cm(3) (density), 0.01 MJ/kg (higher heating value), 2.63 degrees C (CFPP), 2.61 h (induction period) and 14.7 J(2)/100g (iodine value). The logarithmic regression model in comparison to linear regres-sion model, better expressed the relationship between physicochemical properties of biofuel and the Sigma PUFA/(Sigma SFA + Sigma MUFA) ratio; where Sigma PUFA, Sigma SFA and Sigma MUFA are the sure of polyunsaturated, sat-urated and monounsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Regardless of the species, P. cerasifera Ehrh. vs. P. domestica L., a similar variation of all study parameters was noted. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  32. Influence of waste cooking oil biodiesel on combustion, unregulated gaseous emissions and particulate emissions of a direct-injection diesel engine
    Abstract

    Wei, L.; Cheung, C. S.; Ning, Z. 2017. Influence of waste cooking oil biodiesel on combustion, unregulated gaseous emissions and particulate emissions of a direct-injection diesel engine. Energy. 127175-185

    This study investigated the influence of waste cooking oil (WCO) biodiesel on the combustion, unregulated gaseous emissions and particulate emissions of a diesel engine. Experiments were carried out on a direct-injection diesel engine fueled with diesel, B20 (20% biodiesel on volume basis), B50, B75 and biodiesel, under the Japanese 13-mode test cycle.
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  33. Influence of Water and Ultraviolet Irradiation on the Induction Period of the Oxidation of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    da Silva, W. L. G.; Salomao, A. A.; Vila, M. M. D. C.; Tubino, M. 2017. Influence of Water and Ultraviolet Irradiation on the Induction Period of the Oxidation of Biodiesel. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 28(4) 676-680

    Biodiesel degrades due to oxidative processes, causing a decrease in its quality. In the present work, it has been clearly shown that the incidence of ultraviolet radiation on biodiesels obtained from soy, canola, linseed and microalgae oils initiate oxidative processes which lead to the decrease in the induction period (IP) of the fuel. The influence of the residual water content of the same biodiesels on the oxidation process was also investigated with and without the incidence of ultraviolet radiation. Between 190 and 850 ppm of water in the biodiesel and without UV irradiation, no significant change in the IP values was observed under the experimental conditions.
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  34. In-situ transesterification process for biodiesel production using spent coffee grounds from the instant coffee industry
    Abstract

    Tuntiwiwattanapun, N.; Monono, E.; Wiesenborn, D.; Tongcumpou, C. 2017. In-situ transesterification process for biodiesel production using spent coffee grounds from the instant coffee industry. Industrial Crops and Products. 10223-31

    Industrial spent coffee grounds (IND-SCG) are a potential non-edible biodiesel feedstock due to their abundant global supply and high oil content. In this study, an in-situ transesterification (in-situ TE) was developed and scaled up for IND-SCG biodiesel production. Several hurdles must be overcome, including the high acid value, and wide range in particle size of IND-SCG. Washing IND-SCG with methanol reduced its high acid value with negligible loss of oil. Size reduction (0.25-1.68 mm) and an increase of the reaction temperatures (30-60 degrees C) were found to improve the biodiesel yield significantly. The whole deacidified IND-SCG was processed at 50 degrees C; and a maximum biodiesel yield of 77% was achieved within 3 h. The process was successfully scaled up for processing 4kg IND-SCG per batch with a yield comparable to the 30-g scale. The IND-SCG biodiesel met the ASTM biodiesel standard in terms of total glycerin, water content, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability index (OSI), but its acid value exceeded the standard. A simple process modification using acidic water to neutralize alkaline catalyst during refining step, instead of strong acid, enabled the IND-SCG biodiesel to meet the standard for acid value. The oxidative stability index of the in-situ IND-SCG biodiesel was superior to that of the conventional process, probably due to the co-extraction of natural antioxidants. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  35. Investigation of heterogeneous solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstocks for biodiesel production: A review
    Abstract

    Mansir, N.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Rashid, U.; Lokman, I. M. 2017. Investigation of heterogeneous solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstocks for biodiesel production: A review. Energy Conversion and Management. 141171-182

    The conventional fossil fuel reserves are continually declining worldwide and therefore posing greater challenges to the future of the energy sources. Biofuel alternatives were found promising to replace the diminishing fossil fuels. However, conversion of edible vegetable oils to biodiesel using homogeneous acids and base catalysts is now considered as indefensible for the future particularly due to food versus fuel competition and other environmental problems related to catalyst system and feedstock. This review has discussed the progression in research and growth related to heterogeneous catalysts used for biodiesel production for low grade feedstocks. The heterogeneous base catalysts have revealed effective way to produce biodiesel, but it has the limitation of being sensitive to high free fatty acid (FFA) or low grade feedstocks. Alternatively, solid acid catalysts are capable of converting the low grade feedstocks to biodiesel in the presence of active acid sites. The paper presents a comprehensive review towards the investigation of solid acid catalyst performance on low grade feedstock, their category, properties, advantages, limitations and possible remedy to their drawbacks for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  36. Lipid for biodiesel production from attached growth Chlorella vulgaris biomass cultivating in fluidized bed bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam material
    Abstract

    Mohd-Sahib, A. A.; Lim, J. W.; Lam, M. K.; Uemura, Y. M.; Isa, M. H.; Ho, C. D.; Kutty, S. R. M.; Wong, C. Y.; Rosli, S. S. 2017. Lipid for biodiesel production from attached growth Chlorella vulgaris biomass cultivating in fluidized bed bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam material. Bioresource Technology. 239127-136

    The potential to grow attached microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in fluidized bed bioreactor was materialized in this study, targeting to ease the harvesting process prior to biodiesel production. The proposed thermodynamic mechanism and physical property assessment of various support materials verified polyurethane to be suitable material favouring the spontaneous adhesion by microalgae cells. The 1-L bioreactor packed with only 2.4% (v/v) of 1.00-mL polyurethane foam cubes could achieve the highest attached growth microalgae biomass and lipid weights of 812 +/- 122 and 376 +/- 37 mg, respectively, in comparison with other cube sizes. The maturity of attached growth microalgae biomass for harvesting could also be determined from the growth trend of suspended microalgae biomass. Analysis of FAME composition revealed that the harvested microalgae biomass was dominated by C16-C18 (>60%) and mixture of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (>65%), satiating the biodiesel standard with adequate cold flow property and oxidative stability. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  37. Microalgal biodiesel: A possible solution for India's energy security
    Abstract

    Sharma, Y. C.; Singh, V. 2017. Microalgal biodiesel: A possible solution for India's energy security. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 6772-88

    Extreme accession in industrialization and urbanization is responsible for huge demand of fossil fuels which are depleting day by day. Hence, search for renewable energy resource has become a considerable challenge in recent years. Biodiesel has been recognized as an alternative fuel, non-toxic and biodegradable which is capable to replace the diesel fuel. In developing countries such as India, there is crisis of edible oil and the edible oil is imported to accomplish the-demand. Based on the outline presented, it is observed that search for biodiesel sources should consider the feedstocks that do not require fertile land, do not compete with food crop, help in reduction of greenhouse gas emission as well as decrease the dependency on other nations. So, recently microalgae have emerged to be very auspicious feedstock for production of biodiesel. The present study deals with the systematic analyses of energy demand and GHG emission statistics of various nations as well as all the steps involved in overall process from algal strain selection to biodiesel production. With these challenges, the solutions in biodiesel production from microalgae were also shown. Though, biodiesel is economically viable, more inquisition as well as technological evolvement is required in this direction. To overcome these problems, policies based on usage of bio fuels derived by various nations which encourage biodiesel production, making them rival of conventional energy sources are needed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  38. Nutrient Requirements of Camelina for Biodiesel Feedstock in Central Montana
    Abstract

    Mohammed, Y. A.; Chen, C. C.; Afshar, R. K. 2017. Nutrient Requirements of Camelina for Biodiesel Feedstock in Central Montana. Agronomy Journal. 109(1) 309-316

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) shows potential to provide an alternative renewable energy source and enhance crop diversifi cation in temperate semiarid regions. Information on the effect of N, P, K, and S on yield and quality of camelina for biodiesel feedstock in the northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States is limited. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of the above nutrients on seed and oil yields, test weight, oil concentration and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (ANUE) of camelina on a clay loam soil in central Montana. Results showed that fertilizer treatments significantly affected seed yield, oil concentration and oil yield of camelina. The seed and oil yields ranged from 677 to 1306 kg ha(-1) and from 234 to 445 kg ha(-1), respectively. Although the highest seed and oil yields were obtained from the application of 134-22-22-28 kg ha(-1) N-P2O5-K2O-S, they were statistically in the same group with yields achieved from the application of only 45 kg ha(-1) N. Application of P and S fertilizers increased camelina seed yield compared with the control treatment. Th ere was no response to K fertilization. Simultaneous application of N and S did not show synergistic effects in enhancing ANUE. The ANUE reduced with increasing N application rates. From trend analysis, application of 60 kg ha(-1) N produced agronomic maximum seed and oil yields. Therefore, optimizing camelina seed and oil yields production with regard to nutrient management using current variety should focus on N fertilization.
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  39. Optimal design and planning of biodiesel supply chain considering non-edible feedstock
    Abstract

    Babazadeh, R. 2017. Optimal design and planning of biodiesel supply chain considering non-edible feedstock. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 751089-1100

    The rapid expansion of first-generation biodiesel production from vegetable edible oils and animal fats has triggered a sense of concern among policymakers and development practitioners about farm land allocation, food supply, and food market equilibrium. In this respect, utilization of second-generation biodiesel from non edible feedstocks has been attracted many interests in recent years. To accelerate transition towards large-scale and economic viable biofuels, systematic design and optimization of entire biofuel supply chains is crucial. In this paper, firstly the presented works for biofuel supply chains optimization are systematically reviewed and categorized. Secondly, a multi-period and multi-product biodiesel supply chain network design model is developed. The proposed model is capable to determine the optimum numbers, locations, capacity of facilities, suitable transportation modes, appropriate technology at bio-refinery, material flow, and production planning in different periods. The proposed model is applied in a real case in Iran. We consider Jatropha seeds and waste cooking oil as non-edible feedstocks for second-generation biodiesel production in the studied case. The acquired results demonstrate the efficiency and performance of the proposed model in designing biodiesel supply chain network.
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  40. Optimisation of Process Parameter Conditions for Biodiesel Production by Reactive Extraction of Jatropha Seeds
    Abstract

    Supardan, M. D.; Fahrizal; Moulana, R.; Safrida, D.; Satriana; Mustapha, W. A. W. 2017. Optimisation of Process Parameter Conditions for Biodiesel Production by Reactive Extraction of Jatropha Seeds. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology. 12(3) 847-859

    Biodiesel can be produced by reactive extraction of jatropha seeds to reduce the cost and processing time associated with conventional methods. In this study, the relationship between various parameters of reactive extraction of jatropha seeds is investigated. The effect of processing time, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and hexane to oil weight ratios are examined to determine the best performance for biodiesel yield. Response surface methodology was used to statistically evaluate and optimise the process parameter conditions. It was found that the biodiesel production achieved an optimum biodiesel yield of 73.7% under the following conditions: processing time of 160 min, moisture content of jatropha seeds of 1% and hexane to oil weight ratio of 7.2.
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  41. Optimization of a one-step direct process for biodiesel production from blended sewage sludge
    Abstract

    Supaporn, P.; Yeom, S. H. 2017. Optimization of a one-step direct process for biodiesel production from blended sewage sludge. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 34(2) 360-365

    Biodiesel production from blended sewage sludge (BSS) by a one-step direct process was investigated, and optimal conditions for this process were determined. The one-step direct process comprises extraction of lipids from BSS and simultaneous transesterification of these lipids with methanol. Among the organic solvents evaluated, pure methanol showed higher biodiesel yields compared with other solvents or solvent mixtures. The optimum conditions determined included 10 mL of methanol/g-BSS, 0.7% (g/g-BSS) of H2SO4, 60 A degrees C, 4 h of reaction time and 300 rpm of agitation speed. Under these conditions, biodiesel yield was 3.1% (g-biodiesel/g-BSS), which was 63.2% higher than that obtained under initial conditions, and 24.0%-63.2% higher than those obtained in previous studies.
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  42. Optimization of process variables in acid catalysed in situ transesterification of Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) seed oil into biodiesel
    Abstract

    Muhammad, A. B.; Obianke, M.; Gusau, L. H.; Aliero, A. A. 2017. Optimization of process variables in acid catalysed in situ transesterification of Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) seed oil into biodiesel. Biofuels-Uk. 8(5) 585-594

    In situ transesterification of Hevea brasiliensis seed oil was done using sulphuric acid as catalyst with the aim of optimizing the process variables for higher yields. Response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design was used to model the factors-yield relationship. The empirical model obtained shows that reaction time and amount of methanol are the most important variables that influence the process. Irrespective of the reaction temperature and concentration of the acid catalyst employed, biodiesel yields in excess of 80% are obtained only when the in situ transesterification is performed for > 200 minutes when the volume of methanol is > 9 cm(3) per gram of the oilseed. The optimal process condition was discovered to be when the temperature, reaction time, amount of methanol and catalyst concentration are 55.91 degrees C, 240 minutes, 50.0 cm(3), and 0.87 M, respectively. Validation results (93.15 +/- 0.25%) are generally in agreement with the predicted value of 93.04%. Results from GC/MS analysis of the biodiesel revealed that the dominant components are methyl esters of linoleic and oleic acids (91%) while methyl esters of palmitic and stearic acids (9%) are the minor components of the biodiesel. Properties of the biodiesel showed that it was in conformity with ASTM D6751 requirement.
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  43. Optimization of Two-Step Biodiesel Production from Beef Tallow with Microwave Heating
    Abstract

    Suwannapa, P.; Tippayawong, N. 2017. Optimization of Two-Step Biodiesel Production from Beef Tallow with Microwave Heating. Chemical Engineering Communications. 204(5) 618-624

    Animal fats are by-products from slaughterhouses that may be utilized as renewable energy source. This study was about biodiesel production from high free fatty acid beef tallow waste using two-step process with microwave heating. Sulfuric acid and NaOH were used as catalysts with methanol for the first esterification and second transesterification step, respectively. Catalyst loadings were between 0.25% and 2.5%, with applied microwave power of 340 W, operation time of 10-50 min, and oil-to-methanol molar ratio between 1:3 and 1:15. These process parameters were optimized using the design of experiments. The yields and properties of the biodiesel were assessed. The results indicated that the two-step process were successful in converting the beef tallow to biodiesel. Statistical analysis of the results showed that significant contributions were from the linear and quadratic terms of these three variables. The optimum conditions for esterification and transesterification were reported. Validity of the predicted models was confirmed by the experimental verification.
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  44. Oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from waste catfish oil
    Abstract

    Fu, J. X.; Hue, B. T. B.; Turn, S. Q. 2017. Oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from waste catfish oil. Fuel. 202455-463

    The present work investigates the properties and oxidation stabilities of biodiesel derived from catfish oil (B100 CFO) generated by the fish processing plants in Vietnam. The composition and physicochemical properties of the B100 CFO were measured, including oxygen content (similar to 11 wt%), viscosity (4.5306 mm(2) s(-1)), density (0.8772 g cm(-3)), peroxide value (28.13 mg kg (-1)), heat of combustion (39.18 MJ kg(-1)), and acid number (0.12 mg KOH g(-1)). Methyl oleate (46.44 wt%) was the dominant fatty acid methyl ester. B100 CFO was found to have poorer low- temperature quality than most vegetable oil derived biodiesels as determined by its fusion and crystallization properties. Novel modified ASTM D5304 and D2274 tests were employed to study the oxidation process of B100 CFO and the impact of oxidation time on its stability. Under ASTM 5304 test conditions, rapid O-2 consumption by B100 CFO occurred after 8 h, behavior similar to commercial biodiesel stabilized with antioxidant additives. The influence of oxidation condition and time on the B100 CFO physicochemical properties and low-temperature qualities was also investigated according to ASTM methods. Three oxidation stages were identified in B100 CFO based on the peroxide value change during the modified ASTM D5304 and D2274 tests. B100 CFO was also found have superior oxidation stability in comparison with B100 derived from waste cooking oil. This is the first report on oxidation stability of B100 derived from catfish oil. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  45. Pilot scale biodiesel production from microbial oil of Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 using sugarcane juice: Performance in diesel engine and preliminary economic study
    Abstract

    Soccol, C. R.; Neto, C. J. D.; Soccol, V. T.; Sydney, E. B.; da Costa, E. S. F.; Medeiros, A. B. P.; Vandenberghe, L. P. D. 2017. Pilot scale biodiesel production from microbial oil of Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 using sugarcane juice: Performance in diesel engine and preliminary economic study. Bioresource Technology. 223259-268

    A successful pilot-scale process for biodiesel production from microbial oil (Biooil) produced by Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 is presented. Using fed-batch strategy (1000 L working volume), a lipid productivity of 0.44 g/L. h was obtained using a low-cost medium composed by sugarcane juice and urea. The microbial oil was used for biodiesel production and its performance was evaluated in diesel engine tests, showing very good performance, especially for the blend B20 SCO, when operating at 2500 rpm with lower pollutant emissions (CO2 - 220% less; CO - 7-fold less; NOX 50% less and no detectable HC emissions (<0.11 ppm)) when compared with the blends of standard biofuel from soybean oil. A preliminary analysis showed that microbial biodiesel is economically competitive (US$ 0.76/L) when compared to the vegetable biodiesel (US$ 0.81/L). Besides, the yield of biodiesel from microbial oil is higher (4172 L/ha of cultivated sugarcane) that represents 6.3-fold the yield of standard biodiesel (661 L/ha of cultivated soybean). (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  46. Predictive Skeletal Kinetic Model of Biodiesel Autoxidation
    Abstract

    Navaneeth, P. V.; Kumar, G. H.; Mehta, P. S.; Hermanns, R. T. E. 2017. Predictive Skeletal Kinetic Model of Biodiesel Autoxidation. Energy & Fuels. 31(4) 4333-4342

    Gradual depletion of fossil fuels, growing environmental concerns, and global warming have shifted the focus to renewable liquid fuels, such as biodiesel, Biodiesel is reported to cause less emission and can be used in engines without much modification: Even though biodiesel fuels have promising combustion and emission characteristics for use in engines, their poor oxidation stability due to aging is an inhibiting factor for wider usage. In this paper, an autoxidation model for biodiesel fuels is proposed, considering their major fatty acid constituents. The proposed kinetic parameters are optimized using a genetic algorithm with the help of experimental data available in the literature. Temperature and fuel effects on the optimized rate parameters are studied. The proposed kinetics scheme is useful to predict the oxidation of fuel constituents with a fair degree of accuracy. The model also enables prediction of a useful engineering quantity, viz., induction period, to facilitate a priori evaluation of autoxidation characteristics of biodiesel fuel.
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  47. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Eriobotrya Japonica seed oil: an optimization study
    Abstract

    Akhtar, T.; Tariq, M. I.; Iqbal, S.; Sultana, N.; Wei, C. K. 2017. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Eriobotrya Japonica seed oil: an optimization study. International Journal of Green Energy. 14(6) 569-574

    Biodiesel is now-a-days recognized as a real potential alternative to petroleum-derived diesel fuel due to its number of desirable characteristics. However, its higher production cost resulting mainly due to use of costly food-grade vegetable oils as raw materials is the major barrier to its economic viability. Present work is an attempt to explore the potential of Eriobotrya japonica seed oil for the synthesis of biodiesel using alkali-catalyzed transesterification. Optimization of production parameters, namely molar ratio of alcohol to oil, amount of catalyst, reaction time and temperature, was carried out using Taguchi method. Fatty acid composition of both oil and biodiesel was determined using GC and H-1 NMR. Alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6: 1, catalyst amount of 1% wt/wt, 2 h reaction time and 50 degrees C reaction temperature were found to be the optimum conditions for obtaining 94.52% biodiesel. Highest % contribution was shown by the 'amount of catalyst' (67.32%) followed by molar ratio of alcohol to oil (25.51%). Major fuel properties of E. japonica methyl esters produced under optimum conditions were found within the specified limits of ASTM D6751 for biodiesel, hence it may be considered a prospective substitute of petro-diesel.
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  48. Production and characterization of biodiesel from the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus
    Abstract

    El-Sheekh, M. M.; El-Gamal, A.; Bastawess, A. E.; El-Bokhomy, A. 2017. Production and characterization of biodiesel from the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(8) 783-793

    Regardless of whether biodiesel is represented in the form of oil from grains, agricultural crops, or microorganisms, it is a clean fuel depends mainly on biomass conversion. The present work indicates that the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus showed higher biomass productivity of 0.15 g (CDW) L-1 d(-1). The increase in NaCl concentration up to +100% caused an increase in growth, esterified fatty acid (EFA) content, and EFA productivity of S. obliquus. The decrease or increase of pH values reduced the growth, EFA content, and productivity. Biomass productivity increased from 0.06 g L(-1)d(-1) under a light intensity of 80 mol m(-2)s(-1) to 0.1 g L(-1)d(-1) at 160 mu mol m(-2) s(-1). Biodiesel characterization showed that the iodine value of biodiesel of S. obliquus was 70 g iodine/100 g oil. Except viscosity, all biodiesel characteristics are in accordance with the European standards for fuel diesel (EN 590:1999). These results nominate S. obliquus as a promising candidate for biodiesel production by outdoor cultivation.
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  49. Production of biodiesel from three indigenous feedstock: Optimization of process parameters and assessment of various fuel properties
    Abstract

    Chavan, S. B.; Yadav, M.; Singh, R.; Singh, V.; Kumbhar, R. R.; Sharma, Y. C. 2017. Production of biodiesel from three indigenous feedstock: Optimization of process parameters and assessment of various fuel properties. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 36(3) 788-795

    Biodiesel is a clean and sustainable fuel which has ability to replace diesel fuel used in power generation as well in transportation. This article explores Terminalia belerica Robx seed oil as an important bioresource for biodiesel synthesis. Extraction of terminalia oil from dried seeds and degumming of crude oil are also reported. Synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil and chicken fat oil as low-cost biodiesel feedstocks has also been carried out. The oils are trans-esterified using base homogeneous catalyst KOH and reaction variables were optimized for biodiesel synthesis. The biodiesel yields 89%, 89%, and 82% were obtained using feedstocks Terminalia oil, chicken fat oil, and waste vegetable oils, respectively, at individually optimized parameters such as molar ratio (methanol to oil), catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time, and agitation speed. The investigated fatty acid profile of feedstocks and different fuel properties of biodiesel were found to be as per ASTM D6751-07b and EU 14214:2003 standards. This article deliberates the possibility of T. belerica seed oil, waste vegetable oil, and chicken fat oil as promising bioresources for biodiesel production considering the recycling and conversion of waste materials to value-added products. (c) 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 36: 788-795, 2017
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  50. Production of Biodiesel from Vietnamese Waste Coffee Beans: Biofuel Yield, Saturation and Stability are All Elevated Compared with Conventional Coffee Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Jenkins, R. W.; Ellis, E. H.; Lewis, E. J.; Paterson, M.; Le, C. D.; Ting, V. P.; Chuck, C. J. 2017. Production of Biodiesel from Vietnamese Waste Coffee Beans: Biofuel Yield, Saturation and Stability are All Elevated Compared with Conventional Coffee Biodiesel. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 8(4) 1237-1245

    The suitability of biodiesel produced from spent Vietnamese coffee was examined. Previous work shows that the geographical origin of coffee beans has little effect on the composition and physical properties of the biodiesel produced Jenkins et al. [1]. Vietnamese coffee, however, is roasted in a range of fats and oils for flavour enhancement and therefore has a unique fatty acid profile. The oil yield and biodiesel properties of three Vietnamese coffees were assessed and compared to a coffee of more typical composition-Colombian-and traditional biodiesel feedstocks (rapeseed, sunflower and palm). The oil yield from fresh Vietnamese coffee was higher (12.0-14.0 %) than Colombian coffee (9.3 %), while the oil yield from spent Vietnamese coffee (9.3-10.4 %) was comparable to the Colombian coffee (9.5 %). The unsaponifiable matter was only present in low levels in the Vietnamese coffee (1.9-4.9 %) compared to Colombian coffee (30.4 % fresh, 21.4 % spent). Vietnamese coffee biodiesel was more saturated than Columbian coffee biodiesel. It was therefore more viscous and had a higher pour point than the Colombian coffee, and possessed properties more akin to palm biodiesel. Vietnamese coffee biodiesel would therefore be a suitable feedstock for use locally due to the more suitable climate and compatibility with the palm feedstock that is currently used.
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  51. Production of Microbial Lipids from Tomato Waste to Be Used as Feedstock for Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Yousuf, A.; Sannino, F.; Pirozzi, D. 2017. Production of Microbial Lipids from Tomato Waste to Be Used as Feedstock for Biodiesel. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal. 16(1) 59-65

    In this study, the oleaginous yeasts cultured in tomato waste hydrolysates (TWH) to produce microbial lipids that offer a suitable alternative to vegetable oils as feedstock for the biodiesel synthesis. The TWH were prepared by acid hydrolysis (2.5% H2SO4). To obtain higher growth rates, as well as higher lipid contents, Lipomyces starkeyi were cultured under original nitrogen content (TWHON), lower nitrogen content (TWHLN), attained by alkaline precipitation of TWHON followed by centrifugation and filtration, and higher nitrogen content (TWHHN), prepared by addition of (NH4)(2)SO4.
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  52. Response surface methodology for the optimization of the production of rubber seed/palm oil biodiesel, IDI diesel engine performance, and emissions
    Abstract

    Khalil, I.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Yusup, S.; Heikal, M.; El-Adawy, M. 2017. Response surface methodology for the optimization of the production of rubber seed/palm oil biodiesel, IDI diesel engine performance, and emissions. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. 7(1) 37-49

    Emissions from diesel engines have been considered as major air pollution sources. The blending of feedstocks is motivated by the desire to enhance the properties and reduce the cost of biofuels. In this study, a rubber seed/palm oil mixture at equal blend ratios was used to produce biodiesel. The effects of irreverent parameters on transesterification were studied using the response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the maximum yield. Methyl ester at optimized conditions was produced, and its thermophysical properties were studied. Methyl ester effect on the emissions and performance of an unmodified indirect injection diesel engine (IDI) at partial and full load was examined. The results showed that the torque and brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) were 1.1 and 1 % lower than diesel fuel, respectively. Compared to diesel fuel, power and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) were 1.1 and 1.3 % lower, respectively, and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was 1.4 % higher at full load. CO was also reduced by 2 % while CO2, NOx, and exhaust temperature increased on average by 1, 1.2, and 1.1 %, respectively.
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  53. Rubber seed oil as potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalyst in Thailand
    Abstract

    Roschat, W.; Siritanon, T.; Yoosuk, B.; Sudyoadsuk, T.; Promarak, V. 2017. Rubber seed oil as potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalyst in Thailand. Renewable Energy. 101937-944

    This research present an alternative raw material of rubber seed which is non-edible crops as a source to produce oil for biodiesel production in Thailand. The rubber seed powder was extracted with hexane at room temperature to give rubber seed oil with the yield of 24 wt%. The composition and key properties of the extracted oil were analyzed including fatty acid compositions, density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, water content and acid value. This high FFAs oil (5.20 wt%) was successfully transesterified by various heterogeneous catalysts such as CaO-based waste coral fragment, sodium metasilicate and CaO-based eggshell to biodiesel in high yield and high %FAME of >97% in single step. Thermal stability of biodiesel obtained from rubber seed oil was evaluated by using thermogravimetric analysis and compared with petrol-diesel fuels. The biodiesel obtained from rubber seed oil was examined and found to meet the EN 14214 standard for bio-auto fuel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  54. Scleropyrum pentandrum (Dennst.) mabb-oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production-engine performance and emission studies
    Abstract

    Poojary, S.; Rao, C. V.; Venkatesh, K. H. 2017. Scleropyrum pentandrum (Dennst.) mabb-oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production-engine performance and emission studies. International Journal of Green Energy. 14(3) 279-288

    A feasibility study on utilization of non edible oil of Scleropyrum pentandrum was carried out to see its potential as a new source for biodiesel production. Nonedible oil seeds of Scleropyrum pentandrum have oil content of 55-60%. Transesterification of freshly extracted oil in the presence of anhydrous sodium hydroxide at a concentration 1% (w/v oil) and methanol-oil ratio of 40% (v/v oil) yields 90.8% methyl esters under conventional heating. Month old oil requires sulfuric acid pretreatment (esterification) before transesterification. The transesterified oil has a density 889-893 kg/m(3); kinematic viscosity of 4.21-5.7 mm(2)/s; cetane index 46.03; pour point of -15 degrees C and gross calorific value of 40.135 MJ/kg and oxidative stability of 2.35 hours. The properties are well within the Indian, European and American standard limits recommended for biodiesel except the oxidation stability, which can be improved by adding antioxidant additives. The engine performance studies of B10 and B20 blends of Scleropyrum pentandrum biodiesel (SP biodiesel) with statistical inference confirmed that it can be used as a fuel in CI engines without any engine modifications. The engine exhaust emission analysis showed that the emission of hydrocarbons can be minimized by at least 15-20%, CO emission by 15%, smoke opacity by 10-12% and moderately lesser CO2 and NOx emissions.
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  55. Screening of marine microalgae isolated from the hypersaline Bardawil lagoon for biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Abomohra, A.; El-Sheekh, M.; Hanelt, D. 2017. Screening of marine microalgae isolated from the hypersaline Bardawil lagoon for biodiesel feedstock. Renewable Energy. 1011266-1272

    Recently, microalgae have been attracting a wide attention as a source of high-lipid feedstock to produce biodiesel. A total of twenty one halophilic microalgae were isolated from the hypersaline Bardawil lagoon North Sinai, Egypt. Nine of them were further characterized with respect to biomass and fatty acid productivities. Biomass productivity as cellular dry weight (CDW), fatty acid content and, consequently, fatty acid productivity of the chlorophyte Tetraselmis elliptica was the highest among alltested strains (0.122 g CDW L-1 d(-1), 7736 mg g(-1) CDW and 14.1 mg L-1 d(-1), respectively). Lipid fractionation showed that total lipids represented 12.96 mg g(-1) CDW and neutral lipids represented 37% of the total lipids with corresponding iodine value of 70.3 g I-2/100 g oil. In all fractions, C16:0 and C18:1n-9 were predominant, being as high as 31 and 20% of total fatty acids in neutral lipids, 26 and 24% of total fatty acids in polar lipids and 28 and 26% of total fatty acids in phospholipids, respectively. This study demonstrates that the halophilic microalga T. elliptica isolated from hypersaline water is a promising species for biodiesel feedstock. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  56. Silybum marianum L. seed oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Fadhil, A. B.; Ahmed, K. M.; Dheyab, M. M. 2017. Silybum marianum L. seed oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 10S683-S690

    In the present study, biodiesel was produced from a novel non edible oil source, Silybum marianum L. seeds oil (SMSO). The acid value of the extracted oil was found to be 13.60 mg KOH/ g. Therefore, a dual step process viz. acid-base catalyzed transesterification was developed to produce the biodiesel. Free fatty acids in SMSO were converted into methyl esters through the esterification of the oil by using hydrochloric acid (HCl) as an acid catalyst with 6: 1 methanol to molar ratio at 60 degrees C for 1 h, to reduce the acid value of the parent oil to below (2 mg KOH/g of oil), a value safe to produce the biodiesel through alkaline catalyzed transesterification. During alkaline-catalyzed transesterification, the parameters of this step such as alkaline catalyst type and concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction duration were optimized. The results of esterification indicated that 1.0% HCl w/w of oil was optimal for the esterification, because it lowers the acid value to the minimum. For alkaline transesterification, a maximum conversion of (95.0%) was obtained by using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst with a concentration of 0.90% w/w of oil, 6: 1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature and a reaction duration of 100 min. Biodiesel was also analyzed by using thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy. The properties of the produced biodiesel are found to conform with the ASTM standard specifications. (C) 2012 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
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  57. Simultaneous Quantitative Analysis of Six Cations in Three Biodiesel and Their Feedstock Oils by an Ion-Exchange Chromatography System without Chemical Suppression
    Abstract

    Feng, Z. H.; Li, F. S.; Huang, Y. D.; Gao, J.; Hu, J. H.; Xu, Y. 2017. Simultaneous Quantitative Analysis of Six Cations in Three Biodiesel and Their Feedstock Oils by an Ion-Exchange Chromatography System without Chemical Suppression. Energy & Fuels. 31(4) 3921-3928

    This work aimed at detecting and evaluating the contents of six cations {K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4(+), and [HN(CH2CH2OH)(3)](+)} in waste cooking oil biodieset Jatropha biodiesel, rubber-seed-oil-based biodiesel, and their feedstock oils using ion chromatography without chemical suppression conductivity detection. The analytical system cuts down costs because it is not necessary to use an expensive suppressor module. The mixed solution containing 1.7 mmol L-1 nitric acid, 0.7 mmol L-1 2,6-pyridinedicarbox-ylic acid, and 0.05 mmol L-1 18-crown-6 was used as the eluent. The proposed method uses 1.7 mmol L-1 aqueous nitric add solution and extraction- and heating-assisted separation funnels. The limits of detection (LODs, in mg L-1) were found to be as follows: Na+, 0.001; NH4+, 0.001; K+, 0.002; [HN(CH2CH2OH)(3)](+), 0:005; Ca2+, 0.001; and Mg-2+,Mg- 0.001. The results showed that r values for the correlation coefficients of linear regression equations were greater than 0:995, while:the baseline noise was under 0.005 mu S for all of the analytes. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of the retention time Was observed to be lying within the range of 0.083-0.388%, and that of the peak area was less than or equal to about 3% {except for [HN(CH2CH2OH)(3)](+)}. The observed amounts in waste cooking oil biodiesel, Jatropha biodiesel, and rubber-seect-oil-based biodiesel (in mg kg(-1)) were found to be as follows: Na+, 2.187, 2.798, and 4.320; NH4+, 1.031, 0.792, and 0.667; K+, 0.710, 1.081, and 18.814; Ca2+, 1.962, 5.047, and 1.398; and Mg2+ : 0.399, 0.915, and
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  58. Solid-acid catalyzed biodiesel production, part I: biodiesel synthesis from low quality feedstock
    Abstract

    Bala, D. D.; Misra, M.; Chidambaram, D. 2017. Solid-acid catalyzed biodiesel production, part I: biodiesel synthesis from low quality feedstock. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1424169-4177

    A series of catalysts containing phosphotungstic acid (PTA) supported on periodic mesoporous silica were prepared and evaluated for the production of biodiesel from used cooking oil. The catalytic and physical properties of the prepared catalysts were investigated. Mesoporous catalyst, KIT-5 (Korea Institute of Technology 5) loaded with 26% PTA showed high activity for single step esterification, resulting in the successful elimination of a second transesterification step. The yield of fatty acid methyl esters was 93% from used (waste) cooking oil and-100% from pure palmitic acid. In addition, the solid acid catalyst retained a proportion of its original catalytic activity after repeated recycling steps. Thus, the prepared solid acid catalyst has the potential to be used for the production of biodiesel from feedstock that contain high amounts of free fatty acids. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  59. Soybean and Soybean/Beef-Tallow Biodiesel: A Comparative Study on Oxidative Degradation During Long-Term Storage
    Abstract

    Pereira, G. G.; Garcia, R. K. A.; Ferreira, L. L.; Barrera-Arellano, D. 2017. Soybean and Soybean/Beef-Tallow Biodiesel: A Comparative Study on Oxidative Degradation During Long-Term Storage. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 94(4) 587-593

    Vegetable oils are the primary raw materials used in biodiesel production; however, they usually present oxidative stabilities inferior to the EN 14214 specifications. An alternative to improve the oxidative quality of vegetable oil biodiesel is blending it with animal fat biodiesel. In this paper, we studied the oxidative degradation of soybean/beef-tallow biodiesel (SB) 70/30 and 50/50 (w/w) during long-term storage. Soybean biodiesel (SO) was used as a control sample. The biodiesel samples were stored for 350 days and analyzed periodically via oxidative stability, tocopherol content, peroxide value, polar compounds, and kinematic viscosity. The results showed that SB 70/30 and 50/50 biodiesel samples presented higher oxidative stabilities than SO biodiesel. Additionally, the blends met the limits proposed by EN 14214 for oxidative stability (8 h). During long-term storage, the SB biodiesel showed greater resistance to oxidative degradation, which was indicated by the lower formation of hydroperoxides and polar compounds. Similarly, the decline in the tocopherol content was slower in SB biodiesel. Blends of soybean and beef-tallow biodiesel at levels of 70/30 and 50/50 are, therefore, proper alternatives to improve the oxidative quality of this biofuel.
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  60. Sulfonated mesoporous zinc aluminate catalyst for biodiesel production from high free fatty acid feedstock using microwave heating system
    Abstract

    Soltani, S.; Rashid, U.; Nehdi, I. A.; Al-Resayes, S. I.; Al-Muhtaseb, A. H. 2017. Sulfonated mesoporous zinc aluminate catalyst for biodiesel production from high free fatty acid feedstock using microwave heating system. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 70219-228

    Methyl ester was derived from one-step esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) in presence of mesoporous SO3H-ZnAl2O4 solid acid catalyst using microwave irradiation heating system. The catalyst characteristics were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mesoporous SO3H-ZnAl2O4 catalyst possessed unique properties such as surface area of 376.26 m(2) g(-1), total pore volume of 0.16 cm(3) g(-1), an average pore diameter of 3.55 nm and an acid density of 2.10 mmol g(-1). A sequence of experiments were carried out in order to assess the influence of reaction parameters as follows: catalyst concentration (0.5-3.0 wt%), methanol to oil molar ratio (3:1-15:1), reaction temperature (50-70 degrees C), and mixing intensity (200-500 rpm) for methyl ester production. The evaluation of the esterification was conducted by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of the PFAD methyl ester at various reaction times. The highest FAME yield was achieved (94.59%) at 20 min under optimum esterification condition (catalyst concentration of 1.5 wt%, methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 9:1, reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, and mixing intensity of 300 rpm using microwave irradiation heating system. The recyclability experiments revealed that the synthesized catalyst was potential to stay stable for eight consecutive reaction runs with only 22.55% drop in ester synthesis. The quality of the produced ester was assessed by determination of some key fuel properties such as density, acid value, kinematic viscosity, water content, pour point, could point, and flash point. The PFAD methyl ester was establish to satisfy those of European (EN 14214) and American Standards for Testing Materials (ASTM) specifications. (C) 2016 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  61. Synthesis of High-Quality Biodiesel Using Feedstock and Catalyst Derived from Fish Wastes
    Abstract

    Madhu, D.; Arora, R.; Sahani, S.; Singh, V.; Sharma, Y. C. 2017. Synthesis of High-Quality Biodiesel Using Feedstock and Catalyst Derived from Fish Wastes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 65(10) 2100-2109

    A low-cost and high-purity calcium oxide (CaO) was prepared from waste crab shells, which were extracted from the dead crabs, was used as an efficient solid base catalyst in the synthesis of biodiesel. Raw fish oil was extracted from waste parts of fish through mechanical expeller followed by solvent extraction. Physical as well as chemical properties of raw fish oil were studied, and its free fatty acid composition was analyzed with GC-MS. Stable and high-purity CaO was obtained when the material was calcined at 800 degrees C for 4 h. Prepared catalyst was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, and TGA/DTA. The surface structure of the catalyst was analyzed with SEM, and elemental composition was determined by EDX spectra. Esterification followed by transesterification reactions were conducted for the synthesis of biodiesel. The effect of cosolvent on biodiesel yield was studied in each experiment using different solvents such as toluene, diethyl ether, hexane, tetrahydrofuran, and acetone. High-quality and pure biodiesel was synthesized and characterized by H-1 NMR and FT-IR. Biodiesel yield was affected by parameters such as reaction temperature, reaction time, molar ratio (methanol:oil), and catalyst loading. Properties of synthesized biodiesel such as density, kinematic viscosity, and cloud point were determined according to ASTM standards. Reusability of prepared CaO catalyst was checked, and the catalyst was found to be stable up to five runs without significant loss of catalytic activity.
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  62. The Effect of Concentrations and Volumes of Methano in Reducing Free Fatty Acid Content of Used Cooking Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Julianto, T. S.; Suratmi 2017. The Effect of Concentrations and Volumes of Methano in Reducing Free Fatty Acid Content of Used Cooking Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock. International Conference on Chemistry, Chemical Process and Engineering (Ic3pe) 2017. 1823

    The research on purification of used cooking oil as biodiesel feedstock has been done. Refining was performed using methanol with varied concentrations and volumes. A total of 10 grams of used cooking oil was extracted using methanol with a variation concentration of 100%, 70%, 50% and 30%, and a variation of volume 10, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mL. After extraction, the free fatty acids contents of the extracted oil were analyzed. The results showed that pure methanol has the highest ability to reduce the content of free fatty acid with a percentage of reduction for 89.23%. The optimum ratio of used cooking oil and methanol is about 1:15 (v/v).
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  63. The effect of the excitation light intensity during on-line monitoring of biodiesel by fluorescence spectroscopy
    Abstract

    Michels, F. S.; Trindade, M. A. G.; Falcao, E. A.; Guimaraes, R. C. A.; Oliveira, S. L.; Caires, A. R. L. 2017. The effect of the excitation light intensity during on-line monitoring of biodiesel by fluorescence spectroscopy. Fuel. 193395-400

    In the last years, several methods based on fluorescence spectroscopy have been proposed to investigate different aspects related to biodiesel industry for presenting some advantages such as simplicity, reliability, low-cost and real-time analysis. Nevertheless, the excitation light, depending on its beam intensity, may induce by itself sample degradation during the monitoring due to the low oxidative stability of the biodiesel, providing misleading results. The present study shows for the first time a detailed analysis about how excitation light intensity may distort biodiesel analysis based on fluorescence measurements. The results revealed that fluorescence may be successfully used for on-line and in situ monitoring of biodiesel conditions as long as low excitation intensity interacts with a small sample volume in order to avoid biodiesel photodegradation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  64. The Potential of KerniriSunan as Feedstock for the Production of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Supriyadi, S.; Purwanto; Anggoro, D. D.; Hermawan 2017. The Potential of KerniriSunan as Feedstock for the Production of Biodiesel. Advanced Science Letters. 23(3) 2524-2526

    KemiriSunan (Reutealistrisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) seed is a material that has a great potential to be used as a biodieselfeedstock. The core seeds contain high level of free fatty acid/crude oil. This paper investigates the potential of KemiriSunan in Indonesia. Comparisons of the productivity of plants producing biodiesel and processing methods for producing biodiesel from KemiriSunan seeds are analyzed. The economic prospect for developing KemiriSunan as biodiesel is also addressed. KemiriSunan's productivity is much higher when compared to other biodiesel feedstock. The option available for development of biofuels from non-food source in Indonesia is KemiriSunan and followed by Calophylluminophyllum. The esterification and trans-esterification methods used for biodiesel production yield biodiesel that is in some parameters in accordance with the biodiesel standard according to SNI-2006 standard:density at 40 degrees C: 881 kg/m(3); kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees : 4.4 cSt; cetane number: 53.9; flash point: 129.5 degrees C; cloud point: 12 degrees C; calorific value: 39.7758 MJ/kg; and iodine number: 95.24 g iodine/100 g. The economic analysis showed that NPV Rp. 521,724,254, IRR 21.78% BCR 1.3, PBP 9.2 years.
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  65. The potential of waste cooking oil as supply for the Brazilian biodiesel chain
    Abstract

    Cesar, A. D.; Werderits, D. E.; Saraiva, G. L. D.; Guabiroba, R. C. D. 2017. The potential of waste cooking oil as supply for the Brazilian biodiesel chain. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 72246-253

    Biofuel production stands out on an international level because of its environmentally sustainable characteristics and the potential to promote rural development in developing countries. Introducing waste cooking oil (WCO) into the biodiesel chain holds the potential to promote social inclusion in urban areas in developing countries as well. In this sense, this paper examines the opportunity for biodiesel production from WCO as a potential source for future energy supply, particularly for biodiesel, and in this case, we will analyze the Brazilian scene. Several related aspects are covered, such as the physical and chemical properties of the WCO and the biodiesel made from it. The process of production is also presented. Lastly, the potential of the supply for this chain and the potential of social inclusion in developing countries, especially in Brazil, are analyzed.
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  66. Thermo-chemo-sonic pre-digestion of waste activated sludge for yeast cultivation to extract lipids for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Selvakumar, P.; Sivashanmugam, P. 2017. Thermo-chemo-sonic pre-digestion of waste activated sludge for yeast cultivation to extract lipids for biodiesel production. Journal of Environmental Management. 19890-98

    The low cost biosynthesis of microbial lipids are an efficient feedstock to replace plant based oil for biodiesel production. The present study objective is to explore the effect of thermo-chemo-sonic predigestion of municipal Waste Activated Sludge (WAS) to cultivate oleaginous L starkeyi MTCC-1400 as a model organism to produce high yield biomass and lipid. Higher Suspended Solids (SS) reduction (20 and 15.71%) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) solubilization (27.6 and 22.3%) were achieved at a Specific Energy (SE) input of 5569 kJ/kg for WAS digested with NaOH and KOH, respectively. The maximum biomass of 17.52 g L-1 and lipid 64.3% dwt were attained in NaOH pre-digested sample. The analyzed lipid profile exhibited high content of palmitic acid (45.6%) and oleic acid (38.7%) which are more suitable for biofuel production. Thus, these results strongly motivate the use of pre-digested WAS as an efficient and economical substrate for biodiesel production. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  67. Value chain analysis of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production: Study case of one oil collection company in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil
    Abstract

    Guabiroba, R. C. D.; da Silva, R. M.; Cesar, A. D.; da Silva, M. A. V. 2017. Value chain analysis of waste cooking oil for biodiesel production: Study case of one oil collection company in Rio de Janeiro-Brazil. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1423928-3937

    Environmental harm can be caused by improper disposal of waste cooking oil (WCO). When correctly doing so, besides promoting sustainability, WCO can be reused as raw material for the production of biodiesel. However, even though the prices of WCO are generally lower than those of virgin raw materials, the necessary supply chain for biodiesel plants may not exist or be available. One of the possible elements of such chain would be to have a collection company that processes the WCO and delivers it to the biodiesel producer. In this sense, this paper aims to develop a procedure to determine the activities and the costs related to the value chain of WCO, besides applying the procedures to a specific case in Brazil, as a means to verify whether a company that collects, processes and sells WCO to a biodiesel plant shows loss or profit. It is possible to say that the role of a collection company depends on its financial results, considering its private capital is not complemented by any support from public sector. After the application of the proposed procedures, based on Porter's (1985) theory, it was possible to identify the company's financial outcomes, in fifteen different situations, nine with profit and six with loss. It was also possible to confirm that in the cases of loss, in general there were two or more factors, such as decrease in the selling prices of processed WCO and increase of the distance between the collection company and the biodiesel plant that probably led to this undesirable result.(C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  68. A comprehensive study on the improvement of oxidation stability and NOx emission levels by antioxidant addition to biodiesel blends in a light-duty diesel engine
    Abstract

    Rashed, M. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Alabdulkarem, A.; Imdadul, H. K.; Rashedul, H. K.; Shahin, M. M.; Habibullah, M. 2016. A comprehensive study on the improvement of oxidation stability and NOx emission levels by antioxidant addition to biodiesel blends in a light-duty diesel engine. Rsc Advances. 6(27) 22436-22446

    Moringa oleifera oil, a non-edible biodiesel feedstock with high unsaturated fatty acid content, was used in this study. MB20 (20% Moringa oil methyl ester and 80% diesel fuel blend) was mixed with three antioxidants, namely, N, N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD), N-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (NPPD) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN), at a concentration of 1000 ppm. The effects of these antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel as well as on the exhaust emission and performance of a singlecylinder diesel engine were analysed. After the Rancimat test, oxidation stability was enhanced by the antioxidants in the order of DPPD > NPPD > EHN. Results also showed that DPPD-, NPPD-and EHN-treated blends reduced NOx emissions within 5.9-8.80% compared with those in the untreated blend because of suppressed free radical formation. Antioxidant-treated blends contained high amounts of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon and showed improved smoke opacity, thereby indicating that emissions were below the diesel fuel emission levels. Results demonstrated that antioxidant addition to MB20 improves engine performance characteristics. This study shows that MB20 blends with antioxidants can be used in diesel engines without any modification.
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  69. A green and low-cost room temperature biodiesel production method from waste oil using egg shells as catalyst
    Abstract

    Piker, A.; Tabah, B.; Perkas, N.; Gedanken, A. 2016. A green and low-cost room temperature biodiesel production method from waste oil using egg shells as catalyst. Fuel. 18234-41

    Egg shells were used as catalyst for biodiesel production from both commercial fresh soybean oil and waste cooking oil (WCO) at room temperature. After 11 h of regular stirring, high yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was obtained from fresh soybean oil (98 wt.%) and WCO (97 wt.%). The current work demonstrates the feasibility of utilization and storage of the catalyst as well as the performance of the transesterification reaction at ambient conditions. The reusability of the egg shell-derived catalyst was demonstrated for five cycles for WCO and ten cycles for fresh soybean oil. The catalyst can be stored for at least three months without any decrease in its catalytic activity and for a year with only 10% decrease in FAME yield. Utilization of waste materials (egg shells and used cooking oil) and performing the reaction at ambient conditions make the current method a cheap and environmentally-friendly technique for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  70. A laboratory investigation on the effects of unsaturated bonds and chain lengths of different biodiesel feedstocks on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane emissions under low-temperature combustion
    Abstract

    Omidvarborna, H.; Kumar, A.; Kim, D. S. 2016. A laboratory investigation on the effects of unsaturated bonds and chain lengths of different biodiesel feedstocks on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane emissions under low-temperature combustion. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 4(4) 4769-4775

    Biodiesel fuel is produced from various types of feedstock and as a result, its chemical composition and exhaust emissions may vary depending on the feedstock type. In this study, combustion of three biodiesel fuels derived from soybean methyl ester (SME), waste cooking oil (WCO), and tallow oil (TO) was carried out separately in a combustion chamber to better understand the effects of feedstock type on carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH4) emissions under low-temperature combustion (LTC) and fuel-rich conditions. Additionally, blended biodiesel fuels, B20 and B50, with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) of these biodiesel fuels were examined. From the impact of different biodiesel feedstocks on combustion parameters, linear relationships were observed between the fuels and the peak combustion temperature and pressure (R-2 values ranging from 0.82 to 0.98). ULSD showed the highest emission of CO and the lowest emissions of CO2 and CH4 among the other fuels. Compared to ULSD, it was found that the use of pure biodiesel fuels reduced the CO and enhanced CO2 emissions by a factor of 1/3 and 3, respectively. Biodiesel fuel with a high degree of unsaturation and high portion of long methyl esters such as SME appeared to produce more CO and less CO2 emissions than those with low degrees of unsaturation and short chain lengths (WCO and TO). It is thought that the length of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) affects the emissions because shorter chains, which contain less unsaturated structures, have the high oxygen-to-carbon ratio. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  71. A Property Prediction Scheme for Biodiesel Derived from NonEdible Feedstock
    Abstract

    Onuh, E. I.; Inambao, F. L. 2016. A Property Prediction Scheme for Biodiesel Derived from NonEdible Feedstock. Proceedings of the Twenty Fourth Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy. 164-171

    Biodiesel's renewability, universal accessibility and milder impact on the environment has positioned it as a potential fuel of choice for transport prime movers going forward. Biodiesel's unique fuel chemistry while conferring some advantage, has shown some mismatch between it and the current compression ignition (CI) combustion strategy. Computational as well as experimental research on biodiesel combustion are presently, in large part, geared toward resolving this mismatch. Numerical property prediction, as a more efficient and cost effective tool was implemented here to determine the thermo-physical and transport properties of biodiesel derived from moringa, jatropher and waste restaurant oil. Primary and secondary experimental data obtained in accordance with biodiesel standard ASTM D6751 were used to validate the scheme. The average relative deviation (ARD) for most key properties fell within acceptable limit (<= 5%). Obtaining higher computational fidelity was observed to correlate with improved accuracy in determining the free fatty acid (FFA) composition of the different component and group contribution of the biodiesel mixture.
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  72. An economically viable synthesis of biodiesel from a crude Millettia pinnata oil of Jharkhand, India as feedstock and crab shell derived catalyst
    Abstract

    Madhu, D.; Chavan, S. B.; Singh, V.; Singh, B.; Sharma, Y. C. 2016. An economically viable synthesis of biodiesel from a crude Millettia pinnata oil of Jharkhand, India as feedstock and crab shell derived catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 214210-217

    Biodiesel has emerged as a prominent source to replace petroleum diesel. The cost incurred in the production of biodiesel is higher than that for refining of crude oil to obtain mineral diesel. The heterogeneous catalyst was prepared from crab shells by calcining the crushed mass at 800 degrees C. The solid waste catalyst was characterized with XRD, XPS, BET, SEM-EDS, and FT-IR. Millettia pinnata (karanja) oil extracted from its seeds was used as a feedstock for the synthesis of biodiesel. Biodiesel was synthesized through esterification followed by transesterification in a two-step process. Characterization of biodiesel was done using proton NMR spectroscopy. Reaction parameters such as reaction time, reaction temperature, concentration of catalyst and stirrer speed were optimized. Reusability of catalyst was checked and found that there was no loss of catalytic activity up to five times. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  73. Application of low-level biodiesel blends on heavy-duty (diesel) engines: Feedstock implications on NOx and particulate emissions
    Abstract

    Karavalakis, G.; Johnson, K. C.; Hajbabaei, M.; Durbin, T. D. 2016. Application of low-level biodiesel blends on heavy-duty (diesel) engines: Feedstock implications on NOx and particulate emissions. Fuel. 181259-268

    The use of low levels of biodiesel in diesel fuel is becoming more widespread throughout the world, and yet there is still limited information on the actual impact of low concentration biodiesel blends on NOx emissions. For this purpose, two different methyl ester feedstocks produced from soybean oil and animal tallow were tested at B5 and B10 levels in a 2006 Cummins ISM engine and a 1991 DDC Series 60 engine over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS), and the Supplementary Emission Test (SET) cycles. Increases in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions were found for the unsaturated soy B5/B10 blends for the 2006 Cummins engine over the FTP and UDDS cycles and for the 1991 DDC engine over different combinations of all three cycles. Unlike the unsaturated soy blends, the higher saturated animal fat-based biodiesel did not show consistent NOx increases, with only the B10-animal blend showing a statistical significant increase for the FTP on the 1991 DDC engine. The differences in NOx emissions between the biodiesel feedstocks were likely due to differences in the degree of unsaturation in the ester. The low level biodiesel blends also showed reductions in particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, consistent with the trends seen for higher biodiesel blend levels. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  74. Assessing the Potential of Some Freshwater and Saline Microalgae as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Selvarajan, R.; Felfoldi, T.; Sanniyasi, E.; Tekere, M. 2016. Assessing the Potential of Some Freshwater and Saline Microalgae as Biodiesel Feedstock. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 10(1) 50-62

    Microalgae have attracted a major interest in biofuel, food and feed stock sectors as they can accumulate lipids, proteins and carbohydrates in large amounts within short periods of time. The selection of the most suitable algal species for biofuel production is based on key parameters such as lipids, fatty acids composition and characteristics. This paper describes the bioprospecting and molecular screening of 21 microalgal strains isolated from different fresh and saline water habitats by analysing their biomass, lipids and fatty acid profiles, used for estimating biodiesel properties. Biomass productivity amongst the strains varied from 142.5 +/- 13.4 to 622.8 +/- 14.0 mg/L. Seven strains viz. Acutodesmus sp. TST2, Scenedesmus sp. PK1, Desmodesmus armatus TTT1, Desmodesmus armatus FW005, Neochloris sp. RP2, Stichococcus bacillaris LU1 and Hegewaldia sp. LC1 showed a lipid mass fraction of >25% on a dry basis. Fatty acid profiling showed that fatty acids with carbon chain length of C16-C18 such as palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were major fatty acids in all the isolated species. Three strains viz. Acutodesmus sp. TST2, Stichococcus bacillaris LU1 and Hegewaldia sp. LC1 accumulated high lipid content (>28% dwt), with higher levels of fatty acid profiles of C16-C18 (>70%) indicating their potential as sources of biodiesel with suitable biodiesel properties of high cetane number (57-59), low viscosity (4.73-4.85 mm(2)/s), lower iodine value (54.4-68.5 gl(2)/100 g), relative cloud point (9-13 degrees C) and negative cold filter plugging point (-2 to -6 degrees C) in accordance with international standards.
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  75. Assessment and comparison of the properties of biodiesel synthesized from three different types of wet microalgal biomass
    Abstract

    Gangadhar, K. N.; Pereira, H.; Diogo, H. P.; dos Santos, R. M. B.; Devi, B. L. A. P.; Prasad, R. B. N.; Custodio, L.; Malcata, F. X.; Varela, J.; Barreira, L. 2016. Assessment and comparison of the properties of biodiesel synthesized from three different types of wet microalgal biomass. Journal of Applied Phycology. 28(3) 1571-1578

    In recent years, microalgae-based carbon-neutral biofuels (i.e., biodiesel) have gained considerable interest due to high growth rate and higher lipid productivity of microalgae during the whole year, delivering continuous biomass production as compared to vegetable-based feedstocks. Therefore, biodiesel was synthesized from three different microalgal species, namely Tetraselmis sp. (Chlorophyta) and Nannochloropsis oculata and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Heterokontophyta), and the fuel properties of the biodiesel were analytically determined, unlike most studies which rely on estimates based on the lipid profile of the microalgae. These include density, kinematic viscosity, total and free glycerol, and high heating value (HHV), while cetane number (CN) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) were estimated based on the fatty acid methyl ester profile of the biodiesel samples instead of the lipid profile of the microalgae. Most biodiesel properties abide by the ASTM D6751 and the EN 14214 specifications, although none of the biodiesel samples met the minimum CN or the maximum content of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a parts per thousand yen4 double bonds as required by the EN 14214 reference value. On the other hand, bomb calorimetric experiments revealed that the heat of combustion of all samples was on the upper limit expected for biodiesel fuels, actually being close to that of petrodiesel. Post-production processing may overcome the aforementioned limitations, enabling the production of biodiesel with high HHV obtained from lipids present in these microalgae.
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  76. BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM ANCHOVY (Engraulis encrasicolus) OIL AND ITS EFFECT ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS
    Abstract

    Sekmen, Y.; Sen, S. 2016. BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM ANCHOVY (Engraulis encrasicolus) OIL AND ITS EFFECT ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS. Journal of the Faculty of Engineering and Architecture of Gazi University. 31(1) 19-27

    The interest in biodiesel as an alternative fuel increases due to increasing awareness of the depletion of fossil fuel resources, concerns about the environment, recycling of waste products, and restrictions imposed on exhaust emissions. Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fat or waste cooking oil. Main advantages of biodiesel may be summarized as; biodegradable, sulphur-free, non-poisonous, consisting oxygen and high cetane number and lubricity. In this study, in order to identify performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a four-stroke, single cylinder diesel engine were operated with anchovy oil based biodiesel, diesel fuel and their blends (volumetrically 5, 20, 50 and 100%) at full load and various engine revolutions. We have noted that, increasing the proportion of the biodiesel in the mixture with respect to petroleum based diesel fuel, the specific fuel consumption increases 5-12%, while engine torque decrease %2-6. The emission analyses show that the CO, HC and smoke emission decrease while NOx emissions increase.
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  77. Biodiesel production from Kutkura (Meyna spinosa Roxb. Ex.) fruit seed oil: Its characterization and engine performance evaluation with 10% and 20% blends
    Abstract

    Kakati, J.; Gogoi, T. K. 2016. Biodiesel production from Kutkura (Meyna spinosa Roxb. Ex.) fruit seed oil: Its characterization and engine performance evaluation with 10% and 20% blends. Energy Conversion and Management. 121152-161

    Kutkura (Meyna spinosa Roxb.) is a plant species in the genus Meyna from the Rubiaceae family. Kutkura fruits are food items; the fruits and the leaves of the Kutkura plant are also used in traditional medicine. In this article, biodiesel produced from Kutkura fruit seed oil is characterized and compared with other tree seed based biodiesels. Oil content in Kutkura fruit seed was found 35.45%. Free fatty acid (FFA) content in the oil was 3.1%, hence base catalyzed transesterification was used directly for biodiesel production from Kutkura fruit seed oil. Kutkura fruit seed oil contained 7.187% palmitic, 5.382% stearic, 30.251% oleic and 52.553% linoleic acid. Calorific value, kinematic viscosity and density of Kutkura fruit seed oil were found 38.169 MJ/kg, 28.92 mm(2)/s and 922.5 kg/m(3) respectively. However, after transesterification, these properties improved to 39.717 MJ/kg, 5.601 mm(2)/s and 885.3 kg/m(3) respectively in case of the Kutkura fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Apart from water content, all other properties of Kutkura FAME met the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 standards. Blending of Kutkura FAME with diesel up to 20% (vol.) however reduced water content down to an acceptable level of 0.038 wt.%. The kinematic viscosity also reduced to the level of conventional diesel after blending. Further, an engine performance study with biodiesel blends (B10 and B20) showed almost similar fuel consumption rate with diesel. Engine brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was more while the smoke emission was less with B10 and B20. Thus, Kutkura fruit seed is a potential source of biodiesel and blends of Kutkura FAME up to 20% can be used for realizing better performance from the engine. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  78. Biodiesel production from Pistacia chinensis seed oil via transesterification using recyclable magnetic cellulose-based catalyst
    Abstract

    Han, Y. Z.; Hong, L.; Wang, X. Q.; Liu, J. Z.; Jiao, J.; Luo, M.; Fu, Y. J. 2016. Biodiesel production from Pistacia chinensis seed oil via transesterification using recyclable magnetic cellulose-based catalyst. Industrial Crops and Products. 89332-338

    In order to efficiently catalyze the transesterification of highly-acidic tree born oil (TBO) to produce biodiesel the magnetic cellulose microsphere (MCM) supported H3PW12O40 (MCM-HPW) catalyst was designed and prepared successfully, and it was characterized by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Then, the MCM-HPW was used for transesterification of highly-acidic Pistacia chinensis seed oil to biodiesel for the first time. A high conversion yield (93.1%) of fatty acid methyl esters was obtained under the optimal conditions of catalyst amount 15 wt.%, methanol/oil ratio 10:1 (v:v), temperature 60 degrees C and reaction time 80min. The catalyst could be easily separated from the reaction mixture under a magnetic field, and efficiently reused for at least four cycles. Thus, the prepared MCM-HPW catalyst possessed the potential of green and economic biodiesel production from highly-acidic TBO. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  79. Biodiesel production from Silybum marianum L. seed oil with high FFA content using sulfonated carbon catalyst for esterification and base catalyst for transesterification
    Abstract

    Fadhil, A. B.; Aziz, A. M.; Al-Tamer, M. H. 2016. Biodiesel production from Silybum marianum L. seed oil with high FFA content using sulfonated carbon catalyst for esterification and base catalyst for transesterification. Energy Conversion and Management. 108255-265

    In this research work, waste of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was converted into activated carbon and the latter was used in the preparation of a carbon acid catalyst. Waste of PET was converted into activated carbon via carbonization and steam activation, then the activated carbon was sulfonated using fuming sulfuric acid in order to produce the carbon acid catalyst. The prepared carbon acid catalyst was tested for esterification of high acid value non-edible oil, Silybum marianum L. seed oil (SMSO) via optimized protocol. Amount of the carbon acid catalyst, methanol to oil molar ratio, temperature and time were the experimental variables optimized. Esterification of SMSO with methanol using the prepared carbon acid catalyst reduced its parent acid value (20.0 mg KOH/g) to the acceptable limits for base-catalyzed transesterification (<2.0 mg KOH/g) using 6.0% w/w of the catalyst, 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 68 degrees C reaction temperature and 180 min of reaction. The performance of the catalyst was reduced gradually during its recycling and reached to 60.0% at the 5th cycle. Kinetics of esterification of SMSO using the prepared carbon acid catalyst followed pseudo first order kinetics, and the activation energy was found to be 70.98 kJ/mol. The esterified oil was converted to biodiesel through optimized base catalyzed transesterification with methanol. Biodiesel with (96.98% yield and purity of 96.69% w/w) yield was obtained using 0.80% KOH w/w, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 75 min of reaction and 600 rpm rate of stirring. The biodiesel properties were within the recommended biodiesel standards as prescribed by ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. Transesterification of the esterified oil was found to fellow first order kinetics, and the activation energy was calculated to be 17.92 kJ/mol. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  80. Biodiesel production from three mixes of oils with high free fatty content: quality evaluation and variable analysis
    Abstract

    Ortiz, E. G.; Quintero, I.; Arevalo, K. 2016. Biodiesel production from three mixes of oils with high free fatty content: quality evaluation and variable analysis. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 13(5) 1367-1376

    Due to the excessive use of fossil fuels around the world, more environmentally friendly alternatives have been studied. Technologies for the production of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel are focusing on the importance of improving costs and efficiency. Biodiesel can be used in automotive internal combustion, is biodegradable and has no presence of metals, however, it lacks competitiveness versus petrodiesel mainly by the high cost of the pure oils used for its production. The aim of this study was to obtain biodiesel from oil samples with high content of free fatty acids (>1 %) obtained from three fast food restaurants using their molecular weight and acidity index values in order to neutralize the free fatty acids in a one-step reaction and perform a screening for optimal conditions for transesterification. The experimental design consisted of two reaction times (60 and 90 min); four methanol-oil molar ratios-6:1, 10:1, 15:1 and 20:1; and two catalysts (NaOH and KOH) at three concentrations 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % with a constant temperature of 60 degrees C and 500 rpm. The optimum conditions for the different waste cooking oil feed-stocks were established reaching a final yield up to 85.53 % of biodiesel, concluding that there is viability of production through the use of this raw material and free fatty acids neutralization technique, obtaining a biofuel that meets international quality standards.
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  81. Bioflocculation of the oceanic microalga Dunaliella salina by the bloomforming dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama, and its effect on biodiesel properties of the biomass
    Abstract

    Cho, K.; Hur, S. P.; Lee, C. H.; Ko, K.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, K. N.; Kim, M. S.; Chung, Y. H.; Kim, D.; Oda, T. 2016. Bioflocculation of the oceanic microalga Dunaliella salina by the bloomforming dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama, and its effect on biodiesel properties of the biomass. Bioresource Technology. 202257-261

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the flocculation by the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama as a means for harvesting three Chlorophyta species, Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis granulata, and Dunaliella salina. Relative fluorescence of D. salina culture significantly decreased along with 9.3-fold increased flocculation activity within 24 h when mixed with H. circularisquama. Lipid content of bioflocculated D. salina increased about 40%, while fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles exhibited higher levels of C16: 0, C18: 0, and C18: 1, compared to harvest by centrifugation, suggesting higher energy content. Furthermore, bioflocculated D. salina biomass had more suitable biodiesel properties relative to both EN14214 and ASTMD6751, with a cetane number of 49.0 and an iodine value of 95.9. These results suggest that H. circularisquama-induced bioflocculation is applicable for the sustainable and qualitative production of algal biodiesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  82. Challenges in biodiesel industry with regards to feedstock, environmental, social and sustainability issues: A critical review
    Abstract

    Anuar, M. R.; Abdullah, A. Z. 2016. Challenges in biodiesel industry with regards to feedstock, environmental, social and sustainability issues: A critical review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 58208-223

    This paper addresses the challenges in developing a sustainable biodiesel industry especially in Malaysia. The challenges discussed in this paper are divided into three main sections covering issues before, during and after biodiesel processing. The pre-processing problems concern the feedstock market, legislation through policies, fuel-food competition, deforestation issue and alternative feedstock conflict. Problems with regards to the uncontrollable glycerol production and its global market crisis are also reviewed. Besides, some suggestions on poising back the glycerol market stability are reviewed through several upgrading processes and methods that can convert glycerol to its functional chemicals. The last section covers the social issue of biodiesel in obtaining people's acceptance and capability of this industry to cultivate the sustainable practices along the processing line. Moreover, challenges in verifying its commercial value by fulfilling the global biofuel standards are also highlighted. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  83. Chromatography, spectroscopy and thermal analysis of oil and biodiesel of sesame (Sesamum indicum) - An alternative for the Brazilian Northeast
    Abstract

    Arruda, T. B. M. G.; Rodrigues, F. E. A.; Arruda, D. T. D.; Ricardo, N. M. P. S.; Dantas, M. B.; de Araujo, K. C. 2016. Chromatography, spectroscopy and thermal analysis of oil and biodiesel of sesame (Sesamum indicum) - An alternative for the Brazilian Northeast. Industrial Crops and Products. 91264-271

    The brute oil obtained by sesame seed mechanical extraction and biodiesel obtained through transesterification with methyl and ethyl alcohol was analyzed by the use of the following techniques: gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometer (CG/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen and, carbon (NMR H-1 and C-13). The seeds were cultivated in Sousa city, located in the northeast of Brazil. The linoleic acid was found as major component of the oil followed by the oleic acid. The NMR spectra confirm the obtaining of the methyl and ethyl biodiesel. The thermal behavior of the oil and the biodiesel were determined by the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The TG curves were obtained in three different heat rates (10, 20 e 30 degrees C.min(-1)) in oxidative atmosphere. The decomposition of the biodiesels occurred in only one-step. However, three steps were observed for the thermal degradation of the brute oil. These steps can be attributed to evaporation and/or decomposition of the triglycerides. The analysis of the thermogravimetric data allowed the determination of the thermodynamics parameters as pre exponential factor and activation energy. The average value of the energy activation for the methyl biodiesel was 67.54 0.84 KJ mol-1 and for the ethyl biodiesel was 66.74 +/- 0.75 KJ mol(-1). (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  84. Classification of biodiesel and fuel blends using gas chromatography differential mobility spectrometry with cluster analysis and isolation of C18:3 me by dual ion filtering
    Abstract

    Pasupuleti, D.; Eiceman, G. A.; Pierce, K. M. 2016. Classification of biodiesel and fuel blends using gas chromatography differential mobility spectrometry with cluster analysis and isolation of C18:3 me by dual ion filtering. Talanta. 155278-288

    Fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs) were determined at 10-100 mg/L in biodiesel and blends with petrodiesel without sample pre-treatment using gas chromatography with a tandem differential mobility detector. Selectivity was provided through chromatographic separations and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization reactions in the detector with mobility characterization of gas ions. Limits of detection were similar to 0.5 ng with an average of 2.98% RSD for peak area precision, <= 1.3% RSD for retention time precision, and <= 9.2% RSD for compensation voltage precision. Biodiesel blends were classified using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Unsupervised cluster analysis captured 52.72% of variance in a single PC while supervised analysis captured 71.64% of variance using Fisher ratio feature selection. Test set predictions showed successful clustering according to source or feedstock when regressed onto the training set model. Detection of the regulated substance methyl linolenate (C18:3 me) was achieved in 6-10 s with a 1 m long capillary column using dual ion filtering in the tandem differential mobility detector. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  85. Comparison of Oil Refining and Biodiesel Production Process between Screw press and n-hexane Techniques from Beauty Leaf Feedstock
    Abstract

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N. 2016. Comparison of Oil Refining and Biodiesel Production Process between Screw press and n-hexane Techniques from Beauty Leaf Feedstock. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Mechanical Engineering (Icme 2015). 1754

    The Beauty Leaf Tree (Callophylum inophyllum) is regarded as an alternative source of energy to produce 2nd generation biodiesel due to its potentiality as well as high oil yield content in the seed kernels. The treating process is indispensable during the biodiesel production process because it can augment the yield as well as quality of the product. Oil extracted from both mechanical screw press and solvent extraction using n-hexane was refined. Five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for screw press and five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for n-hexane were selected for refining as well as biodiesel conversion processes. The oil refining processes consists of degumming, neutralization as well as dewaxing. The degumming, neutralization and dewaxing processes were performed to remove all the gums (phosphorous-based compounds), free fatty acids, and waxes from the fresh crude oil before the biodiesel conversion process carried out, respectively. The results indicated that up to 73% and 81% of mass conversion efficiency of the refined oil in the screw press and n-hexane refining processes were obtained, respectively. It was also found that up to 88% and 90% of biodiesel were yielded in terms of mass conversion efficiency in the transesterification process for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. While the entire processes (refining and transesterification) were considered, the conversion of beauty leaf tree (BLT) refined oil into biodiesel was yielded up to 65% and 73% of mass conversion efficiency for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of crude and refined oil, and biodiesel were characterized according to the ASTM standards. Overall, BLT has the potential to contribute as an alternative energy source because of high mass conversion efficiency.
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  86. Continuous enzymatic biodiesel production from coconut oil in two-stage packed-bed reactor incorporating an extracting column to remove glycerol formed as by-product
    Abstract

    Silva, W. C. E.; Freitas, L.; Oliveira, P. C.; de Castro, H. F. 2016. Continuous enzymatic biodiesel production from coconut oil in two-stage packed-bed reactor incorporating an extracting column to remove glycerol formed as by-product. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 39(10) 1611-1617

    The transesterification of coconut oil with ethanol catalyzed by Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol was performed in a continuous flow. The experimental design consisted of a two-stage packed-bed reactor incorporating a column with cationic resin (Lewatit GF 202) to remove the glycerol formed as by-product and the reactor performance was quantified for three different flow rates corresponding to space-times from 10 to 14 h. The influence of space-time on the ethyl ester (FAEE) concentrations, yields and productivities was determined. The reactor operation was demonstrated for space-time of 14 h attaining FAEE concentrations of 58.5 +/- 0.87 wt%, FAEE yields of 97.3 +/- 1.9 % and productivities of 41.6 +/- 1.0 mg(ester) g (medium) (-1) h(-1). Biodiesel purified samples showed average kinematic viscosity values of 5.5 +/- 0.3 mm(2) s(-1) that meet the criteria established by the American National Standard ASTM (D6751). The immobilized lipase was found to be stable regarding its morphological and catalytic characteristics, showing half-life time (t (1/2)) around 1540 h. The continuous packed-bed reactor connected in series with simultaneous glycerol removal has a great potential to attain high level of transesterification yields, raising biodiesel productivity.
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  87. Converting paper mill sludge into neutral lipids by oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus vishniaccii for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Deeba, F.; Pruthi, V.; Negi, Y. S. 2016. Converting paper mill sludge into neutral lipids by oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus vishniaccii for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 21396-102

    Paper mill sludge (PMS) was assessed as cheap renewable lignocellulosic biomass for lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus vishniaccii (MTCC 232). The sonicated paper mill sludge extract (PMSE) exhibited enhanced lipid yield and lipid content 7.8 +/- 0.57 g/l, 53.40% in comparison to 5.5 +/- 0.8 g/l, 40.44% glucose synthetic medium, respectively. The accumulated triglycerides (TAG) inside the lipid droplets (LDs) were converted to biodiesel by transesterification and thoroughly characterized using GC-MS technique. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile obtained reveals elevated content of oleic acid followed by palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid with improved oxidative stability related to biodiesel quality. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  88. Cyprinus carpio fish oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Al-Tikrity, E. T. B.; Fadhil, A. B.; Albadree, M. A. 2016. Cyprinus carpio fish oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(22) 3367-3374

    Biodiesel was developed from a novel nonedible oil source, namely Cyprinus carpio fish oil. The acid value of fish oil was very low (0.70 mg KOH/g oil, 0.35 free fatty acid content). As a result, biodiesel was produced through a one-step transesterifcation process, i.e. alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol. The optimal conditions for producing biodiesel from fish oil were investigated. The highest biodiesel yield (97.22% similar to 96.88% w/w ester content) was obtained under optimum conditions of 0.75% KOH w/w, 7:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C reaction temperature and 60-minute duration. Properties of the produced biodiesel as well as its blends with petro-diesel fulfilled the standard limits as prescribed by ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 indicating its suitability as a fuel for diesel engines.
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  89. Discriminant Analysis and Cluster Analysis of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
    Abstract

    dos Santos, V. H. J. M.; Bruzza, E. D.; de Lima, J. E.; Lourega, R. V.; Rodrigues, L. F. 2016. Discriminant Analysis and Cluster Analysis of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Based on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Energy & Fuels. 30(6) 4905-4915

    In this work, a multivariate approach was used to classify diesel/biodiesel fuel blends among 0% to 100% of biodiesel content on fuel mixture through discriminant analysis and cluster analysis associated. with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The multivariate statistical techniques used in this work were partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA.), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), and Support vector machine (SVM). Multivariate analysis was performed on the following oil samples: soybean biodiesel, corn biodiesel, diesel S10, and fuel blends prepared from 0% to 100% (v/v) of biodiesel content. All multivariate statistical techniques were able to discriminate between the oil source and the ester percentage in the Mixture. It was possible to develop robust multivariate models associated with the FTIR to allow for simultaneous discrimination of the types of oils used for biodiesel production and their content in fuel blends.
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  90. Economically viable production of biodiesel from a rural feedstock from eastern India, P. pinnata oil using a recyclable laboratory synthesized heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Singh, V.; Hameed, B. H.; Sharma, Y. C. 2016. Economically viable production of biodiesel from a rural feedstock from eastern India, P. pinnata oil using a recyclable laboratory synthesized heterogeneous catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 12252-62

    Barium zirconate was synthesized by co-precipitation method and its feasibility as a heterogeneous catalyst for production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester) was assessed. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized through transesterification of karanja oil with methanol. Synthesized barium zirconate was characterized by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Specific surface area and basicity of the catalyst were also deliberated. Catalyst characterization indicated formation of single phase of barium zirconate which was capable of catalyzing the transesterification of esterified karanja oil with methanol. Feedstock was characterized by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Reaction conditions such as molar ratio (oil:methanol), catalyst concentration, temperature, time, stirring speed and catalyst reusability were optimized. Calcination temperature and time significantly affected the catalytic activity of the catalyst because of variation in availability of basic sites. FAME conversion of 98.79 0.5% was obtained at catalyst concentration of 1.0 wt%, 1:27 M ratio (oil:methanol), 65 degrees C for a 3 h contact time. The catalyst could be reused up to nine cycles and >65% fatty acid methyl ester conversion was sustained at ninth cycle. Glycerol obtained as a by-product was purified and analyzed by FTIR. Effect of catalyst on various feedstock at the same reaction conditions were studied. Physicochemical properties of karanja oil and respective methyl ester in comparison with petro diesel were also deliberated as per ASTM standards. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  91. Effect of storage conditions on Moringa oleifera Lam. seed oil: Biodiesel feedstock quality
    Abstract

    Fotouo-M, H.; du Toit, E. S.; Robbertse, P. S. J. 2016. Effect of storage conditions on Moringa oleifera Lam. seed oil: Biodiesel feedstock quality. Industrial Crops and Products. 8480-86

    Moringa seed oil is known as Ben oil. Recently research by several authors illustrated the potential use of Ben oil for biodiesel production. Oil quality is directly related to the physiological condition of the seeds from which it is extracted. Oil extracted from damaged and deteriorated seed can compromise fuel quality. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of various storage conditions and duration on Moringa oleifera seed oil quantity and quality as a potential source of biodiesel. Firstly, oil was extracted from fresh seeds and stored in dark bottles at room temperature. Secondly, Seeds were stored following a factorial 2 x 4 x 3 experiment with two types of containers (paper and aluminium bags), four temperatures (-19, 4, 20 and 30 degrees C) and three storage periods (6, 12 and 24 months). From the experimental results, it was observed that the oil content of moringa seed did not change significantly (p < 0.05) after 12 months of storage but decrease significantly in seed stored at 4 degrees C in paper bags and those at 20 degrees and 30 degrees C in aluminium bags at 24 months. The free fatty acid increased significantly (p < 0.05) after 12 months at all storage conditions and continued to increase above the recommended value (2%) for biodiesel parent oil at 24 months, except for that of seed stored at -19 degrees C in aluminium bags. The density of moringa seed oil remained unchanged throughout storage. The viscosity of oil extracted from seed stored in paper bags at 19 degrees C and that of the oil stored in dark bottle at room temperature decreased significantly at 24 months. Based on these results, moringa seed can be stored at any of the applied conditions for six months, but if they are stored beyond this period, the use of low temperature such as -19 degrees C and 4 degrees C and sealed containers are recommended. It is not advisable to store the extracted oil for more than 6 months. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  92. Effect on Particulate and Gas Emissions by Combusting Biodiesel Blend Fuels Made from Different Plant Oil Feedstocks in a Liquid Fuel Burner
    Abstract

    Rahim, N. A.; Jaafar, M. N. M.; Sapee, S.; Elraheem, H. F. 2016. Effect on Particulate and Gas Emissions by Combusting Biodiesel Blend Fuels Made from Different Plant Oil Feedstocks in a Liquid Fuel Burner. Energies. 9(8)

    This paper focuses on the combustion performance of various blends of biodiesel fuels and diesel fuel from lean to rich mixtures. The biodiesel blend fuel combustion experiments were carried out using a liquid fuel burner and biodiesel fuel made from various plant oil feedstocks, including jatropha, palm and coconut oils. The results show that jatropha oil methyl ester blend 25 (JOME B25) and coconut oil methyl ester blend 25 (COME B25) blended at 25% by volume in diesel fuel produced lower carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions due to more complete combustion. Overall, JOME B25 had the highest CO emission reduction, at about 42.25%, followed by COME B25 at 26.44% emission reduction relative to pure diesel fuel. By contrast, the palm oil methyl ester blend 25 (POME B25) showed a 48.44% increase in these emissions. The results showed that the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions were slightly higher for all biodiesel blend fuels compared with pure diesel fuel combustion. In case of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and UHC emissions, all biodiesel blends fuels have significantly reduced emissions. In the case of SO2 emission, the POME B25, JOME B25 and COME B25 emissions were reduced 14.62%, 14.45% and 21.39%, respectively, relative to SO2 emission from combusting pure diesel fuel. UHC emissions of POME B25, JOME B25 and COME B25 showed 51%, 71% and 70% reductions, respectively, compared to diesel fuel. The conclusion from the results is that all the biodiesel blend fuels are suitable and can be recommended for use in liquid fuel burners in order to get better and 'greener' environmental outcomes.
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  93. Enhancement of lipid extraction for improved biodiesel recovery from the biodiesel promising microalga Scenedesmus obliquus
    Abstract

    Abomohra, A. E. F.; Jin, W. B.; El-Sheekh, M. 2016. Enhancement of lipid extraction for improved biodiesel recovery from the biodiesel promising microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Energy Conversion and Management. 10823-29

    During the transesterification of oil feedstock for biodiesel production, the reaction primarily happens at the ester bonds where the fatty acid chains meet the glycerol. Therefore, only esterified fatty acids (EFAs) are able to be turned directly into biodiesel by transesterification. In this study, an optimized procedure for EFAs recovery from the biodiesel promising microalga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied. The effect of different solvent mixtures (ratios), extraction times, pretreatments and cell-disruption methods on intracellular EFAs and free fatty acids (FFAs) yield was examined. Using of chloroform:methanol (C:M) 2:1 for 2 h was shown to be the best solvent mixture for lipid extraction which resulted in the highest EFAs yield. Furthermore, testing of different cell-disruption methods showed that cell-disruption is not essential for lipid extraction from S. obliquus cells. Although, microwave pretreatment showed significant increase in EFAs yield with respect to overnight oven drying at 80 degrees C, all showed insignificant differences to the control. Moreover, overnight cell freezing showed 7.7% significant reduction in EFAs yield with respect to the control, while hot-water treatment for 5 min showed significant increase by 13.7%. On the other hand, overnight cell incubation, in oven or freezing, resulted in significant increase in FFAs up to 7.44 and 12.47 mg g(-1) of the dry weight, respectively. In addition, the present study showed that no pretreatment with isopropanol to inactivate the lipases is needed when hot-water pretreatment is performed. This study suggested that hot-water pretreatment not only deactivate lipases, but also enhances the EFAs recovery. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  94. Ethyl biodiesel production from non-edible oils of Balanites aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, and Jatropha curcas seeds - Laboratory scale development
    Abstract

    Nitiema-Yefanova, S.; Coniglio, L.; Schneider, R.; Nebie, R. H. C.; Bonzi-Coulibaly, Y. L. 2016. Ethyl biodiesel production from non-edible oils of Balanites aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, and Jatropha curcas seeds - Laboratory scale development. Renewable Energy. 96881-890

    By starting first at the laboratory scale, optimal operating conditions for the reaction unit aimed at producing ethyl biodiesels from non-edible vegetable oils (NEVO) were determined with the ultimate objective of proposing an on-farm processing technology that should be sustainable for emerging countries. Three NEVO widely available in Burkina Faso were selected: Balanites aegyptiaca (BA), Azadirachta indica (AI), and Jatropha curcas (JC) oils. Their conversion to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) was conducted via a two-stage procedure under atmospheric pressure: an alkali-catalyzed ethanolysis at ambient temperature for the BA and AI oils (leading to 93 and 87 wt.% FAEE respectively) and an acid-catalyzed ethanolysis at the normal boiling of the alcohol for the JC oil (leading to 89 wt.% FAEE). Based on the intermediate addition of glycerol at ambient temperature, the two-stage procedure combines chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and phase equilibrium phenomena. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  95. Evaluation and Characterization of Fats and Residual Cooking Oils for the Production of Biodiesel: A Case Study
    Abstract

    Pascacio, V. G. T.; Quintero, A. R.; Sanchez, B. T. 2016. Evaluation and Characterization of Fats and Residual Cooking Oils for the Production of Biodiesel: A Case Study. Revista Internacional De Contaminacion Ambiental. 32(3) 303-313

    The waste cooking oils and fats (WCOF) from the catering industry were systematically evaluated in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas. Results pointed out that the eight restaurant types found in the city produced 174 t of WCOF/year in the following proportion: 41 % formal restaurant, 24 % fast food, 8 % taquerias, 7 % antojitos, 6 % soup kitchens, 6 % bars, 4 % gorditas and 4 % roast chicken shops. In addition, representative samples of WCOF coming from every restaurant type were characterized for biodiesel production, in terms of viscosity, oxidative stability, free fatty acid content, acid value, saponification number, moisture content and fatty acid composition. The physicochemical analysis suggests that all the WCOF produced in the city, except that coming from the fast food cooking, met the recommended free fatty acid levels and the acidity values for alkaline transesterification. Based on the population of the city an average production of 0.31 t/year of WCOF per 1000 inhabitants was estimated. Projecting this figure to the whole country of Mexico, 34.9 kt of this fuel would be obtained per year, which would avoid the emission of 92 kt/year of CO2 and contribute to reduce pollution in the country.
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  96. Evaluation of Sinapis alba as feedstock for biodiesel production in Mediterranean climate
    Abstract

    Saez-Bastante, J.; Fernandez-Garcia, P.; Saavedra, M.; Lopez-Bellido, L.; Dorado, M. P.; Pinzi, S. 2016. Evaluation of Sinapis alba as feedstock for biodiesel production in Mediterranean climate. Fuel. 184656-664

    Most of oilseed crops used in biodiesel (BD) production are also suitable for human consumption and widely consumed in the world. For this reason, some non-governmental organizations and social movements controversially pinpoint the making of BD as the main cause of increased global edible oils prices, especially in developing countries. In this way, non-edible oilseed crops are gaining prominence for BD synthesis. Particularly, in the Mediterranean climate there is a crop that may have potential as raw material for biodiesel production, namely white mustard (Sinapis alba). In the present study, this species has been grown during two consecutive years optimizing two factors, plant density and nitrogen fertilizer dose. The influence of these factors on biomass yield and fatty acid composition is studied. S. alba oil was chemically extracted with hexane providing a yield of 25% (mass of extracted oil per mass of grain seed, on dry basis). Physical properties and FA profile of S. alba oil (by gas chromatography) were analyzed. Results show that both plant density and nitrogen fertilizer dose have influence on concentration of both linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). In addition, the presence of erucic acid (C22:1) was significantly high (above 50%). Important BD properties included in standard EN 14214 were predicted by means of mathematical models. Results showed that white mustard oil BD may provide a cetane number above 60, a density value lower than 900 kg/m(3) and a cold filter plugging point suitable for it use in temperate climates, where this plant mainly grows. However, kinematic viscosity predicted value was above the maximum one allowed by European regulation (5 mm(2)/s). (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  97. Evaluation of single and multi-feedstock biodiesel - diesel blends using GCMS and chemometric methods
    Abstract

    Flood, M. E.; Connolly, M. P.; Comiskey, M. C.; Hupp, A. M. 2016. Evaluation of single and multi-feedstock biodiesel - diesel blends using GCMS and chemometric methods. Fuel. 18658-67

    Single and multi-feedstock biodiesel-diesel blends were evaluated using gas chromatography mass spectrometry along with several unsupervised and supervised chemometric methods. Peak areas of diesel alkane components and/or biodiesel fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) components were evaluated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), k nearest neighbors (kNN), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), and partial least squares (PLS) analysis. Using PCA (an unsupervised method), samples clustered based on feedstock type (soybean, waste grease, canola, tallow) and concentration (diesel, B2-B100). Using the supervised chemometric methods, feedstock type and concentration were validated for the training set and predicted for several unknown test samples. Concentration and feedstock were predicted using kNN, while concentration alone was predicted using SIMCA. PLS also allowed prediction of concentration but the success of the prediction heavily depended on the training model used. In addition, multi-feedstock fuel blends created from 2 and 3 feedstock components (soybean, canola, tallow) were evaluated with PCA, kNN, and SIMCA. Samples clustered based on concentration and feedstock makeup/ratio in PCA. Using kNN and SIMCA, multifeedstock blends were predicted based on concentration, while kNN could be used to predict relative ratio of multiple feedstocks. The results demonstrate the utility of chemometric analysis on a complex fuel-based data set, using methods that could be performed in a variety of laboratories and fields without the need for complex data preprocessing. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  98. Extraction and characterization of triglycerides from coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Armah-Agyeman, G.; Gyamerah, M.; Biney, P. O.; Woldesenbet, S. 2016. Extraction and characterization of triglycerides from coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 96(13) 4390-4397

    BACKGROUND: Although switchgrass has been developed as a biofuel feedstock and its potential for bioethanol and bio-oil from fast pyrolysis reported in the literature, the use of the seeds of switchgrass as a source of triglycerides for biodiesel production has not been reported. Similarly, the potential for extracting triglycerides from coffeeweed (an invasive plant of no current economic value) needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic use for biodiesel production.
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  99. Fatty Acid Composition of Basidiomycetes Lipids - a Promising Feedstock for Obtaining Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Sharipova, D. A.; Kopitsyn, D. S.; Ziangirova, M. Y.; Novikov, A. A.; Vinokurov, V. A. 2016. Fatty Acid Composition of Basidiomycetes Lipids - a Promising Feedstock for Obtaining Biodiesel. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 52(3) 255-260

    Xylotrophic basidial fungi capable of accumulating lipids while growing on inedible plant materials are a promising source of feedstock for obtaining biodiesel. Thirty strains of xylotrophic basidial fungi were screened for the accumulation of lipids, and the content of fatty acids in nine strains chosen by screening was determined. It was shown that the Piptoporus betulines MT-30.04 and Russula puellaris MT-32.06 strains are characterized by maximum content of oleic acid in the lipids and are therefore most promising as lipid formers for biodiesel production.
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  100. Feasibility of triacyiglycerol production for biodiesel, utilizing Rhodococcus opacus as a biocatalyst and fishery waste as feedstock
    Abstract

    Palmer, J. D.; Brigham, C. J. 2016. Feasibility of triacyiglycerol production for biodiesel, utilizing Rhodococcus opacus as a biocatalyst and fishery waste as feedstock. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 56922-928

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be produced via bacterial fermentation by the oleaginous Gram-positive microorganism Rhodococcus opacus strain PD630 in regulated, nutrient-deprived conditions with sufficient carbon supply. Microbially produced TAGs may be further refined via transesterification into biodiesel and glycerol, with 3 mole of biodiesel and 1 mole of glycerol produced from every 1 mole of TAG by chemical conversion. Large-scale industrial production of biodiesel has been conducted for over a decade, yet microbially derived biodiesel has been, up to this point, absent from the biodiesel market. The use of a novel feedstock, chitin, from New England fishery waste may present a viable, cost-effective, unexplored carbon feedstock source for local biodiesel development. Availability and implementation of chitin as a feedstock, along with analysis of potential fuel characteristics, yield promising results for future industrial development of biodiesel production from R. opacus PD630 TAGs in regional locations with large lobster, shrimp, and crab harvesting operations around the world. With declining resources of fossil fuels and increased societal awareness of carbon emissions and climate change, an analytical review of this nature is critically relevant. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  101. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste
    Abstract

    Leong, S. Y.; Kutty, S. R. M.; Malakahmad, A.; Tan, C. K. 2016. Feasibility study of biodiesel production using lipids of Hermetia illucens larva fed with organic waste. Waste Management. 4784-90

    Hermetic illucens larvae by nature are a decomposer which fed on organic wastes. This study explores the potential of producing biodiesel using lipids from H. illucens larvae. Three types of organic wastes (sewage sludge, fruit waste and palm decanter cake from oil palm mill) were selected based on considerable generation and disposal concern in the area of study as well as lack of investigations as feed for Hermetia illucens larvae in current literatures. Growth rate of the larvae was determined with studying the changes in the biomass per day. H. illucens larvae fed with fruit waste and palm decanter cake have shown growth rates of 0.52 +/- 0.02 and 0.23 +/- 0.09 g d(-1), respectively. No positive sign of growth were observed in the larvae fed with treated sewage sludge (-0.04 +/- 0.01 g d(-1)). Biodiesel as fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was synthesized by transesterification of the larvae lipid using sulphuric acid as catalyst in methanol. FAME produced was ascertained using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and GC-MS. The main compositions of fatty acid were found to be C12:0, C16:0 and C18:1n9c. Fatty acid composition of C12:0 fed with fruit waste, sewage sludge and palm decanter was found to be most abundant in the larvae lipid. The amount of C12:0 obtained was 76.13%, 58.31% and 48.06%, respectively. In addition, fatty acid of C16:0 was attained at 16.48% and 25.48% fed with sewage sludge and palm decanter, respectively. Based on the findings, FAME derived from larvae lipids is feasible to be used for biodiesel production.(c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  102. Fuel property enhancement of biodiesel fuels from common and alternative feedstocks via complementary blending
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R. 2016. Fuel property enhancement of biodiesel fuels from common and alternative feedstocks via complementary blending. Renewable Energy. 85819-825

    Fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) prepared from field pennycress and meadowfoam seed oils were blended with methyl esters from camelina, cottonseed, palm, and soybean oils in an effort to ameliorate technical deficiencies inherent to these biodiesel fuels. For instance, camelina, cottonseed, and soybean oil-derived biodiesels exhibited poor oxidative stabilities but satisfactory kinematic viscosities. Field pennycress and meadowfoam seed oil methyl esters yielded excellent cold flow properties but high kinematic viscosities. Thus, field pennycress and meadowfoam-derived biodiesel fuels were blended with the other biodiesels to simultaneously ameliorate cold flow, oxidative stability, and viscosity deficiencies inherent to the individual fuels. Highly linear correlations were noted between blend ratio and cold flow as well as viscosity after least squares statistical regression whereas a non-linear relationship was observed for oxidative stability. Equations generated from statistical regression were highly accurate at predicting KV, reasonably accurate for prediction of cold flow properties, and less accurate at predicting oxidative stability. In summary, complementary blending enhanced fuel properties such as cold flow, kinematic viscosity, and oxidative stability of biodiesel. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  103. Functional Ionic Liquids Catalyzed the Esterification of Ricinoleic Acid with Methanol to Prepare Biodiesel: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology
    Abstract

    Sun, S. D.; Li, X. L. 2016. Functional Ionic Liquids Catalyzed the Esterification of Ricinoleic Acid with Methanol to Prepare Biodiesel: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 93(6) 757-764

    An efficient route to preparing biodiesel by the esterification of ricinoleic acid (RA) with methanol was investigated in the work. Six kinds of functional ionic liquids (IL) were selected as catalysts. The effects of reaction variables (reaction time, temperature, IL load, and the ratio of reaction substrates) were also evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Among IL tested, 1-butylsulfonic-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate showed the highest catalytic efficiency for the esterification. Reaction variables were optimized using RSM as follows: IL load 4 % (relative to the weight of RA), molar ratio of methanol to RA 9.2:1, 67 A degrees C, and 28 min. Under the optimized conditions, the esterification degree of RA was 92.3 +/- 1.7 %.
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  104. Glycerolysis of palm fatty acid distillate for biodiesel feedstock under different reactor conditions
    Abstract

    Islam, A.; Masoumi, H. R. F.; Teo, S. H.; Abdollahi, Y.; Janaun, J.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2016. Glycerolysis of palm fatty acid distillate for biodiesel feedstock under different reactor conditions. Fuel. 174133-139

    This paper deals with the comparative study on glycerolysis of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) in a solvent free system at different reaction conditions in an attempt to get maximum degree of FFA% reduction for biodiesel feedstock. Initially, optimization of varied reaction parameters was performed under all the different reaction conditions using artificial neural network (ANN) based on the genetic algorithm (GA). It has been found that the reduction of acidity varies with varying reaction conditions with maximum reaction rate observed in case of reaction carried-out in open reactor system with inert gas flow, followed by the reaction in open reactor system without inert gas flow and then in case of reaction under the close reactor system. In the most favorable case, 1.5 mgKOH/gPFAD of FFA (free fatty acid) was achieved after 90 min of reaction time with an excess glycerol of 4% at 220 degrees C. The results from the ANN model show good agreement with experimental results. Thus, the glycerolysis in open reactor system with inert gas flow (N-2) option is much-preferred option compared to acid esterification for the same biodiesel plant capacity, particularly for high-FFA feedstocks. (c) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  105. Green biodiesel production: a review on feedstock, catalyst, monolithic reactor, and supercritical fluid technology
    Abstract

    Gumba, R. E.; Saallah, S.; Misson, M.; Ongkudon, C. M.; Anton, A. 2016. Green biodiesel production: a review on feedstock, catalyst, monolithic reactor, and supercritical fluid technology. Biofuel Research Journal-Brj. 3(3) 431-447

    The advancement of alternative energy is primarily catalyzed by the negative environmental impacts and energy depletion caused by the excessive usage of fossil fuels. Biodiesel has emerged as a promising substitute to petrodiesel because it is biodegradable, less toxic, and reduces greenhouse gas emission. Apart from that, biodiesel can be used as blending component or direct replacements for diesel fuel in automotive engines. A diverse range of methods have been reported for the conversion of renewable feedstocks (vegetable oil or animal fat) into biodiesel with transesterification being the most preferred method. Nevertheless, the cost of producing biodiesel is higher compared to fossil fuel, thus impeding its commercialization potentials. The limited source of reliable feedstock and the underdeveloped biodiesel production route have prevented the full-scale commercialization of biodiesel in many parts of the world. In a recent development, a new technology that incorporates monoliths as support matrices for enzyme immobilization in supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) for continuous biodiesel production has been proposed to solve the problem. The potential of SC-CO2 system to be applied in enzymatic reactors is not well documented and hence the purpose of this review is to highlight the previous studies conducted as well as the future direction of this technology. (C) 2016 BRTeam. All rights reserved.
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  106. Greenhouse gas emissions from land use change due to oil palm expansion in Thailand for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Permpool, N.; Bonnet, S.; Gheewala, S. H. 2016. Greenhouse gas emissions from land use change due to oil palm expansion in Thailand for biodiesel production. Journal of Cleaner Production. 134532-538

    Thailand depends heavily on importation of fossil oil to satisfy its energy demand. The transportation sector is an important contributor to energy demand; biofuels are therefore strongly promoted in Thailand, notably biodiesel from oil palm. According to the Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2012-2021) a biodiesel target of 5.97 million litres per day is to be achieved by 2021. This research focuses on assessing the implication of this on oil palm plantation area requirement, regions most suitable for its expansion and related greenhouse gas (GHG) implications as well as feedstock security. The investigations revealed that about 91,200 ha of land would be required for oil palm expansion to achieve the biodiesel target while also meeting other requirements for palm oil including domestic consumption, export, stock and surplus. The Eastern and Southern regions were identified as the two most suitable for oil palm cultivation with respectively 29,772 ha and 61,427 ha of mainly grassland and abandoned land. Oil palm expansion in the East would lead to overall land use change related GHG savings amounting to 47,214 tonnes CO2-eq per year. Oil palm expansion in the South would also bring GHG savings, 2.5 times higher than for the East. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  107. Hybridization of feedstocks-A new approach in biodiesel development: A case of Moringa and Jatropha seed oils
    Abstract

    Eloka-Eboka, A. C.; Inambao, F. L. 2016. Hybridization of feedstocks-A new approach in biodiesel development: A case of Moringa and Jatropha seed oils. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(11) 1495-1502

    In this study, two selected feedstocks, Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas seed oils, and their methyl esters (biodiesel) were subjected to two new different hybridization processes at varying proportions experimentally. The hybrid compositions were J(50)M(50), J(40)M(10), J(30)M(20), J(20)M(30), and J(10)M(40) from crude oil samples (in situ) and BM(50)J(50), BM(40)J(10), BM(30)J(20), BM(20)J(30), and BM(10)J(40) from produced biodiesel by transesterification (ex situ) using production variables and optimization sequences. The hybrids were evaluated for chemo-physical and thermal properties using American Society for Testing and Materials and South African National Standards standards for each specific test(s). Results obtained revealed the efficacy of hybridization in improving the specific biodiesel properties as fuels. Specific tests include viscosity, specific gravity, refractive index, cetane index, fatty acid composition, free and total glycerine (TG), free fatty acid (FFA) composition, flash point, pour and cloud points, and calorific values. These were all higher and better than the single-stock biodiesel fuels. Moringa oleifera biodiesel, which was proved an excellent biodiesel fuel in the previous studies of the authors having high oleic acid content (>70%), impacted positively on Jatropha in enhancing its potential, with positive correlation at a 95% confidence level (alpha > 0.05) and on analysis of variation (ANOVA). This is a new approach in biodiesel development as studies of this nature are scarce in the literature.
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  108. Identification of biodiesel feedstock in biodiesel/diesel blends using digital images and chemometric methods
    Abstract

    Costa, G. B.; Fernandes, D. D. S.; Almeida, V. E.; Maia, M. S.; Araujo, M. C. U.; Veras, G.; Diniz, P. H. G. D. 2016. Identification of biodiesel feedstock in biodiesel/diesel blends using digital images and chemometric methods. Analytical Methods. 8(24) 4949-4954

    This study aims to identify the biodiesel feedstock (cottonseed, sunflower, corn or soybean oil) in biodiesel/diesel blends using digital images and chemometric methods. For this purpose, colour histograms (extracted from digital images) coupled with supervised pattern recognition techniques: Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA), Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and the Successive Projections Algorithm for variable selection associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA) were used. SPA-LDA coupled with intensity histograms provided better results by selecting 12 variables alone, achieving only one error of classification in the external validation (test) set. Thus, the proposed methodology presents a noteworthy eco-friendly approach for identifying the biodiesel feedstock in biodiesel/diesel blends using a simple, fast, inexpensive and non-destructive analytical tool.
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  109. Immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa and its application for the synthesis of biodiesel in a two-step process
    Abstract

    Xu, M. H.; Kuan, I. C.; Deng, F. Y.; Lee, S. L.; Kao, W. C.; Yu, C. Y. 2016. Immobilization of lipase from Candida rugosa and its application for the synthesis of biodiesel in a two-step process. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering. 11(6) 910-917

    Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized onto polystyrene-divinylbenzene support for converting waste cooking oil to biodiesel using a two-step process. The immobilization improved the thermal stability and stability at acidic pH. The adsorbed lipase was applied to the hydrolysis of waste cooking oil to fatty acids, and the effects of temperature, pH, shaking speed and isooctane/waste cooking oil ratio were evaluated using response surface methodology combined with central composite design. The optimal conditions for the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis were 35.3 degrees C, pH 5.5, shaking speed of 222 rpm, and isooctane/waste cooking oil ratio of 0.34; the predicted and experimental conversions were 100 and 99.7%, respectively. The conversion of waste cooking oil to fatty acids remained the same after reuse for seven reaction cycles. The hydrolysis of waste cooking oil was also performed in recycled-batch mode with a packed-bed reactor; the maximal conversion of 93% was observed after reaction with 490 mg of immobilized lipase for 2 h. The fatty acids separated were further converted to biodiesel by Amberlyst 15-catalyzed esterification; 99.9% conversion was obtained after 2 h incubation. (C) 2016 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  110. Improving the energy balance of microalgae biodiesel: Synergy with an autonomous sugarcane ethanol distillery
    Abstract

    Maranduba, H. L.; Robra, S.; Nascimento, I. A.; da Cruz, R. S.; Rodrigues, L. B.; Neto, J. A. D. 2016. Improving the energy balance of microalgae biodiesel: Synergy with an autonomous sugarcane ethanol distillery. Energy. 115888-895

    This study analyzed the algal biodiesel production system via dry-route, based on Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in raceways, by comparing the Net Energy Balance (NEB) and the Fossil Energy Ratio (FER) of five scenarios: CO (single system of biomass production); C1 (CO + pyrolysis of the microalgae press cake); C2 (CO + anaerobic co-digestion of the microalgae press cake); C3 and C4 (same conditions of Cl and C2, but integrating both scenarios into an autonomous ethanol distillery). Each scenario was analyzed under de perspective of energy allocation (a) and system expansion with avoided product (b). The results showed that with the energy allocation, only C3a and C4a improved the values of baseline scenario (COa) for NEB, in 120% and 72% respectively. When the system expansion is considered, none of the scenarios was better than the respective baseline scenario (Cob), in relation to the NEB. Considering the FER, C3a increased in 3.4% the values of COa, while C3b and C4b increased the values of COb in 54.1% and 28.8%, respectively. In general, system expansion showed the best scenarios: for the NEB COb showed the highest average values while C3b showed the highest average values for the FER. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  111. In-situ transesterification of seeds of invasive Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera L.) in a microwave batch system (GREEN(3)) using hexane as co-solvent: Biodiesel production and process optimization
    Abstract

    Barekati-Goudarzi, M.; Boldor, D.; Nde, D. B. 2016. In-situ transesterification of seeds of invasive Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera L.) in a microwave batch system (GREEN(3)) using hexane as co-solvent: Biodiesel production and process optimization. Bioresource Technology. 20197-104

    In-situ transesterification (simultaneous extraction and transesterification) of Chinese tallow tree seeds into methyl esters using a batch microwave system was investigated in this study. A high degree of oil extraction and efficient conversion of oil to biodiesel were found in the proposed range. The process was further optimized in terms of product yields and conversion rates using Doehlert optimization methodology. Based on the experimental results and statistical analysis, the optimal production yield conditions for this process were determined as: catalyst concentration of 1.74 wt.%, solvent ratio about 3 (v/w), reaction time of 20 min and temperature of 58.1 degrees C. H+NMR was used to calculate reaction conversion. All methyl esters produced using this method met ASTM biodiesel quality specifications. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  112. International experiences with the cultivation of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Gonzales, N. F. C. 2016. International experiences with the cultivation of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production. Energy. 1121245-1258

    This paper is the first of its kind, providing an identification of the problems encountered in all documented global experiences of cultivating the Jatropha curcas plant, covering 22 case studies. Influential components of the biodiesel production (stakeholders like government, farmers and enterprises as well as resources such as land and water) and how they are interconnected are pinpointed. In addition, the article gives recommendations to the main actors under ecological and socio-economic criteria to ensure a sustainable production of J. curcas oil in regions with appropriate climatic conditions for the plant's viability. Hence, this analysis of experiences discusses the following questions: What are the reasons and factors for the previous unsuccessful and unsustainable cultivation of J. curcas for producing biodiesel? Can it be lucrative and simultaneously achieve poverty alleviation/job creation under the constraints of efficient use of resources (land and water)?. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  113. Isolation of a euryhaline microalgal strain, Tetraselmis sp CTP4, as a robust feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Pereira, H.; Gangadhar, K. N.; Schulze, P. S. C.; Santos, T.; de Sousa, C. B.; Schueler, L. M.; Custodio, L.; Malcata, F. X.; Gouveia, L.; Varela, J. C. S.; Barreira, L. 2016. Isolation of a euryhaline microalgal strain, Tetraselmis sp CTP4, as a robust feedstock for biodiesel production. Scientific Reports. 6

    Bioprospecting for novel microalgal strains is key to improving the feasibility of microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 (Chlorophyta, Chlorodendrophyceae) was isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) in order to screen novel lipid-rich microalgae. CTP4 is a robust, euryhaline strain able to grow in seawater growth medium as well as in non-sterile urban wastewater. Because of its large cell size (9-22 mu m), CTP4 settles down after a six-hour sedimentation step. This leads to a medium removal efficiency of 80%, allowing a significant decrease of biomass dewatering costs. Using a two-stage system, a 3-fold increase in lipid content (up to 33% of DW) and a 2-fold enhancement in lipid productivity (up to 52.1 mg L-1 d(-1)) were observed upon exposure to nutrient depletion for 7 days. The biodiesel synthesized from the lipids of CTP4 contained high levels of oleic acid (25.67% of total fatty acids content) and minor amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids with >= 4 double bonds (< 1%). As a result, this biofuel complies with most of the European (EN14214) and American (ASTM D6751) specifications, which commonly used microalgal feedstocks are usually unable to meet. In conclusion, Tetraselmis sp. CTP4 displays promising features as feedstock with lower downstream processing costs for biomass dewatering and biodiesel refining.
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  114. Kernel characteristics, oil contents, fatty acid compositions and biodiesel properties in developing Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seeds
    Abstract

    Fan, S. Q.; Liang, T. Y.; Yu, H. Y.; Bi, Q. X.; Li, G. T.; Wang, L. B. 2016. Kernel characteristics, oil contents, fatty acid compositions and biodiesel properties in developing Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seeds. Industrial Crops and Products. 89195-199

    Kernel characteristics, oil contents, fatty acid compositions and biodiesel properties were studied in developing Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seeds, at intervals of I week from 3 weeks after anthesis to 10 weeks. Variation of kernel dry biomass, kernel length, kernel breadth and kernel thickness were significant (P < 0.01). Oil content increased with maturity and reached the highest point at 8 weeks after anthesis (51.6%). Changes in the content of oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) presented an opposite trend that oleic acid increased, whereas linoleic acid decreased until 7 weeks after anthesis. Siberian apricot methyl esters meet the specifications better in biodiesel standards when seeds were harvested at 8, 9 and 10 weeks after anthesis. Siberian apricot seeds harvested after 8 weeks after anthesis may be suitable for producing biodiesel. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  115. Levelized cost of energy and financial evaluation for biobutanol, algal biodiesel and biohydrogen during commercial development
    Abstract

    Lee, D. H. 2016. Levelized cost of energy and financial evaluation for biobutanol, algal biodiesel and biohydrogen during commercial development. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 41(46) 21583-21599

    This study applies engineering economic analysis with modifications that concern profit rate, opportunity cost, price inflation, financial leverage, risk premium, learning curve effect, the effect of nth-generation chemical plants effect, interest rate and full commercializatioguren to capture realistic conditions to evaluate the economic feasibility of biohydrogen, biobutanol and algal biodiesel plants in a future bioeconomy.
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  116. Life Cycle Analysis of Jatropha Curcas as a Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstock in Argentina
    Abstract

    Beaver, A.; Castano, A. G.; Diaz, M. S. 2016. Life Cycle Analysis of Jatropha Curcas as a Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstock in Argentina. 2nd International Conference on Biomass (Iconbm 2016). 50433-438

    Despite constant changes to the industry in recent years, Argentina remains one of the most important producers of biodiesel in the world. Approximately 90% of the biodiesel produced in Argentina is from soybean, a fact which has raised concern over the fuel's sustainability. For this reason, alternative crops such as Jatropha curcas are being explored. The aim of this study is to assess the environmental impact of Jatropha-based biodiesel for the specific case of Argentina through life cycle assessment (LCA). The processes considered in this study include Jatropha seed cultivation, seed transportation, oil extraction, and transesterification. Two cultivation scenarios are examined in order to explore trade-offs between land use type and agricultural inputs. This study also incorporates land and water use, which are typically omitted from LCA due to complexity and lack of available information. Inventory data for the system were collected and analyzed using the ReCiPe impact assessment method. The results show a 21% reduction of kg CO2 equivalent for the overall Jatropha biodiesel production process when using fertile land with low-input agriculture instead of marginal land use with fertilizer and irrigation.
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  117. Life cycle assessment of sunflower cultivation on abandoned mine land for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Harris, T. M.; Hottle, T. A.; Soratana, K.; Klane, J.; Landis, A. E. 2016. Life cycle assessment of sunflower cultivation on abandoned mine land for biodiesel production. Journal of Cleaner Production. 112182-195

    Producing biofuel feedstock on marginal lands is a viable way to offset fossil fuel production, global warming, and other adverse environmental impacts, while at the same time performing positive ecosystem services by reclaiming unused areas with value producing activities. This research study explored low-input production of sunflower biodiesel feedstock on abandoned mine land (AML) from coal mining refuse treated with bauxite residue (alkaline clay) through the lens of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).
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  118. Lipid Yield and Composition of Azolla filiculoides and the Implications for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Brouwer, P.; van der Werf, A.; Schluepmann, H.; Reichart, G. J.; Nierop, K. G. J. 2016. Lipid Yield and Composition of Azolla filiculoides and the Implications for Biodiesel Production. Bioenergy Research. 9(1) 369-377

    The aquatic fern Azolla is one of the fastest-growing nitrogen-fixing plants on Earth and therefore considered as a potential source of biomass for bioenergy production. The lipid fraction from Azolla filiculoides was analyzed to investigate whether it suited biodiesel production. Since the productivity of Azolla is further increased at higher CO2 concentrations, A. filiculoides biomass was produced at 800 ppm CO2 mimicking a cultivation system utilizing CO2 waste from industry. The harvested biomass contained 7.92 +/- 0.14 % dry weight (dw) crude lipids. Drying conditions did not significantly affect lipid composition or yields, indicating that drying conditions may be energetically optimized without the risk of product loss. Total lipid extracts contained 4.2 +/- 0.38 % free fatty acids. Of the crude lipid fraction, 41 +/- 13 % consisted of fatty acids that were converted into fatty acid methyl esters upon saponification in methanol. Unique mid-chain (di)hydroxy compounds constituted 7.2 +/- 2.8 % of the crude lipids. Based on the fatty acid profile, it was estimated that Azolla biodiesel meets requirements set by the EN14214 standard on fuel density, cetane number, and iodine value. The cold filter plugging point (CFPP), however, is expected to be too high due to relatively high concentrations of lignoceric acid and the presence of the mid-chain (di)hydroxy compounds. To produce high-quality biodiesel from Azolla lipids, therefore, a fractionation step will be required removing these compounds. As an advantage, the long-chain alcohols and (di)hydroxy fatty acids obtained after fractionation may provide a valuable secondary product stream with applications to chemical industry and nutrition.
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  119. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production
    Abstract

    Qin, L.; Wang, Z. M.; Sun, Y. M.; Shu, Q.; Feng, P. Z.; Zhu, L. D.; Xu, J.; Yuan, Z. H. 2016. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23(9) 8379-8387

    The potential of microalgae consortia used in dairy wastewater treatment combined with microalgae biodiesel feedstock production was evaluated by comparing the nutrient removal of dairy wastewater, the growth of cells, and the lipid content and composition of biomass between monoalgae and microalgae consortia cultivation system. Our results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (maximum, 57.01-62.86 %) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (maximum, 91.16-95.96 %) were achieved in almost microalgae consortia cultivation system than those in Chlorella sp. monoalgae cultivation system (maximum, 44.76 and 86.74 %, respectively). In addition, microalgae consortia cultivation except the mixture of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus spp. reached higher biomass concentration (5.11-5.41 g L-1), biomass productivity (730.4-773.2 mg L-1 day(-1)), and lipid productivity (143.7-150.6 mg L-1 day(-1)) than those of monoalgae cultivation (4.72 g L-1, 674.3, and 142.2 mg L-1 day(-1), respectively) on the seventh day. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles indicated the lipids produced from microalgae consortia cultivation system were more suitable for biodiesel production. The microalgae consortia display superiority in dairy wastewater treatment and the getting feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  120. Microalgal biomass production as a sustainable feedstock for biodiesel: Current status and perspectives
    Abstract

    Abomohra, A. E.; Jin, W. B.; Tu, R. J.; Han, S. F.; Eid, M.; Eladel, H. 2016. Microalgal biomass production as a sustainable feedstock for biodiesel: Current status and perspectives. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 64596-606

    Nowadays, fossil fuels; including coal, oil, and natural gas; are the world's primary energy sources required for industry, lighting, transportation and heating. Their needs increased dramatically due to the vast expansion in human population and economy. In contrast, a greenhouse gas emission is a serious problem arose from such uses that might lead to potentially catastrophic changes in the earth's climate. In addition, fossil fuels are limited non-renewable resources that will run out in few decades. These factors motivated many researchers to develop a new renewable energy sources that could replace fossil fuels. Biodiesel is considered as the best candidate for this purpose. Recently, microalgae were discussed as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. This review presents a critical overview of engineered challenges compilations related to microalgal biomass production. In addition, advantages, and current limitations of biodiesel production, quantitative and qualitative feasibility of microalgal biodiesel, and its economic feasibility are discussed. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  121. Molasses-based growth and lipid production by Chlorella pyrenoidosa: A potential feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Gaurav, K.; Srivastava, R.; Sharma, J. G.; Singh, R.; Singh, V. 2016. Molasses-based growth and lipid production by Chlorella pyrenoidosa: A potential feedstock for biodiesel. International Journal of Green Energy. 13(3) 320-327

    Biodiesel provides a feasible solution to the twin crisis of energy security and environmental concerns prevalent today, and it can be extracted from conventional oil crops as well as microalgae. However, lipid productivity in case of microalgae is much higher and has several advantages as compared with crop plants, so it is a better feedstock for biodiesel. In case of Chlorella pyrenoidosa, the heterotrophic cultured cells were found to be better in terms of lipid production, and ultimately biodiesel production, but the bottleneck is that in this mode glucose is used to feed the cells, which amounts to almost 80% of the total cost of biodiesel production. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and highlight the feasibility of using the industrially cheap cane molasses as a carbon source in place of glucose for a large-scale, low-cost lipid production of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. When treated molasses was used as a carbon source instead of glucose, the biomass sharply increases from 0.89 to 1.22 g L-1. On the other hand, the total lipid content increases from 0.27 to 0.66 g g(-1). The specific growth rate and yield was higher in treated molasses as compared with that in glucose-supplemented. A mathematical model was also developed based on logistic, Luedeking-Piret, and Luedeking-Piret-like equations. Model predictions were in satisfactory agreement with the measured data, and the mode of lipid production was growth-associated.
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  122. Nephelium lappaceum oil: A low-cost alternative feedstock for sustainable biodiesel production using magnetic solid acids
    Abstract

    Nguyen, H. D.; Thi Nguyen, M. H.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen, P. T. 2016. Nephelium lappaceum oil: A low-cost alternative feedstock for sustainable biodiesel production using magnetic solid acids. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 35(2) 603-610

    Waste seed of Nephelium lappaceum or rambutan fruit with high fat content is a promising raw material for low-cost biodiesel production. Solid acids, such as SiO2-SO3H/CoFe2O4 and superhydrophobic poly(vinylsulfonic-co-divinylbenzene) (PVS-DVB), were synthesized and characterized via X-ray diffraction, vibrating sampling magnetometer, field enhanced scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray, and transmission electron microscopy. The magnetic catalysts possessed a mesoporous structure with an average diameter of 100 nm. The transesterification rate could reach 39%, 68%, and 98% when SiO2-SO3H/CoFe2O4, PVS-DVB, and H2SO4 acid were used, respectively, at 65 degrees C for 4-10 h. The magnetic acids were readily recovered and reused with negligible activity loss. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of oil-to-methanol molar (O/M) ratio, reaction time, and catalyst amount on FAME conversion were studied to optimize the transesterification conditions. Rambutan oil biodiesel is within the specifications of the American Standard Test Method (ASTM D6751) and European standards (EN 14214). (c) 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 35: 603-610, 2016
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  123. Oil assessment of Halamphora coffeaeformis diatom growing in a hybrid two-stage system for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Martin, L. A.; Popovich, C. A.; Martinez, A. M.; Damiani, M. C.; Leonardi, P. I. 2016. Oil assessment of Halamphora coffeaeformis diatom growing in a hybrid two-stage system for biodiesel production. Renewable Energy. 92127-135

    The lipid content, composition and productivity of the marine benthic diatom Halamphora coffeaeformis were studied in order to evaluate its potential as feedstock for biodiesel production. Cultures were carried out in two stages: I) in photobioreactors (PBRs) to increase the biomass as inoculum for larger volumes, and II) in raceway ponds to increase naturally the triacylglycerol (TAG) content during the stationary growth phase. Biomass concentrations of 0.64 g L-1 and 0.23 g L-1 were reached in the PBR and the raceway pond, respectively. Total lipid content was 54.4 (+/- 11.6) % ash free dry weight (AFDW) in the raceway pond on day 19 (harvest day), with a neutral lipid content of 34% AFDW. The TAG productivity in the raceway pond was 1.2 mg L-1 d(-1). The indicators of biodiesel, calculated from fatty acid profile composition, showed that H. coffeaeformis oil was of good quality, according to international standards. Some hypothetical aspects are proposed in order to improve lipid productivity and net energy ratio in processes at larger scales. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  124. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Abbas, J.; Hussain, S.; Iqbal, M. J.; Nadeem, H.; Qasim, M.; Hina, S.; Hafeez, F. 2016. Oil industry waste: a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Environmental Technology. 37(16) 2082-2087

    The worldwide rising energy demands and the concerns about the sustainability of fossil fuels have led to the search for some low-cost renewable fuels. In this scenario, the production of biodiesel from various vegetable and animal sources has attracted worldwide attention. The present study was conducted to evaluate the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste following base-catalysed transesterification. The transesterification reaction gave a yield of 83.7% by 6: 1 methanol/oil molar ratio, at 60 degrees C over 80 min of reaction time in the presence of NaOH. The gas chromatographic analysis of the product showed the presence of 16 fatty acid methyl esters with linoleic and oleic acid as principal components representing about 31% and 20.7% of the total methyl esters, respectively. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of oil industry waste and transesterified product further confirmed the formation of methyl esters. Furthermore, the fuel properties of oil industry waste methyl esters, such as kinematic viscosity, cetane number, cloud point, pour point, flash point, acid value, sulphur content, cold filter plugging point, copper strip corrosion, density, oxidative stability, higher heating values, ash content, water content, methanol content and total glycerol content, were determined and discussed in the light of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Overall, this study presents the production of biodiesel from the oil industry waste as an approach of recycling this waste into value-added products.
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  125. One-step production of biodiesel through simultaneous esterification and transesterification from highly acidic unrefined feedstock over efficient and recyclable ZnO nanostar catalyst
    Abstract

    Kwong, T. L.; Yung, K. F. 2016. One-step production of biodiesel through simultaneous esterification and transesterification from highly acidic unrefined feedstock over efficient and recyclable ZnO nanostar catalyst. Renewable Energy. 90450-457

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostar synthesized by simple and up-scalable microwave-assisted surfactant free hydrolysis method was applied as catalyst for biodiesel synthesis through one-step simultaneous esterification and transesterification from high free fatty acid (FFA) contaminated unrefined feedstock. It was found that ZnO nanostar catalyst was reacted with FFA to yield zinc oleate (ZnO1) as intermediate and finally became zinc glycerolate (ZnGly). With the re-deposition of ZnGly back to the ZnO nanostar catalyst at the end of the reaction, the catalyst can be easily recovered and stay active for five cycles. Furthermore, the rate of transesterification is highly promoted by the presence of FFA (6 wt.%) which makes it an efficient catalyst for low grade feedstock like waste cooking oil and crude plant oils. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  126. Optimization and kinetic modeling of esterification of the oil obtained from waste plum stones as a pretreatment step in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kostic, M. D.; Velickovic, A. V.; Jokovic, N. M.; Stamenkovic, O. S.; Veljkovic, V. B. 2016. Optimization and kinetic modeling of esterification of the oil obtained from waste plum stones as a pretreatment step in biodiesel production. Waste Management. 48619-629

    This study reports on the use of oil obtained from waste plum stones as a low-cost feedstock for biodiesel production. Because of high free fatty acid (FFA) level (15.8%), the oil was processed through the two-step process including esterification of FFA and methanolysis of the esterified oil catalyzed by H2SO4 and CaO, respectively. Esterification was optimized by response surface methodology combined with a central composite design. The second -order polynomial equation predicted the lowest acid value of 0.53 mg KOH/g under the following optimal reaction conditions: the methanol:oil molar ratio of 8.5:1, the catalyst amount of 2% and the reaction temperature of 45 degrees C. The predicted acid value agreed with the experimental acid value (0.47 mg KOH/g). The kinetics of FFA esterification was described by the irreversible pseudo first -order reaction rate law. The apparent kinetic constant was correlated with the initial methanol and catalyst concentrations and reaction temperature. The activation energy of the esterification reaction slightly decreased from 13.23 to 11.55 kJ/mol with increasing the catalyst concentration from 0.049 to 0.172 mol/dm(3). In the second step, the esterified oil reacted with methanol (methanol: oil molar ratio of 9:1) in the presence of Ca0 (5% to the oil mass) at 60 degrees C. The properties of the obtained biodiesel were within the EN 14214 standard limits. Hence, waste plum stones might be valuable raw material for obtaining fatty oil for the use as alternative feedstock in biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  127. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater
    Abstract

    Han, S. F.; Jin, W. B.; Tu, R. J.; Abomohra, A.; Wang, Z. H. 2016. Optimization of aeration for biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 39(7) 1073-1079

    Despite the significant breakthroughs in research on microalgae as a feedstock for biodiesel, its production cost is still much higher than that of fossil diesel. One possible solution to overcome this problem is to optimize algal growth and lipid production in wastewater. The present study examines the optimization of pretreatment of municipal wastewater and aeration conditions in order to enhance the lipid productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus. Results showed that no significant differences were recorded in lipid productivity of S. obliquus grown in primary settled or sterilized municipal wastewater; however, ultrasound pretreatment of wastewater significantly decreased the lipid production. Whereas, aeration rates of 0.2 vvm significantly increased lipid content by 51 %, with respect to the non-aerated culture, which resulted in maximum lipid productivity (32.5 mg L-1 day(-1)). Furthermore, aeration enrichment by 2 % CO2 resulted in increase of lipid productivity by 46 % over the CO2 non-enriched aerated culture. Fatty acid profile showed that optimized aeration significantly enhanced monounsaturated fatty acid production, composed mainly of C18:1, by 1.8 times over the non-aerated S. obliquus culture with insignificant changes in polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion; suggesting better biodiesel characteristics for the optimized culture.
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  128. Optimization of biodiesel production from mixture of edible and nonedible vegetable oils
    Abstract

    Gupta, J.; Agarwal, M.; Dalai, A. K. 2016. Optimization of biodiesel production from mixture of edible and nonedible vegetable oils. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 8112-120

    In the present study, optimization of biodiesel production from mixture of edible and nonedible vegetable oils with low to high free fatty acid (FFA) has been investigated. The selection of oils was based on richness of particular fatty acid in it. The combination of oils has been optimized to get suitable mixture for production of biodiesel. The mixture was analyzed in terms of physical properties and accordingly two step esterification process was applied. For optimization study, the response surface methodology (RSM) based central composite design (CCD) was used in Design of Experiments (DOE) software to optimize the various process variables such as reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst concentration for biodiesel production. A quadratic model was created for the prediction of the Biodiesel yield. The R-2 value of the model was 0.96 which indicates the satisfactory accuracy of the model. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: reaction temperature of 43.50 degrees C, methanol to oil molar ratio of 8.8:1, catalyst concentration of 1.9 g/100 cc feed, reaction time of 58.4 min. At these reaction conditions, the predicted and observed biodiesel yield was 97.02% and 97.00%, respectively. These values experimentally satisfied the accuracy of the model. GC and FTIR analysis of biodiesel was also done for biodiesel characterization. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  129. Optimization of lipid extraction from Salvinia molesta for biodiesel production using RSM and its FAME analysis
    Abstract

    Mubarak, M.; Shaija, A.; Suchithra, T. V. 2016. Optimization of lipid extraction from Salvinia molesta for biodiesel production using RSM and its FAME analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 23(14) 14047-14055

    The higher areal productivity and lipid content of microalgae and aquatic weed makes them the best alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Hence, an efficient and economic method of extracting lipid or oil from aquatic weed, Salvinia molesta is an important step towards biodiesel production. Since Salvinia molesta is an unexplored feedstock, its total lipid content was first measured as 16 % using Bligh and Dyer's method which was quite sufficient for further investigation. For extracting more amount of lipid from Salvinia molesta, methanol: chloroform in the ratio 2:1 v/v was identified as the most suitable solvent system using Soxhlet apparatus. Based on the literature and the preliminary experimentations, parameters such as solvent to biomass ratio, temperature, and time were identified as significant for lipid extraction. These parameters were then optimized using response surface methodology with central composite design, where experiments were performed using twenty combinations of these extraction parameters with Minitab-17 software. A lipid yield of 92.4 % from Salvinia molesta was obtained with Soxhlet apparatus using methanol and chloroform (2:1 v/v) as solvent system, at the optimized conditions of temperature (85 A degrees C), solvent to biomass ratio (20:1), and time (137 min), whereas a predicted lipid yield of 93.5 % with regression model. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of S. molesta lipid using gas chromatograph mass spectroscopy (GCMS) with flame ionization detector showed that fatty acids such as C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, and C18:2 contributed more than 9 % weight of total fatty acids. FAME consisted of 56.32, 28.08, and 15.59 % weight of monounsaturated, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Higher cetane number and superior oxidation stability of S. molesta FAME could be attributed to its higher monounsaturated content and lower polyunsaturated content as compared to biodiesels produced from C. vulgaris, Sunflower, and Jatropha.
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  130. Optimization of pineapple pulp residue hydrolysis for lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis TISTR5159 using as biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Tinoi, J.; Rakariyatham, N. 2016. Optimization of pineapple pulp residue hydrolysis for lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis TISTR5159 using as biodiesel feedstock. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry. 80(8) 1641-1649

    The higher lipid productivity of Rhodotorula glutinis TISTR5159 was achieved by optimizing the pineapple pulp hydrolysis for releasing the high sugars content. The sequential simplex method operated by varied; solid-to-liquid ratio, sulfuric acid concentration, temperature, and hydrolysis time were successfully applied and the highest sugar content (83.2g/L) evaluated at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:10.8, 3.2% sulfuric acid, 105 degrees C for 13.9min. Moreover, the (NH4)(2)SO4 supplement enhanced the lipid productivity and gave the maximum yields of biomass and lipid of 15.2g/L and 9.15g/L (60.2%), respectively. The C16 and C18 fatty acids were found as main components included oleic acid (55.8%), palmitic acid (16.6%), linoleic acid (11.9%), and stearic acid (7.8%). These results present the possibility to convert the sugars in pineapple pulp hydrolysate to lipids. The fatty acid profile was also similar to vegetable oils. Thus, it could be used as potential feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  131. Organic municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for biodiesel production: A financial feasibility analysis
    Abstract

    Gaeta-Bernardi, A.; Parente, V. 2016. Organic municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for biodiesel production: A financial feasibility analysis. Renewable Energy. 861422-1432

    The pursuit towards an alternative solution to fossil fuel has facilitated science investigation initiatives that compare various options leading to biodiesel production. Besides conventional feedstock derived from vegetable oils, alternative sources that could be produce in large scale at competitive costs are the main scope of research in this field. This paper investigates the financial feasibility using organic solid waste as a feedstock, which results in the production of biodiesel through the conversion of volatile fatty acids into lipids (VFA). As a result, based on existing references of capital and operating costs, production and extraction yields for VFA and lipids and an internal rate of return of 15% in real terms, we concluded that biodiesel production is competitive compared to subsidized biodiesel traded in regions of Europe and the United States. These results encourage research aims to examine this technology at a larger scale. The adoption of public policies for the urban waste's disposal and collection, to reduced municipality's costs associated to the treatment, is also important for the implementation of these technologies. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  132. Oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from high free fatty acid feedstock
    Abstract

    Sorate, K. A.; Bhale, P. V.; Meena, R. N. 2016. Oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from high free fatty acid feedstock. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(10) 1410-1418

    At present, with fluctuating feedstock prices, the biodiesel manufacturing industries are facing some downfall. High free fatty acid (FFA) non-edible oil, which is a byproduct of vegetable oil refineries, is available at low price and in considerable quantities at vegetable oil refinery sites. This high FFA oil can be utilized as a potential low cost feedstock for biodiesel production. In the present work, high FFA (51.6%) oil was synthesized into biodiesel by a two-step process. Except oxidation stability, other fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were found to be comparable with that of biodiesel specifications. Oxidation stability was found to be only 2.1 h at 110 degrees C as determined by the Rancimat apparatus.
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  133. Performance and emission evaluation of pure biodiesel from non-edible feedstock and waste oil in a diesel engine
    Abstract

    Onuh, E. I.; Inambao, F. 2016. Performance and emission evaluation of pure biodiesel from non-edible feedstock and waste oil in a diesel engine. African Journal of Science Technology Innovation & Development. 8(5-6) 387-398

    Biodiesel prepared from Jatropha, Moringa and restaurant waste oil were evaluated in a 3.5 kw diesel engine to determine their performance and pollutant emission. The brake specific (BS) emissions across the full load spectrum were benchmarked against the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US, EPA) and the European Union (EU) emission caps. Results showed that the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiencies gave marginal differences between conventional diesel fuel (ndiesel) and the biodiesel fuel samples (+/- 4% and +/- 5 respectively at peak load). Carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and particulate matter (PM) emissions (in parts per million) showed a decreasing trend with load increase and were lower than those of ndiesel fuel samples. Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emission for the biodiesel were observed to be lower than those of ndiesel. This was because the 1650 k peak temperature to activate thermal NOX was sparingly breached for the biodiesels. BSHC for all fuel types failed the EPA as well as the EU emission caps under all loading conditions. All tested fuel samples met the regulatory standards at load conditions exceeding 65%. Brake specific particulate matter (BSPM) for all fuel type fell short of the EPA and EU standard, except those of waste oil and jatropha biodiesel, with BSPM below the EU upper limit of 0.85 g/Kwh.
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  134. Performance and emission of multi-cylinder diesel engine using biodiesel blends obtained from mixed inedible feedstocks
    Abstract

    Sanjid, A.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Varman, M.; Zulkifli, N. W. B. M.; Abedin, M. J. 2016. Performance and emission of multi-cylinder diesel engine using biodiesel blends obtained from mixed inedible feedstocks. Journal of Cleaner Production. 1124114-4122

    Biodiesel production from non-edible feedstock is now being taken into careful consideration to avoid the negative impact of using edible oils as biodiesel feedstock. This is a study on the combustion, engine performance and emission of a multi cylinder diesel engine fueled with mixed biodiesel blends prepared from two non-edible feedstock kapok and moringa. The kapok moringa mixed biodiesel blends showed 6-9% higher brake specific fuel consumption and 5-7% lower brake power compared to diesel fuel (B0). However, engine performance of kapok moringa mixed biodiesel was found comparable with kapok and moringa biodiesel as the performance parameters varied slightly among all tested biodiesels. Average NO and CO2 emissions for kapok moringa mixed biodiesels were found 14-17% and 1-3% higher than B0 respectively. On the contrary average HC and CO emissions of kapok moringa mixed biodiesels were 23-38% and 16-31% lower than B0 respectively. As a conclusion, 10% and 20% kapok moringa mixed biodiesel blends can be used in diesel engines without any modifications. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  135. Performance evaluation of microalgae for concomitant wastewater bioremediation, CO2 biofixation and lipid biosynthesis for biodiesel application
    Abstract

    Nayak, M.; Karemore, A.; Sen, R. 2016. Performance evaluation of microalgae for concomitant wastewater bioremediation, CO2 biofixation and lipid biosynthesis for biodiesel application. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 16216-223

    This study was directed towards evaluating the potential of microalgae for simultaneous wastewater treatment, CO2 biofixation and lipid biosynthesis for biofuel application. The cultivation potential of various microalgal species in domestic wastewater (DWW) was studied in shake-flasks. The microalga, Scenedesmus sp. showed superior results in terms of the maximum specific growth rate of 0.44 d(-1), biomass yield of 0.43 g L-1, biomass productivity of 61.4 mg L-1 d(-1) and total lipid content of 23.1%. Subsequently, the performance evaluation of Scenedesmus sp. with respect to biomass growth, lipid accumulation, CO2 biofixation rate and nutrient uptake was carried out at different CO2 concentrations in a photobioreactor. The culture supplemented with 2.5% (v/v) CO2 was found most suitable and resulted in highest biomass productivity, total lipid content, lipid productivity, and CO2 consumption rate of 196 mg L-1 d(-1), 33.3%, 65.17 mg L-1 d(-1) and 368 mg L-1 d(-1), respectively. The microalga could bioremediate ammonium, nitrate, phosphate and chemical oxygen demand (COD) efficiently from the wastewater to the extent of 70-98%. The FAME composition of the microalgal lipid was found encouraging for biodiesel application as saturated: unsaturated fatty acid ratio was favorable to about 1.2:1. The study indicates that Scenedesmus sp. can efficiently utilize DWW for its growth instead of using synthetic culture medium and can produce a significant amount of biomass at 2.5% CO2 for biofuel application. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  136. Pilot-scale production of biodiesel from waste fats and oils using tetramethylammonium hydroxide
    Abstract

    Sanek, L.; Pecha, J.; Kolomaznik, K.; Barinova, M. 2016. Pilot-scale production of biodiesel from waste fats and oils using tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Waste Management. 48630-637

    Annually, a great amount of waste fats and oils not suitable for human consumption or which cannot be further treated are produced around the world. A potential way of utilizing this low-cost feedstock is its conversion into biodiesel. The majority of biodiesel production processes today are based on the utilization of inorganic alkali catalysts. However, it has been proved that an organic base - tetramethylammonium hydroxide - can be used as a very efficient transesterification catalyst. Furthermore, it can be employed for the esterification of free fatty acids - reducing even high free fatty acid contents to the required level in just one step. The work presented herein, is focused on biodiesel production from waste frying oils and animal fats using tetramethylammonium hydroxide at the pilot-plant level. The results showed that the process performance in the pilot unit - using methanol and TMAH as a catalyst, is comparable to the laboratory procedure, even when the biodiesel is produced from waste vegetable oils or animal fats with high free fatty acid content. The reaction conditions were set at: 1.5% wow of TMAH, reaction temperature 65 degrees C, the feedstock to methanol molar ratio to 1:6, and the reaction time to 120 min. The conversion of triglycerides to FAME was approximately 98%. The cloud point of the biodiesel obtained from waste animal fat was also determined. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  137. Potential hybrid feedstock for biodiesel production in the tropics
    Abstract

    Giwa, S.; Adekomaya, O.; Nwaokocha, C. 2016. Potential hybrid feedstock for biodiesel production in the tropics. Frontiers in Energy. 10(3) 329-336

    Recently, mixture of different oils at various proportions have been used as feedstock for biodiesel production. The primary aim is to improve fuel properties which are strongly influenced by the fatty acid composition of the individual oil that makes up the feedstock mix. The tropics are renowned for abundant oil-bearing crops of which palm kernel oil (PKO) from palm seed and groundnut oil (GNO) are prominent. This present paper investigated biodiesel production from hybrid oil (HO) of PKO (medium carbon chain and highly saturated oil) and GNO (long carbon chain and highly unsaturated oil) at 50/50 (v/v) blending. The principal fatty acids (FAs) in the HO are oleic (35.62%) and lauric acids (24.23%) with 47.80% of saturated FA and 52.26% of unsaturated FA contents. The chemical conversion of the oil to methyl ester (ME) gave 86.56% yield. Fuel properties of hybrid oil methyl ester (the HOME) were determined in accordance with standard test methods and were found to comply with both ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. The oxidative stability, cetane number and kinematic viscosity (KV) of HOME were observed to be improved when compared with those of GNO methyl ester from single parent oil, which could be accredited to the improved FA composition of the HO. The KV (3.69 mm(2)/s) of HOME obtained in this paper was remarkably low compared with those reported in literature for most biodiesels. This value suggests better flow, atomization, spray and combustion of this fuel. Conclusively, the binary blend of oils can be a viable option to improve the fuel properties of biodiesel feedstock coupled with reduced cost.
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  138. Potential of Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Silveira, E. G.; Simionatto, E.; Perez, V. H.; Justo, O. R.; Zarate, N. A. H.; Vieira, M. D. 2016. Potential of Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) as feedstock for biodiesel production. Industrial Crops and Products. 89448-454

    Oil from Virginia-type peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was investigated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. After harvest and peanut trituration, the oil was obtained by solvent extraction. The biodiesel production was carried out by chemical transesterification using bioethanol and potassium ethoxide as catalyst at 65 degrees C in a stirred glass reactor at 200 rpm during two hours. The formed biodiesel was purified to remove glycerol and other residuals and the reaction reached 100% conversion as verified by H-1 NMR. The properties of peanut oil ethyl ester produced were characterized and found in agreement with the international ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214 standards (specific gravity = 877.1 kg/m(3), kinematic viscosity = 5.06 mm(2)/s, iodine value = 81.75 +/- 0.03, cetane number = 58.9 +/- 4.1, acid number = 0.21 mg KOH/g and oxidative stability = 4.54 h). These results suggest a good quality of produced biodiesel and thus, peanut oil can be considered as a feasible feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  139. Process intensification of NaOH-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production by the use of bentonite and co-solvent (diethyl ether)
    Abstract

    Wu, L.; Huang, K. L.; Wei, T. Y.; Lin, Z. J.; Zou, Y.; Tong, Z. F. 2016. Process intensification of NaOH-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production by the use of bentonite and co-solvent (diethyl ether). Fuel. 186597-604

    A novel transesterification process for biodiesel production has been developed. Bentonite was used as a water adsorbent to remove moisture from the biodiesel synthesis reaction system. Diethyl ether (DEE) was used as a co-solvent to improve the mutual solubility of oil and methanol. The influence of concentration of NaOH, DEE/methanol molar ratio, methanol/oil molar ratio, amount of bentonite, agitation rate, reaction temperature and reaction time was investigated. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the main process parameters. The maximum FAME yield of 98.35 +/- 0.69% was achieved under the optimized conditions of 0.56:1 of DEE/methanol molar ratio, 1.07 wt% concentration of NaOH and 5.65:1 methanol/oil molar ratio. The kinetics and thermodynamic analysis for this process was also carried out. The activation energy for the process was 23.73 kJ mol(-1), and the thermodynamic analysis reveals that the net Gibbs energy change for the process was almost same as that for the bentonite-enhanced transesterification process. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  140. Process optimization for production of biodiesel from hazelnut oil, sunflower oil and their hybrid feedstock
    Abstract

    Saydut, A.; Erdogan, S.; Kafadar, A. B.; Kaya, C.; Aydin, F.; Hamamci, C. 2016. Process optimization for production of biodiesel from hazelnut oil, sunflower oil and their hybrid feedstock. Fuel. 183512-517

    The most important constituent needed for biodiesel development is the feedstock. As the availability of feedstock is limited, the possibility of using the hybrid feedstock has been explored. Biodiesel has been synthesized from hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) kernel oil, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil and hybrid (hazelnut and sunflower) (50: 50 v/v) feedstocks. Ester yield of vegetable oil to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was found to be 97.5%, 97.3% and 97.9% for hazelnut, sunflower and hybrid feedstocks respectively. The reaction parameters were used to be 6: 1 (methanol to oil) molar ratio, KOH (0.7%), at 60 +/- 0.5 degrees C for 2 h during alkali esterification for the three feedstocks. High yield from hybrid feedstock during transesterification reaction clearly indicated that the reaction was not selective for any particular oil. The obtained results important in that in case of scarcity of feedstock both oils could be mixed as well to maintain the constant supply of the feedstock in the perspective of industrial production of biodiesel. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  141. Production of biodiesel from low priced, renewable and abundant date seed oil
    Abstract

    Azeem, M. W.; Hanif, M. A.; Al-Sabahi, J. N.; Khan, A. A.; Naz, S.; Ijaz, A. 2016. Production of biodiesel from low priced, renewable and abundant date seed oil. Renewable Energy. 86124-132

    The present work is definitely an approach towards attaining price competency of bio-diesel to petroleum diesel. The oils extracted from abundantly available waste of Zahidi, Basra and Khazravi date seeds were used to produce biodiesel using acid (HCl), base (KOH), immobilized enzyme (lipase), immobilized enzyme/acid (lipase/HCl) and immobilized enzyme/base (lipase/KOH) catalyzed processes. Mixed catalysis (immobilized enzyme + acid or immobilized enzyme + base) resulted in better yields in comparison to acid or base catalysis. The properties of biodiesel were evaluated by fuel standard tests and the results were compared with EN14214 and ASTM D6751 standards. Biodiesel produced from date seed oil was found to have a high cetane number (55-60.3), low iodine value (44-50) and good flash point (135-140 degrees C). Pour point of pure biodiesel produced from Khazravi and Zahidi was found to range from 2 to -2 degrees C. Biodiesel produced from Basra exhibited good pour point (-4.7 to -8.3 degrees C) in comparison to other varieties. The components present in biodiesel produced from various date varieties were determined by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses (GCMS). The fatty acid (%) detected in date seed biodiesel were oleic acid (33.4-47.4), lauric acid (19-28), palmitic acid (13.6-19.2), myristic acid (13.6-17.44) and linoleic acid (6.4-8.5). A special feature of date seed oil biodiesel was the presence of considerable amounts of low chain fatty acids. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  142. Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil
    Abstract

    Ijaz, M.; Bahtti, K. H.; Anwar, Z.; Dogar, U. F.; Irshad, M. 2016. Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences. 9(2) 180-184

    At present, biodiesel is gaining tremendous attention due to its eco-friendly nature and is possible substitute for diesel fuel. Biodiesel as renewable energy source can be produced from edible and non-edible feedstock. Non-edible resources are preferred to circumvent for food competition. In the present study FAME was produced from Ricinus communis L. oil by transesterification with methanol and ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The practical optimal condition for the production of biodiesel from castor bean was found to be: methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 60 degrees C; time, 45 min; catalyst concentration 0.32 g. Quality assessment of biodiesel showed comparable results with ASTM standards. The values of specific gravity (SG) were 0.5, kinematic viscosity 2.45 cSt, acid values 0.13 mg KOH/g, carbon residue 0.03%, flash point 119 degrees C, fire point 125 degrees C, cloud point -10 degrees C and pour point -20 degrees C of Ricinus FAME, respectively. Based on our data, it is suggested that to overcome prevailing energy crisis this non-edible plant is useful for production of biodiesel, which is an alternate to fossil fuel and may be used alone or in blend with HSD in engine combustion. Copyright (C) 2015, The Egyptian Society of Radiation Sciences and Applications. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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  143. Prospects of 2nd generation biodiesel as a sustainable fuel Part: 1 selection of feedstocks, oil extraction techniques and conversion technologies
    Abstract

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N.; Azad, A. K. 2016. Prospects of 2nd generation biodiesel as a sustainable fuel Part: 1 selection of feedstocks, oil extraction techniques and conversion technologies. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 551109-1128

    The transport sector, which heavily depends on oil-derived liquid products such as gasoline and diesel, globally occupies the 3rd place when total energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are considered (after the industry and the building sectors). This consumption level is predicted to increase by 60% by 2030 mainly because of population growth, industrialization and exposure to better living standards. Biodiesel is one of the sustainable sources of energy for meeting increasing global transport energy demand and reducing GHG emissions significantly. The use of non-edible plant oils is very significant because it can be grown in harsh and marginal lands which require less maintenance, less soil fertility and less water as opposed to arable lands for growing edible vegetable oils. However, it is noted that the 2nd generation feedstocks can also be grown in arable lands, but this is not a general practice and is not recommended. The 2nd generation biodiesel can be considered as a promising alternative because of its feedstocks, such as non-edible vegetable oils, animal fats and waste cooking oils are cheaper in most of the countries in the world than the 1st generation feedstocks which are produced from edible-vegetable oils (food crops). Furthermore, the price of biodiesel depends on the cost of feedstocks which makes up 70-95% of the total production costs. However, extraction of non-edible oils as well as conversion process of oil into biodiesel should be well scrutinized. This paper extensively reviews on the selection of 2nd generation biodiesel feedstocks, oil extraction as well as biodiesel conversion techniques with the aim to identify the most appropriate and cost-effective feedstocks, identify the most suitable oil extraction technique and most efficient technology for producing of the 2nd generation biodiesel which will substitute the current dependence on the fossil fuel worldwide. This paper will contribute to greater understanding of the recent development and prospects of 2nd generation biodiesel as a sustainable transport fuel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  144. Prospects, feedstocks and challenges of biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and castor oil: A nonedible oil sources in Australia
    Abstract

    Azad, A. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Sharma, S. C.; Mofijur, M.; Bhuiya, M. M. K. 2016. Prospects, feedstocks and challenges of biodiesel production from beauty leaf oil and castor oil: A nonedible oil sources in Australia. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 61302-318

    This study critically reviewed the prospects, feedstocks and challenges of biodiesel production from two non-edible oil sources, namely Beauty leaf oil (BLT) (Calophyllum inophyllum) and Castor oil (Ricinus communis). The recent developments and the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of these species such as their habitat, growth, oil content, free fatty acid profile and biodiesel characteristics are briefly discussed. Different oil extraction techniques and biodiesel conversion methods are also presented. The properties of the pure biodiesel and their blends are compared with petroleum diesel under different ASTM and European standards. Furthermore, the literatures on engine performance and emission studies using these biodiesels are reviewed and presented in tabular form. The review found that BLT oil can be catalytically transesterified to produce biodiesel as a potential alternative transport fuel in Australia. The review concludes that castor oil is not only an alternate fuel resource, but it also holds good lubricating properties and hence is a potential bio-lubricant source for internal combustion engines. Further research is needed on combustion, corrosion, tribo-corrosion, long term engine durability tests and tribological performance tests before recommending commercial scale biodiesel production from BLT oil and Castor oil. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  145. Reactive extraction of castor seeds and storage stability characteristics of produced biodiesel
    Abstract

    Dasari, S. R.; Borugadda, V. B.; Goud, V. V. 2016. Reactive extraction of castor seeds and storage stability characteristics of produced biodiesel. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 100252-263

    In the present study, oil was extracted from a single castor seed by eppendorf vial method, and the oil yield was compared with the yield obtained from Soxhlet method. The oil yield from both methods was about 55% and comparable. Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content of extracted castor oil was found to be lower (<1 mg KOH/g oil). Therefore, single step transesterification (reactive extraction) was carried out to study the effect of various reaction variables on the conversion of castor oil biodiesel. The optimum biodiesel conversion of similar to 93% was achieved under following conditions: 4h, 1:250 oil to MeOH molar ratio, 1 wt.% NaOH, 40 degrees C, 0.75 mm particle size, 20 g seed, 600 rpm and 10 (vol.%) co-solvent. The estimated fuel properties of biodiesel obtained with NaOH, KOH and NaOH (with co-solvent) were found to be similar and within the limits of ASTM standards. Similarly, storage stability of prepared biodiesel was evaluated over a six-month storage period (180 days) under three different storage conditions. The results showed a sharp decrease in fuel stability over time in terms of increase in density from 0.878 to 0.984 g/cm(3), kinematic viscosity (10.59-16.18 cSt), acid value (0.52-5.15 mg KOH/g) respectively. While, iodine value significantly decreased from 82.5 to 54.57 g I-2/100 g oil over time. Biodiesel sample stored in the open air degraded faster than samples stored in other storage conditions. (C) 2016 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  146. Recycled de-Oiled Algal Biomass Extract as a Feedstock for Boosting Biodiesel Production from Chlorella minutissima
    Abstract

    Arora, N.; Patel, A.; Pruthi, P. A.; Pruthi, V. 2016. Recycled de-Oiled Algal Biomass Extract as a Feedstock for Boosting Biodiesel Production from Chlorella minutissima. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 180(8) 1534-1541

    The investigation for the first time assesses the efficacy of recycled de-oiled algal biomass extract (DABE) as a cultivation media to boost lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima and its comparison with Bold's basal media (BBM) used as control. Presence of organic carbon (3.8 +/- A 0.8 g/l) in recycled DABE resulted in rapid growth with twofold increase in biomass productivity as compared to BBM. These cells expressed four folds higher lipid productivity (126 +/- A 5.54 mg/l/d) as compared to BBM. Cells cultivated in recycled DABE showed large sized lipid droplets accumulating 54.12 % of lipid content. Decrement in carbohydrate (17.76 %) and protein content (28.12 %) with loss of photosynthetic pigments compared to BBM grown cells were also recorded. The fatty acid profiles of cells cultivated in recycled DABE revealed the dominance of C16:0 (39.66 %), C18:1 (29.41 %) and C18:0 (15.82 %), respectively. This model is self-sustained and aims at neutralizing excessive feedstock consumption by exploiting recycled de-oiled algal biomass for cultivation of microalgae, making the process cost effective.
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  147. Review and prospects of bitter apricot oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production - an Indian perspective
    Abstract

    Gurau, V. S.; Sandhu, S. S.; Sarma, A. K. 2016. Review and prospects of bitter apricot oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production - an Indian perspective. International Journal of Oil Gas and Coal Technology. 12(4) 425-439

    The increasing energy demands along with the gradual depletion of fossil fuels have prompted to search for alternative fuels that can be obtained from renewable energy resource. Biodiesel as a renewable energy resource has drawn the attention of many researchers and scientists because it has immense potential to be part of a sustainable energy mix in near future. This paper explores the feasibility of converting wild/bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca Linn.) oil into biodiesel and its prospects in India and reviews the history of wild apricot, its origin, distribution, oil extraction, biodiesel processing and engine testing. The positive attributes and limitations of the bitter apricot utilisation are also discussed. It was unveiled that the production of biodiesel from wild apricot oil offers many social, economical and environmental benefits for the country and can play a great role to solve the problem of energy crisis in high altitude areas of India. The prospects of wild apricot biodiesel and its expansion for setting up biodiesel industry in the mountainous regions have also been emphasised.
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  148. Review of process parameters for biodiesel production from different feedstocks
    Abstract

    Verma, P.; Sharma, M. P. 2016. Review of process parameters for biodiesel production from different feedstocks. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 621063-1071

    Biodiesel is one of the prospective alternatives to petroleum fuel resources because of its renewable and environment friendly nature. Transesterficiation process is used for biodiesel production. The biodiesel production process mainly depends on five parameters which includes free fatty acid (FFA) content, type of alcohol used and molar ratio (alcohol:oil), catalyst type and its concentration, reaction temperature and time. Methanol and ethanol are commonly used for biodiesel production in presence of different alkaline catalysts like sodium and potassium hydroxides. The production methodology of biodiesel is an important aspect for efficient and cost-effective production of biodiesel. The present study focuses on the various technical aspects of biodiesel production methodology. The study reveals that for optimum biodiesel production reaction temperature should be in range of 50-60 degrees C, molar ratio of alcohol to oil should be in range of 6-12:1 with the use of an alkali catalyst having optimum concentration 1% by weight. The optimal reaction time for transesterification process is 120 min. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  149. Role of sufficient phosphorus in biodiesel production from diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum
    Abstract

    Yu, S. J.; Shen, X. F.; Ge, H. Q.; Zheng, H.; Chu, F. F.; Hu, H.; Zeng, R. J. 2016. Role of sufficient phosphorus in biodiesel production from diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 100(15) 6927-6934

    In order to study the role of sufficient phosphorus (P) in biodiesel production by microalgae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum were cultivated in six different media treatments with combination of nitrogen (N) sufficiency/deprivation and phosphorus sufficiency/limitation/deprivation. Profiles of N and P, biomass, and fatty acids (FAs) content and compositions were measured during a 7-day cultivation period. The results showed that the FA content in microalgae biomass was promoted by P deprivation. However, statistical analysis showed that FA productivity had no significant difference (p = 0.63, >0.05) under the treatments of N deprivation with P sufficiency (N-P) and N deprivation with P deprivation (N-P-), indicating P sufficiency in N deprivation medium has little effect on increasing biodiesel productivity from P. triornutum. It was also found that the P absorption in N-P medium was 1.41 times higher than that in N sufficiency and P sufficiency (NP) medium. N deprivation with P limitation (N-P-l) was the optimal treatment for producing biodiesel from P. triornutum because of both the highest FA productivity and good biodiesel quality.
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  150. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants
    Abstract

    Wang, Y.; Feng, S.; Bai, X. J.; Zhao, J. C.; Xia, S. Q. 2016. Scum sludge as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production from wastewater treatment plants. Waste Management. 4791-97

    The main goal of this study was to compare the component and yield of biodiesel obtained by different methods from different sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. Biodiesel was produced by ex-situ and in-situ transesterification of scum, primary and secondary sludge respectively. Results showed that scum sludge had a higher calorific value and neutral lipid than that of primary and secondary sludge. The lipid yield accounted for one-third of the dried scum sludge and the maximum yield attained 22.7% under in-situ transesterification. Furthermore the gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) revealed that all sludge contained a significant amount of palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) regardless of extraction solvents and sludge types used. However, the difference lay in that oleic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs produced from scum sludge while palmitic acid methyl ester was the dominant component in FAMEs from primary and secondary sludge. In addition, the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid ester in FAMEs from scum sludge accounted for 57.5-64.1% of the total esters, which was higher than the equivalent derived from primary and secondary sludge. In brief, scum sludge is a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel and more work is needed in the future.(c) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  151. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Land races for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Giuffre, A. M.; Tellah, S.; Capocasale, M.; Zappia, C.; Latati, M.; Badiani, M.; Ounane, S. M. 2016. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Land races for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production. Journal of Oleo Science. 65(1) 9-20

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH). test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I-2 (g high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MS kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces.
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  152. Solid acid as catalyst for biodiesel production via simultaneous esterification and transesterification of macaw palm oil
    Abstract

    da Conceicao, L. R. V.; Carneiro, L. M.; Rivaldi, J. D.; de Castro, H. F. 2016. Solid acid as catalyst for biodiesel production via simultaneous esterification and transesterification of macaw palm oil. Industrial Crops and Products. 89416-424

    Heterogeneous catalysis applied to esterification and transesterification of non-edible oil offers a strategy to the clean synthesis of the biodiesel and is driving research interested into the development of acid catalysts for efficient conversion of low quality vegetable oils into fuels to meet future societal demands. Thus, sulfated niobium oxide catalyst was synthesized by the impregnation method and used as a heterogeneous catalyst aimed at biodiesel production via macaw palm oil through high free fatty acid content transesterification with ethanol. The effect of two reaction parameters, molar ratio of ethanol to macaw palm oil and reaction temperature, on" ester content and viscosity was studied by the response surface methodology (RSM). The ester content was determined by GC. The catalyst shows excellent activity (99.2% ester content and 4.5 mm(2)/s viscosity) towards biodiesel production. Its optimum reaction conditions were: 120:1 molar ratio of ethanol to macaw palm oil at 250 degrees C reaction temperature. The catalysts characterization was carried out by using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and N-2 Adsorption-desorption and Surface Acidity Analyses. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  153. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Zhu, L. D.; Li, Z. H.; Hiltunen, E. 2016. Strategies for Lipid Production Improvement in Microalgae as a Biodiesel Feedstock. Biomed Research International.

    In response to the energy crisis, global warming, and climate changes, microalgae have received a great deal of attention as a biofuel feedstock. Due to a high lipid content in microalgal cells, microalgae present as a promising alternative source for the production of biodiesel. Environmental and culturing condition variations can alter lipid production as well as chemical compositions of microalgae. Therefore, application of the strategies to activate lipid accumulation opens the door for lipid overproduction in microalgae. Until now, many original studies regarding the approaches for enhanced microalgal lipid production have been reported in an effort to push forward the production of microalgal biodiesel. However, the current literature demonstrates fragmented information available regarding the strategies for lipid production improvement. From the systematic point of view, the review highlights the main approaches for microalgal lipid accumulation induction to expedite the application of microalgal biodiesel as an alternative to fossil diesel for sustainable environment. Of the several strategies discussed, the one that is most commonly applied is the design of nutrient (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) starvation or limitation. Other viable approaches such as light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, salinity stress, and metal influence can also achieve enhanced microalgal lipid production.
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  154. Study of the oxidation stability and exhaust emission analysis of Moringa olifera biodiesel in a multi-cylinder diesel engine with aromatic amine antioxidants
    Abstract

    Rashed, M. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Alabdulkarem, A.; Rahman, M. M.; Imdadul, H. K.; Rashedul, H. K. 2016. Study of the oxidation stability and exhaust emission analysis of Moringa olifera biodiesel in a multi-cylinder diesel engine with aromatic amine antioxidants. Renewable Energy. 94294-303

    In this study, the two most effective aromatic amine antioxidants N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPD) and N-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (NPPD), were used at a concentration of 2000 ppm. The impact of antioxidants on the oxidation stability, exhaust emission and engine performance of a multi cylinder diesel engine fuelled with MB20 (20% Moringa oil methyl ester and 80% diesel fuel blend) were analysed at varying speed conditions at an interval of 500 rpm and a constant load. It was observed that, blending with diesel enhanced the oxidation stability of the moringa biodiesel by approximately 6.97 h, and the addition of DPPD and NPPD to MB20 increased the oxidation stability up to 34.5 and 18.4 h, respectively. The results also showed that the DPPD- and NPPD-treated blends reduced the NOx emission by 7.4% and 3.04%, respectively, compared to the untreated blend. However, they do have higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) levels and smoke opacities, but it should be noted that these emissions are still well below the diesel fuel emission level. The results show that the addition of antioxidant with MB20 also improves the engine's performance characteristics. Based on this study, MB20 blends with amine antioxidants can be used in diesel engines without any modification. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  155. Synergistic dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorous influences lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Arora, N.; Patel, A.; Pruthi, P. A.; Pruthi, V. 2016. Synergistic dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorous influences lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 21379-87

    The study synergistically optimized nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations for attainment of maximum lipid productivity in Chlorella minutissima. Nitrogen and phosphorous limited cells ((NPL)-P-L) showed maximum lipid productivity (49.1 +/- 0.41 mg/L/d), 1.47 folds higher than control. Nitrogen depletion resulted in reduced cell size with large sized lipid droplets encompassing most of the intracellular space while discrete lipid bodies were observed under nitrogen sufficiency. Synergistic N/P starvations showed more prominent effect on photosynthetic pigments as to individual deprivations. Phosphorous deficiency along with N starvation exhibited 17.12% decline in carbohydrate while no change in nitrogen sufficient cells were recorded. The optimum (NPL)-P-L concentration showed balance between biomass and lipid by maintaining intermediate cell size, pigments, carbohydrate and proteins. FAME profile showed C-14-C-18 carbon chains in (NPL)-P-L cells with biodiesel properties comparable to plant oil methyl esters. Hence, synergistic N/P limitation was effective for enhancing lipid productivity with reduced consumption of nutrients. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  156. Synthesis and optimization of Hevea brasiliensis and Ricinus communis as feedstock for biodiesel production: A comparative study
    Abstract

    Silitonga, A. S.; Masjuki, H. H.; Ong, H. C.; Yusaf, T.; Kusumo, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I. 2016. Synthesis and optimization of Hevea brasiliensis and Ricinus communis as feedstock for biodiesel production: A comparative study. Industrial Crops and Products. 85274-286

    Biodiesel from non-edible seeds has attracted the attention of the authors to investigate Hevea brasiliensis (HB) and Ricinus communis (RC) as potential feedstocks. Biodiesel production was carried out using esterification-neutralization-transesterification (ENT) process. The transesterification process was carried out under variation methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, reaction time and speed agitation. On top of that, optimization was evaluated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and a quadratic polynomial model for ENT method. The optimization results show that production biodiesel from HBME and RCME with ENT method were 99.32% and 99.07% respectively. All the properties measured for produced methyl ester met in ASTMD 6751. Moreover, the presence of ricinoleic (alpha-elaeostearic) in RCME can improve the cold point, pour point and cold filter plugging point, which resulted in -40.4 degrees C, -27.8 degrees C and -35.0 degrees C respectively. The results of the cold flow properties are better due to higher unsaturated fatty acid concentration. It is indicates that RCME has good performance during cold weather engine operation. It short, biodiesel production using ENT method can produce high methyl ester yield and good biodiesel properties. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  157. SYNTHESIS OF NO-GLYCEROL BIODIESEL THROUGH TRANSESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY CaO FROM DIFFERENT PRECURSORS
    Abstract

    Tang, Y.; Yan, T. L.; Shen, B.; Li, H. F.; Jeje, A. 2016. SYNTHESIS OF NO-GLYCEROL BIODIESEL THROUGH TRANSESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY CaO FROM DIFFERENT PRECURSORS. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 94(8) 1466-1471

    Three component mixtures of canola oil, dimethyl carbonate, and methanol, catalyzed by suspended calcium oxide (CaO) particles, produced a biodiesel that required little further processing. Only the catalyst particles needed to be recovered and reused. Substrates for the CaO were laboratory-grade acetate, hydroxide, oxalate, and carbonate compounds of calcium heated to temperatures >= 850 degrees C at which calcination is complete. The catalyst substrate and conversion process determined the effectiveness of the catalyst for high product yields. CaO derived from calcium carbonate exhibited morphological characteristics that included larger contact surface areas, and thus more reactive sites, compared to the other precursors. Moreover, with only 0.17 mu g/g (0.017 %) free glycerol present in the produced biodiesel, the biodiesel can be used directly without further treatment.
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  158. Synthesis of Zn,La-catalysts for biodiesel production from edible and acid soybean oil
    Abstract

    Veiga, P. M.; Veloso, C. O.; Henriques, C. A. 2016. Synthesis of Zn,La-catalysts for biodiesel production from edible and acid soybean oil. Renewable Energy. 99543-552

    Mixed oxides are widely used as catalyst in biodiesel production. The synthesis of these materials is mostly performed through co-precipitation using a basic solution as precipitating agent. The presence of residual alkali metals in the catalyst is a problem. The use of non-edible raw materials is a challenging issue in biodiesel production. The effect of precipitating agent (NaOH/Na2CO3, urea and (NH4)(2)CO3/NH4OH), calcination temperature (450 and 750 degrees C), and Zn/La molar ratio in the catalytic performance of Zn,La-mixed oxides for edible and non-edible soybean oil methanolysis was studied. ZnO promoted biodiesel production and lanthanum oxide carbonate and carbonate hydroxide phases are more effective for transesterification reaction than lanthanum oxide. The catalytic results for the transesterification of edible soybean oil could be correlated to catalyst basicity. The esterification of oleic acid added to edible soybean oil was favored by La species. In the presence of oleic acid, FAME yield could not be correlated to acid-basic sites density and the lanthanum oxide carbonate and carbonate hydroxide species deactivated more than lanthanum oxide. The best performance for the methanolysis of soybean oil containing 10% of oleic acid (95%) was obtained by the catalyst prepared using urea as coprecipitation agent and calcined at 750 degrees C. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  159. Technoeconomic analysis of small-scale farmer-owned Camelina oil extraction as feedstock for biodiesel production: A case study in the Canadian prairies
    Abstract

    Mupondwa, E.; Li, X.; Falk, K.; Gugel, R.; Tabil, L. 2016. Technoeconomic analysis of small-scale farmer-owned Camelina oil extraction as feedstock for biodiesel production: A case study in the Canadian prairies. Industrial Crops and Products. 9076-86

    This study evaluated costs and profitability associated with small scale camelina oil extraction plant in the Canadian Prairies for the purpose of selling camelina oil for further biodiesel production. In this case, Camelina sativa is targeted for production on underutilized summerfallow land to avoid displacement of crop lands. Saskatchewan soil zone 7A has the capacity to provide camelina for oil extraction based on small scale capacities of 30,000-120,000 t annum(-1) and capital investment of $10-24 million. Oil production price is reduced with increased camelina oil content, field yield, plant scale, and camelina meal price. Oil production costs range from $0.39 to $1.88 L-1 when camelina meal has a market value of $0.30 kg(-1). These results provide an informative basis for investment decisions by farmers and investors vis-a-vis the advancement of farm-adoption of camelina as a dedicated industrial crop, as well as the development of an integrated camelina-to-processing oilseed value-chain. Crown Copyright (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  160. Techno-Economic Assessment of an Alternative Process for Biodiesel Production from Feedstock Containing High Levels of Free Fatty Acids
    Abstract

    Albuquerque, A. D.; Danielski, L.; Stragevitch, L. 2016. Techno-Economic Assessment of an Alternative Process for Biodiesel Production from Feedstock Containing High Levels of Free Fatty Acids. Energy & Fuels. 30(11) 9409-9418

    The technical and economic feasibility of an alternative process for biodiesel production from residual oil and fats (ROF) was compared to two cases of the conventional two-step alkali-catalyzed process. A reliable set of thermophysical properties, kinetic data, and a rigorous thermodynamic modeling were used in the simulations. The alternative process employed liquid liquid extraction to separate the free fatty acids from triacylglycerols, with methanol as the solvent. Both processes were found to be technically feasible based on a design specification of 99.65% esters for the product. The alternative process proved to be slightly more economically viable than the conventional process based on the selected economic indicators and thus is a promising alternative for biodiesel production from ROF.
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  161. Techno-economics of Algal Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Louw, T. M.; Griffiths, M. J.; Jones, S. M. J.; Harrison, S. T. L. 2016. Techno-economics of Algal Biodiesel. Algae Biotechnology: Products and Processes. 111-141

    Algal biodiesel production presents a possible carbon-neutral source of transportation fuel. Whilst algal biodiesel circumvents some of the issues arising from the use of crop-and waste-biomass-based fuels, the lack of commercial success raises questions regarding the feasibility of the process. Numerous economic and environmental impact assessments have produced highly variable results, predicting costs from as little as 0.42-72 USD L-1. A meta-analysis of these assessments reveals that areal productivity and provision of nutrients, as well as energy and water usage, are the key challenges to algal biodiesel production. A consideration of maximum achievable photosynthetic activity indicates that some scope exists for increasing areal productivity; hence, the factors influencing productivity are discussed in detail. Carbon dioxide supply may represent the single most important challenge to algal biodiesel, while recycling of other nutrients (specifically nitrogen and phosphate) is essential. Finally, a careful balance must be struck between energy and water consumption; this balance is primarily influenced by bioreactor design. It is unlikely that algal biodiesel will supply a substantial portion of the world's transportation energy demand, but it may fill niche markets such as aviation fuel. Process economics are enhanced by integrating biodiesel production into a biorefinery, producing a suite of products.
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  162. The Optimization Process of Biodiesel Production Using Multiple Feedstock (CPO And Jatropha) with Assistance of Ultrasound at 40 Khz
    Abstract

    Fajar, B.; Wilis; Widayat 2016. The Optimization Process of Biodiesel Production Using Multiple Feedstock (CPO And Jatropha) with Assistance of Ultrasound at 40 Khz. Proceedings of the 3rd Aun/Seed-Net Regional Conference on Energy Engineering and the 7th International Conference on Thermofluids (Rcene/Thermofluid 2015). 1737

    CPO prices are unstable, therefore affecting the supply of feedstock to produce biodiesel [2]. To overcome the shortage of feedstock, it is necessary to use multiple feedstock, in this case is CPO and Jatropha [1]. This objective of this work to optimizate biodiesel production using multifeedstock (CPO and Jatropha) with assistance of ultrasound. The optimization was to find the highest yield and the least production time. Experiments was carried out using an ultrasonic bath at a frequency of 40 kHz. The ratio of CPO and Jatropha was 1: 1, 3: 1, 4: 1 while the ratio of methanol and oil was 5: 1, 6: 1, 7: 1 and the reaction time was 50, 60, and 70 minutes. KOH was used as a catalyst. The experiment data was optimized using a Response Surface Methodology [3,4]. The optimum point was at a frequency of 40 kHz obtained at a 2.8: 1 mixture of CPO - Jatropha, 6.4: 1 molar ratio of methanol-oil and 61.5 minutes of reaction time. The results of quality testing shows that the biodiesel produced meets the ASTM standard D6751 and SNI 04-7182-2006 [5].
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  163. The reuse of waste cooking oil and spent bleaching earth to produce biodiesel
    Abstract

    Sahafi, S. M.; Goli, S. A. H.; Tabatabaei, M.; Nikbakht, A. M.; Pourvosoghi, N. 2016. The reuse of waste cooking oil and spent bleaching earth to produce biodiesel. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(7) 942-950

    Currently, semi-refined and refined vegetable oils are used as a feedstock in biodiesel production. However, criteria such as competition with conventional fossil fuel, economic reasons, shortage supply of food and its social impact on the global scale have somewhat slowed the development of the biodiesel industry. Spent bleaching earth is currently under-utilized by deposition in landfills with no attempt to recover the oil. In this study the waste oil adsorbed on spent bleaching earth, refined soybean oil, and waste cooking oil were evaluated as potential sources of biodiesel production in Iran. Different characteristics of the oil samples, such as fatty acid composition, peroxide, iodine, acid values, etc., were evaluated. A two-step esterification reaction using methanol was conducted to produce biofuel. Subsequently, physicochemical properties of produced biodiesel were analyzed. The oil content in spent bleaching earth was 19.3%, which was lowered to 3.7% using hexane as the solvent. Gas chromatography showed that palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids were predominantly fatty acids, respectively, and the highest content of saturated acids belonged to waste cooking oil (24%). The acidity of 8.3% was obtained for the oil recovered from spent bleaching earth followed by waste cooking oil (3.6%) and refined soybean oil (0.1%). Totally, the specifications of all biodiesel produced were in the range defined by ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. Since about 2000-3000 tones of spent bleaching earth residual oil is annually dumped and the amount of waste cooking oil produced yearly is 500,000 tones, there is a great potential for Iran to produce biodiesel from waste oils.
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  164. The testing of the effects of cooking conditions on the quality of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oils
    Abstract

    Dogan, T. H. 2016. The testing of the effects of cooking conditions on the quality of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oils. Renewable Energy. 94466-473

    In this study, the effects of cooking conditions on the cold flow properties and kinematic viscosity of biodiesel produced from cooking oils were investigated. Sunflower, corn and canola oils were used as vegetable oils. Salt content, water content, cooking time and cooking temperature were selected as the experimental parameters. Some of the physical properties such as kinematic viscosity, density, cloud point and pour point were examined. In addition, total polar material contents, heating values and acid values of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oils were analysed. The results of the study revealed that increase in salt and water content, cooking time and temperature led to deterioration in the physical properties and cold flow properties of B100 biodiesel samples from waste cooking oils of sunflower, corn and canola oils. On the other hand, the heating values of all biodiesels were found to improve with the increasing salt content. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  165. Thermal stability enhancement of biodiesel induced by a synergistic effect between conventional antioxidants and an alternative additive
    Abstract

    Roveda, A. C.; Comin, M.; Caires, A. R. L.; Ferreira, V. S.; Trindade, M. A. G. 2016. Thermal stability enhancement of biodiesel induced by a synergistic effect between conventional antioxidants and an alternative additive. Energy. 109260-265

    The thermodegradation of soybean biodiesel stabilised with conventional antioxidants BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and PG (propyl gallate) in combination with an alternative additive based on the anthraquinone compound DHQ (1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone) was investigated by simulating an accelerated storage process at temperatures from 85 to 110 degrees C. The effectiveness of different combinations of PG and BHT with DHQ were also evaluated by using the Rancimat (R) method. The results revealed that combinations of the conventional antioxidants and anthraquinone were more effective at imparting biodiesel stability than the individual compounds. By considering the optimum combination containing PG and BHT with DHQ it was also determined that the final cost of biodiesel may be markedly reduced since the amount of additives used to stabilise the biodiesel can be decreased by 70-88%, requiring a lower content of conventional antioxidant in the mixture to meet the EN-14112 specification. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  166. THIRD GENERATION BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM MICROALGAE Phormidium autumnale
    Abstract

    Siqueira, S. F.; Francisco, E. C.; Queiroz, M. I.; de Menezes, C. R.; Zepka, L. Q.; Jacob-Lopes, E. 2016. THIRD GENERATION BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM MICROALGAE Phormidium autumnale. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 33(3) 427-433

    The aim of this work was to evaluate third generation biodiesel production by the microalgae Phormidium autumnale using sucrose as exogenous carbon source. The study focused on optimization of the different C/N ratios and on the analysis of biofuel quality. The results indicate that a C/N ratio of 40 improved the performance of the system, reaching single-cell oil productivities of 18.9 mg/L in steady-state conditions. This oil has a composition predominantly saturated (45.2%) and monounsaturated (34.7%) suitable for biodiesel synthesis (ester content of 99.8%, cetane number of 58.5%, iodine value of 67.2 gI(2)/100 g, unsaturation degree of 71.3% and a cold filter plugging point of 6.7 degrees C).
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  167. Trends in catalytic production of biodiesel from various feedstocks
    Abstract
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  168. Ultrasonic and microwave effects on crystalline Mn(II) carbonate catalyzed biodiesel production using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) seed oil and alcohol (fibrous flesh) as exclusive green feedstock
    Abstract

    Krishnaiah, G.; Pasnoori, S.; Santhoshi, P. S.; Rajanna, K. C.; Rao, Y. R.; Patnaik, K. S. K. R. 2016. Ultrasonic and microwave effects on crystalline Mn(II) carbonate catalyzed biodiesel production using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) seed oil and alcohol (fibrous flesh) as exclusive green feedstock. Biofuels-Uk. 7(6) 735-741

    Ultrasonic sonication and microwave irradiation exhibited pronounced effects on crystalline Mn (II) carbonate catalyzed biodiesel production using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) seed oil and alcohol (fibrous flesh) as exclusive green feedstock. Both ingredients, alcohol and oil, necessary for biodiesel production are extracted from watermelon fruit. Mn(II) carbonate and watermelon fruit, which are used for transesterification, are inexpensive, easily available and environmentally safe. The reactions occurred smoothly under conventional conditions and afforded good product yields. However, microwave assisted and ultrasonically assisted reactions exhibited highly significant reduction in reaction times with a trend: microwave assisted (35 min) << ultrasonically assisted (2.0 h) << conventional (8.0 h). The whole exercise is operationally simple, environmentally safe, energy saving, time saving and green, which fits well into the green chemical principles of Anastas and Warner.
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  169. Use of phenol-induced oxidative stress acclimation to stimulate cell growth and biodiesel production by the oceanic microalga Dunaliella salina
    Abstract

    Cho, K.; Lee, C. H.; Ko, K.; Lee, Y. J.; Kim, K. N.; Kim, M. K.; Chung, Y. H.; Kim, D.; Yeo, I. K.; Oda, T. 2016. Use of phenol-induced oxidative stress acclimation to stimulate cell growth and biodiesel production by the oceanic microalga Dunaliella salina. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 1761-66

    There is steadily increasing interest in the use of microalgae as a source of biomass for biodiesel conversion and hydrocarbon based products. At the same time, microalgae have shown promise for the bioremediation of polluted water. This study evaluates the effect of prior phenol exposure on microalgal biomass production and quality of biodiesel yielded by the oceanic microalga Dunaliella salina. Phenol had an EC50 of 155.03 mg L-1 on algal growth and caused lowered chlorophyll a/b ratios and biomass yields. Phenol also increased malondialdehyde content and elevated superoxide dismutase enzyme activities indicative of phenol-induced oxidative stress. After prior exposure to phenol at 150 mg L-1 with subsequent transfer to culture without phenol, D. salina cells increased 41% faster and had 26% higher lipid content than were obtained from the control group that had no prior phenol exposure. Prior exposure to phenol altered fatty acid methyl ester compositions, increased levels of methyl linolenate (C18:3(n-3)) and gamma-linolenic acid methyl ester (C18:3(n-6)), decreased levels of cis-10-heptadecanoic acid methyl ester and methyl stearate (C18:0), and decreased cetane number, all in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that the use of prior acclimation by toxic chemicals could potentially support efficient microalgal biomass production. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  170. Variation of diesel soot characteristics by different types and blends of biodiesel in a laboratory combustion chamber
    Abstract

    Omidvarborna, H.; Kumar, A.; Kim, D. S. 2016. Variation of diesel soot characteristics by different types and blends of biodiesel in a laboratory combustion chamber. Science of the Total Environment. 544450-459

    Very little information is available on the physical and chemical properties of soot particles produced in the combustion of different types and blends of biodiesel fuels. A variety of feedstock can be used to produce biodiesel, and it is necessary to better understand the effects of feedstock-specific characteristics on soot particle emissions. Characteristics of soot particles, collected from a laboratory combustion chamber, are investigated from the blends of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel with various proportions. Biodiesel samples were derived from three different feedstocks, soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Experimental results showed a significant reduction in soot particle emissions when using biodiesel compared with ULSD. For the pure biodiesel, no soot particles were observed from the combustion regardless of their feedstock origins. The overall morphology of soot particles showed that the average diameter of ULSD soot particles is greater than the average soot particles from the biodiesel blends. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of oxidized soot particles are presented to investigate how the addition of biodiesel fuels may affect structures of soot particles. In addition, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted for characterization of soot particles. Unsaturated methyl esters and high oxygen content of biodiesel are thought to be the major factors that help reduce the formation of soot particles in a laboratory combustion chamber. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  171. A Comparison of Life Cycle Assessment on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and Physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Indonesia
    Abstract

    Siregar, K.; Tambunan, A. H.; Irwanto, A. K.; Wirawan, S. S.; Araki, T. 2015. A Comparison of Life Cycle Assessment on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and Physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Indonesia. New and Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation, the 3rd Indo Ebtke-Conex 2014, Conference and Exhibition Indonesia. 65170-179

    The objective of this study was to perform and compare LCA of biodiesel production from crude palm oil and crude Jatropha curcas oil. The system boundary for LCA study from cradle to gate. The produced palm oil biodiesel has higher GWP value than Jatropha curcas biodiesel. Utilization of agrochemical, in form of fertilizer and plant protection, generate significant contribution to environmental impact of biodiesel production i.e. 50.46 % and 33.51 % for palm oil and Jatropha curcas oil, respectively. GWP emission up to five years of plantation is 1 695.36 kg-CO(2)eq./t-BDF and 740.90 kg-CO(2)eq./t-BDF for palm oil and Jatropha curcas, respectively. After production stabilised, CO2 emission of diesel fuel decreases up to 37.83 % and 63.61 % for BDF-CPO and BDF-CJCO, respectively. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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  172. A Comprehensive Study on Chlorella pyrenoidosa for Phenol Degradation and its Potential Applicability as Biodiesel Feedstock and Animal Feed
    Abstract

    Das, B.; Mandal, T. K.; Patra, S. 2015. A Comprehensive Study on Chlorella pyrenoidosa for Phenol Degradation and its Potential Applicability as Biodiesel Feedstock and Animal Feed. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 176(5) 1382-1401

    The present work evaluates the phenol degradative performance of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that C. pyrenoidosa degrades phenol completely up to 200 mg/l. It could also metabolize phenol in refinery wastewater. Biokinetic parameters obtained are the following: growth kinetics, mu (max) (media) > mu (max) (refinery wastewater), K (s)(media) < K (s)(refinery wastewater), K (I)(media) > K (I)(refinery wastewater); degradation kinetics, q (max) (media) > q (max) (refinery wastewater), K (s)(media) < K (s)(refinery wastewater), K (I)(media) > K (I)(refinery wastewater). The microalgae could cometabolize the alkane components present in refinery wastewater. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fingerprinting of biomass indicates intercellular phenol uptake and breakdown into its intermediates. Phenol was metabolized as an organic carbon source leading to higher specific growth rate of biomass. Phenol degradation pathway was elucidated using HPLC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometry. It involved both ortho- and meta-pathway with prominence of ortho-pathway. SEM analysis shows that cell membrane gets wrinkled on phenol exposure. Phenol degradation was growth and photodependent. Infrared analysis shows increased intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids opening possibility for utilization of spent biomass as biodiesel feedstock. The biomass after lipid extraction could be used as protein supplement in animal feed owing to enhanced protein content. The phenol remediation ability coupled with potential applicability of the spent biomass as biofuel feedstock and animal feed makes it a potential candidate for an environmentally sustainable process.
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  173. A Material Compatibility Study of Automotive Elastomers with high FFA based Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Sorate, K. A.; Bhale, P. V.; Dhaolakiya, B. Z. 2015. A Material Compatibility Study of Automotive Elastomers with high FFA based Biodiesel. Clean, Efficient and Affordable Energy for a Sustainable Future. 75105-110

    Application of renewable fuels and changes in fuel composition often create many trouble in gaskets, seals, elastomers and O-rings in the engine fuel system. In a CI engine fuel system, fuel comes in touch with different elastomeric components. The compatibility of automotive fuel system components like seals, gaskets and hose materials using conventional fossil based diesel has long been recognized and documented but there is concern over the use of elastomeric materials with biodiesel. Based on these concerns, a study of compatibility of Natural rubber, Nylon and EPDM (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) with biodiesel and diesel was carried out. High FFA oil, which is a byproduct of edible and non-edible oil refineries, is available at low price and in considerable quantities at vegetable oil refinery sites. In the current study, high FFA oil is synthesized into biodiesel by two step process i.e. esterification followed by transesterification. The methyl ester content of biodiesel is determined by GCMS. The fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were found to be comparable with that of biodiesel specifications.
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  174. A novel feedstock for biodiesel production: The application of palmitic acid from Schizochytrium
    Abstract

    Chen, W.; Ma, L.; Zhou, P. P.; Zhu, Y. M.; Wang, X. P.; Luo, X. A.; Bao, Z. D.; Yu, L. J. 2015. A novel feedstock for biodiesel production: The application of palmitic acid from Schizochytrium. Energy. 86128-138

    With the growing energy crisis and environmental pollution worldwide, the environmental benefits of biodiesel have made it a more attractive product. However, the production of biodiesel feedstock can only satisfy a small fraction of the demand for transportation fuels, and the cost of this feedstock is the main obstacle to the commercialization of biodiesel. The marine microalgae Schizochytrium is a promising producer of biodiesel feedstock because of its short life cycle, high cell density, high lipid content and high palmitic acid (PA) content, all of which can improve the quality of biodiesel. In this study, a sequential optimization of the culture medium, based on response surface methodology (RSM), was employed to increase the PA production in Schizochytrium and lower the process cost. As a result, the PA production by Schizochytrium sp. S056 increased from 14.69 +/- 0.62 g/L to 25.95 +/- 0.11 g/L using the optimal conditions. In addition, the quality analysis of the crude lipid showed that the lipid produced by the microbial process is a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  175. A novel oleaginous yeast strain with high lipid productivity and its application to alternative biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Areesirisuk, A.; Chiu, C. H.; Yen, T. B.; Liu, C. H.; Guo, J. H. 2015. A novel oleaginous yeast strain with high lipid productivity and its application to alternative biodiesel production. Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology. 51(4) 411-418

    Five lipid-producing yeast strains, CHC08, CHC11, CHC28, CHC34, and CHC35, were revealed by Sudan Black B staining to contain lipid droplets within cells. Molecular analysis demonstrated that they were 2 strains of Candida parapsilosis, Pseudozyma parantarctica, Pichia manshurica, and Pichia occidentalis. Following batch fermentation, P. parantarctica CHC28 was found to have the highest biomass concentration, total lipids and lipid content levels. The major fatty acids in the lipids of this yeast strain were C16 and C18. Predictions of the properties of yeast biodiesel using linear equations resulted in values similar to biodiesel made from plant oils. Preliminary production of yeast biodiesel from P. parantarctica CHC28 was accomplished through esterification and transesterification reactions. It was found that yeast lipids with high acid value are easily converted to biodiesel at an approximately 90% yield. Therefore, it is possible to use crude lipids as alternative raw materials for biodiesel production.
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  176. Acid-catalyzed production of biodiesel over arenesulfonic SBA-15: Insights into the role of water in the reaction network
    Abstract

    Melero, J. A.; Bautista, L. F.; Morales, G.; Iglesias, J.; Sanchez-Vazquez, R. 2015. Acid-catalyzed production of biodiesel over arenesulfonic SBA-15: Insights into the role of water in the reaction network. Renewable Energy. 75425-432

    This work presents a systematic approach to understand the effect of the presence of water in highly acidic crude palm oil typical conditions of low-grade oleaginous feedstock on the performance of arene-SO3H-SBA-15 catalyst in the batch-production of biodiesel. The addition of small amounts of water (1 wt %) to the reaction medium led to a clear reduction of the observed yield to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), being this decay usually attributed to the highly hydrophilic nature of arenesulfonic acid groups, and the associated difficulties of hydrophobic substrates to access these catalytic acid sites. However, the addition of larger amounts of water -up to 10 wt%- did not cause a proportional decay in the yield to FAME, but a higher production of free fatty acids (FFA). This is attributed to the promotion of acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of both starting triglycerides and formed FAME. The net result is not only a significant reduction of the final FAME yield, but also the appearance of high acid values, i.e. FFA contents, in the final biodiesel. Consequently, the overall process is simultaneously affected by transesterification, esterification and hydrolysis reactions, all of them catalyzed by Bronsted acid sites and dependent on the reaction conditions -temperature and water concentration- to different extents. Several strategies devoted to manage such behavior of sulfonic acid-modified SBA-15 catalysts in presence of water, aiming to maximize FAME yield while minimizing FFA content, have been explored: (1) minimization of the water content in the reacting media by pre-drying of feedstock and catalyst; (2) addition of molecular sieves to the reacting media as water scavengers, (3) hydrophobization of the catalyst surface to minimize the water uptake by the catalyst; and (4) use of a decreasing reaction temperature profile in order to first promote transesterification at high temperature and then reduce the temperature to keep at a minimum the hydrolysis of formed FAME. All these strategies resulted in an improvement of the catalytic performance, especially the use of a decreasing temperature profile. The results showed by the latter strategy open new possibilities and reaction pathways in which readily available, low-grade, cheap oleaginous feedstock with high water and FFA contents can be efficiently converted into biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  177. An expatiate review of neem, jatropha, rubber and karanja as multipurpose non-edible biodiesel resources and comparison of their fuel, engine and emission properties
    Abstract

    Takase, M.; Zhao, T.; Zhang, M.; Chen, Y.; Liu, H. Y.; Yang, L. Q.; Wu, X. Y. 2015. An expatiate review of neem, jatropha, rubber and karanja as multipurpose non-edible biodiesel resources and comparison of their fuel, engine and emission properties. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 43495-520

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. The limited reserve of the fossil fuels is also dwindling alongside escalation in the prices. The threats from these and food insecurity are, however, drawing the attention of researchers for alternative fuel which can be produced from renewable feedstocks. Biodiesel as the most promising alternate is currently produced from conventionally grown edible plant oils such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm. The use of the edible oils is worsening the current competition of oil for food and for fuel. Focus on the use of non-edible resources is presently directed to jatropha, mahua, pongamia, calophyllum tobacco, cotton oil, etc. Discrepancies between the expectation and realities regarding these non-edible oils are necessitating efforts for diversification of the feedstocks to resources that could guarantee energy production without affecting food security. Neem, karanja, rubber and jatropha are evergreen multipurpose non-edible plants that are widely available and can be grown in diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions. These plants are described as golden trees that have multiple uses such as for fuels, medicines, dyes, ornamentals, feeds, soil enrichment, afforestation, etc. This study was therefore undertaken to explore the multipurpose of these four non-edible tree plants. Among the highlights of this expatiate review include oil as feedstock for biodiesel, the need for non-edible feedstocks, neem, karanja, rubber, jatropha and their value chains, methods of modifying oil to biodiesel, factors affecting biodiesel production, application of the selected non-edible seed biodiesels to engines for performance and emission characteristics and the outlook. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  178. Assessment of potential of oils for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kumar, M.; Sharma, M. P. 2015. Assessment of potential of oils for biodiesel production. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 44814-823

    In recent years, the energy for the development of world economy depends entirely on fossil fuels which are not only rapidly depleting but are also causing environmental degradation. This situation has attracted the attention of world's countries to develop alternative biofuels as a substitute of petroleum fuels. Biodiesel, the alkyl esters of vegetable oils, is being given top priority for its production from edible, non-edible and microalgal oils as feedstocks and has properties almost similar to diesel except oxidation stability and cold flow properties that may render the use of biodiesel for engine operation difficult.
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  179. Assessment of the effects of medium composition on growth, lipid accumulation and lipid profile of Chlorella vulgaris as a biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Coban, E. K.; Gencoglu, C.; Kirman, D.; Pinar, O.; Kazan, D.; Sayar, A. A. 2015. Assessment of the effects of medium composition on growth, lipid accumulation and lipid profile of Chlorella vulgaris as a biodiesel feedstock. 2015 International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (Icrera). 793-796

    Microalgae serve as a potential feedstock for renewable energy-biodiesel production due to their lipid content. Nowadays, it is possible to maximize the lipid content of microalgal cells via biochemical engineering methods. The aim of the presented study is to observe the effects of six different medium compositions on the growth, lipid content and lipid profile of Chlorella vulgaris.
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  180. Biodiesel Production by Direct In Situ Transesterification of an Oleaginous Tropical Mangrove Fungus Grown on Untreated Agro-Residues and Evaluation of Its Fuel Properties
    Abstract

    Kakkad, H.; Khot, M.; Zinjarde, S.; RaviKumar, A. 2015. Biodiesel Production by Direct In Situ Transesterification of an Oleaginous Tropical Mangrove Fungus Grown on Untreated Agro-Residues and Evaluation of Its Fuel Properties. Bioenergy Research. 8(4) 1788-1799

    Recent research has focused on use of waste agro- residues for growth of oleaginous microbial biomass as renewable feedstock for biodiesel. However, pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass into fermentable sugar is necessary for microbial growth, increasing production costs. An oleaginous fungal isolate from the tropical mangrove wetlands, IBB G4, identified as Aspergillus candidus was assessed for its growth on waste agro-residues viz., banana peel, copra meal, corn cob, grape stalks and sugarcane bagasse,which had not been given any thermo-chemical or enzymatic pre-treatment. The resulting fungal biomass was subjected to in situ (direct) acid transesterification for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) extraction. Maximal FAME production was obtained on raw untreated banana peel (420 mg/L) and sugarcane bagasse (400 mg/L) with the yields significantly higher (52-68 mg/g of fermented biomass) than those for glucose (32 mg/g). The FAMEs showed major presence of monounsaturated methyl esters (41.7 %; C18:1, C15:1, C17:1, C14:1) and methyl linoleate (C18:2, 36.8 %) and 20 % as saturated fraction when sugarcane bagasse was the substrate for fungal strain. For banana peel, the saturated fatty acid methyl esters (48.6 %; C16:0, C18:0) were abundant, methyl oleate (C18:1, 25 %) was the major monounsaturated fatty ester while methyl linoleate (C18:2, 19 %) and methyl arachidonate (C20:4, 3.8 %) were prevalent as polyunsaturated methyl esters. Biodiesel fuel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, cetane number, free and total glycerol) were in accordance with international(ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) biodiesel standards, suggesting their suitability as biodiesel fuel.The results in our study indicate the potential suitability of A. candidus IBBG4 biomass grown on raw untreated banana peel and sugarcane bagasse waste and its conversion to FAME by direct in situ acid transesterification. This would help improve process economics for a green and sustainable production of biodiesel.
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  181. Biodiesel production directly from oils with high acid value by magnetic Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C catalyst and ultrasound
    Abstract

    Zhang, F.; Fang, Z.; Wang, Y. T. 2015. Biodiesel production directly from oils with high acid value by magnetic Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C catalyst and ultrasound. Fuel. 150370-377

    Magnetic heterogeneous catalyst (Na2SiO3@Fe3O4/C) was prepared for the production of biodiesel from oils with high acid value (AV) under ultrasonic (US) irradiation and magnetic stirring (MS). With the catalyst and assisted by US, soybean biodiesel yield reached >90% in only 20 min (or at 318 K) and 97.9% under the optimal conditions. It was easily magnetically separated for 5 cycles with 94.9% recovery rate and biodiesel yield >80% with both US and MS. The catalyst transesterified Jatropha oil with biodiesel yields of 94.7%, 93.2% and 83.5% at AV of 1.3, 4.8 and 7.3 (mg KOH/g) with US, and was cycled 5 times with yield >70% at AV of 4.8 assisted by US and MS. High biodiesel yield (90.7%) was still achieved from high AV oil (4.8) at low US energy density (0.1 W/mL) and MS. The catalyst combined with US and MS can find practical application for direct production of biodiesel from oils with high AV. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  182. Biodiesel Production from Multi Feedstock as Feed with Direct Ultrasound Assisted
    Abstract

    Widayat; Satriadi, H.; Nafiega, N. F.; Dipo, R.; Okvitarini; Alimin, A. J.; Ali, M. F. M. 2015. Biodiesel Production from Multi Feedstock as Feed with Direct Ultrasound Assisted. International Conference of Chemical and Material Engineering (Iccme) 2015: Green Technology for Sustainable Chemical Products and Processes. 1699

    The objective of this study was to optimize of ratio oil type, ratio oil to methanol and catalyst concentration. The optimization was used Central Composite Design (CCD). Biodiesel was produced with multi stock oil as feed and conducted in direct ultrasonic radiation. Biosonic equiped with ultrasonic generator with a frequency of 28 kHz. Biodiesel produced at a pressure of 1 atm, reaction time of 60 min and temperature 60 degrees C. The optimum conditions of volume ratio for Palm and Coconut oil 4: 1, KOH catalyst concentration 0.3% and methanol to oil mole ratio 7:1. Biodiesel yield was determined under this condition and obtained 81.105%.
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  183. Biodiesel production from tannery fleshings: Feedstock pretreatment and process modeling
    Abstract

    Sanek, L.; Pecha, J.; Kolomaznik, K.; Barinovaa, M. 2015. Biodiesel production from tannery fleshings: Feedstock pretreatment and process modeling. Fuel. 14816-24

    During raw hide processing, tanning industries generate large quantities of wastes containing a considerable amount of fat which can be converted into biodiesel. A typical representative of such wastes is fleshings - which however, usually contains a significant amount of free fatty acids, proteins and other impurities. Pretreatment was suggested as a means of processing this acidic feedstock, thereby enabling the reduction of the free fatty acid content under the limit value of 0.5% w/w when the alkali catalyst is then appropriate for transesterification. The feedstock pretreatment process involved the refining melting of fresh pigskin fleshings with subsequent extraction using a methanol or methanol solution with an equimolar amount of alkali i.e. tetramethylammonium hydroxide, isopropylamine and cyclohexylamine. A mathematical model of the pretreatment process was proposed, verified and used in further simulation calculations - which confirmed that deacidification employing methanolic alkali solutions is more efficient than pretreatment with pure methanol; in addition, the free fatty acids can be removed to the demanded level in just one step (fat initial acid value = 20 mg KOH/g, mass ratio of methanol to oil = 1.5). The fat pretreated by the suggested procedure was used for alkali catalyzed transesterification. The prepared biodiesel met most of the EN 14 214 requirements with respect to the limitations caused by the used fleshings fatty acid profile. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  184. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using KBr impregnated CaO as catalyst
    Abstract

    Mahesh, S. E.; Ramanathan, A.; Begum, K. M. M. S.; Narayanan, A. 2015. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil using KBr impregnated CaO as catalyst. Energy Conversion and Management. 91442-450

    This research paper deals with the synthesis of a heterogeneous catalyst (KBr/CaO) from commercial calcium oxide and potassium bromide by wet impregnation method. This solid catalyst was tested for transesterification of waste cooking oil (WCO). The synthesized catalyst was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques. Transesterification reaction parameters were varied to obtain the maximum yield of biodiesel. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to study the effect of the process variables like methanol to oil ratio, catalyst loading and reaction time. The optimum conditions obtained using regression models were found to be 12:1 methanol: oil ratio, 3 wt% catalyst loading and 1.8 h reaction time. The composition of FAME was determined using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The performance and emission characteristics for various blends of biodiesel (B10, B20, B50 and B100) were investigated in a four stroke direct injection diesel engine. The results indicated that the brake thermal efficiency, particulate matter, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide emissions reduced with increased concentration of biodiesel in the fuel blends, whereas the specific fuel consumption, NO emissions and exhaust gas temperature increased. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  185. Biodiesel production from wet microalgae feedstock using sequential wet extraction/transesterification and direct transesterification processes
    Abstract

    Chen, C. L.; Huang, C. C.; Ho, K. C.; Hsiao, P. X.; Wu, M. S.; Chang, J. S. 2015. Biodiesel production from wet microalgae feedstock using sequential wet extraction/transesterification and direct transesterification processes. Bioresource Technology. 194179-186

    Although producing biodiesel from microalgae seems promising, there is still a lack of technology for the quick and cost-effective conversion of biodiesel from wet microalgae. This study was aimed to develop a novel microalgal biodiesel producing method, consisting of an open system of microwave disruption, partial dewatering (via combination of methanol treatment and low-speed centrifugation), oil extraction, and transesterification without the pre-removal of the co-solvent, using Chlamydomonas sp. JSC4 with 68.7 wt% water content as the feedstock. Direct transesterification with the disrupted wet microalgae was also conducted. The biomass content of the wet microalgae increased to 56.6 and 60.5 wt%, respectively, after microwave disruption and partial dewatering. About 96.2% oil recovery was achieved under the conditions of: extraction temperature, 45 degrees C; hexane/methanol ratio, 3: 1; extraction time, 80 min. Transesterification of the extracted oil reached 97.2% conversion within 15 min at 45 degrees C and 6: 1 solvent/methanol ratio with simultaneous Chlorophyll removal during the process. Nearly 100% biodiesel conversion was also obtained while conducting direct transesterification of the disrupted oil-bearing microalgal biomass. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  186. Biodiesel Production via Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Sulphonated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Solid Acid Catalyst: Process Study, Catalyst Reusability and Kinetic Study
    Abstract

    Shuit, S. H.; Tan, S. H. 2015. Biodiesel Production via Esterification of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate Using Sulphonated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Solid Acid Catalyst: Process Study, Catalyst Reusability and Kinetic Study. Bioenergy Research. 8(2) 605-617

    This study reports on biodiesel production via the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) using sulphonated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (s-MWCNTs) as a catalyst. The process parameters studied included the methanol-to-PFAD ratio (8-30), catalyst loading (1-3 wt%), reaction temperature (80-200 A degrees C) and reaction time (1-5 h). A fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield of 93.5 % was obtained at a methanol-to-PFAD ratio of 20, catalyst loading of 3 wt%, reaction temperature of 170 A degrees C and reaction time of 2 h. The s-MWCNTs exhibited good catalytic activity, with a FAME yield higher than 75 % even after five repeated runs. Moreover, the regeneration of the spent s-MWCNTs (after five runs) with sulphuric acid was able to restore the catalytic activity to its original level. The catalyst stability and activity were enhanced by acid regeneration to achieve a FAME yield of 86.2 %, even at the fifth cycle of reaction after acid regeneration. A pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model for the esterification of PFAD with methanol using s-MWCNTs as a catalyst was then developed based on the experimental results. The pre-exponential factor, molar heat and activation energy for the esterification were found to be 1.9 x 10(2) L mol(-1) min(-1), 84.1 kJ mol(-1) and 45.8 kJ mol(-1), respectively.
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  187. Biodiesel yields and fuel quality as criteria for algal-feedstock selection: Effects of CO2-supplementation and nutrient levels in cultures
    Abstract

    Nascimento, I. A.; Cabanelas, I. T. D.; dos Santos, J. N.; Nascimento, M. A.; Sousa, L.; Sansone, G. 2015. Biodiesel yields and fuel quality as criteria for algal-feedstock selection: Effects of CO2-supplementation and nutrient levels in cultures. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 853-60

    Microalgae-oil yields and quality, associated with CO2-fixation rates, are able to enhance the feasibility of algal-biodiesel production and economics. Those issues were used as selective criteria applied to Trebouxiophyceae strains. Chlorella vulgaris and two Botryococcus strains were confirmed to grow and to produce high quality biodiesels at distinct levels (2.5 to 20%) of CO2-supplementation. Nevertheless, under nutrient-sufficient conditions, C. vulgaris showed the highest CO2-fixation rate (0.611 g L-1 d(-1)) and biomass production at 5% CO2-supplementation, while for Botryococcus terribilis and Botryococcus braunii, the maximum rates (0.614 and 0.555 g L-1 d(-1) CO2) were obtained at 10%-supplementation. Under nutrient-deficient conditions lipids have increased to be above the contents found during the exponential growth-phase, by a maximum of 43%. The fatty-acid profiles varied according to strains and CO2-levels in cultures. Despite variation, palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids predominated. The higher percentage of oleic and palmitic acids over stearic acid, tended to balance the excess of the long chain-size and saturation effects on algal biodiesels' ignition and cold-flow properties. Thus, CO2-supplemented levels from 2.5 to 10.0% made biodiesels compliant with fuel-quality standards. Based on the obtained CO2-fixation rates biodiesels were projected to minimum yields of 42 to 46 L ha(-1) d(-1). (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  188. Ceiba pentandra, Nigella sativa and their blend as prospective feedstocks for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Khan, T. M. Y.; Atabani, A. E.; Badruddin, I. A.; Ankalgi, R. F.; Khan, T. K. M.; Badarudin, A. 2015. Ceiba pentandra, Nigella sativa and their blend as prospective feedstocks for biodiesel. Industrial Crops and Products. 65367-373

    There are more than 350 oil-bearing crops identified as potential sources for biodiesel production around the globe. The wide range of available feedstocks for biodiesel production represents one of the most significant factors for producing biodiesel. The current research work is carried out on fuel properties of biodiesel prepared from the non-edible oils of Ceiba pentandra, Nigella sativa and their mixture. N. sativa is believed to be investigated for the first time as a biodiesel feedstock while C. pentandra has been reported recently in few studies. Owing to higher acid value, acid-esterification and alkali-transesterification processes have been carried out for biodiesel production. The fuel properties of C. pentandra methyl ester (CPME), N. sativa methyl ester (NSME) and their feedstock mixture (NSME/CPME) are determined. It has been found that the produced biodiesel from respective feedstocks matches the properties set by ASTM 6751 standards. However, the fuel properties of the C pentandra biodiesel exhibited better calorific value, viscosity and flash point while N. sativa exhibited excellent cold flow properties and oxidation stability. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  189. Chemometric Characterization of Vegetable Oils Based on the Fatty Acid Profiles for Selection of Potential Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Skrbic, B.; Cvejanov, J.; Durisic-Mladenovic, N. 2015. Chemometric Characterization of Vegetable Oils Based on the Fatty Acid Profiles for Selection of Potential Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 9(3) 358-371

    Variation in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of 119 vegetable oils and their influence on selected fuel properties of the obtainable biodiesels were evaluated using chemometric tools like hierarchical cluster. analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The aim was to classify the oils as potential feedstocks of biodiesel that could meet the selected requirements set by the EN14214 standard. Additionally, similarities between non edible oils and those from food crops were considered in order to identify low cost non edible biodiesel feedstocks that resemble FA profiles of the suitable edible feedstocks. In this way, the work contributes to the mapping of potential (alternative) biodiesel feedstocks, which might be of special interest for practicioners interested in alternative and non edible oil sources. The literature-derived data on the contents of fourteen FAs in vegetable oils were taken into account, as well as the following fuel properties of the corresponding biodiesels, which were calculated on the base of the oils' FA composition: iodine value (IV), cetane number (CN),cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and viscosities. The groups (clusters) of similar feedstocks (e.g., "polyunsaturated," "saturated," "monounsaturated") and the oil outliers were observed and described in order to point out the potential biodiesel feedstocks worldwide, including "non-edible" alternatives and the inherent properties of the obtainable biodiesel fuels. HCA proved to be a successful tool to classify the oils with specific compositional features that would lead to the production of biodiesel in compliance with the EN14214 standard limits, while PCA clearly indicated the outlying oils with the extreme FA profiles.
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  190. Comparison of exhaust emissions of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends produced from animal fats
    Abstract

    Behcet, R.; Oktay, H.; Cakmak, A.; Aydin, H. 2015. Comparison of exhaust emissions of biodiesel-diesel fuel blends produced from animal fats. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 46157-165

    The present paper examines two biodiesels named as fish oil methyl ester (FOME) and chicken oil methyl ester (CFME) produced from low-cost waste fish and chicken oils using the transesterification method, and their fuel properties were compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. Then, each methyl esters were blended with the commercial diesel fuel (D2) with a ratio of 20% on volume basis, respectively and two fuel samples named as FOB20 (20% Fish Oil Methyl Ester and 80% D2 fuel) and CFB20 (20% chicken oil methyl ester and 80% D2 fuel) were obtained. An experimental study for investigating the effects of the blended fuels on engine performance and its exhaust emissions was performed by using a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection and air-cooled diesel engine at different speeds under full load. According to the test results, it was observed that the brake power, torque values and the carbon monoxide (CO), unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations of blended fuels decreased while the NOx concentration and brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) values increased compared to diesel fuel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  191. Composition of Carotenoids from Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp BD47 Biomass, Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Ten, L. N.; Chae, S. M.; Yoo, S. A. 2015. Composition of Carotenoids from Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp BD47 Biomass, Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 51(3) 568-570

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  192. Comprehensive Investigation of the Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Biodiesel and Its Feedstock Oil through TGA-FTIR
    Abstract

    Li, H.; Niu, S. L.; Lu, C. M.; Wang, Y. Z. 2015. Comprehensive Investigation of the Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Biodiesel and Its Feedstock Oil through TGA-FTIR. Energy & Fuels. 29(8) 5145-5153

    With the rapid growth of biodiesel production in recent years, it is essential to evaluate the thermal degradation characteristics of biodiesel and its feedstock oil, for they are concerned with plenty of scientific applications. This study investigates thermal degradation of biodiesel and its feedstock oil through thermogravimetric analysis in conjunction with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TGA-FTIR). The experiments are conducted under inert conditions from 298 to 873 K, and are operated at temperature heating rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 K min(-1). Based on TGA results, the activation energy and enthalpy are calculated via the model free approach and the reaction order is determined by the Avrami theory. Besides the pre-exponential factor, the Gibbs free energy and entropy are calculated at the initial weight loss and the maximum weight loss temperature. Finally, the evolved products during the thermal degradation of biodiesel and its feedstock oil are detected by FTIR in real time.
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  193. Conversion of a variety of high free fatty acid containing feedstock to biodiesel using solid acid supported catalyst
    Abstract

    Bala, D. D.; de Souza, K.; Misra, M.; Chidambaram, D. 2015. Conversion of a variety of high free fatty acid containing feedstock to biodiesel using solid acid supported catalyst. Journal of Cleaner Production. 104273-281

    The present study explores the use of silicotungstic acid anchored to mesoporous siliceous support, Korean Institute of Technology-6 (KIT-6), as a catalyst to produce biodiesel. Silicotungstic acid loaded KIT-6 was synthesized and the physicochemical properties were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, surface area and pore size distribution analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy techniques. Efficiency of the silicotungstic acid loaded KIT-6 in the production of biodiesel from a variety of high free fatty acid containing feedstock was then evaluated. The composition of free fatty acids in all the feedstock oils (algae oil, coffee oil, palmitic acid and used cooking oil) and their biodiesel resulting from the feedstock were also analyzed. Compared with other solid acid catalysts, the resulting materials show stable and highly efficient catalytic performance in biodiesel production with the highest conversion reaching 99%. A sample containing 26 wt% of silicotungstic acid supported on KI1-6 was found to be the most active catalyst for esterification at 70 degrees C whilst stirring constantly, with an alcohol/acid volume ratio of 2 and 1.5 wt% loading catalyst for 3 h. Furthermore, the catalyst was reused for four cycles indicating recyclability of the catalyst. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  194. Conversion of dried Aspergillus candidus mycelia grown on waste whey to biodiesel by in situ acid transesterification
    Abstract

    Kakkad, H.; Khot, M.; Zinjarde, S.; RaviKumar, A.; Kumar, V. R.; Kulkarni, B. D. 2015. Conversion of dried Aspergillus candidus mycelia grown on waste whey to biodiesel by in situ acid transesterification. Bioresource Technology. 197502-507

    This study reports optimization of the transesterification reaction step on dried biomass of an oleaginous fungus Aspergillus candidus grown on agro-dairy waste, whey. Acid catalyzed transesterification was performed and variables affecting esterification, viz., catalyst methanol and chloroform concentrations, temperature, time, and biomass were investigated. Statistical optimization of the transesterification reaction using Plackett-Burman Design showed biomass to be the predominant factor with a 12.5-fold increase in total FAME from 25.6 to 320 mg. Studies indicate that the transesterification efficiency in terms of conversion is favored by employing lower biomass loadings. A. candidus exhibited FAME profiles containing desirable saturated (30.2%), monounsaturated (31.5%) and polyunsaturated methyl esters (38.3%). The predicted and experimentally determined biodiesel properties (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, cetane number, TAN, water content, total and free glycerol) were in accordance with international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) standards. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  195. Cultivation of the fresh water microalga Chlorococcum sp RAP13 in sea water for producing oil suitable for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Sabeela Beevi, U.; Sukumaran, R. K. 2015. Cultivation of the fresh water microalga Chlorococcum sp RAP13 in sea water for producing oil suitable for biodiesel. Journal of Applied Phycology. 27(1) 141-147

    Chlorococcum sp. RAP13-a fresh water microalga was evaluated for growth and lipid production in medium containing 50 % natural sea water under both phototrophic and heterotrophic cultivation modes. The algal cells adapted very well to the sea water and accumulated up to 38 % of their dry cell weight as lipids under heterotrophic cultivation. Biomass production and lipid accumulation were significantly higher than those in fresh water. Supplementation of biodiesel industry waste glycerol in sea water resulted in the highest yield of oil (330 mg L-1), and the biomass yield was 0.85 g L-1. The composition of oil produced under phototrophic and heterotrophic growth was significantly different, with the former enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids while the latter contained more of medium chain saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. While the use of sea water reduces the requirement of mineral supplementation and saves fresh water, the ability to form oil from waste glycerol indicates the potential to recycle this waste. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cultivation of the fresh water alga Chlorococcum sp. under heterotrophic mode in sea water.
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  196. Current status and new developments of biodiesel production using fungal lipases
    Abstract

    Aguieiras, E. C. G.; Cavalcanti-Oliveira, E. D.; Freire, D. M. G. 2015. Current status and new developments of biodiesel production using fungal lipases. Fuel. 15952-67

    In recent years, the production of renewable fuels such as biodiesel has attracted considerable interest as an alternative to fossil fuels. The biodiesel production via enzymatic processes has considerable advantages over conventional alkali-catalyzed processes. Fungal lipases, which include lipases from filamentous fungi and yeasts, are among the most used biocatalysts in enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel. Different strategies have been studied in order to reduce the biocatalyst cost, and to obtain a more robust biocatalyst with high activity and stability. This paper presents the current status and perspectives for biodiesel production using fungal lipases, and discusses the critical aspects that influence lipase activity and stability such as: choice of raw material and alcohols, type of biocatalyst, use of solvents, and water content. Moreover, the development of whole-cells and solid enzymatic preparations (SEP) obtained by solid-state fermentation, as new promising technologies, the exploration of alternatives low-cost oils as potential feedstocks and the evaluation of possible reactor configurations are also presented. Process considerations and an economic efficacy analysis of industrial enzymatic biodiesel production are also presented. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  197. Determining the performance, emission and combustion properties of camelina biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Ozcelik, A. E.; Aydogan, H.; Acaroglu, M. 2015. Determining the performance, emission and combustion properties of camelina biodiesel blends. Energy Conversion and Management. 9647-57

    In the present study, the effects of two different camelina biodiesel fuels obtained through transesterification on engine power and torque performance and emissions and fuel combustion characteristics of these fuels compared to diesel fuel were determined particularly focusing on new blend ratios of B7 and B100, which the European Union has been specifically studying on.
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  198. Diesel engine applications for evaluation of performance and emission behavior of biodiesel from different oil stocks
    Abstract

    Behcet, R.; Aydin, H.; Ilkilic, C.; Iscan, B.; Aydin, S. 2015. Diesel engine applications for evaluation of performance and emission behavior of biodiesel from different oil stocks. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 34(3) 890-896

    Extensive researches on alternative fuels have been carried out since the fossil-based fuels are limited. Many of these studies have ever been on the usability of vegetable oils in diesel engines. In the current work, biodiesel were produced from waste fish oil (FOB), hazelnut oil (HOB), rapeseed oil (ROB), and waste cooking oil (WCOB) by transesterification method. The same optimized variables of 6:1 methanol/oil molar ratio (mol/mol), 0.4% sodium methoxide concentration (wt.%), 60 degrees C reaction temperature, 1000 rpm agitation speed and 2 h reaction time conditions were performed for biodiesel production from all kinds of above mentioned oils. Some of the important chemical and physical properties of test fuels were found. Without making blends with diesel fuel, pure biodiesels were used in a diesel engine in order to clarify how their usage effects on engine performance and exhaust emission parameters. When compared with those of diesel fuel, average torque and power were reduced while brake specific fuel consumption was increased for biodiesels. Besides, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were considerably lower for biodiesel usage while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions were higher than that of diesel fuel. Furthermore, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and smoke opacity were reduced for biodiesel usage. Oxygen (O-2) contained in the exhaust gases were higher for biodiesels while they contain more oxygen molecules in their structure. (c) 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2014 34: 890-896, 2015
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  199. Direct transesterification of wet microalgal biomass for preparation of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Suh, W. I.; Mishra, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Farooq, W.; Moon, M.; Shrivastav, A.; Park, M. S.; Yang, J. W. 2015. Direct transesterification of wet microalgal biomass for preparation of biodiesel. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 12405-411

    Most conventional processes for algal biodiesel production involve separate lipid extraction steps or require usage of dry biomass that incurs extra cost and an energy intensive drying step. A novel process that involves dehydration of wet biomass via pretreatment with ethanol followed by direct in situ transesterification into biodiesel was investigated in this study. Under mild esterification at 80 degrees C for 30 min, pretreating the wet biomass twice with 3 volumes of ethanol resulted in a nearly four-fold increase of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) yield from 3.04 mg to 11.78 mg, while increasing the ethanol from 1 volume to 10 volumes resulted in a six fold increase of yield from 3.18 to 18.29 mg. The FAEE yield further increased when the esterification reaction was run at higher temperature and longer durations of up to 120 degrees C for 2 h. The overall positive impact of the pretreatment step on the final yield was far greater for milder reaction conditions, which makes the process more attractive in terms of economics and energy savings. In addition, it was found that the yield is unaffected by the choice of alcohol, which means methanol and butanol can also be used for the process. Lastly, it was found that the low concentration of water in the FAEE containing spent ethanol meant that both the solvent and sulfuric acid could be reused to further concentrate the quantity of FAEE in the final product mixture. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  200. Dual uses of microalgal biomass: An integrative approach for biohydrogen and biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Dasgupta, C. N.; Suseela, M. R.; Mandotra, S. K.; Kumar, P.; Pandey, M. K.; Toppo, K.; Lone, J. A. 2015. Dual uses of microalgal biomass: An integrative approach for biohydrogen and biodiesel production. Applied Energy. 146202-208

    Dual application of biomass for biohydrogen and biodiesel production could be considered a feasible option for economic and sustainable energy production from microalgae. In this study, after a large screening of fresh water microalgal isolates, Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 and Chlorella sp. NBRIO29 have exhibited high biomass (1.31 +/- 0.11 and 2.62 +/- 0.13 g/L respectively) and lipid (244.44 +/- 12.3 and 587.38 +/- 20.2 mg/L respectively) yield with an organic carbon (acetate) source. Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 has shown the highest H-2 (maximum evolution of 17.72% v/v H-2 of total gases) production; it produced H-2 continuously for seven days in sulfur-deprived TAP media. Sulfur deprivation during the H-2 production was found to increase the lipid content (410.03 +/- 18.5 mg/L) of the residual biomass. Fatty acid profile of the lipid extracted from the residual biomass of Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 has showed abundance of fatty acids with a carbon chain length of C16 and C18. Cetane number, iodine value, and saponification value of biodiesel were found suitable according to the range given by the Indian standard (IS 15607), Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP255) and the European biodiesel standard EN14214. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  201. Effects of biodiesel from different feedstocks on engine performance and emissions: A review
    Abstract

    Ghazali, W. N. M. W.; Mamat, R.; Masjuki, H. H.; Najafi, G. 2015. Effects of biodiesel from different feedstocks on engine performance and emissions: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 51585-602

    This paper analyzes the performance and emissions of biodiesel from different feedstocks. The main goal of this paper is to provide information to the engineers, industrialists and researchers who are interested on biodiesel and to emphasise biodiesel as a promising alternative replacement for fossil fuels. A substantial number of literatures from highly rated journals in scientific indexes were cited preferentially since 2000. The performance and emissions indicators such as brake torque, brake power, BTE, EGT, BSFC NOx, PM, CO, CO2, HC and smoke density have been evaluated in comparison to pure diesel. The results showed that different sources of biodiesel feedstocks give different results to engine performance and emissions. Surprisingly some of the research yielded favourable results towards the biodiesel as compared to pure diesel. The study concluded that biodiesel can be used in compression ignition engine as a replacement of diesel fuel to fulfil the global energy demand. However, further research on about optimisation, cost-effectiveness and availability of biodiesel needs to be carried out to help ensure that biofuel will be able to fully replace fossil fuel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  202. Effects of Different Biomass Drying and Lipid Extraction Methods on Algal Lipid Yield, Fatty Acid Profile, and Biodiesel Quality
    Abstract

    Hussain, J.; Liu, Y.; Lopes, W. A.; Druzian, J. I.; Souza, C. O.; Carvalho, G. C.; Nascimento, I. A.; Liao, W. 2015. Effects of Different Biomass Drying and Lipid Extraction Methods on Algal Lipid Yield, Fatty Acid Profile, and Biodiesel Quality. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 175(6) 3048-3057

    Three lipid extraction methods of hexane Soxhlet (Sox-Hex), Halim (HIP), and Bligh and Dyer (BD) were applied on freeze-dried (FD) and oven-dried (OD) Chlorella vulgaris biomass to evaluate their effects on lipid yield, fatty acid profile, and algal biodiesel quality. Among these three methods, HIP was the preferred one for C. vulgaris lipid recovery considering both extraction efficiency and solvent toxicity. It had the highest lipid yields of 20.0 and 22.0 % on FD and OD biomass, respectively, with corresponding neutral lipid yields of 14.8 and 12.7 %. The lipid profiling analysis showed that palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids in the algal lipids, and there were no significant differences on the amount of these acids between different drying and extraction methods. Correlative models applied to the fatty acid profiles concluded that high contents of palmitic and oleic acids in algal lipids contributed to balancing the ratio of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and led to a high-quality algal biodiesel.
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  203. Efficient extraction of lipids from primary sewage sludge using ionic liquids for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Olkiewicz, M.; Plechkova, N. V.; Fabregat, A.; Stuber, F.; Fortuny, A.; Font, J.; Bengoa, C. 2015. Efficient extraction of lipids from primary sewage sludge using ionic liquids for biodiesel production. Separation and Purification Technology. 153118-125

    This study proposes a novel method to extract lipids from wet primary sludge for biodiesel production using ionic liquids. Tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride and widely used 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium methyl sulfate were evaluated to extract lipids from raw and dried sludge (96% and 2%, wt. water content, respectively) and compared to the conventional Soxhlet method using organic solvents. Both these ionic liquids showed suitability for lipid extraction from raw sludge, giving even better results than expected from dried sludge. The [C(4)mim][MeSO4] ionic liquid reached 18.5% and 26.9% of lipids, 14.1% and 18.4% of biodiesel from dried and raw sludge, respectively. The [P(CH2OH)(4)]Cl ionic liquid gained 23.4% and 27.6% of lipids, 17.0% and 19.8% of biodiesel from dried and raw sludge respectively, reaching comparable results to the conventional Soxhlet method (27.2% of lipids, 19.4% of biodiesel). Therefore, the proposed ionic liquid process is efficient in lipid extraction directly from wet primary sludge, eliminating the expensive step of sludge drying and the use of volatile organic solvents. Under the optimised extraction conditions using [P(CH2OH)(4)]Cl ionic liquid and raw sludge (1:5 sludge (g/TS):IL (cm(3)) ratio, 100 degrees C and 3 h), the obtained yield of lipids and biodiesel amounted to 25.7% and 21.1%, respectively. Additionally, lipid extraction using [P(CH2OH)(4)]Cl ionic liquid also precipitates cellulosic material, which allows for direct and easy cellulose-based co-product recovery, giving high additional value to the process. Consequently, the economic and environmental aspects of biodiesel production from sewage sludge could be improved. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  204. Efficient production of biodiesel from low-cost feedstock using zinc oleate as catalyst
    Abstract

    Reinoso, D. M.; Damiani, D. E.; Tonetto, G. M. 2015. Efficient production of biodiesel from low-cost feedstock using zinc oleate as catalyst. Fuel Processing Technology. 13426-31

    In this study, the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by the transesterification of low-cost feedstock containing 10 and 22 wt.% free fatty acid (FFA), using zinc oleate (ZnOl) as catalyst, was investigated. The performance of the ZnOl salt in the reaction medium was evaluated in terms of activity and stability in the presence of free fatty acids. At 140 degrees C and 2 h of reaction time, triglyceride conversion was 100%, FAME yield was close to 95%, and fatty acid conversion was 75.9% and 82.6% for feedstock with 10 and 22 wt.% FFA, respectively. The zinc carboxylic salt was able to catalyze simultaneously the triglyceride transesterification and the fatty acid esterification reactions with high activity and selectivity under moderate operating conditions and slight FAME and triglycerides hydrolysis. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  205. Engine Performance and Emission Products of Pure Diesel and Multi-Feedstock Blended Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Belion, K.; Mensah, P. F.; Akwaboa, S.; Woldesenbet, E.; Stubblefield, M.; Adjaottor, A. 2015. Engine Performance and Emission Products of Pure Diesel and Multi-Feedstock Blended Biodiesel. Asme International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, 2014, Vol 6a.

    Due to the ever-reducing conventional petroleum resources, considerable research on renewable energy sources such as biodiesel as a possible "greener" substitute fuel for internal combustion engines is needed. This study aims to compare the engine performance and emission results of various blends of pure diesel and a multi-feedstock (MFS) biodiesel when used in a naturally aspirated air-cooled, single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine. The engine was coupled to a dynamometer for torque measurement and output data transmitted to a PC for post-processing and displayed using customized programs in the computer. Engine combustion products - Nitrogen Oxide emissions (NOx), Hydrocarbons (HCs), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Carbon dioxide (CO2)- were measured and are presented alongside performance properties including brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), engine efficiency, torque and power. The experimental results show that, relative to diesel, biodiesel had approximately 3 - 24% decrease in torque, 4-11% decrease in power, 11-32% increase in BSFC and 8-29% general reduction in engine efficiency. However, biodiesel reduced the emissions of CO (1.5 - 6%), CO2 (13 - 34%) and unburned HCs (3-25%), while NOx emissions were increased significantly (12 - 48%). These results indicate that smaller percentages of biodiesel (20% or less) could be blended with pure diesel and used in a diesel engine, without any engine modifications, as an alternative and environmentally friendly fuel and without significantly compromising engine performance.
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  206. Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel from Nannochloropsis gaditana Microalgae Using Immobilized Lipases in Mesoporous Materials
    Abstract

    Bautista, L. F.; Vicente, G.; Mendoza, A.; Gonzalez, S.; Morales, V. 2015. Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel from Nannochloropsis gaditana Microalgae Using Immobilized Lipases in Mesoporous Materials. Energy & Fuels. 29(8) 4981-4989

    A study of the production of fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters (FAMEs and FAEEs) to be used as biodiesel was carried out with Nannochloropsis gaditana oil using three fungal lipases (from Thermomyces lanuginosus, Candida antarctica B, and Mucor miehei) both free and immobilized in hexagonal (SBA-15 and MCM-41) and cubic (FDU-12 and SBA-16) mesoporous supports. The operating variables were optimized using free lipase (ethanol, 40 degrees C, 24 h, 500:1 oil/lipase mass ratio, and 8:1 ethanol/oil mass ratio). Higher FAEE yields were obtained with supported lipase than with free lipase because of the protection and stability given by the supports. The FAEE yields achieved were higher for lipase immobilized in hexagonal mesostructured materials because lipase molecules are more accessible than lipase immobilized in the three-dimensional cubic supports. C. antarctica lipase B immobilized in functionalized SBA-15 showed the better performance and reusability among the biocatalysts used.
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  207. Esterification of sludge palm oil as a pretreatment step for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Skrbic, B.; Predojevic, Z.; Durisic-Mladenovic, N. 2015. Esterification of sludge palm oil as a pretreatment step for biodiesel production. Waste Management & Research. 33(8) 723-729

    Acid esterification of sludge palm oil, having 50mas.% free fatty acids, i.e. 50g of dominant free fatty acid per 100g of oil, was investigated with the objective of determining conditions for the efficient reduction of free fatty acids. The influences of sulphuric acid dosage and molar ratio of methanol to oil were studied, with the final intention to obtain feedstock with a free fatty acids content acceptable for biodiesel production by alkali-transesterification. Esterification was performed using different molar ratios of methanol to oil (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1) and varying the amount of H2SO4 catalyst (0.92mas.%, 1.84mas.% and 4.60mas.%). Under the applied conditions, the sulphuric acid dosage of 4.60mas.% resulted in the satisfactory decrease of the feedstock's free fatty acids for 6:1 and 9:1 molar ratios of methanol to oil. Thus, taking into account the economic reasoning, it can be concluded that approximately 5mas.% of H2SO4 with 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oily feedstock, might be regarded as the dosage necessary for satisfactory pretreatment of the feedstock to be further subjected to the alkaline transesterification. Finally, the effort to consolidate the information on acid esterification available in literature was made, contributing to knowledge on sustainable biodiesel production using the low-grade and low-cost sources.
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  208. Evaluation and Screening of Potential Non-Food Biodiesel Plants from Native Wild Species of Northwestern China
    Abstract

    Qin, S.; Xue, S.; Steinberger, Y.; Li, G. Y.; Xie, G. H. 2015. Evaluation and Screening of Potential Non-Food Biodiesel Plants from Native Wild Species of Northwestern China. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 9(5) 528-536

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of plant oil prepared for biodiesel has been found to affect the properties of the fuel. This work aimed to evaluate the characteristics of plant oil resources in Northwestern China and to find some suitable plant species for biodiesel production using criteria from FA profile indexes. Eighteen (18) plant species were investigated: five herbaceous annuals, five shrubs and eight trees. Physicochemical properties of the collected samples were tested, including the oil content, acid value, iodine value and vegetable oil FA composition. According to biodiesel standards EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 and related references, nine out of the 18 species analyzed were potentially suitable for biodiesel production. All of the species selected as being optimal for biodiesel production were shrubs or trees. Using multi-comparison analysis, FA compositions were compared and found to be different enough that the 18 species could be classified based on this property, beyond the plant life-form classification. Therefore, triangular graphs based on FA composition were built in order to screen for the optimal plant oils for biodiesel production. These analyses indicated that wild tree resources can be used as alternative feedstocks in Northwestern China; the species Amygdalus persica L. and Decaisnea insignis (Griff.) Hook. f. and Thorns. were found to be the best for biodiesel production in this study.
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  209. Fatty-Acid Compositions of Three Strains of Blue-Green Algae Biomass, a Potential Feedstock for Producing Biodiesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Ten, L. N.; Kim, J. H.; Chae, S. M.; Yoo, S. A. 2015. Fatty-Acid Compositions of Three Strains of Blue-Green Algae Biomass, a Potential Feedstock for Producing Biodiesel Fuel. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 51(4) 756-757

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  210. Feasibility of hydrogen production from steam reforming of biodiesel (FAME) feedstock on Ni-supported catalysts
    Abstract

    Nahar, G.; Dupont, V.; Twigg, M. V.; Dvininov, E. 2015. Feasibility of hydrogen production from steam reforming of biodiesel (FAME) feedstock on Ni-supported catalysts. Applied Catalysis B-Environmental. 168228-242

    The catalytic steam reforming of biodiesel was examined over Ni-alumina and Ni-ceria-zirconia catalysts at atmospheric pressure. Effects of temperatures of biodiesel preheating/vaporising (190-365 degrees C) and reforming (600-800 degrees C), molar steam to carbon ratio (S/C=2-3), and residence time in the reformer, represented by the weight hourly space velocity 'WHSV' of around 3 were examined for 2 h. Ni supported on calcium aluminate and on ceria-zirconia supports achieved steady state hydrogen product stream within 90% of the equilibrium yields, although 4% and 1% of the carbon feed had deposited on the catalysts, respectively, during the combined conditions of start-up and steady state. Addition of dopants to ceria-zirconia supported catalyst decreased the performance of the catalyst. Increase in S/C ratio had the expected positive effects of higher H-2 yield and lower carbon deposition. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  211. Functional properties of neem oil as potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bhandare, P.; Naik, G. R. 2015. Functional properties of neem oil as potential feedstock for biodiesel production. International Letters of Natural Sciences. 347-14

    Fossil fuel resources are decreasing daily while biodiesel fuels are attracting increasing attention worldwide as blending components or direct replacements for diesel fuel in vehicle engines. In this experiment the seed oils of 30 Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. juss) biotypes were screened and evaluated for their physio-chemical parameters for oil content, biodiesel yield, density, viscosity, iodine value, free fatty acid and saponification value. Hence the neem seed oil tested in this current study could be the potential sources of raw material for biodiesel production.
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  212. Fungal Production of Single Cell Oil Using Untreated Copra Cake and Evaluation of Its Fuel Properties for Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Khot, M.; Gupta, R.; Barve, K.; Zinjarde, S.; Govindwar, S.; RaviKumar, A. 2015. Fungal Production of Single Cell Oil Using Untreated Copra Cake and Evaluation of Its Fuel Properties for Biodiesel. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 25(4) 459-463

    This study evaluated the microbial conversion of coconut oil waste, a major agro-residue in tropical countries, into single cell oil (SCO) feedstock for biodiesel production. Copra cake was used as a low-cost renewable substrate without any prior chemical or enzymatic pretreatment for submerged growth of an oleaginous tropical mangrove fungus, Aspergillus terreus IBB M1. The SCO extracted from fermented biomass was converted into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) by transesterification and evaluated on the basis of fatty acid profiles and key fuel properties for biodiesel. The fungus produced a biomass (8.2 g/l) yielding 257 mg/g copra cake SCO with similar to 98% FAMEs. The FAMEs were mainly composed of saturated methyl esters (61.2%) of medium-chain fatty acids (C12-C18) with methyl oleate (C18:1; 16.57%) and methyl linoleate (C18:2; 19.97%) making up the unsaturated content. A higher content of both saturated FAMEs and methyl oleate along with the absence of polyunsaturated FAMEs with >= 4 double bonds is expected to impart good fuel quality. This was evident from the predicted and experimentally determined key fuel properties of FAMEs (density, kinematic viscosity, iodine value, acid number, cetane number), which were in accordance with the international (ASTM D6751, EN 14214) and national (IS 15607) biodiesel standards, suggesting their suitability as a biodiesel fuel. The low cost, renewable nature, and easy availability of copra cake, its conversion into SCO without any thermochemical pretreatment, and pelleted fungal growth facilitating easier downstream processing by simple filtration make this process cost effective and environmentally favorable.
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  213. Genetic variability of biodiesel properties in some Prunus L. (Rosaceae) species collected from Inner Mongolia, China
    Abstract

    Guo, J. Y.; Li, H. P.; Fan, S. Q.; Liang, T. Y.; Yu, H. Y.; Li, J. R.; He, J. L.; Li, G. T.; Wang, L. B. 2015. Genetic variability of biodiesel properties in some Prunus L. (Rosaceae) species collected from Inner Mongolia, China. Industrial Crops and Products. 76244-248

    The aim of this study was to compare the oil content, fatty acid composition, and biodiesel properties of eight Prunus L. species in Inner Mongolia, to provide a basis for selecting appropriate species to produce biodiesel. In the eight species, oil content ranged from 38.92% to 58.82%. In Prunus pedunculata Pall., Prunus sibirica L., Prunus mongolica Maxim., Prunus humilis Bunge, Prunus ansu Kom., and Prunus triloba Lindl., oil contents were higher than 45%. Percentages of fatty acids varied greatly among different species, but all species contained a large percentage of critical oleic acid (35.03-77.02%). The biodiesel properties of seed kernel oil methyl ester of the eight species were determined and compared with the relevant specifications of ASTM 06751, EN 14214, and GB/T 20828. P. triloba Lindl., P. ansu Kom., P. pedunculata Pall., and P. sibirica L. were the most efficient feedstock for biodiesel production and suitable for further use and development. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  214. Green integrated process for mitigation of municipal and industrial liquid and solid waste mixes for enhanced microalgal biomass and lipid synthesis for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Karemore, A.; Sen, R. 2015. Green integrated process for mitigation of municipal and industrial liquid and solid waste mixes for enhanced microalgal biomass and lipid synthesis for biodiesel. Rsc Advances. 5(87) 70929-70938

    Wastewater management has become one of the critical environmental challenges, as waste effluents from municipalities and industries including livestock farms are released into the environment resulting in the deterioration of water ecology, if left untreated. Through this study, we have developed a microalgae mediated green integrated process for wastewater remediation, while simultaneously producing biomass as potentially sustainable feedstock for biofuels. Chlorococcum sp. was cultivated in different types of wastewater and tested for nutrient remediation efficacy as well as biomass production. The results with respect to nutrient removal capacity in wastewater were encouraging as nitrogen was almost completely remediated, whereas removal percentages for carbon and phosphorous were between 67 and 89%. The results obtained using waste mixtures of wastewater effluents and poultry litter waste indicates substantial gain in microalgal biomass yield, an increase of more than 1.5-fold was observed as opposed to unsupplemented use. The obtained experimental microalgal growth data were fitted with a logistic growth model and found to provide a good fit between predicted values and investigated values. Furthermore, the lipid accumulation was enhanced by 2-fold in waste mixtures when compared to standard medium, and the lipids were mainly composed of C16 and C18 fatty acids, which are considered favourable for good-quality biodiesel. The strategy adopted in this study served the dual purpose of waste management and microalgal biomass production for biofuel application, thus making the entire process cost-effective and green.
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  215. Green renewable energy production from Myxosarcina sp.: media optimization and assessment of biodiesel fuel properties
    Abstract

    Jawaharraj, K.; Karpagam, R.; Ashokkumar, B.; Kathiresan, S.; Varalakshmi, P. 2015. Green renewable energy production from Myxosarcina sp.: media optimization and assessment of biodiesel fuel properties. Rsc Advances. 5(63) 51149-51157

    Renewable energy resources, like biomass from plants and algae, have gained more interest for biodiesel production as an energy source to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and elevated global warming. In this study, Myxosarcina sp., a unicellular cyanobacterium, was evaluated for higher biomass and lipid production via the supplementation of sugar industrial waste (SIW) and sodium chloride (NaCl), and medium optimization with response surface methodology (RSM) for biodiesel production. The outcome of the findings was that greater biomass and lipid productivities of 28.5 +/- 2.4 (1.2 fold) and 3.4 +/- 0.2 (1.3 fold) mg L-1 per day were observed in BG-11 medium supplemented with SIW when compared with the control (24 +/- 1 and 2.6 +/- 0.4 mg L-1 per day). However, a higher lipid content 20.6 +/- 1.8% (1.5 fold) was achieved with RSM optimized medium, including NaCl at 0.8 M, SIW at 2 mL L-1, sodium nitrate (NaNO3) at 2.5 g L-1 and magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at 0.075 g L-1, than in the control (13.6 +/- 1.4%). Fatty acid characterization by GC-MS analysis revealed that Myxosarcina sp. yielded 39 +/- 5.3% of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and 61 +/- 5.3% of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and its biodiesel fuel properties, evaluated using empirical equations, showed that almost all the properties calculated were in compliance with the national and international biodiesel standards EN 14214 (Europe), ASTM D6751-02 (US) and IS 15607 (India). Thus, Myxosarcina sp. can be utilized as the environmentally friendly biodiesel feedstock for high quality biodiesel production in the current scenario to meet escalating energy demand.
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  216. Heterogeneous Acid-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production from Crude Tall Oil: A Low-Grade and Less Expensive Feedstock
    Abstract

    Mkhize, N. M.; Sithole, B. B.; Ntunka, M. G. 2015. Heterogeneous Acid-Catalyzed Biodiesel Production from Crude Tall Oil: A Low-Grade and Less Expensive Feedstock. Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology. 35(5) 374-385

    The present study indicates that solid acid catalysis of crude tall oil (CTO) over a WO3/ZrO2 catalyst is effective in converting the CTO fatty acids components into biodiesel in high yield. Preparation of the catalyst by an impregnation method was selected and WO3 activity was best at a loading mass fraction of 5% to ZrO2 support and activation at 500 degrees C for five hours under air at atmospheric pressure. Optimal reaction conditions were reaction temperature at 250 degrees C; methanol to CTO molar ratio at 10; reaction time four hours, catalyst mass fraction of 3%; and stirring intensity at 625 rpm. The conversion at optimal reaction conditions was 70%. The catalyst was highly active at temperatures higher than 200 degrees C. The biodiesel produced met some, but not all, the diesel quality parameters stipulated by standard specifications such as ASTM D6751 and EN14214.
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  217. Heterogeneous alkaline earth metal-transition metal bimetallic catalysts for synthesis of biodiesel from low grade unrefined feedstock
    Abstract

    Kwong, T. L.; Yung, K. F. 2015. Heterogeneous alkaline earth metal-transition metal bimetallic catalysts for synthesis of biodiesel from low grade unrefined feedstock. Rsc Advances. 5(102) 83748-83756

    A bimetallic alkaline earth metal-transition metal oxide, synthesized through a method of direct low-temperature decomposition of the bimetallic complex, is reported for the synthesis of biodiesel. Due to the high phase purity of the Ca/Fe catalytic system and its catalytic stability and robustness, the Ca/Fe catalyst was selected for further investigation. A transesterification conversion of 99.5% could be achieved in 1 h under the optimal conditions: feedstock to methanol, 1 : 20; catalyst loading, 6 wt%; temperature, 120 degrees C. ANOVA tests suggested that the reaction temperature was discerned as the most prominent factor which contributed 82.84% to the overall catalytic feedstock conversion. In addition, the Ca/Fe catalytic system demonstrated a high FFA tolerance of 2 wt% and a water tolerance of 1 wt% with remarkable catalytic activity in one-step biodiesel synthesis.
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  218. Hydrothermal gasification of a biodiesel by-product crude glycerol in the presence of phosphate based catalysts
    Abstract

    Cengiz, N. U.; Yildiz, G.; Sert, M.; Gokkaya, D. S.; Saglam, M.; Yuksel, M.; Ballice, L. 2015. Hydrothermal gasification of a biodiesel by-product crude glycerol in the presence of phosphate based catalysts. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 40(43) 14806-14815

    Energy from biomass can be provided in various ways, such as burning the solid wastes, production of biogas (by anaerobic digesters), biofuels (i.e. methanol, ethanol, biodiesel, and derivatives), and methane via the utilization of landfills. Biodiesel is a widely used biofuel produced by the conversion of first-generation biomass feedstock via bio-chemical conversion platforms.
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  219. Improvement of Biomass Production by Chlorella sp MJ 11/11 for Use as a Feedstock for Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Ghosh, S.; Roy, S.; Das, D. 2015. Improvement of Biomass Production by Chlorella sp MJ 11/11 for Use as a Feedstock for Biodiesel. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 175(7) 3322-3335

    Algal biomass is gaining importance for biofuel production as it is rich in lipids. It becomes more significant when biomass is produced by capturing atmospheric greenhouse gas, CO2. In the present study, the effect of different physicochemical parameters were studied on the biomass and lipid productivity in Chlorella sp. MJ 11/11. The different parameters viz. initial pH, nitrate concentration, and phosphate concentration were optimized using single-parameter studies. The interactions between the parameters were determined statistically using the Box-Behnken design of optimization. The optimal values were decided by analyzing them with response surface methodology. The optimum levels of the parameters (pH 6.5, nitrate concentration 0.375 g L-1, and phosphate concentration 0.375 mL L-1) yielded a maximum biomass concentration of 1.26 g L-1 at a constant light intensity of 100 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) and temperature of 30 A degrees C. The effect of CO2 concentration on the biomass production was also investigated and was found to be a maximum of 4 g L-1 at 5 % air-CO2 mixture (v/v). Maximum lipid content of 24.6 % (w/w) was observed at 2 % air-CO2 mixture (v/v). Fatty acid analyses of the obtained algal biomass suggested that they could be a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  220. Intensification of biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oil (Palm Olein) in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor: Effect of operating parameters on methyl ester conversion
    Abstract

    Chuah, L. F.; Yusup, S.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Bokhari, A.; Klemes, J. J.; Abdullah, M. Z. 2015. Intensification of biodiesel synthesis from waste cooking oil (Palm Olein) in a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Reactor: Effect of operating parameters on methyl ester conversion. Chemical Engineering and Processing. 95235-240

    This paper investigates a new route for intensification of methyl ester synthesis in Malaysia via alkali-catalysed transesterification of waste cooking oil derived from palm olein using a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor. The effects of the oil to methanol molar ratio (1:4-1:7), catalyst loading concentration (0.5-1.25 wt%) and reaction temperature (50-65 degrees C) have been investigated using an optimised plate with 21 holes of 1 mm diameter and an inlet pressure of 2 bar in a 50 L of hydrodynamic cavitation reactor assisted by a double diaphragm pump. Optimal conversion of 98.1% was achieved in 15 min in a hydrodynamic cavitation reactor with 1:6 molar ratio of oil to methanol, 1 wt% of catalyst and 60 degrees C of reaction temperature. It has been observed that a significant reduction in the optimum reaction time (about 6 fold) for transesterification from 90 min for mechanical stirring approach to 15 min for the hydrodynamic cavitation approach. Optimal yield efficiency of 12.50 x 10(-4) g/J was found using hydrodynamic cavitation and it was 8 fold higher than 1.5 x 10(-4)g/J when mechanical stirring was used. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  221. Investigation of the Effect of Blending Ratio and Temperature on the Kinematic Viscosity and Specific Gravity of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Eryilmaz, T.; Yesilyurt, M. K. 2015. Investigation of the Effect of Blending Ratio and Temperature on the Kinematic Viscosity and Specific Gravity of Waste Cooking Oil Biodiesel. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 24(4b) 1523-1529

    Increasing uncertainty about global energy production and supply, environmental concerns due to the use of fossil fuels, and the high price of petroleum products are the major reasons to search for alternatives to diesel. One of these alternative energy sources, biodiesel, can be produced from vegetable, animal, waste cooking and algal oils. Waste cooking oil (WCO) is one of the most economical choices to produce biodiesel. Since one of the major concerns in biodiesel production is the price of feedstock, utilization of WCO significantly enhances its economic viability. In this study, biodiesel was produced from WCO, using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and methyl alcohol by transesterification method. Four different fuel blends (20, 40, 60 and 80% by volume, blending with diesel) were prepared. Specific gravity, density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, flash point, copper strip corrosion and water content of biodiesel produced from WCO were determined under various blending ratios with ultimate euro diesel fuel, and also specific gravity and kinematic viscosity were investigated at different temperatures.
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  222. Isolation and screening of heterocystous cyanobacterial strains for biodiesel production by evaluating the fuel properties from fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles
    Abstract

    Anahas, A. M. P.; Muralitharan, G. 2015. Isolation and screening of heterocystous cyanobacterial strains for biodiesel production by evaluating the fuel properties from fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles. Bioresource Technology. 1849-17

    This study reports on the biodiesel quality parameters of eleven heterocystous cyanobacterial strains based on fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) profiles. The biomass productivity of the tested cyanobacterial strains ranged from 9.33 to 20.67 mg L-1 d(-1) while the lipid productivity varied between 0.65 and 2.358 mg L-1 d(-1). The highest biomass and lipid productivity was observed for Calothrix sp. MBDU 013 but its lipid content is only 11.221 in terms of percent dry weight, next to the Anabaena sphaerica MBDU 105, whose lipid content is high. To identify the most competent isolate, a multi-criteria decision analyses (MCDA) was performed by including the key chemical and physical parameters of biodiesel calculated from FAME profiles. The isolate A. sphaerica MBDU 105 is the most promising biodiesel feed stock based on decision vector through Preference Ranking Organisation Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA) analysis. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  223. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    El Maghraby, D. M.; Fakhry, E. M. 2015. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of Mediterranean macro-algae as dynamic factors for biodiesel production. Oceanologia. 57(1) 86-92

    Using the total lipid contents and fatty acid profiles, the marine macro-algae Jania rubens (Rhodophyceae), Ulva linza (Chlorophyceae) and Padina pavonica (Phaeophyceae) were evaluated for biodiesel production during the spring, summer and autumn. Seawater parameters such as pH, salinity and temperature were measured. The total lipid content varied from 1.56% (J. rubens) to 4.14% (U. linza) of dry weight, with the highest values occurring in spring. The fatty acid methyl ester profiles were analysed using gas chromatography. The highest percentage of total fatty acids was recorded in P pavonica, with 6.2% in autumn, whereas the lowest was in J. rubens, with 68.6% in summer. The relative amount of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids was significantly higher in P pavonica than in the other macro-algae. Seasonal variations in pH, salinity and temperature had no significant effect on the total lipid and fatty acid contents. Principal component analysis grouped brown and green algae together, whereas red alga grouped out. Furthermore, methyl ester profiles indicate that brown and green seaweeds are preferred, followed by red seaweeds, which appears to have little potential for oil-based products. Therefore, these seaweeds are not targets for biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban Et Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
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  224. Lipids of Basidial Fungi as Feedstock for Biodiesel Fuel Production
    Abstract

    Al'myasheva, N. R.; Sharipova, D. A.; Barkov, A. V.; Karakhanov, E. A.; Kulikov, A. B.; Maksimov, A. L.; Vinokurov, V. A. 2015. Lipids of Basidial Fungi as Feedstock for Biodiesel Fuel Production. Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 51(4) 411-421

    The scientific literature on the influence of various factors on the lipid content and composition in biomass of basidial fungi was reviewed. The influence of carbon and nitrogen sources, C:N ratio, temperature, and pH of the medium on the biomass yield and lipid fatty-acid content and composition was analyzed for various basidial fungi. The most promising substrate for biodiesel fuel production was vegetable residues and/or waste liquors. The culture conditions should be chosen with a view to maximizing the biomass yield and monounsaturated fatty-acid content in the fungal lipids.
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  225. Maggot Oil: A New Source of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Yang, D. P.; Cai, Z. Z.; Deng, Y. J.; Huang, M. L.; Li, Z. X.; Leung, D.; Peng, S. Y.; Niu, Y.; Zheng, D.; Zhuang, Y. 2015. Maggot Oil: A New Source of Biodiesel. International Conference on Energy and Environment Engineering (Iceee 2015). 537-541

    Due to the high economic cost of feedstocks such as flowering plants and algae [1], biodiesel industry is now at the bottleneck of its development. The nasty flies with incredible fecundity and strong disease resistance would help solve the problem. In the present study, the oil extracted from the larvae (maggot) of two species of flies which fed on city garbage or fowl manure produced by such as pigs and chicken was converted into biodiesel through classic transesterification procedure. And, the product was proved to meet the requirements of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214.
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  226. Nano sized heterogeneous acid catalyst from Ceiba pentandra stalks for production of biodiesel using extracted oil from Ceiba pentandra seeds
    Abstract

    Parthiban, K. S.; Perumalsamy, M. 2015. Nano sized heterogeneous acid catalyst from Ceiba pentandra stalks for production of biodiesel using extracted oil from Ceiba pentandra seeds. Rsc Advances. 5(15) 11180-11187

    Heterogeneous acid catalyst of nano size was prepared by the method of sulfonation of C. pentandra stalks and used to convert C. pentandra seed oil to biodiesel. The structure of the catalyst was characterized and physicochemical properties of extracted oil as well as effects of different preparation conditions on biodiesel yield were investigated. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photograph showed that the catalyst had a porous structure which enhanced the catalytic ability. From the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) analysis, the catalyst specific surface area was 714 m(2) g(-1) and average pore size was 4.8 nm. The optimal triglyceride conversion of 99% was attained at a reaction temperature of 220 degrees C, methanol to oil ratio of 18 : 1 M and catalyst concentration of 1.5 wt%. Reusability of the catalyst was studied which demonstrates drastic decrease in energy expenditure and waste generation in the production of biodiesel. Biodiesel viscosity was higher whereas other properties were found to be similar to those of commercial diesel oil and compared with ASTM D6751 and EN standards.
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  227. NOx emissions from low-temperature combustion of biodiesel made of various feedstocks and blends
    Abstract

    Omidvarborna, H.; Kumar, A.; Kim, D. S. 2015. NOx emissions from low-temperature combustion of biodiesel made of various feedstocks and blends. Fuel Processing Technology. 140113-118

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are one of the major hazardous emissions from biodiesel-fueled engines that need to be regulated stringently. In this paper, NOx emissions from different types of biodiesel were studied using a laboratory combustion chamber. Biodiesel fuels with various portion of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO) were combusted at 330-420 degrees C simulating low-temperature combustion (LTC). Combustion analysis results show that neat biodiesel fuels had longer ignition delay and lower ignition temperatures compared to ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD). The unsaturation of biodiesel samples and their blends with ULSD was analyzed for its effects on NOx emissions. The results showed that biodiesel with more unsaturated fatty acids emitted more NOx compared to biodiesel with more saturated fatty acids. A paired t-test showed that neat TO, WCO, and WCO B50 had significant reduction in the formation of NOx compared with ULSD and SME B20. It is concluded that less unsaturated FAME fuels would be preferable when reduction of NOx emissions is a critical issue. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  228. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Carthamus Tinctorius L. CV. Thori 78: A Novel Cultivar of Safflower Crop
    Abstract

    Ahmad, M.; Teong, L. K.; Sultana, S.; Khan, I. U.; Zuhairi, A. A.; Zafar, M.; Hassan, F. U. 2015. Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Carthamus Tinctorius L. CV. Thori 78: A Novel Cultivar of Safflower Crop. International Journal of Green Energy. 12(5) 447-452

    In the present work, the potential of novel cultivar of safflower seed crop with highest 52% oil contents is evaluated for the first time as a feedstock for biodiesel synthesis. The specific aim of this study was to optimize the transesterification process for maximum biodiesel yield using different parameters and to evaluate its fuel compatibility with mineral diesel. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of safflower oil were produced by standard transesterification process using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. Optimum biodiesel yield of 98% achieved at 65 degrees C, 5:1 methanol: oil molar ratio, 0.32 g catalyst concentration, and reaction time of 80 min. The kinematic viscosity@ 40 degrees C (cSt), flash point, sulfur contents (wt%), pour point and cloud point of pure safflower oil biodiesel (SOB) were found to be 5.32 mm(2)/s, 80 degrees C, 0.00041%, -9 degrees C and -11 degrees C, respectively. These together with other fuel parameters were in accordance with ASTM standards. The results obtained indicate that SOB appears to be the potential feedstock for biodiesel production and can be used as an alternate source of fuel in diesel engines.
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  229. Pangium edule Reinw: A Promising Non-edible Oil Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Atabani, A. E.; Badruddin, I. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Chong, W. T.; Lee, K. T. 2015. Pangium edule Reinw: A Promising Non-edible Oil Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering. 40(2) 583-594

    Biodiesel production from non-edible feedstocks is currently drawing much attention due to legitimate concerns about the effects of using edible oil for fuel. Pangium edule Reinw is a non-edible feedstock. Pangium is a tall tree native to the Micronesia, Melanesia and the mangrove swamps of South-East Asia. In this study, biodiesel production and characterization from P. edule oil was reported. The seeds were obtained from Bogor, Indonesia. The oil was found to have an acid value of 19.62 mg KOH/g oil. Therefore, a two-step acid-base-catalysed transesterification was used to produce biodiesel. This was followed by evaluating the physical and chemical properties of biodiesel and its blends with diesel. It has been found that the determined properties of P. edule methyl ester indicate that the oil can be considered as a future biodiesel source. The most remarkable feature of P. edule is its cloud, pour and cold filter plugging points. This biodiesel yielded cloud, pour and cold filter plugging points of -6, -4 and -8 A degrees C, respectively. This indicates the viability of using this biodiesel in cold countries. Therefore, it is suggested that more research should be conducted on P. edule for future biodiesel production.
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  230. Physio-chemical assessment of beauty leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum) as second-generation biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Jahirul, M. I.; Brown, R. J.; Senadeera, W.; Ashwath, N.; Rasul, M. G.; Rahman, M. M.; Hossain, F. M.; Moghaddam, L.; Islam, M. A.; O'Hara, I. M. 2015. Physio-chemical assessment of beauty leaf (Calophyllum inophyllum) as second-generation biodiesel feedstock. Energy Reports. 1204-215

    Recently, second-generation (non-vegetable oil) feedstocks for biodiesel production are receiving significant attention due to the cost and social effects connected with utilising food products for the production of energy products. The Beauty leaf tree (Calophyllum inophyllum) is a potential source of non-edible oil for producing second-generation biodiesel because of its suitability for production in an extensive variety of atmospheric condition, easy cultivation, high fruit production rate, and the high oil content in the seed. In this study, oil was extracted from Beauty leaf tree seeds through three different oil extraction methods. The important physical and chemical properties of these extracted Beauty leaf oils were experimentally analysed and compared with other commercially available vegetable oils. Biodiesel was produced using a two-stage esterification process combining of an acid catalysed pre-esterification process and an alkali catalysed transesterification process. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles and important physicochemical properties were experimentally measured and estimated using equations based on the FAME analysis. The quality of Beauty leaf biodiesels was assessed and compared with commercially available biodiesels through multivariate data analysis using PROMETHEE-GAIA software. The results show that mechanical extraction using a screw press produces oil at a low cost, however, results in low oil yields compared with chemical oil extraction. High pressure and temperature in the extraction process increase oil extraction performance. On the contrary, this process increases the free fatty acid content in the oil. A clear difference was found in the physical properties of Beauty leaf oils, which eventually affected the oil to biodiesel conversion process.
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  231. Policy Assessment of Potential Biodiesel Feedstock Supply in Thailand
    Abstract

    Keson, J.; Ratchaniphont, A.; Wongsai, S.; Wongsai, N. 2015. Policy Assessment of Potential Biodiesel Feedstock Supply in Thailand. 2015 International Conference on Alternative Energy in Developing Countries and Emerging Economies. 79710-718

    The Thai government has promoted the Renewable and Alternative Energy Development Plan for 25 percent in 10 years (AEDP 2012-2021) to reduce the energy importation. This study aimed to assess the potential development of alternative source for biodiesel sector. A case study of three provinces, Krabi, Suratthani, and Nakorn si thammarat, was considered to seek for suitable areas for oil palm expansion based on the land suitability guided by the Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) of the nation. The study emphasized on the AEDP policy implementation for forest conservation and the restriction of expansion only on the pre-existing croplands, mainly the rubber plantation. The results indicated that only the land availability and land suitability in the three provinces would be sufficient for oil palm expansion target as far as any ages of rubber plantation were considered. In fact, only the old plantation with lower production should be deliberated as suitable for land conversion to energy crops. An initial investigation of the possibility of rubber plantation age classification using remote sensing data from THEOS satellite was demonstrated. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  232. Pongamia pinnata: A Candidate Tree for Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Kaushik, N.; Mann, S.; Kumar, K. 2015. Pongamia pinnata: A Candidate Tree for Biodiesel Feedstock. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(14) 1526-1533

    Biodiesel growth from non-food feedstock is gaining attention around the world. Great emphasis is being given to the production of biodiesel in view of its enormous economic, social, and environmental benefits. Biodiesel is a fast-developing alternative fuel in many developed and developing countries of the world. The biodiesel production from vegetable oils during 2004-2005 was estimated to be 2.36 million tonnes globally. Of this, EU countries accounted for about 82% and the USA about 6%. Global bio-diesel production is set to reach some 24 billion liters by 2017. Shortage of edible oil for human consumption in developing countries does not favor its use for biodiesel production. Hence, in India, the focus on tree borne oilseeds as the source of feedstock for biodiesel production has highlighted the role of Pongamia pinnata (L.). The tree is valued for shade, ornamental value, seed oil, fodder, and green manure. In recent times, the interest in this tree is mainly focused on the use of its seed oil as biodiesel, which is environmentally safe, nontoxic, and biodegradable.
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  233. Potential of biodiesel production from palm oil at Brazilian Amazon
    Abstract

    Kuss, V. V.; Kuss, A. V.; da Rosa, R. G.; Aranda, D. A. G.; Cruz, Y. R. 2015. Potential of biodiesel production from palm oil at Brazilian Amazon. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 501013-1020

    The search for alternative fuel sources is indispensable to reduce the dependence from petroleum fuels. Biodiesel which is produced from oils and fats is an excellent substitute for diesel. In terms of feedstock, palm oil is highlighted as the traditional culture with best income in oil per hectare and it is one of the most consumed oils in the world. Brazil has great amount of illegally deforested areas in Amazon and these places are able to cultivate palm oil. These areas may be recovered through the palm sustainable planting, developing familiar agriculture and the region's economy, besides placing Brazil as one country with highest potential of biodiesel and palm oil production. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  234. Potential of Nostoc Muscorum Cultured in Bg-Ii Medium as Biodiesel Feedstock Source: Evaluation of Nutrient Requirement for Culture and Its Daily Lipid Content
    Abstract

    Rusydi, R.; Yakupitiyage, A.; Gallardo, W. G.; Dabbadie, L.; Anal, A. K. 2015. Potential of Nostoc Muscorum Cultured in Bg-Ii Medium as Biodiesel Feedstock Source: Evaluation of Nutrient Requirement for Culture and Its Daily Lipid Content. International Symposium on Aquatic Product Processing (Isapprosh) 2013. 1103-113

    Increment of industrial development and energy demands for transportation and electricity have increased diesel-fuel uses to fulfil global energy needs. Carbon emission as impact of high fossil diesel use which pollutes the air gradually increases green house gases (GHG) and increases the intensity of acid rains. Furthermore, scarcity of fossil-fuels resources has caused high price of diesel-fuel which in turn to have increased the prices of all commodities. Nostoc muscorum is filamentous Cyanobacteria species which lives both terrestrial and freshwater aquatic environment. This strain has good ability in producing high biomass and potential in producing lipid. In where, Nostoc muscorum has potential as biodiesel feedstock alternative of food-plants sources. This study was conducting to evaluate the potential of Nostoc muscorum cultured in BG-II medium as biodiesel feedstock source. Evaluation of the nutrient requirement of Nostoc muscorum cultured in BG-II medium was done through assimilation of nitrate (NaNO3)-phosphate (K2HPO4). Biomass production as growth parameter was measured by weighing the dried biomass for 14 days of culture. Daily lipid production was evaluated by lipid extraction using Soxhlet method. The result showed that Nostoc muscorum cultured in BG-II medium required 644.6795 mg/L of NO3- and 25.1566 mg/L of HPO4- with the highest biomass production 0.21 grams/300 mL. Furthermore, Nostoc muscorum as multicellular Cyanobacteria could grow well in BG-II medium at SGR 0.0964 mu/day. Lipid production of Nostoc muscorum during cultivation in BG-II for 14 days decreased day by day. The highest lipid production was reached up in day 4th of culture that was 9.53 mg/g. Based on this study, Nostoc muscorum has good potential as biodiesel feedstock through producing high biomass in BG-II medium.
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  235. Preparation of Vegetable Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock Via Re-Esterification: A Suitable Catalyst
    Abstract

    Jansri, S. 2015. Preparation of Vegetable Oil as Biodiesel Feedstock Via Re-Esterification: A Suitable Catalyst. 2015 International Conference on Alternative Energy in Developing Countries and Emerging Economies. 79143-148

    A suitable heterogeneous catalyst for reducing 20 wt.% of free fatty acid (FFA) that is contained in vegetable oil to less than 3 wt.% through re-esterification was investigated. There were two groups of heterogeneous catalyst used to reduce FFA: 1) zinc compound: Zn, ZnCl2, ZnO and ZnSO4 center dot 7H(2)O, and 2) stannum compound: SnCl4 center dot 5H(2)O and SnCl2 center dot 2H(2)O. The reaction was operated at 150 degrees C under ambient pressure, stirred at 600 rpm. with spent retention time of approximately 180 min. Final FFA in re-esterification of products, which were cleaned up with centrifuging and hot wet washing, was monitored. The results after centrifuge indicated that only two catalysts (Zn and ZnO) were capable of promoting the reaction and achieving the requirement. Moreover, final FFA in re-esterification of products, which were cleaned up with hot wet washing, was also monitored. It was found that no significant differences existed in the two purification techniques except for the heterogeneous Zn catalyst in re-esterification product. The results showed that thin layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector (TLC/FID) could not detect all of the compositions in the pre-treatment product using Zn as a catalyst. Therefore, ZnO was the most suitable catalyst for effectively reducing FFA via a re-esterification process. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  236. Process intensification in biodiesel production with energy reduction by pinch analysis
    Abstract

    Plesu, V.; Puigcasas, J. S.; Surroca, G. B.; Bonet, J.; Ruiz, A. E. B.; Tuluc, A.; Llorens, J. 2015. Process intensification in biodiesel production with energy reduction by pinch analysis. Energy. 79273-287

    The overall process of biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oil and methanol is spontaneous according to Gibbs energy values. Therefore, a classical process scheme consisting of reactor followed by distillation columns train is grouped in a single hybrid reactive extraction column. Minimum energy consumption is calculated using Pinch Analysis, taking into account the minimum energy thermodynamically required by process units, e.g. distillation. Process Integration decreases dramatically the minimum energy requirements. Using Pinch Analysis, a useful tool is provided to calculate the minimum energy requirements of alternative processes, the effect of inclusion of the distillation column is to be underlined. The intensified process provides biodiesel and glycerol valorisation with very low energy consumption. A conceptual design of hybrid reactive extraction column useful for several input oils and fats is proposed, considering first pure triglycerides as raw materials and then complex mixtures of triglycerides as in real oil compositions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  237. Production and characterization of biodiesel derived from Hodgsonia macrocarpa seed oil
    Abstract

    Cao, L. C.; Zhang, S. C. 2015. Production and characterization of biodiesel derived from Hodgsonia macrocarpa seed oil. Applied Energy. 146135-140

    Using inexpensive and high-quality oil feedstock is an effective means to produce low-cost biodiesel. This work investigated the production and fuel properties of biodiesel derived from Hodgsonia macrocarpa (HM). The oil content of HM seed was 71.65 wt%, which is much higher than that of many potential oil plants. With traditional base-catalyzed transesterification, biodiesel was readily prepared from HM seed oil. The biodiesel yield was 95.46 wt% from HM seed oil. Biodiesel derived from HM met all ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications, except for oxidative stability (OS). The OS specifications of the two biodiesel standards were met after treatment of HM biodiesel with 400 ppm tertbutyl hydroquinone. The biodiesel exhibited excellent transportation safety and cold flow properties, with flash point of 153 degrees C, pour point of -9 degrees C, and cold filter plugging point of -7 degrees C. (c) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  238. Production and fuel properties of biodiesel from Firmiana platanifolia L.f. as a potential non-food oil source
    Abstract

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, Q.; Chang, F.; Pan, H.; Liu, X. F.; Li, H.; Hu, D. Y.; Yang, S. 2015. Production and fuel properties of biodiesel from Firmiana platanifolia L.f. as a potential non-food oil source. Industrial Crops and Products. 76768-771

    For the first time, Firmiana platanifolia L.f. was investigated as a promising don-food oil component of biodiesel production. F. platanifolia L.f. was obtained from resources available in China with a high oil content (36.47%). The low acid value of F. platanifolia L.f. (1.19 mg KOH g(-1)) indicated that the raw oil required no acid pretreatment. Additionally, properties of a biodiesel product derived from this plant were evaluated, which were found to fulfill ASTM 06751 and EN 14214 biodiesel specifications, possessing a good cetane number (58.2) and excellent oxidation stability (13.3 h). The results indicate that F. platanifolia L.f. is a potential species to be used as a biodiesel feedstock in China. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  239. Production of biodiesel from chicken wastes by various alcohol-catalyst combinations
    Abstract

    Lin, C. W.; Tsai, S. W. 2015. Production of biodiesel from chicken wastes by various alcohol-catalyst combinations. Journal of Energy in Southern Africa. 26(1) 36-45

    An environmentally friendly biorefinery process for producing biodiesel from chicken wastes was performed for this study. Low acid value (0.13+/-0.01 mg KOH/g) chicken oil was obtained by preparing chicken wastes with moderate heating and filtration processes that minimized damage to the lipids and thus facilitated subsequent reactions. Methanollipids in a molar ratio of 6: 1 and a methanolethanol-lipids mixture in a molar ratio of 3: 3: 1 were both reacted with 1% KOH catalyst for transesterfication. Furthermore, ethanol-lipids in a molar ration of 6: 1 were analogously transesterified with 1% sodium ethoxide. The amounts of biodiesel were 771.54 mg/mL+/-15.28, 722.98 mg/mL+/-37.38, and 714.86 mg/mL+/-29.99 from methanol, ethanol, and a mixture of methanol/ethanol (3: 3), respectively, after transesterification. The total amount of ethyl ester was comparable with the total amount of methyl ester. In addition, ethanol is a renewable resource and a biorefinery concept can be contributed for biodiesel production. Furthermore, transesterification of chicken oil with a mixture of methanol/ethanol (3: 3) only needed a relatively short reaction time of an hour. Densities, viscosities, sulphur contents, acid values, and flash points of all esters were within the specifications of CNS 15072 and EN 14214. The transesterification system for chicken oil in ethanol and mixed methanol/ethanol (3: 3) demonstrated in this study is a potential candidate for biodiesel production.
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  240. Production of high quality biodiesel from waste acid oil obtained during edible oil refining using ion-exchange resin catalysts
    Abstract

    Shibasaki-Kitakawa, N.; Hiromori, K.; Ihara, T.; Nakashima, K.; Yonemoto, T. 2015. Production of high quality biodiesel from waste acid oil obtained during edible oil refining using ion-exchange resin catalysts. Fuel. 13911-17

    This study was aimed at the continuous production of high quality biodiesel fuel, which fully satisfies international specifications, from waste acid oil with free fatty acids (FFA) content of > 95 wt%. First, the effect of water on the esterification of FFA with the cation-exchange resin catalyst was discussed. Then, a simple method for pretreating the resin without drying, only supplying alcohol of 1.5 cm(3)/g (wet resin), was proposed. Second, the operating conditions for the continuous esterification of FFA to biodiesel were established. The complete conversion of FFA was achieved at the mole ratio of alcohol: fatty acid residue of 2:1 and sufficient residence time. Subsequent processing with an anionexchange resin catalyst for the transesterification of triglycerides in the oil was necessary to produce high quality biodiesel. The biodiesel productivity with acid oil was about 8.5 times higher than that with triglyceride-rich oil. This process demonstrated a commercially feasible route to high quality biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  241. Purification of glycerol from biodiesel production by sequential extraction monitored by H-1 NMR
    Abstract

    Contreras-Andrade, I.; Avella-Moreno, E.; Sierra-Cantor, J. F.; Guerrero-Fajardo, C. A.; Sodre, J. R. 2015. Purification of glycerol from biodiesel production by sequential extraction monitored by H-1 NMR. Fuel Processing Technology. 13299-104

    The purification of raw glycerin in biodiesel production can provide economic benefits and help to avoid residue accumulation, thus reducing environmental impacts. In this work, the glycerin obtained from biodiesel production by catalytic transesterification of waste cooking oil was purified by sequential extraction with organic solvents, followed by discoloration with activated coal and monitoring by H-1 NMR spectroscopy. Through sequential extraction with petroleum ether and toluene, in that order, followed by discoloration with activated carbon, 99.2% pure glycerin was obtained. This technique is shown to allow for glycerin purification using less drastic or hazardous conditions than those commonly applied in vacuum distillation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  242. Pyrolysis Oil-Based Lipid Production as Biodiesel Feedstock by Rhodococcus opacus
    Abstract

    Wei, Z.; Zeng, G. M.; Kosa, M.; Huang, D. L.; Ragauskas, A. J. 2015. Pyrolysis Oil-Based Lipid Production as Biodiesel Feedstock by Rhodococcus opacus. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 175(2) 1234-1246

    Light oil from pyrolysis, which accounts for similar to 10 % carbon yield of the starting biomass, is a complex aqueous product that is difficult to utilize and usually discarded. This work presents the feasibility of light oil as a sole carbon source to support the growth of Rhodococcus opacus (R. opacus) that in turn accumulate triacylglycerols as biodiesel feedstock. Two types of bacteria (R. opacus PD630 and DSM 1069) were selected in this study. Research results showed that after short adaption periods both strains can grow well on this complex carbon source, as proved by the consumption of oligomers and monomers in light oil. Lipid content by R. opacus PD630 and DSM 1069 was observed up to 25.8 % and 22.0 % of cell dry weight, respectively. Palmitic and stearic acids were found to be the predominant fatty acids in these bacterial cells. In addition, the light oil-based lipid production can be enhanced by reducing the pH value from 7 to 4, especially in case of DSM 1069.
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  243. Rapid high conversion of high free fatty acid feedstock into biodiesel using continuous flow vortex fluidics
    Abstract

    Britton, J.; Raston, C. L. 2015. Rapid high conversion of high free fatty acid feedstock into biodiesel using continuous flow vortex fluidics. Rsc Advances. 5(3) 2276-2280

    Conversion of high free fatty acid (FFA) feedstock (94.4%) to biodiesel with undetectable FFA content is effective using room temperature vortex fluidic flow chemistry, with the conversion taking < 1 minute residence time, using dramatically less methanol and acid catalyst compared to other processes. Optimum conditions are 1 : 6 volumetric ratio of oil feedstock to methanol and 0.2 molar equivalents of H2SO4 catalyst loading, for a combined flow rate of 3.50 mL min(-1) in a 17.7 mm internal diameter tube rotating at 7500 rpm. This work furthers the viability of using high FFA content feedstocks for biodiesel production.
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  244. Recoverable and reusable aluminium solvated species used as a homogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from brown grease
    Abstract

    Pastore, C.; Barca, E.; Del Moro, G.; Lopez, A.; Mininni, G.; Mascolo, G. 2015. Recoverable and reusable aluminium solvated species used as a homogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from brown grease. Applied Catalysis a-General. 50148-55

    Homogeneous aluminium species, obtained by dissolving AlCl3 center dot 6H(2)O into methanol, were characterised and tested as catalysts into the direct esterification of free fatty acids with methanol. The nature and the role of this catalyst was further investigated through ESI-MS and FTIR spectroscopy, by revealing an immediate exchange reaction between methanol and the water molecules originally bounded to the aluminium, producing a final mixed methanol-aquo-complex whose reactivity was found to be comparable to that of a methanolic solution of hydrogen chloride. Reaction conditions were optimised using the desirability function applied on the response surface methodology analysis of a Box Behnken factorial design of experiments. By carrying out the reaction at 72 degrees C for 120 min and using a catalyst amount of 1.5% (mol of Al respect to fatty acids), almost 94% of the starting acids were converted. At the end of the reaction, a biphasic system was obtained in which the upper methanolic phase, which contained most of the starting catalyst, was separated from the heaviest phase, mainly composed of fatty acid methyl esters. Such a distribution not only allowed the biodiesel to be easily separated, but also the catalysts were efficiently recovered and reused for at least four times, determining a total TON greater than 200, without revealing any loss of its activity. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  245. Reducing the life cycle GHG emissions of microalgal biodiesel through integration with ethanol production system
    Abstract

    Maranduba, H. L.; Robra, S.; Nascimento, I. A.; da Cruz, R. S.; Rodrigues, L. B.; Neto, J. A. D. 2015. Reducing the life cycle GHG emissions of microalgal biodiesel through integration with ethanol production system. Bioresource Technology. 19421-27

    Despite environmental benefits of algal-biofuels, the energy-intensive systems for producing microalgae-feedstock may result in high GHG emissions. Trying to overcome energy-costs, this research analyzed the biodiesel production system via dry-route, based on Chlorella vulgaris cultivated in race-ways, by comparing the GHG-footprints of diverse microalgae-biodiesel scenarios. These involved: the single system of biomass production (C0); the application of pyrolysis on the residual microalgal biomass (cake) from the oil extraction process (C1); the same as C0, with anaerobic cake co-digested with cattle manure (C2); the same conditions as in C1 and C2, by integrating in both cases (respectively C3 and C4), the microalgae cultivation with an autonomous ethanol distillery. The reduction of GHG emissions in scenarios with no such integration (C1 and C2), compared to CO, was insignificant (0.53% and 4.67%, respectively), whereas in the scenarios with integration with ethanol production system, the improvements were 53.57% for C3 and 63.84% for C4. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  246. Re-esterification of high free fatty acid oils for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Kombe, G. G. 2015. Re-esterification of high free fatty acid oils for biodiesel production. Biofuels-Uk. 6(1-2) 31-36

    The high free fatty acids (FFA) in most of the non-edible oils hinders their direct application in the production of biodiesel by using the traditional homogeneous base transesterification. In this study, a low temperature re-esterification process has been applied to reduce the FFA in castor oil for base catalysed transesterification. The response surface methodology based on central composite design was used to model and optimize the re-esterification efficiency under three reaction variables: reaction time, temperature, and glycerol to oil mass ratio. The optimum conditions for the highest re-esterification efficiency of 99.01% were found to be temperature of 56(circle)C, reaction time of 85 minutes, and 2.34 g/g glycerol to oil mass ratio. These conditions reduced the high FFA of crude castor oil from 6.50% to 0.06% which is below the 3% recommended for alkali catalysed transesterification. The re-esterified oil was then transesterified using homogeneous base transesterification, resulting into a conversion of 97.95%. Except for viscosity, most fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were found to be comparable to those of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards.
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  247. Response Surface Optimization of Biodiesel Production via Catalytic Transesterification of Fatty Acids
    Abstract

    Mir, M.; Ghoreishi, S. M. 2015. Response Surface Optimization of Biodiesel Production via Catalytic Transesterification of Fatty Acids. Chemical Engineering & Technology. 38(5) 835-843

    Oil from Jatropha seeds was extracted by supercritical CO2. A catalytic transesterification reactor was employed for biodiesel production from extracted oil in which fatty acids like palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid were converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) with sodium methoxide as the catalyst. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis identified and quantitatively determined the amount of FAMEs. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to find the optimal operating conditions in order to maximize the biodiesel yield. Under the RSM-predicted optimum conditions, the maximum yields of four individual FAMEs and their combination as biodiesel were determined. The RSM model demonstrated that the linear and square terms of four variables and the interaction of flow rate and dynamic time significantly influence the biodiesel yield.
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  248. Schleichera oleosa L oil as feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Silitonga, A. S.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Ong, H. C.; Kusumo, F.; Aditiya, H. B.; Ghazali, N. N. N. 2015. Schleichera oleosa L oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fuel. 15663-70

    The non-edible oil from Schleichera oleosa possesses the potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. In this study, the biodiesel production was performed using two-step transesterification process on a laboratory scale. The parameters studied were reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, catalyst concentration, reaction time and catalysts type. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the methyl ester yield. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: reaction temperature at 55 degrees C, methanol to oil molar ratio of 8:1, 1 wt.% of hydroxide catalyst (KOH and NaOH) and 1 wt.% methoxide catalyst (CH3OK and CH3ONa) for reaction time 90 min. Based from these optimum conditions, the observed ester yields from different catalysts were average 96%, 93%, 91% and 88% for KOH, NaOH, CH3OK and CH3ONa respectively as the catalyst. Schleichera oleosa methyl ester (SOME) exhibited a satisfying oxidative stability of 7.23 h and high cetane number (50.6) compared to petrol diesel (49.7). Besides, SOME has good pour and cloud point of -3.0 degrees C and -1.0 degrees C respectively due to high unsaturated fatty chain. As a conclusion, this study reveals that biodiesel production from SOME, as one of non-edible feedstock, is able to be an alternative for petrol diesel. Moreover, the produced biodiesel from SOME could be used in diesel engine without major modification due to its properties and can be used in cold regions. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  249. Study of an energy-integrated biodiesel production process using supercritical methanol and a low-cost feedstock
    Abstract

    Manuale, D. L.; Torres, G. C.; Vera, C. R.; Yori, J. C. 2015. Study of an energy-integrated biodiesel production process using supercritical methanol and a low-cost feedstock. Fuel Processing Technology. 140252-261

    The supercritical biodiesel production process has some disadvantages such as: high reaction temperature, large molar methanol-to-oil ratios (R) and large energy consumption. To mitigate these problems, an energy integrated process in which biodiesel is obtained in a continuous tubular reactor operating at a reaction temperature of 280 degrees C, R = 20, a residence time of 1 h and a pressure of 110 bar, is proposed. A low-cost lipid feedstock (chicken oil) was used as raw material for testing the process. The enthalpy content of the stream exiting the supercritical reactor was used to eliminate the unreacted methanol in an adiabatic flash drum. The operating conditions of the adiabatic flash were optimized to meet the specification of water and methanol content in the biodiesel phase and minimize the ester and acid content in the vapor phase. These conditions were: P = 0.1 bar and T = 178 degrees C. For these conditions the methanol content is 88-90% in the vapor phase and lower than 0.2% in the biodiesel phase. A scheme was developed for an energy integrated process maximizing the heat recovery. Composition, temperature and pressure of the streams were determined and also the amount of heat exchanged in each unit. In order to fulfill the quality restrictions the final content of FFA in the biodiesel product had to be further adjusted by adsorption over bleaching silica. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  250. Supercritical carbon dioxide-based integrated continuous extraction of oil from chicken feather meal, and its conversion to biodiesel in a packed-bed enzymatic reactor, at pilot scale
    Abstract

    Gameiro, M.; Lisboa, P.; Paiva, A.; Barreiros, S.; Simoes, P. 2015. Supercritical carbon dioxide-based integrated continuous extraction of oil from chicken feather meal, and its conversion to biodiesel in a packed-bed enzymatic reactor, at pilot scale. Fuel. 153135-142

    The continuous production of biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters; FAME) from chicken feather meal (CFM) was carried out in supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2), in a process combining extraction of oil from CFM followed by transesterification of the CFM oil with methanol. First, extraction experiments were carried out at different pressure, temperature and solvent flow rate conditions to assess the influence of these process parameters on the extraction rate and composition of extracted oil. Over 90% of the oil available in CFM was extracted by sc-CO2 in 60 min. Oleic acid (C18:1), palmitic acid (C16:0) and linoleic acid (C18:2) were the major components of the oil extracted, accounting for ca. 84% w/w. The integrated extraction and enzymatic transesterification of CFM oil was then carried out at 40 degrees C and 250 bar, at solvent flow rates in the range 30-150 g/min, for oil: methanol molar ratios of 1:6-1:24, using Lipozyme RM IM (R) as biocatalyst, in a pilot plant unit. The lowest FAME yield obtained was 96.7%. Both the extraction and reaction steps were modeled, based on a broken and intact cells approach and the consideration of three consecutive steps, respectively, and a good agreement with experimental data was obtained. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  251. Synthesis of Biodiesel through Catalytic Transesterification of Various Feedstocks using Fast Solvothermal Technology: A Critical Review
    Abstract

    Soltani, S.; Rashid, U.; Yunus, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2015. Synthesis of Biodiesel through Catalytic Transesterification of Various Feedstocks using Fast Solvothermal Technology: A Critical Review. Catalysis Reviews-Science and Engineering. 57(4) 407-435

    The fossil fuel reserves are depleting at a more rapid rate as a result of the population growth and the ensuing energy utilization. Biodiesel is a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters produced from the transesterification of plant oils or animal fats. Moreover, the source of raw materials and manufacturing costs have become the major hurdle in the commercialization of biodiesel; thus, alternative sources such as the use of waste oils and non-edible oils together with biodiesel production techniques have long been considered. Selecting an appropriate feedstock and increasing production yield are two important approaches to decrease the costs of biodiesel production. Typically, biodiesel, which operates with electrical or conventional heating to generate high efficiency of the product, consumes a huge amount of power in a long reaction time. In contrast, chemical reactions speed up by microwave irradiation which results in producing high yields of product in a shorter chemical reaction time. In this extensive article, an effort has been made to review the use of microwave technology including multi-feedstock and recent studies on microwave-assisted heterogeneously catalyzed processes for biodiesel production. The heterogeneous catalyst performance has also been covered, including the measurement of their pysico-chemical properties. The microwave irradiation used for the synthesis of biodiesel is also included. In addition, the reaction variables impacting the transesterification process, such as heating system, microwave power, type and amount of heterogeneous catalyst, oil/methanol molar ratio, reaction time, temperature and mixing intensity, are covered. The final part of this article will cover the details of previously performed work on heterogeneous catalysts. Finally, energy balances for the traditional and microwave-based processes, conclusions, and recommendation on the topic are presented. The aim this article is to focus on recent studies on microwave-assisted heterogeneously catalyzed processes.
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  252. The potential of nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) seed oil as biodiesel feedstock: effect of seed moisture content and particle size on oil yield
    Abstract

    Fadhlullah, M.; Widiyanto, N. B.; Restiawaty, E. 2015. The potential of nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) seed oil as biodiesel feedstock: effect of seed moisture content and particle size on oil yield. 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (Icseea) 2014 Sustainable Energy for Green Mobility. 68177-185

    Nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) is one of the most potential plants for biodiesel feedstock because of its high oil content. Mechanical extraction using screw press is one method to get oil from nyamplung seed. Result of the extraction is affected by the seed's condition, such as moisture content and particle size. The paper presents experimental results that estimate the vegetable oil production potential of C. inophyllum. The results show the effect of C. inophyllum seed moisture content and particle size on oil yield, andthe characteristics of C. inophyllum oil. The seed moisture contents used in this experiment are 0%, 1.2%, and 20%, whereas the average seed particle size used are 0.81, 2.90, and 8.60 mm. The C. inophyllum fruits were obtained from Cipatujah Sub-district, Tasikmalaya Regency. The methods used include fruit and seed preparation, seed moisture content and particle size conditioning, mechanical extraction, oil characteristics analysis, and C. inophyllum oil production potential calculation. The optimum seed moisture content to obtain high oil yield is 1.2% which yields 33.39% oil, while the optimum seed particle size to obtain high oil yield is 8.60 mm which yields 33.46% oil. The bigger the particle size will affect on higher oil yield. From this research, it can be concluded that the trees in Cipatujahhave potential to produce C. inophyllum oil up to 5.13 L/tree/year. C. inophyllum oil yield is effected by seed moisture content and particle size, and it has characteristics that support its utilization as biodiesel feedstock. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  253. The prospects of using Acrocomia aculeata (macauba) a non-edible biodiesel feedstock in Brazil
    Abstract

    Cesar, A. D.; Almeida, F. D.; de Souza, R. P.; Silva, G. C.; Atabani, A. E. 2015. The prospects of using Acrocomia aculeata (macauba) a non-edible biodiesel feedstock in Brazil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 491213-1220

    Biofuel production has stood out at the international level on account of its more environmentally sustainable characteristics and the potential to promote rural development in developing countries. In Brazil, biodiesel is being produced through legislation requiring the addition (currently 7%) of biofuel to petroleum diesel. The federal program (PNPB) aimed the social inclusion of small farmers and diversification of Brazilian matrix by incentives regional crops production. The possibility of broadening raw material sources for biodiesel production benefits the Brazilian competitiveness. At the same time, facing the vast varieties of raw materials available in this country, it is a challenge to figure out which crop would be more appropriate to this chain. The palm species Acrocomia aculeata (macauba) could provide an alternative resource for energy diversification in Brazil and Latin American countries. The crop species has drawn attention due to its high productivity rates and because it is not used for food purposes. In this sense, this paper examines the opportunity of biodiesel production from A. aculeata as a potential source for future energy supply, particularly for biodiesel, especially in Brazil. This paper presents A. aculeata and some points that allow compare with other crops. Several related aspects are covered in this paper, such as economics, botanical description, the extraction and compositions, physical and chemical properties of crude A. aculeata oil and fatty acid composition of A. aculeata. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  254. Thermophysical Properties of Castor Oil (Ricinus Communis L.) Biodiesel and Its Blends
    Abstract

    Gokdogan, O.; Eryilmaz, T.; Yesilyurt, M. K. 2015. Thermophysical Properties of Castor Oil (Ricinus Communis L.) Biodiesel and Its Blends. Ct&F-Ciencia Tecnologia Y Futuro. 6(1) 95-128

    In this study, biodiesel (methyl ester) was produced from Castor Oil (Ricinus communis L.) (CO) using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and methanol (CH3OH) by the two-step transesterification method. Nine different fuel blends (2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 75% by volume blending with diesel) were prepared. The density values of Castor Oil Biodiesel (COB) and its blends were measured at the temperature range from 0 to 93 degrees C in steps of 5 degrees C and the kinematic viscosity values of COB and its blends were measured at the temperature range from 30 to 100 degrees C in the steps of 5 degrees C. The results showed that the density, kinematic viscosity, calorific value, flash point, pH, copper strip corrosion and water content of COB are 932.40 kg.m(-3), 15.069 mm(2).s(-1), 38.600 MJ.kg(-1), 182 degrees C, 7, 1a and 1067.7 mg.kg(-1), respectively. The density and kinematic viscosity of fuel samples decrease as temperature increases; and also these properties decrease as a result of the increase in the amount of diesel in the blends.
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  255. Transesterification Catalyzed By Lipozyme TLIM for Biodiesel Production from Low Cost Feedstock
    Abstract

    Halim, S. F. A.; Hassan, H.; Amri, N.; Bashah, N. A. A. 2015. Transesterification Catalyzed By Lipozyme TLIM for Biodiesel Production from Low Cost Feedstock. International Conference on Mathematics, Engineering and Industrial Applications 2014 (Icomeia 2014). 1660

    The development of new strategies to efficiently synthesize biodiesel is of extreme important. This is because biodiesel has been accepted worldwide as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel as alkyl ester derived from vegetable oil has considerable advantages in terms of environmental protection. The diminishing petroleum reserves are the major driving force for researchers to look for better strategies in producing biodiesel. The main hurdle to commercialization of biodiesel is the cost of the raw material. Biodiesel is usually produced from food-grade vegetable oil that is more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, biodiesel produced from food-grade vegetable oil is currently not economically feasible. Use of an inexpensive raw material such as waste cooking palm oil and non edible oil sea mango are an attractive option to lower the cost of biodiesel. This study addresses an alternative method for biodiesel production which is to use an enzymatic approach in producing biodiesel fuel from low cost feedstock waste cooking palm oil and unrefined sea mango oil using immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL IM. tert-butanol was used as the reaction medium, which eliminated both negative effects caused by excessive methanol and glycerol as the byproduct. Two variables which is methanol to oil molar ratio and enzyme loading were examine in a batch system. Transesterification of waste cooking palm oil reach 65% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Novozyme 435 based on oil weight), while transesterification of sea mango oil can reach 90% FAME yield (methanol to oil molar ratio 6:1 and 10% Lipozyme TLIM based on oil weight).
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  256. Transesterification of a novel feedstock, Cyprinus carpio fish oil: Influence of co-solvent and characterization of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Fadhil, A. B.; Al-Tikrity, E. T. B.; Albadree, M. A. 2015. Transesterification of a novel feedstock, Cyprinus carpio fish oil: Influence of co-solvent and characterization of biodiesel. Fuel. 162215-223

    The present research work explores biodiesel production from one of the novel non-edible feedstocks viz. Cyprinus carpio fish oil. Production of biodiesel from this oil was successfully performed through base-catalyzed transesterification assisted by a co-solvent. Hexane and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were chosen as the co-solvent and the catalyst, respectively. The experimental parameters included in the optimization process were type of co-solvent, type and concentration of the base catalyst, methanol to oil molar ratio, hexane to methanol volume ratio, temperature and time. The maximum yield of biodiesel from C. carpio fish oil (98.55 +/- 1.02% similar to 97.24% w/w ester content) was obtained at 0.60% KOH w/w, 5:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 1.5:1 hexane to methanol volume ratio, 50 degrees C reaction temperature and 30 min of reaction. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and thin layer chromatography were used to ensure the conversion of fish oil into biodiesel. The biodiesel properties were within the recommended biodiesel standards as prescribed by ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. The most remarkable features of C. carpio fish oil biodiesel are the flash point and viscosity which are close to those of petro diesel. Moreover, blends of biodiesel and petro diesel were complied with the limits prescribed in the ASTM D7467 standards. Hence, the oil is a potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Co-solvent transesterification of C. carpio fish oil was found to follow first order kinetics and the activation energy was calculated to be 32.46 kJ/mol. However, it was concluded that the use of co-solvent within the reaction medium enhanced yield and properties of biodiesel comparing with that produced via nonsolvent process. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  257. Two-stage cultivation of a Nannochloropsis mutant for biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Doan, Y. T. T.; Obbard, J. P. 2015. Two-stage cultivation of a Nannochloropsis mutant for biodiesel feedstock. Journal of Applied Phycology. 27(6) 2203-2208

    Optimization of mass microalgae cultures is required for the efficient production of biodiesel feedstock in terms of total fatty acid (TFA) content and a conducive fatty acid profile. A mutant strain of Nannochloropsis sp. (MT-I5), as modified via random mutagenesis and flow cytometric cell sorting, was investigated in both a single- and two-stage cultivation using 250 L laboratory raceway ponds. Culture was based on photoautotrophic biomass production (stage 1) followed by a switch to photomixotrophic growth induced by adding sodium acetate (2 mM) (stage 2). The biomass yield of the mutant in two-stage cultivation was maintained at a level similar to that of the one-stage photoautotrophic culture, but TFA content was increased by 2.3-fold. The fatty acid profile of MT-I5 also had an increased level of desirable saturated fatty acids (SFA) for use as a biodiesel feedstock, i.e. from 43 to 48 % of TFA, as well as a decreased level of less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), i.e. from 22 to 7 % of TFA. The two-stage cultivation process is of interest for the mass culture of microalgae for biofuel feedstocks, as biomass productivity can be maximized during the first stage of culture until N-starvation is achieved, followed by the enhanced synthesis of SFA in the second stage of culture by adding sodium acetate as a fixed-carbon source.
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  258. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil
    Abstract

    Saez-Bastante, J.; Ortega-Roman, C.; Pinzi, S.; Lara-Raya, F. R.; Leiva-Candia, D. E.; Dorado, M. P. 2015. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil. Bioresource Technology. 185116-124

    The main drawbacks of biodiesel production are high reaction temperatures, stirring and time. These could be alleviated by aiding transesterification with alternative energy sources, i.e. ultrasound (US). In this study, biodiesel was obtained from Camelina sativa oil, aided with an ultrasonic probe (20 kHz, 70% duty cycle, 50% amplitude). Design of experiments included the combination of sonication and agitation cycles, w/wo heating (50 degrees C). To gain knowledge about the implications of the proposed methodology, conventional transesterification was optimized, resulting in higher needs on catalyst concentration and reaction time, compared to the proposed reaction. Although FAME content met EN 14103 standard, FAME yields were lower than those provided by US-assisted transesterification. Energy consumption measurements showed that ultrasound assisted transesterification required lower energy, temperature, catalyst and reaction time. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  259. Use of HZSM-5 modified with citric acid as acid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production via esterification of oleic acid
    Abstract

    Vieira, S. S.; Magriotis, Z. M.; Ribeiro, M. F.; Graca, I.; Fernandes, A.; Lopes, J. M. F. M.; Coelho, S. M.; Santos, N. A. V.; Saczk, A. A. 2015. Use of HZSM-5 modified with citric acid as acid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production via esterification of oleic acid. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials. 201160-168

    In this study, the efficiency of citric acid as dealumination agent was evaluated in the case of zeolite HZSM-5 by varying the experimental conditions, namely concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mol L-1) and treatment temperature (60 and 80 degrees C). The effect of the CA treatment on structural, textural and acidity properties of the starting HZSM-5 material was monitored using XRD, N-2 sorption and FTIR (pyridine and collidine) measurements. Heptane and methylcyclohexane cracking model reactions were used to evaluate the catalytic behavior of the modified materials, in terms of acid strength and active sites accessibility. The modified catalysts were tested in the esterification reaction, using oleic acid as reagent and different oleic acid/methanol molar ratios. All the results show the beneficial effect of the citric acid treatment on the physicochemical properties of the final materials, with an improvement of the external acidity, a crucial parameter for the reaction considered, i.e. the oleic acid esterification. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  260. Use of Phagotrophic Microalga Ochromonas danica to Pretreat Waste Cooking Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Hosseini, M.; Ju, L. K. 2015. Use of Phagotrophic Microalga Ochromonas danica to Pretreat Waste Cooking Oil for Biodiesel Production. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 92(1) 29-35

    In this study, the feasibility of pretreatment and/or upgrading of waste cooking oil (WCO) using the microalga Ochromonas danica was investigated. Two WCO samples with initial acid values (AV) of 10.7 mg KOH/g (similar to 5.4 % FFA content) and 3.9 mg KOH/g (similar to 2.0 % FFA content) were examined. The algal cells engulfed oil droplets and grew rapidly on both WCO samples. The cell growth rates on WCO were compared with the rates on olive oil, with or without surfactant addition to make the oil droplets smaller and easier for algal ingestion. Comparison was also made with the growth rate in a sugar-based medium. More importantly, contacting the WCO with the phagotrophic O. danica cells was found to decrease the acid values of the remaining oil by 2.8 and 2.4 mg KOH/g WCO, respectively. The O. danica-pretreated WCO, with lower acid values, are potentially better feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  261. Used Vegetable Oil (UVO) As a Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in South Africa
    Abstract

    Thaba, E. C.; Mbohwa, C.; Pradhan, A. 2015. Used Vegetable Oil (UVO) As a Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in South Africa. 2015 International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (Ieom).

    Although there has been much debate about biodiesel production, only now is the government showing real interest in the sector. Small scale biodiesel production has been running for more than a decade, despite all the challenges faced by biodiesel producers. The industry remains gripped by so many challenges hampering its prospects for economic development, employment creation and alternative energy production. This paper argues that there is a need for comprehensive government support, including the protection and availing of UVO to local producers if the emerging industry should sustain.
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  262. Utilization of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass as feedstock for biodiesel and other industrially important co-products: An integrated paradigm for microalgal biorefinery
    Abstract

    Patnaik, R.; Mallick, N. 2015. Utilization of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass as feedstock for biodiesel and other industrially important co-products: An integrated paradigm for microalgal biorefinery. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 12328-336

    With an aim to design a microalgal biorefinery taking Scenedesmus obliquus as a model organism, a detailed sequential production protocol was developed for the first time for beta-carotene, biodiesel, omega-3 fatty acids, glycerol and bioethanol from S. obliquus biomass. This research study not just projects S. obliquus as a feasible option for a microalgal biorefinery but also addresses the issue of economic and environmental sustainability by suggesting an optimized nutrient condition for maximizing benefits from themicroalgal biomass. GC-MS technique has been used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the biodiesel obtained, and mass spectrophotometric technique has been used for quantitative analysis of the other co-products. The detailed process developed, yielded 0.06 g of beta-carotene, 38 g of biodiesel, 2 g of omega-3 fatty acids, 3 g of glycerol and 17 g of ethanol from 100 g of S. obliquus biomass. A comparative analysis of the total light energy consumed and costs of nutrients incurred under autotrophic and mixotrophic modes has been presented. Additionally, more than twice the number of cultivation cycles per year, producing >12 fold higher biodiesel yield and >4 fold higher yield of co-products under optimized growth condition further highlights the significance of the strategy suggested. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  263. Wastewater treatment and biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus in a two-stage cultivation process
    Abstract

    Alvarez-Diaz, P. D.; Ruiz, J.; Arbib, Z.; Barragan, J.; Garrido-Perez, M. C.; Perales, J. A. 2015. Wastewater treatment and biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus in a two-stage cultivation process. Bioresource Technology. 18190-96

    The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus was cultured in two cultivation stages: (1) in batch with real wastewater; (2) maintaining the stationary phase with different conditions of CO2, light and salinity according to a factorial design in order to improve the lipid content. The presence of the three factors increased lipid content from 35.8% to 49% at the end of the second stage; CO2 presence presented the highest direct effect increasing lipid content followed by light presence and salt presence. The omega-3 fatty acids content increased with CO2 and light presence acting in isolation, nevertheless, when both factors acted together the interaction effect was negative. The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid content of the oil from S. obliquus slightly exceeded the 1% maximum to be used as biodiesel source (EU normative). Therefore, it is suggested the blend with other oils or the selective extraction of the omega-3 fatty acids from S. obliquus oil. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  264. Water-saving analysis on an effective water reuse system in biodiesel feedstock production based on Chlorella zofingiensis fed-batch cultivation
    Abstract

    Yang, K.; Qin, L.; Wang, Z. M.; Feng, W.; Feng, P. Z.; Zhu, S. N.; Xu, J. L.; Yuan, Z. H. 2015. Water-saving analysis on an effective water reuse system in biodiesel feedstock production based on Chlorella zofingiensis fed-batch cultivation. Water Science and Technology. 71(10) 1562-1568

    The micralgae-based biofuel obtained from dairy wastewater (DWW) is considered a promising source of energy. However, this process consumes water due to the concentration of wastewater being normally too high for some micoralgae cultivation, and dilution is always needed. In this work, the cultivation of microalgae has been examined in non-recirculated water (NR) and recirculated water systems (R). The growth of Chlorella zofingiensis and the nutrient removal of DWW have been recorded. The comparison indicates the R had a little more advantage in biomass and lipid output (1.55, 0.22 g, respectively) than the NR (1.51, 0.20 g, respectively). However, the total chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and total phosphorus (TP) removals of the R were lower than those of the NR system during the culture. The highest removal of total COD, TKN, and TP were 85.05%, 93.64%, and 98.45%, respectively. Furthermore, no significant difference has been observed in the higher heating value and lipid content of the biomass of the R and NR. The results show the R can save 30% of the total water input during the culture. All above results indicate the R system has great potential in industry.
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  265. Where to produce rapeseed biodiesel and why? Mapping European rapeseed energy efficiency
    Abstract

    van Duren, I.; Voinov, A.; Arodudu, O.; Firrisa, M. T. 2015. Where to produce rapeseed biodiesel and why? Mapping European rapeseed energy efficiency. Renewable Energy. 7449-59

    Rapeseed is widely used to produce biodiesel, especially in Europe. In several studies, it has been shown that there is a good potential for growing this crop across the continent. However there is still little awareness that the energy efficiency of biofuel production from rapeseed is very low, Energy efficiency can be expressed in terms of Energy Return for Energy Invested (EROEI). We mapped EROEI values for all EU countries plus Switzerland based on expected yields derived from rapeseed suitability maps. We find that EU countries produce rapeseed biofuel with EROEI values of 2.2 and lower. We suggest that plans for biofuel cropping have to be supplemented by maps of EROEI. It is not only relevant to show where rapeseed can be grown, but we should also look at where its use for bioenergy can be efficient. In the area theoretically suitable for growing rainfed rapeseed (excluding unsuitable areas and water), 37.6% of the area can produce rape methyl ester (RME) biofuel only with an energy loss. We conclude that the energy efficiency of rapeseed biodiesel is low and spatially heterogeneous, and unless there are major technological improvements in the production process, replacing fossil fuels by biofuels from rapeseed is hardly a feasible option. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  266. A review of transesterification from low-grade feedstocks for biodiesel production with supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Zeng, D.; Li, R. S.; Wang, B.; Xu, J.; Fang, T. 2014. A review of transesterification from low-grade feedstocks for biodiesel production with supercritical methanol. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry. 87(8) 1176-1183

    Biodiesel produced from renewable energy sources has been widely researched by different countries as a potential and ecologically acceptable substitute for the conventional fuel. Considering the increasing material cost and the human consumption of edible vegetable oils, low-grade raw materials involving non-edible oils, waste cooking oils, soapstocks and animal fats have drawn much interest for biodiesel production. This paper reviews the transesterification of low-grade feedstocks to convert into biodiesel with supercritical fluid technology that is more efficient and eco-friendly. This technonogy leads to simpler separation and purification steps compared with the conventional catalytic methods. The supercritical process is insensitive to free fatty acids or water in feedstocks and requires relatively short reaction time with high ester conversion yield. Besides, potential intensified technology has also been provided for reducing the biodiesel production cost to expect an early industrial application.
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  267. Agro-industrial acidic oil as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production using (1R)-(-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M. 2014. Agro-industrial acidic oil as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel production using (1R)-(-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid. Chemical Engineering Science. 116223-227

    A mixture of low grade industrial oils such as acidic crude palm oil (ACPO) and sludge palm oil (SPO) was used for biodiesel production. A novel organic acid, (1R)-(-)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid (10-CSA), was introduced as a catalyst for esterification reaction. 10-CSA shows high activity as a catalyst in the reduction of free fatty acid (FFA) and high conversion of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and molar ratio on FFA reduction and FAME conversion were studied. The FFA content was reduced from 8% to less than 1% under optimum conditions. The final product (biodiesel fuel) produced from treated oils (ACPO and SPO) meets international biodiesel standards. This is the first time 10-CSA has been introduced as a catalyst for esterification reaction. This catalyst can treat a wide range of acidic raw materials for biodiesel production. 10-CSA is a promising catalyst and can be used for various chemical reactions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  268. An analysis of energy consumption for algal biodiesel production: Comparing the literature with current estimates
    Abstract

    Dassey, A. J.; Hall, S. G.; Theegala, C. S. 2014. An analysis of energy consumption for algal biodiesel production: Comparing the literature with current estimates. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 489-95

    Algae have significant potential compared to other biomass feedstocks to supplement current transportation fossil fuel usage. To determine the acceptability of algal biodiesel as a replacement for petroleum, a life cycle analysis (LCA) with parameters of aerial productivity, culturing, CO2 mitigation, water use, nutrient loading, biomass harvesting, lipid extraction, and energy conversion was explored on algae production in Louisiana. High and low energy estimates found in several published LCAs were compared to current realistic estimates and analyses completed by the authors. Considering a system with an aerial biomass productivity of 15 g/m(2)/day and cell lipid concentration of 20%, the energy inputs exceeded the outputs from biodiesel production by 53% under the most ideal conditions. However, slight increases in biomass productivities and lipid contents are anticipated to tilt the overall energy balance more favorably. Considering the current conservative estimates (for biomass productivity and lipid content), incorporation of value added processes such as wastewater treatment and biogas production from residual biomass, could improve the sustainability of the system, allowing it to potentially achieve a 13.2% energy surplus. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  269. An Overview of Biodiesel Extraction from the Third Generation Biomass Feedstock: Prospects and Challenges
    Abstract

    Kshirsagar, C. M.; Anand, R. 2014. An Overview of Biodiesel Extraction from the Third Generation Biomass Feedstock: Prospects and Challenges. Dynamics of Machines and Mechanisms, Industrial Research. 592-5941881-1885

    Despite of the fact that the first and the second generation biomass feedstock are attractive options for the biofuel production, these production schemes are considered unsustainable. As the demand for renewable energy grows exponentially, the practicability of the production of these energy carriers becomes tentative and limited since large arable croplands in tropical and temperate regions are required for their cultivation. Moreover, the conversion processes (i.e. thermochemical and bio-chemical) associated with the second generation biomass feedstock is far more complex and sophisticated because of the recalcitrant nature of cellulosic biomass. The biofuels, thus, derived are not cost-competitive with existing petroleum derived fuels. In future, the integration of various biochemical and bioprocessing technologies will be supporting the establishment of biomass energy programs. This paper is an attempt to review the potential of microalgal biodiesel in comparison to the first and the second generation biomass feedstock and its global prospects.
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  270. Analysis of Biodiesel Feedstock Using GCMS and Unsupervised Chemometric Methods
    Abstract

    Flood, M. E.; Goding, J. C.; O'Connor, J. B.; Ragon, D. Y.; Hupp, A. M. 2014. Analysis of Biodiesel Feedstock Using GCMS and Unsupervised Chemometric Methods. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 91(8) 1443-1452

    Various biodiesel feedstocks were evaluated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data combined with unsupervised chemometric methods of analysis. Peak areas of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) present in the biodiesel feedstocks (soybean oil, canola oil, waste grease, animal tallow, etc.) were utilized. The importance of chromatographic parameters, such as temperature program and column polarity, was examined with respect to the clustering that was observed using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Biodiesels in this study clustered based on feedstock type regardless of temperature program or column type, as long as FAME isomers were resolved from one another. As such, the number and type of FAME components required to observe this clustering was investigated further. In general, the minor components in the sample did not provide improved clustering and thus did not need to be included. In addition, data from various temperature programs or column types were combined to yield similar clustering, showing potential versatility in analyzing similar samples across laboratories using different columns and column properties. Overall, we determined that (1) minor FAME components are non-essential for feedstock identification and (2) PCA and HCA clustering is based on feedstock, regardless of column selection, so long as resolution of FAME isomers is achieved.
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  271. Analysis of metals and phosphorus in biodiesel B100 from different feedstock using a Flow Blurring((R)) multinebulizer in inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry
    Abstract

    Orozco, F. D. A.; Kovachev, N.; Pastor, M. A. A.; Domini, C. E.; Band, B. S. F.; Hernandez, A. C. 2014. Analysis of metals and phosphorus in biodiesel B100 from different feedstock using a Flow Blurring((R)) multinebulizer in inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta. 82715-21

    A simple and fast method for determining the content of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, and 20 heavy metals in biodiesel samples with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) using a two-nozzle Flow Blurring((R)) multinebulizer prototype and on-line internal standard calibration, are proposed. The biodiesel samples were produced from different feedstock such as sunflower, corn, soybean and grape seed oils, via a base catalyst transesterification. The analysis was carried out without any sample pretreatment. The standards and samples were introduced through one of the multinebulizer nozzles, while the aqueous solution containing yttrium as an internal standard was introduced through the second nozzle. Thus, the spectral interferences were compensated and the formation of carbon deposits on the ICP torch was prevented. The determination coefficients (R-2) were greater than 0.99 for the studied analytes, in the range 0.21-14.75 mg kg (1). Short-term and long-term precisions were estimated as relative standard deviation. These were acceptable, their values being lower than 10%. The LOQ for major components such as Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P, were within a range between 4.9 ng g (1) for Mg (279.553 nm) and 531.1 ng g (1) for Na (588.995 nm), and for the other 20 minor components they were within a range between 1.1 ng g (1) for Ba (455.403 nm) and 2913.9 ng g (1) for Pb (220.353 nm). Recovery values ranged between 95% and 106%. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  272. Annona diversifolia seed oil as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Reyes-Trejo, B.; Guerra-Ramirez, D.; Zuleta-Prada, H.; Cuevas-Sanchez, J. A.; Reyes, L.; Reyes-Chumacero, A.; Rodriguez-Salazar, J. A. 2014. Annona diversifolia seed oil as a promising non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Industrial Crops and Products. 52400-404

    In this work, Annona diversifolia seed oil (ADO) is evaluated for the first time as potential biodiesel feedstock. ADO was found to contain 21% oil (w/w) after extraction, and the low acid value of the oil was 0.666 mg KOH/g. Therefore, ADO was considered suitable for alkali-catalyzed transesterification. A. diversifolia biodiesel (ADB) was obtained from ADO by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol, and alkali catalyst. ADO has a high content of oleic acid (70%) and palmitic acid (16%). The fuel properties of the oil and biodiesel made from ADO were evaluated, including density, iodine value, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flash point, pour point, cloud point, acid value, and gross heating value. The ADB properties were compared with several limits prescribed in the ASTM D6751 standards. The comparison shows that the biodiesel obtained from A. diversifolia oil could be used as an alternative fuel in conventional diesel engines. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  273. Application of solid acid catalyst derived from low value biomass for a cheaper biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Dawodu, F. A.; Ayodele, O. O.; Xin, J. Y.; Zhang, S. J. 2014. Application of solid acid catalyst derived from low value biomass for a cheaper biodiesel production. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 89(12) 1898-1909

    BACKGROUNDThe process of producing biodiesel from various oil feedstocks is well known but developments of commercial plants are being hampered by the high cost of production. The paper reports an integrated method in which the oil obtained by solvent extraction of Calophyllum inophyllum seed is converted to biodiesel over a biomass derived catalyst. The catalyst derived from the residual cake of C. inophyllum obtained after oil extraction can be incompletely carbonized to obtain an amorphous carbon followed by sulfonation in concentrated sulphuric acid.
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  274. Biodiesel Feedstock from Emulsions Produced by Aqueous Processing of Yellow Mustard
    Abstract

    Tabtabaei, S.; Boocock, D. G. B.; Diosady, L. L. 2014. Biodiesel Feedstock from Emulsions Produced by Aqueous Processing of Yellow Mustard. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 91(7) 1269-1282

    The multi-stage treatment of stable oil-in-water emulsions produced during non-enzymatic aqueous processing of dehulled yellow mustard flour with cyclic ethers [tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 1,4-dioxane] was investigated to produce a single-phase oil-solvent-water miscella suitable for biodiesel production. While the single-stage treatment of yellow mustard emulsion recovered 97 % and 95 % of the oil by using 4:1 THF:oil and 9:1 dioxane:oil weight ratios, respectively, miscella phases containing more than 7 % water formed, which made them unsuitable as biodiesel feedstock. Multi-stage treatments of the emulsion using lower THF:oil and dioxane:oil weight ratios were further developed to produce oil-solvent-water miscella phases with low water content. While three-stage extraction of emulsions using 0.5:1, 1:1, 1.5:1, and 2:1 dioxane:oil weight ratios did not destabilize the emulsion, three-stage extraction using 0.5:1 and 0.75:1 THF:oil weight ratios effectively recovered over 97 % of the oil, resulting in the production of oil-rich miscella phases containing only 1 % and 1.5 % water, respectively. These miscella phases were analyzed for free fatty acid and phosphorus contents and proved to be excellent feedstocks for the preparation of high-purity methyl esters through single-phase base-catalyzed transmethylation.
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  275. Biodiesel from Citrullus colocynthis Oil: Sulfonic-Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Esterification of a Two-Step Process
    Abstract

    Elsheikh, Y. A.; Akhtar, F. H. 2014. Biodiesel from Citrullus colocynthis Oil: Sulfonic-Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed Esterification of a Two-Step Process. Scientific World Journal.

    Biodiesel was prepared from Citrullus colocynthis oil (CCO) via a two-step process. The first esterification step was explored in two ionic liquids (ILs) with 1,3-disulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (DSIMHSO4) and 3-methyl-1-sulfonic acid imidazolium hydrogen sulfate (MSIMHSO4). Both ILs appeared to be good candidates to replace hazardous acidic catalyst due to their exceptional properties. However, the two sulfonic chains existing in DSIMHSO4 were found to increase the acidity to the IL than the single sulfonic chain in MSIMHSO4. Based on the results, 3.6 wt% of DSIMHSO4, methanol/CCO molar ratio of 12:1, and 150 degrees C offered a final FFA conversion of 95.4% within 105 min. A 98.2% was produced via second KOH-catalyzed step in 1.0%, 6:1 molar ratio, 600 rpm, and 60 degrees C for 50 min. This new two-step catalyzed process could solve the corrosion and environmental problems associated with the current acidic catalysts.
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  276. Biodiesel production from Acrocomia aculeata acid oil by (enzyme/enzyme) hydroesterification process: Use of vegetable lipase and fermented solid as low-cost biocatalysts
    Abstract

    Aguieiras, E. C. G.; Cavalcanti-Oliveira, E. D.; de Castro, A. M.; Langone, M. A. P.; Freire, D. M. G. 2014. Biodiesel production from Acrocomia aculeata acid oil by (enzyme/enzyme) hydroesterification process: Use of vegetable lipase and fermented solid as low-cost biocatalysts. Fuel. 135315-321

    The aim of this study was to investigate a new process of enzyme/enzyme hydroesterification for biodiesel production using a low-cost acid oil (10.5 wt.% acidity) from macauba (Acrocomia aculeata) pulp as raw material. The ethyl esters were produced by the hydrolysis of the macauba oil using vegetable enzyme (VE) obtained from dormant castor seeds followed by esterification of the released free fatty acids (FFAs) with ethanol catalyzed by fermented and dry babassu cake with lipase activity from Rhizomucor miehei. The vegetable enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis produced 99.6% of FFAs after 6 h in a medium with high oil concentration (50% v/v) and without organic solvent and emulsifier. For the esterification reaction, the best result was attained with an ethanol:FFA molar ratio of 2: 1 and 15.1 U of dry fermented solid per g of FFAs at 40 degrees C, which yielded 91% of conversion after 8 h in a solvent-free system. In order to confirm the potential of the fermented solid as biocatalyst, it was confronted with the best commercial lipases and was also evaluated for its reuse. Similar conversions were obtained with the commercial lipases Novozym 435 and Lipozyme RM IM and the fermented solid. The fermented solid was reused in successive 6-h batches for esterification reactions and conversions of over 60% were maintained for eight cycles. After two consecutive esterification reactions the resulting biodiesel met important Brazilian standards such as: density (ASTM D4052), viscosity kinematic (ASTM D445), flash point (ASTM D93), carbon residue (ASTM D4530), free glycerol and total glycerol, monoglycerides and triglycerides (ASTM D6584). The ester content was of 96.7% (esters of fatty acids of 8-18 carbons). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that an enzyme/enzyme hydroesterification process using low cost biocatalysts obtained from vegetable and microorganism using solvent-free media in both reactions is described for the conversion of an acid and low value oil into biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  277. Biodiesel production from biobutanol. Improvement of cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Bouaid, A.; El Boulifi, N.; Hahati, K.; Martinez, M.; Aracil, J. 2014. Biodiesel production from biobutanol. Improvement of cold flow properties. Chemical Engineering Journal. 238234-241

    Experimental design methods have been successfully applied to develop and optimize the process of synthesis of butyl esters from rapeseed oil (RSO), the most common oil feedstock for biodiesel production in Europe and used frying oil (UFO), as a cheaper raw material, using biobutanol, and potassium methoxide (KOCH3) as catalyst. The optimum conditions were found to be a catalyst concentration of 1.1% and 0.9%, an operation temperature of 78 degrees C and 80 degrees C for rapeseed oil butyl esters (RSOBE) and used frying oil butyl esters (UFOBE), respectively, obtaining ester yields of 96.86% and 96.54% with 6:1 biobutanol/oil molar ratio. Results show that biodiesel produced using biobutanol as alcohol in the transesterification process improved cold flow properties in terms of cloud point (CP), pour point (PP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) without significantly affecting the other fuel properties.
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  278. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater
    Abstract

    Komolafe, O.; Orta, S. B. V.; Monje-Ramirez, I.; Noguez, I. Y.; Harvey, A. P.; Ledesma, M. T. O. 2014. Biodiesel production from indigenous microalgae grown in wastewater. Bioresource Technology. 154297-304

    This paper describes a process for producing biodiesel sustainably from microalgae grown in wastewater, whilst significantly reducing the wastewater's nutrients and total coliform. Furthermore, ozone-flotation harvesting of the resultant biomass was investigated, shown to be viable, and resulted in FAMEs of greater oxidation stability.
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  279. Biodiesel production from olive-pomace oil of steam-treated alperujo
    Abstract

    Lama-Munoz, A.; Alvarez-Mateos, P.; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, G.; Duran-Barrantes, M. M.; Fernandez-Bolanos, J. 2014. Biodiesel production from olive-pomace oil of steam-treated alperujo. Biomass & Bioenergy. 67443-450

    Recently interest has been revived in the use of plant-derived waste oils as renewable replacements for fossil diesel fuel. Olive pomace oil (OPO) extracted from alperujo (by-product of processed olives for olive oil extraction), and produced it in considerable quantities throughout the Mediterranean countries, can be used for biodiesel production. A steam treatment of alperujo is being implemented in OPO extraction industry. This steam treatment improves the solid liquid separation by centrifugation and facilitates the drying for further extraction of OPO. It has been verified that the steam treatment of this by-product also increases the concentration of OPO in the resulting treated solid, a key factor from an economic point of view. In the present work, crude OPO from steam-treated alperujo was found to be good source for producing biodiesel. Oil enrichment, acidity, biodiesel yield and fatty acid methyl ester composition were evaluated and compared with the results of the untreated samples. Yields and some general physicochemical properties of the quality of biodiesel were also compared to those obtained with other oils commonly used in biodiesel production. As for biodiesel yield no differences were observed. A transesterification process which included two steps was used (acid esterification followed by alkali transesterification). The maximum biodiesel yield was obtained using molar ratio methanol/triglycerides 6:1 in presence of sodium hydroxide at a concentration of 1% (w/w), reaction temperature 60 C and reaction time 80 min. Under these conditions the process gave yields of about 95%, of the same order as other feedstock using similar production conditions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  280. Biodiesel production from Stauntonia chinensis seed oil (waste from food processing): Heterogeneous catalysis by modified calcite, biodiesel purification, and fuel properties
    Abstract

    Wang, R.; Sun, L. L.; Xie, X. L.; Ma, L. Z.; Liu, Z. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Ji, N.; Xie, G. F. 2014. Biodiesel production from Stauntonia chinensis seed oil (waste from food processing): Heterogeneous catalysis by modified calcite, biodiesel purification, and fuel properties. Industrial Crops and Products. 628-13

    In the present research, the potential of Stauntonia chinensis (SC) seed oil obtained from processing waste was investigated for the first time as biodiesel feedstock, including physicochemical properties of the oil, the heterogeneous catalysis process, purification, and fuel properties. A 29.37 +/- 0.64 wt.% of oil content and 2.41 mg KOH/g of acid value was found. Under the optimised reaction conditions in the presence of modified calcite, an 88.02% of yield and a 98.90 wt.% of FAME content were achieved. According to EN 14124 (2012), SC biodiesel exhibited superior fuel properties compared to the most of other feedstock oils since it had an ideal fatty acid composition (low Cn:0 (8.06 wt.%), high Cn:1 (80.16 wt.%), and low Cn:2,3 (8.45 wt.%)). It was absolutely vital that the use of SC seed oil as a biodiesel feedstock would not compete with its use in food. In summary, SC seed oil should be recommended as a promising feedstock for biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  281. Biodiesel production from swine manure via housefly larvae (Musca domestica L.)
    Abstract

    Yang, S.; Li, Q.; Gao, Y.; Zheng, L. Y.; Liu, Z. D. 2014. Biodiesel production from swine manure via housefly larvae (Musca domestica L.). Renewable Energy. 66222-227

    Although biodiesel is a sustainable and renewable diesel fuel, the current feedstock predominantly from edible oils limits the economic feasibility of biodiesel production and thus the development of a cost-effective non-food feedstock is really essential. In this study, approximately 21.6% of crude grease was extracted from housefly (Musca domestica L) larvae reared on swine manure, and the extracted grease was evaluated for biodiesel production concerning the variables affecting the yield of acid-catalyzed production of methyl esters and the properties of the housefly larvae-based biodiesel. The optimized process of 8:1 methanol/grease (mol/mol) with 2 vol% H2SO4 reacted at 70 C for 2 h resulted in a 95.7% conversion rate from free fatty acid (FFA) into methyl esters. A 90.3% conversion rate of triglycerides (crude grease) to its esters was obtained from alkaline trans-esterification using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. The major fatty acid components of this larvae grease were palmitic (29.1%), oleic (23.3%), palmitoletic (17.4%) and linoleic (17.2%). The housefly larvae-based biodiesel has reached the ASTM D6751-10 standard in density (881 kg/m(3)), viscosity (5.64 mm(2)/s), ester content (96.8%), flash point (145 degrees C), and cetane number (52). These findings suggest that the grease derived from swine manure-grown housefly larvae can be a feasible non-food feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  282. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant
    Abstract

    Alptekin, E.; Canakci, M.; Sanli, H. 2014. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant. Waste Management. 34(11) 2146-2154

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  283. Biodiesel Production Unit from Lab Scale to Industrial Pilot Plant: Material and Energy Balance
    Abstract

    Awad, S.; Tazerout, M. 2014. Biodiesel Production Unit from Lab Scale to Industrial Pilot Plant: Material and Energy Balance. Power and Energy Systems Iii. 492380-385

    The modern society is, nowadays, facing two major problems: the energy sources depletion and the degradation of the ecologic system because of wastes rejection. The energetic valorization of wastes contributes on the resolution of both problems.
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  284. Biodiesel synthesis from acid oil over large pore sulfonic acid-modified mesostructured SBA-15: Process optimization and reaction kinetics
    Abstract

    Shah, K. A.; Parikh, J. K.; Maheria, K. C. 2014. Biodiesel synthesis from acid oil over large pore sulfonic acid-modified mesostructured SBA-15: Process optimization and reaction kinetics. Catalysis Today. 23729-37

    Biodiesel synthesis from acid oil (AO) containing high free fatty acids (FFA) over pore expanded sulfonic acid functionalized mesostructured SBA-15 was studied. Reaction parameters affecting the FAME yield were optimized using Taguchi design. 99% FFA conversion was obtained under optimum conditions viz. at 100 degrees C with 4 wt.% catalyst amount and 1:15 oil to methanol ratio after 8 h. Kinetic study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo first order kinetic law. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  285. Biodiesel value chain and access to energy in Ethiopia: Policies and business prospects
    Abstract

    Negash, M.; Riera, O. 2014. Biodiesel value chain and access to energy in Ethiopia: Policies and business prospects. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 39975-985

    Similar to many net oil importing Sub-Sahara African countries, Ethiopia's economy is rural and as it stands today it is far from being a fossil fuel based economy. Instead, the economy is largely powered by traditional burning of solid biomass. Despite its small share in the overall energy supply (7%), imported fuel absorbs half of Ethiopia's foreign currency earnings. The common justifications behind the development of biofuels such as energy source diversification, foreign currency saving, rural poverty alleviation through employment and technology transfers were all appealing for Ethiopian policy advisers. In 2007, mostly influenced by the global discourse, Ethiopia launched a biofuel expansion strategy and a massive ad hoc investment promotion of two biodiesel crops: castor and jatropha. In this paper, we synthesize the various biodiesel development initiatives and modes of production, and point out at the gaps in policy formulation and project implementation. Evaluating the prospect and constraints for biodiesel production in Ethiopia, we conclude that most of the prerequisites for a viable biodiesel industry still need to be met. We identify key areas and priorities to further strengthen the development of the biodiesel sector. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  286. Biodiesel via supercritical ethanolysis within a global analysis "feedstocks-conversion-engine" for a sustainable fuel alternative
    Abstract

    Coniglio, L.; Coutinho, J. A. P.; Clavier, J. Y.; Jolibert, F.; Jose, J.; Mokbel, I.; Pillot, D.; Pons, M. N.; Sergent, M.; Tschamber, V. 2014. Biodiesel via supercritical ethanolysis within a global analysis "feedstocks-conversion-engine" for a sustainable fuel alternative. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 431-35

    The challenges in reducing the world's dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, while simultaneously improving engine performance through better fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust emissions, have led to the emergence of new fuels, with formulations blending petrodiesel, biodiesel, bioethanol and water in various proportions. In parallel, the sustainability of the new biofuel industries also requires to maintain a high level of biodiversity while playing on techno-diversity, using a variety of resources that do not compete with edible crops (nor by using arable land for energy crops or food crops for energy production) and flexible conversion technologies satisfying the eco-design, eco-energy and eco-materials criteria. In addition, it would be relevant to consider blending ethyl biodiesel, instead of methyl biodiesel, with petrodiesel, particularly if the fuel formulation is completed with bioethanol (or even water). The supercritical ethanolysis of lipid resources to produce ethyl biodiesel is a simple but efficient route that should have the potential to satisfy the sustainability criteria if analyzed holistically. Therefore, this review focuses specifically on the production of ethyl biodiesel via triglyceride supercritical ethanolysis within a global analysis "feedstocks-conversion-engine". The scientific and technical bottlenecks requiring further development are highlighted by emphasizing (i) the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects (experiments and modeling) required for the process simulation, the results of which aim at securing the life cycle assessment, first at the process level and then at the fuel level; (ii) the proposals to improve the supercritical process performance in terms of eco-material and eco-energy; (iii) the impacts of ethyl vs. methyl biodiesel fuels and of biodiesel ethanol petrodiesel blends (with or without water) on the diesel engine emissions and performance; (iv) the technological flexibility of the supercritical process allowing its conversion toward production of other key products. Finally, built on the state-of-the art review, a new R&D direction combining supercritical ethanolysis of lipids with the addition of CO2, glycerol recovery, and cogeneration, according to the biorefinery concept, is proposed and discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  287. Biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production
    Abstract

    Chatzifragkou, A.; Papanikolaou, S.; Kopsahelis, N.; Kachrimanidou, V.; Dorado, M. P.; Koutinas, A. A. 2014. Biorefinery development through utilization of biodiesel industry by-products as sole fermentation feedstock for 1,3-propanediol production. Bioresource Technology. 159167-175

    Rapeseed meal (RSM) hydrolysate was evaluated as substitute for commercial nutrient supplements in 1,3-propanediol (PDO) fermentation using the strain Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718. RSM was enzymatically converted into a generic fermentation feedstock, enriched in amino acids, peptides and various micro-nutrients, using crude enzyme consortia produced via solid state fermentation by a fungal strain of Aspergillus oryzae. Initial free amino nitrogen concentration influenced PDO production in batch cultures. RSM hydrolysates were compared with commercial nutrient supplements regarding PDO production in fed-batch cultures carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor. The utilization of RSM hydrolysates in repeated batch cultivation resulted in a PDO concentration of 65.5 g/L with an overall productivity of 1.15 g/L/h that was almost 2 times higher than the productivity achieved when yeast extract was used as nutrient supplement. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  288. Biotechnological preparation of biodiesel and its high-valued derivatives: A review
    Abstract

    Yan, Y. J.; Li, X.; Wang, G. L.; Gui, X. H.; Li, G. L.; Su, F.; Wang, X. F.; Liu, T. 2014. Biotechnological preparation of biodiesel and its high-valued derivatives: A review. Applied Energy. 1131614-1631

    Biodiesel, an ideal alternative to fossil fuels, is very imperative for the sustainable development of mankind. Among its preparation technologies, biotechnological preparation is the most promising one. This study critically reviews the current progresses in biocatalysts (lipases), transesterifaction, feedstocks, and, particularly, the key aspects that have been neglected or have recently emerged. A complete summary of the development of stable and cost-effective lipases, ultrasonication and microwave-assisted treatment for biodiesel synthesis, solvent engineering, synergetics of different lipases, kinetics and reaction mechanism for enzymatic transesterification, potentially cheap feedstocks, and economic efficacy analysis has been provided. As a bulk commodity with low revenue, biodiesel production is strongly affected by the prices of oil feedstocks. Hence, value-added derivatives are highly significant. This topic has been highlighted and comprehensively addressed in this review for the first time. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  289. Blending Feedstock - Fresh Approach in Biodiesel Development: Moringa and Jatropha Seed Oils
    Abstract

    Eloka-Eboka, A. C.; Inambao, F. L. 2014. Blending Feedstock - Fresh Approach in Biodiesel Development: Moringa and Jatropha Seed Oils. 2014 Proceedings of the Twenty Second Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy (Due).

    The search for improvement in the development of biomass and bio-fuels as renewable energy sources has continued for some time. Biodiesel fuels from different crude vegetable oils have been explored and evaluated as sustainable or unsustainable fuel energy sources. The fuel properties of feed stocks vary from sources, physico-chemical configuration and biological compositions and so with processes such as blending, these properties may be improved. In this study, two selected feed stocks "Moringa oleifeara" (MO) and "Jatropha curcas" (JC) seed oils and their methyl esters (biodiesel) were subjected to experimental processes in varying proportions. The s compositions were J(50)M(50), J(40)M(10), J(30)M(20), J(20)M(30), and J(10)M(40) from crude oil samples (in situ) and: BM(50)J(50), BM(40)J(10), BM(30)J(20), BM(20)J(30) and BM(10)J(40)from produced biodiesel by transesterification (ex-situ) using production variables and optimisation sequences. The produced results were evaluated for chemo-physical and thermal properties using ASTM and SANS standards for each specific test(s). Results disclosed the efficacy of splicing in improving specific biodiesel properties as fuels. Specific tests includes, viscosity, specific gravity, refractive index, cetane index, fatty acid composition, free and total glycerine, free fatty acid composition, flash point, pour and cloud points and calorific values. These were all higher and better than the single stock biodiesel fuels. MO biodiesel, which has proved itself an excellent fuel in the writers' previous studies having high oleic acid content (> 70%, impacted positively on JC in enhancing its potential with positive correlation at a 95% confidence level (alpha > 0.05) and on analysis of variation (ANOVA). This is a new approach in biodiesel development, as studies of this nature are scarce in literatures. Mixing biodiesel feedstock in situ and ex situ will no doubt give rise to new products of improved energy qualities that may bring about a much needed difference in the biodiesel industry.
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  290. Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Patel, A.; Pravez, M.; Deeba, F.; Pruthi, V.; Singh, R. P.; Pruthi, P. A. 2014. Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 165214-222

    Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39 +/- 0.57 g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2 +/- 0.8 g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.95 +/- 1.02 lm) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515 nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C-20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C-22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C-27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils. Crown Copyright (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  291. Calophyllum inophyllum L. - A prospective non-edible biodiesel feedstock. Study of biodiesel production, properties, fatty acid composition, blending and engine performance
    Abstract

    Atabani, A. E.; Cesar, A. D. 2014. Calophyllum inophyllum L. - A prospective non-edible biodiesel feedstock. Study of biodiesel production, properties, fatty acid composition, blending and engine performance. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 37644-655

    Recently, non-edible oil resources are gaining worldwide attention because they can be found easily in many parts of the world especially wastelands that are not appropriate for cultivating food crops, eliminate competition for food, more efficient, more environmentally friendly, produce useful by-products and they are more economical compared to edible oils. Jatropha curcas, Pongamia pinnata, Calophylium inophyllum, Croton megaiocarpus and Azadirachta indica are some of the major non-edible feedstocks for biodiesel production. This paper investigates the potential of Calophyllum inophyllum as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, several aspects such as physical and chemical properties of crude Calophyllum inophyllum oil and methyl ester, fatty acid composition, blending and engine performance and emissions of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester were studied. Overall, Calophyllum inophyllum appears to be an acceptable feedstock for future biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  292. Carbohydrate-derived Solid Acid Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Low-Cost Feedstocks: A Review
    Abstract

    Lokman, I. M.; Rashid, U.; Yunus, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Carbohydrate-derived Solid Acid Catalysts for Biodiesel Production from Low-Cost Feedstocks: A Review. Catalysis Reviews-Science and Engineering. 56(2) 187-219

    Currently, most biodiesels are produced from virgin vegetable oils using a transesterification reaction. However, there are a number of other potential cheap sources for biodiesels, such as deep-frying oils/fats and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD). PFAD is a lower-value by-product of the palm oil industry and is an economical source for biodiesel production. Due to the high cost of biodiesel production, the formulation of a new method to produce a cheaper biodiesel is imperative. Low-quality feedstocks (especially PFAD) using green and highly reusable catalysts have gained popularity due to their low production cost. High free fatty acids (HFFA) in the feedstock causes problems during the biodiesel production process, especially with the use of basic heterogeneous and homogenous catalysts. Recently, the effectiveness of a solid acid catalyst to catalyze biodiesel production from HFFA feedstock has caught the attention of researchers.
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  293. Characterization of Chlorococcum pamirum as a potential biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Feng, P. Z.; Deng, Z. Y.; Hu, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. M.; Fan, L. 2014. Characterization of Chlorococcum pamirum as a potential biodiesel feedstock. Bioresource Technology. 162115-122

    To evaluate the potential of Chlorococcum pamirum for producing biodiesel, the effects of nitrogen, phosphate, initial cell concentrations and NaCl on lipid accumulation and growth were studied. The highest specific growth rate (mu(max)), biomass productivity and lipid content achieved was 1.888 d (1), 350.1 mg L (1) day (1), and 64.9%, respectively. Under nitrogen-deficient condition, the cells accumulated lipids faster at low initial cell concentration. Additional NaCl to nitrogen-deficient media accelerated the lipid accumulation. When adding 10 g L (1) NaCl to nitrogen-deficient media, the lipid content and productivity of cells cultured outdoors with high initial cell concentration increased from 38.2% and 153 mg L (1) day (1) to 54.3% and 192 mg L (1) day (1) respectively. Moreover, NaCl enhanced the saturated fatty acids content from 56.40% to 73.41% of total fatty acids. The results show that C. pamirum is a promising organism for biofuel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  294. Cold flow properties of biodiesel obtained from corn oil
    Abstract

    Rasimoglu, N.; Temur, H. 2014. Cold flow properties of biodiesel obtained from corn oil. Energy. 6857-60

    In this study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of parameters of transesterification on the cold flow properties of corn oil based biodiesel such as cloud point, pour point and cold filter plugging point. Reaction parameters examined were the transesterification temperature (in the range of 20-60 degrees C), reaction time (10-60 min), alcohol-to-oil ratio (3.15:1-12.85:1 in moles), amount of catalyst (0.25 2 g(catalyst)/100 mL corn oil) and stirring speed (300-800 rpm). As a result, it has been observed that when the transesterification reaction period is kept longer than 10 min, there were no changes in cold flow properties of the biodiesel obtained. In addition, better cold flow properties were monitored when alcohol-to-oil ratio was kept between 3.15:1 and 4.15:1. While no effect of reaction temperature on cold flow properties was observed above 20 degrees C, amount of basic catalyst used in the experiments gave the lowest cold flow properties at the percent of 0.75. Stirring speed has been ineffective in terms of cold flow properties in the transesterification process. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  295. Combustion characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with a waste cooking oil biodiesel mixture
    Abstract

    Can, O. 2014. Combustion characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with a waste cooking oil biodiesel mixture. Energy Conversion and Management. 87676-686

    In this study, a mixture of biodiesel fuels produced from two different kinds of waste cooking oils was blended in 5% and 10% with No. 2 diesel fuel. The biodiesel/No. 2 diesel fuel blends were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, four-stroke, natural aspirated diesel engine under four different engine loads (BMEP 0.48-0.36-0.24-0.12 MPa) and 2200 rpm engine speed. Despite of the earlier start of injection, the detailed combustion and engine performance results showed that the ignition delay with the biodiesel addition was decreased for the all engine loads with the earlier combustion timings due to higher cetane number of biodiesel fuel. Meanwhile the maximum heat release rate and the in-cylinder pressure rise rate were slightly decreased and the combustion duration was generally increased with the biodiesel addition. However, significant changings were not observed on the maximum in-cylinder pressures. In addition, it was observed that the indicated mean effective pressure values were slightly varied depending on the start of combustion timing and the center of heat release location. It was found that 5% and 10% biodiesel fuel addition resulted in slightly increment on break specific fuel consumption (up to 4%) and reduction on break thermal efficiency (up to 2.8%). The biodiesel additions also increased NOx emissions up to 8.7% and decreased smoke and total hydrocarbon emissions for the all engine loads. Although there were no significant changes on CO emissions at the low and medium engine loads, some reductions were observed at the full engine load. Also, CO2 emissions were slightly increased for the all engine loads. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  296. Comparative evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of Moringa oleifera and Palm oil based biodiesel in a diesel engine
    Abstract

    Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Atabani, A. E.; Fattah, I. M. R.; Mobarak, H. M. 2014. Comparative evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of Moringa oleifera and Palm oil based biodiesel in a diesel engine. Industrial Crops and Products. 5378-84

    Biodiesels, which are made from various crops, as well as animal fat, are renewable, bio-degradable, and non-toxic and are eco-friendly compared with fossil fuels. Currently, there are more than 350 oil-bearing crops identified as potential sources for biodiesel production. In this study, the potential of biodiesel obtained from a non-edible oil source (Moringa oleifera) was explored and compared with that of palm biodiesel and diesel fuel. The physico-chemical properties of M. oleifera methyl ester were determined, and the properties of 5% and 10% (by volume) blends thereof (MB5 and MB10, respectively) were compared with those of palm-oil blends (PB5 and PB10) and diesel fuel (B0). The performance of these fuels was assessed in a multi-cylinder diesel engine at various engine speeds and under the full-load condition whereas emissions were assessed under the both full-load and half load condition. The properties of palm and M. oleifera biodiesels and their blends meet the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. Engine performance test results indicated that the PB5 and the MB5 fuels produced slightly lower brake powers and higher brake specific fuel consumption values compared to diesel fuel over the entire range of speeds examined. Engine emission results indicated that the PB5, MB5, PB10 and MB10 fuels reduced the average emissions of carbon monoxide by 13.17%, 5.37%, 17.36%, and 10.60%, respectively, and reduced those of hydrocarbons by 14.47%, 3.94%, 18.42%, and 9.21%, respectively. However, the PB5, MB5, PB10, and MB10 fuels slightly increased nitric oxide emissions by 1.96%, 3.99%, 3.38%, and 8.46%, respectively, and increased carbon dioxide emissions by 5.60%, 2.25%, 11.73%, and 4.96%, respectively, compared to the emissions induced by BO. M. oleifera oil is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and the performance of MB5 and MB10 biodiesel is comparable to that of PB5 and PB10 biodiesel and diesel fuel. Because the MB5 and MB10 fuels produce lower exhaust emissions than diesel fuel, these fuels can replace diesel fuel in unmodified engines to reduce the global energy demand and exhaust emissions to the environment. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  297. Comparison of feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production: An environmental and techno-economic evaluation
    Abstract

    Rincon, L. E.; Jaramillo, J. J.; Cardona, C. A. 2014. Comparison of feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production: An environmental and techno-economic evaluation. Renewable Energy. 69479-487

    Due to their high productivity in both crops and algae, tropical countries are likely to be the future world suppliers of feedstocks as well as biofuels such as biodiesel. In this work five feedstocks: palm, jatropha, microalgae, tallow and waste cooking oil were analyzed and compared using techno-economic and environmental criteria. For each feedstock, technological configurations currently used in the industry were taken into account (acid catalysis, basic catalysis and cogeneration). In this work, it was found that productivities for the basic catalyzed process were comparatively higher (1.010 kg biodiesel/kg crude oil), than those catalyzed by acid (0.85-0.95 kg biodiesel/kg crude oil). After the simulation of the selected processes, the lowest production costs were obtained for jatropha (USD 0.15/L, basic catalysis) and for waste cooking oils (USD 0.23/L, acid catalysis). The PEI (Potential Environmental Impact) generated for basic catalyzed process ranged from -0.04 to -0.09, while the acid catalyzed case -0.020 and -0.06 PEI per kg of product. The jatropha and microalgae oil using basic catalyzed configuration with energy cogeneration were the best process alternative from the environmental and economical points of view. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  298. Comparison of harvesting methods for microalgae Chlorella sp. and its potential use as a biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Ahmad, A. L.; Yasin, N. H. M.; Derek, C. J. C.; Lim, J. K. 2014. Comparison of harvesting methods for microalgae Chlorella sp. and its potential use as a biodiesel feedstock. Environmental Technology. 35(17) 2244-2253

    Three methods for harvesting Chlorella sp. biomass were analysed in this paper - centrifugation, membrane microfiltration and coagulation: there was no significant difference between the total amount of biomass obtained by centrifugation and membrane microfiltration, i.e. 0.1174 +/- 0.0308 and 0.1145 +/- 0.0268g, respectively. Almost the same total lipid content was obtained using both methods, i.e. 27.96 +/- 0.77 and 26.43 +/- 0.67% for centrifugation and microfiltration, respectively. However, harvesting by coagulation resulted in the lowest biomass and lipid content. Similar fatty acid profiles were obtained for all of the harvesting methods, indicating that the main components were palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2). However, the amounts of the individual fatty acids were higher for microfiltration than for centrifugation and coagulation; coagulation performed the most poorly in this regard by producing the smallest amount of fatty acids (41.61 +/- 6.49mg/gdw). The harvesting method should also be selected based on the cost benefit and energy requirements. The membrane filtration method offers the advantages of currently decreasing capital costs, a high efficiency and low maintenance and energy requirements and is thus the most efficient method for microalgae harvesting.
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  299. Continuous production of biodiesel from low grade feedstock in presence of Zr-SBA-15: Catalyst performance and resistance against deactivation
    Abstract

    Iglesias, J.; Melero, J. A.; Bautista, L. F.; Morales, G.; Sanchez-Vazquez, R. 2014. Continuous production of biodiesel from low grade feedstock in presence of Zr-SBA-15: Catalyst performance and resistance against deactivation. Catalysis Today. 234174-181

    Zirconium-containing SBA-15 materials have been used in the production of fatty acid methyl esters from low grade oleaginous feedstock. Its resistance against deactivation has been assessed by means of studying the effect of conventional impurities present in lipid wastes over the catalytic performance of this material. Alkaline metal cations like potassium could interact with Bronsted acid sites, causing their neutralization by ion exchange and a limited, but not complete, deactivation of the material. Additionally, organic unsaponifiable compounds like retinoids or phospholipids - being studied in this work as retinol and lecithin, respectively - strongly interact with the catalyst surface, leading to a strong deactivation of the material, though reversible, since they are fully regenerated by calcination in air. Catalytic assays in continuous mode in a fixed bed reactor suggest a higher resistance of Zr-SBA-15/bentonite pellets against catalyst deactivation. Bentonite clay, which has been used as binding agent for the preparation of the particulate catalyst, seems to be responsible for this behavior, acting as poison scavenger and preventing the access of the impurities to the catalytic acid sites and consequently their deactivation. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  300. Continuous Production of Biodiesel in Supercritical Ethanol: A Comparative Study between Refined and Used Palm Olein Oils as Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Ngamprasertsith, S.; Laetoheem, C. E.; Sawangkeaw, R. 2014. Continuous Production of Biodiesel in Supercritical Ethanol: A Comparative Study between Refined and Used Palm Olein Oils as Feedstocks. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 25(9) 1746-1753

    Biodiesel production from refined palm olein (RPO) and used palm olein (UPO) oils in supercritical ethanol was comparatively investigated in a continuous reactor. After use of RPO for chicken frying, levels of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased by 10 and 5%, respectively. The optimal conditions for both oils were 300 degrees C, 30 MPa and 30:1 ethanol:oil molar ratio at 60 min of residence time. Although the UFAs are inactive and sensitive to thermal degradation, the FFA in UPO catalyzed the reactions in supercritical ethanol at the same time. Due to the antagonistic effect of UFAs and FFA, the maximum ester content of UPO biodiesel (73%) was slightly lower than for RPO biodiesel (80%). The other compounds in resultant biodiesel were unreacted glycerides, mainly mono- and di-glycerides. Furthermore, UPO reaction reached equilibrium faster than RPO reaction due to the catalytic effect of FFA.
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  301. Conversion of wastewater organics into biodiesel feedstock through the predator-prey interactions between phagotrophic microalgae and bacteria
    Abstract

    Li, C.; Ju, L. K. 2014. Conversion of wastewater organics into biodiesel feedstock through the predator-prey interactions between phagotrophic microalgae and bacteria. Rsc Advances. 4(83) 44026-44029

    We herein report a new route of cultivating phagotrophic microalgae with wastewater for biodiesel feedstock production. A continuous-flow process has been developed, through which organic matter of wastewater is first converted into the biomass of bacteria and then the bacteria are consumed by phagotrophic microalgae for growth and lipid production.
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  302. Cuphea Oil as a Potential Biodiesel Feedstock to Improve Fuel Properties
    Abstract

    Knothe, G. 2014. Cuphea Oil as a Potential Biodiesel Feedstock to Improve Fuel Properties. Journal of Energy Engineering. 140(3)

    One of the approaches to improving the fuel properties of biodiesel, a fuel derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, or other triacylglycerol-containing materials, is to use a feedstock with inherently different fatty acid profile than most common feedstocks such as commodity vegetable oils. Cuphea oil is such a feedstock as it is highly enriched in decanoic acid, which causes the biodiesel fuel derived from it to exhibit improved properties. Cuphea oil, however, faces agronomic issues before widespread commercial production is possible. This article briefly summarizes recent research results regarding cuphea oil in relation to the biodiesel fuel derived from it. (C) 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.
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  303. Design and control of a biodiesel production process using sugar catalyst for oil feedstock with different free fatty acid concentrations.
    Abstract

    Cheng, J. K.; Chao, C. C.; Ward, J. D.; Chien, I. L. 2014. Design and control of a biodiesel production process using sugar catalyst for oil feedstock with different free fatty acid concentrations.. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. 45(1) 76-84

    This manuscript reports on the plant-wide design arid control of a biodiesel process using a sugar catalyst. This catalyst is less expensive and more environmentally friendly than the conventional catalyst because it does not have to be neutralized and there is no resulting waste salt. Also, the acid catalyst can be used for simultaneous esterification of free fatty acids (FFA) and transesterification of triglyceride because there is no concern about the formation of soap, which is a problem with the conventional base catalyst. Two issues are addressed in this work. The first one is to find the effect of FFA content in oil feed to the optimal design of this process. The second one is to investigate the operability of the proposed process. The results show that total annual cost of the plant-wide process is not significantly changed when the FFA content greater than 15 wt%. As compared to a two-step process in literature, the energy consumption per tons of biodiesel production of our proposed process gives significant 65.8% saving for an oil feed with 5 wt% FFA. Dynamic simulations demonstrate that the proposed process can accommodate production rate and feed composition changes using a decentralized plant-wide control structure. 2013 Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  304. Designing of a "cheap to run'' fermentation platform for an enhanced production of single cell oil from Yarrowia lipolytica DSM3286 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Nambou, K.; Zhao, C.; Wei, L. J.; Chen, J.; Imanaka, T.; Hua, Q. 2014. Designing of a "cheap to run'' fermentation platform for an enhanced production of single cell oil from Yarrowia lipolytica DSM3286 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel. Bioresource Technology. 173324-333

    In this study, the culture medium components screening and filtering were undertaken in order to set up efficient and cost effective minimal culture media for lipid production from Yarrowia lipolytica DSM3286. The basal minimal culture medium (S2) designed yielded lipid content up to 35% of the microbial dry cell weight. A set of fermentation strategies based on this minimal medium was developed and the lipid content was raised to 51%. The scale-up under different fermentation conditions based on S2 medium led to a maximum lipid content of 65%. The produced microbial oils displayed interesting properties to be used as a feedstock for high quality biodiesel production. The minimal media and operable cultivation strategies devised in this study, in association with the works done so far by other authors, could enable fast, massive, viable and more economical production of single cell oils and smooth biodiesel manufacture. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  305. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of citrus sinensis biodiesel and diesel fuel
    Abstract

    Tuccar, G.; Tosun, E.; Ozgur, T.; Aydin, K. 2014. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of citrus sinensis biodiesel and diesel fuel. Fuel. 1327-11

    In order to investigate the availability of citrus sinensis biodiesel in diesel engines, an experimental research was conducted. Citrus sinensis biodiesel was blended with conventional diesel fuel with volumetric ratios of 5%, 10% and 20%. Fuel properties of blends and pure citrus sinensis biodiesel were found out and performance characteristics and exhaust emissions of the engine fueled with blends were analyzed. The engine performance experiments indicated that citrus sinensis biodiesel cause a slight reduction in torque and brake power values. Exhaust emission tests revealed that while CO emission values decrease, NOX emission values increase with citrus sinensis biodiesel usage. To conclude, citrus sinensis biodiesel can be used as a very promising additive to improve CO emissions of conventional diesel fueled engine. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  306. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation
    Abstract

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Ramamurthy, D. 2014. Dyeing Industry Effluent System as Lipid Production Medium of Neochloris sp for Biodiesel Feedstock Preparation. Biomed Research International.

    Microalgae lipid feedstock preparation cost was an important factor in increasing biodiesel fuel hikes. This study was conducted with the concept of implementing an effluent wastewater as lipid production medium for microalgae cultivation. In our study textile dyeing industry effluent was taken as a lipid production medium for Neochloris sp. cultivation. The changes in physicochemical analysis of effluent before and after Neochloris sp. treatment were recorded using standard procedures and AAS analysis. There was especially a reduction in heavy metal like lead (Pb) concentration from 0.002 ppm to 0.001 ppm after Neochloris sp. treatment. Neochloris sp. cultivated in Bold Basal Medium (BBM) (specific algal medium) produced 41.93% total lipid and 36.69% lipid was produced in effluent based cultivation. Surprisingly Neochloris sp. cultivated in effluent was found with enhanced neutral lipid content, and it was confirmed by Nile red fluorescence assay. Further the particular enrichment in oleic acid content of the cells was confirmed with thin layer chromatography (TLC) with oleic acid pure (98%) control. The overall results suggested that textile dyeing industry effluent could serve as the best lipid productive medium for Neochloris sp. biodiesel feedstock preparation. This study was found to have a significant impact on reducing the biodiesel feedstock preparation cost with simultaneous lipid induction by heavy metal stress to microalgae.
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  307. Effect of antioxidant on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Fattah, I. M. R.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Mofijur, M.; Abedin, M. J. 2014. Effect of antioxidant on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel blends. Energy Conversion and Management. 79265-272

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning alternative fuel produced from renewable resources. However, it is susceptible to oxidative degradation due to autoxidation in the presence of oxygen, which hinders its widespread use. Antioxidant addition is a prospective solution to this problem. It is expected that antioxidants may affect the clean-burning characteristic of biodiesel. Palm biodiesel (PME) is the most used biodiesel in Malaysia. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the effect of antioxidant addition to palm biodiesel on engine performance and emission characteristics. PME was produced by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. Two monophenolic antioxidants, 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHA) and 2(3)-tert-butyl-4-methoxy phenol (BHT), were added at 1000 ppm concentration to 20% PME (B20) to study their effect. The addition of antioxidants increased oxidation stability without causing any significant negative effect on physicochemical properties. BHA showed greater capability to increase the stability of B20. A 42-kW, 1.8-L, four-cylinder diesel engine was used to carry out tests under conditions of constant load and varying speed. The results show that B20 and antioxidant-treated B20 produced 0.68-1.02% lower brake power (BP) and 4.03-4.71% higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) compared to diesel. Both of the antioxidants reduced NOx by a mean of 9.8-12.6% compared to B20. However, compared to B20, mean increases in carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions of 8.6-12.3% and 9.1-12.0%, respectively, were observed. The emission levels of the three pollutants were lower than those of diesel. Thus, B20 blends with added antioxidant can be used in diesel engines without any modifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  308. Effect of antioxidants on oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from vegetable and animal based feedstocks
    Abstract

    Fattah, I. M. R.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Hazrat, M. A.; Masum, B. M.; Imtenan, S.; Ashraful, A. M. 2014. Effect of antioxidants on oxidation stability of biodiesel derived from vegetable and animal based feedstocks. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 30356-370

    The increase of energy demand coped with utilization of fossil resources have engendered serious environmental impact. The progressively stringent worldwide emission legislation and increasing greenhouse gas emission require significant research effort on alternative fuels. Therefore, biodiesels are becoming important increasingly due to its ease in adaptation, environmental benefits and prospect in energy security. Biodiesel derived from vegetable oils, waste cooking oils and animal fats are long chain fatty acid alkyl esters, which contains unsaturated portions that are susceptible to oxidation. Biodiesel oxidation is a complex process having a number of mechanisms involved. Autoxidation radical chain reactions are the primary cause of biodiesel degradation that leads to formation of hydroperoxide, which, after that decompose to form an array of secondary oxidation products like aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, oligomers, gum, sediment etc. Antioxidants are often used to inhibit biodiesel oxidative degradation. The present review attempts to cover the inhibition action of natural and synthetic antioxidants, methods used to analyze biodiesel oxidation and their effect on biodiesel derived from various feedstocks. Phenolic antioxidants are more effective compared to amine antioxidants. Pyrogallol is found to be the most effective antioxidant to improve the oxidation stability in case of almost all biodiesels reviewed. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  309. Effect of Croton megalocarpus, Calophyllum inophyllum, Moringa oleifera, palm and coconut biodiesel-diesel blending on their physico-chemical properties
    Abstract

    Atabani, A. E.; Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Badruddin, I. A.; Kalam, M. A.; Chong, W. T. 2014. Effect of Croton megalocarpus, Calophyllum inophyllum, Moringa oleifera, palm and coconut biodiesel-diesel blending on their physico-chemical properties. Industrial Crops and Products. 60130-137

    By 2050, it is predicted that biofuels will provide 27% of total transport fuel and avoid around 2.1 Gt CO2 emissions per year when produced sustainably. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be produced by trans-esterification in any climate using already developed agricultural practices. This paper aims to study various physical and chemical properties of biodiesel synthesized from edible and non-edible feedstocks. These feedstocks include Croton megaloccupus, Calophyllum inophyllum, Moringa (Moringa oleifera), palm (Elaeis guineensis) and coconut (Cocos nucifera). The physical and chemical properties of biodiesel-diesel blends were also presented. Furthermore, the regression analysis method was used to predict the properties of biodiesel blends. It has been found that blending of diesel with biodiesel has resulted in much improvement in kinematic viscosity, density, calorific value and oxidation stability. However, flash point and viscosity index decrease as the percentage of diesel increases. Moreover, the mathematical relationships developed in this study show a high regression values (R-2) between properties and biodiesel-diesel blends. As a conclusion, it is believed that the outcome of this study gives the readers valuable results that help to predict the properties of biodiesel and its blends with diesel which are substantial parameters in the design of fuel system for biodiesel engine. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  310. Effective Parameters on Biodiesel Production from Feather fat oil as a Cost-Effective Feedstock
    Abstract

    Abdoli, M. A.; Mohamadi, F.; Ghobadian, B.; Fayyazi, E. 2014. Effective Parameters on Biodiesel Production from Feather fat oil as a Cost-Effective Feedstock. International Journal of Environmental Research. 8(1) 139-148

    Using low-cost feedstocks such as rendered animal fats in biodiesel production willreducebiodieselexpenditures. One of the low-cost feedstocksfor biodiesel production could be the fat extracted from poultry feathers producedin slaughterhouses abundantly. This paper describes a new and environmentally friendly process for developing biodiesel production technology from feather waste produced in poultry industry. In this research the crude oil of poultry feather fat was extracted by soxhlet method using hexane as a solvent. The data resulted from gas chromatography (GC) revealed these percentages for fatty acid compositions: myristic acid (3%), palmitic acid (30%), stearic acid (22%), oleic acid (8.1%), linoleic acid (3%) and arachidonic acid (7%).In this experimental research, the effects of some parameters such as alcohol to oil molar ratio (4:1,6:1, 8:1), catalyst concentration (0.75,1 and 1.25% w/w) and the transesterification reaction time(40,60 and80min) on the percentage offatty acids conversioninto methyl ester(biodiesel) are studied. The results show increasing catalyst concentration up to 1% causes the oil to biodiesel conversion percentage having an upward trend and then adownward trend byincreasing catalyst concentration up to 1.25%. With increasing molar ratio from 4:1 to 6:1 and then 8:1, oil to biodiesel conversion percentage increased16% and2%, respectively. Ultimatelythe optimum point defined by response surface method (RSM) forproducing biodiesel from feather fat is calculated catalyst concentration of 1 wt%, 7.24:1 molar ratio and in 75 minutes resulting in conversion percentage of97.62%.
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  311. Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine Running with a Range of Biodiesel Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Tesfa, B.; Gu, F. S.; Mishra, R.; Ball, A. 2014. Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine Running with a Range of Biodiesel Feedstocks. Energies. 7(1) 334-350

    Currently, alternative fuels are being investigated in detail for application in compression ignition (CI) engines resulting in exciting potential opportunities to increase energy security and reduce gas emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels which is renewable and environmentally friendly and can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biodiesel types and biodiesel fraction on the emission characteristics of a CI engine. The experimental work was carried out on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection (DI) and turbocharged diesel engine by using biodiesel made from waste oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil and comparing them to normal diesel. The fuels used in the analyses are B10, B20, B50, B100 and neat diesel. The engine was operated over a range of engine speeds. Based on the measured parameters, detailed analyses were carried out on major regulated emissions such as NOx, CO, CO2, and THC. It has been seen that the biodiesel types (sources) do not result in any significant differences in emissions. The results also clearly indicate that the engine running with biodiesel and blends have higher NOx emission by up to 20%. However, the emissions of the CI engine running on neat biodiesel (B100) were reduced by up to 15%, 40% and 30% for CO, CO2 and THC emissions respectively, as compared to diesel fuel at various operating conditions.
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  312. Enzymatic biodiesel: Challenges and opportunities
    Abstract

    Christopher, L. P.; Kumar, H.; Zambare, V. P. 2014. Enzymatic biodiesel: Challenges and opportunities. Applied Energy. 119497-520

    The chemical-catalyzed transesterification of vegetable oils to biodiesel has been industrially adopted due to its high conversion rates and low production time. However, this process suffers from several inherent drawbacks related to energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly processing steps such as catalyst and product recovery, and waste water treatment. This has led to the development of the immobilized enzyme catalyzed process for biodiesel production which is characterized by certain environmental and economical advantages over the conventional chemical method. These include room-temperature reaction conditions, elimination of treatment costs associated with recovery of chemical catalysts, enzyme re-use, high substrate specificity, the ability to convert both free fatty acids and triglycerides to biodiesel in one step, lower alcohol to oil ratio, avoidance of side reactions and minimized impurities, easier product separation and recovery: biodegradability and environmental acceptance. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the current state of advancements in the enzymatic transesterification of oils. A thorough analysis of recent biotechnological progress is presented in the context of present technological challenges and future developmental opportunities aimed at bringing the enzyme costs down and improving the overall process economics towards large scale production of enzymatic biodiesel. As the major obstacles that impede industrial production of enzymatic biodiesel is the enzyme cost and conversion efficiency, this topic is addressed in greater detail in the review. A better understanding and control of the underpinning mechanisms of the enzymatic biodiesel process would lead to improved process efficiency and economics. The yield and conversion efficiency of enzymatic catalysis is influenced by a number of factors such as the nature and properties of the enzyme catalyst, enzyme and whole cell immobilization techniques, enzyme pretreatment, biodiesel substrates, acyl acceptors and their step-wise addition, use of solvents, operating conditions of enzymatic catalysis, bioreactor design. The ability of lipase to catalyze the synthesis of alkyl esters from low-cost feedstock with high free fatty acid content such as waste cooking oil, grease and tallow would lower the cost of enzymatic biodiesel. Discovery and engineering of new and robust lipases with high activity, thermostability and resistance to inhibition are needed for the establishment of a cost-effective enzymatic process. Opportunities to create a sustainable and eco-friendly pathway for production of enzymatic biodiesel from renewable resources are discussed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  313. Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel from Millettia pinnata Seed Oil in Ionic Liquids
    Abstract

    Huang, Z. L.; Yang, T. X.; Huang, J. Z.; Yang, Z. 2014. Enzymatic Production of Biodiesel from Millettia pinnata Seed Oil in Ionic Liquids. Bioenergy Research. 7(4) 1519-1528

    Millettia pinnata seed oil has been identified as a promising sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Oils extracted from the seeds grown in freshwater and seawater habitats showed no significant differences in their physicochemical properties. The enzymatic methanolysis of the oil has been investigated in the ionic liquid (IL) [BMIm][PF6] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate) as compared to tert-butanol, catalyzed by Penicillium expansum lipase (PEL) and Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435). Under optimal conditions, PEL induced much higher yields in the IL than in tert-butanol, while in the IL PEL-catalyzed conversions were higher than those catalyzed by Novozym 435. The catalytic processes were improved by recycling both the enzyme (Novozym 435) and the IL ([BMIm][PF6]) and by searching for new enzymes and new ILs. The impact of ILs on biodiesel production has been discussed, and the interactions between the IL, the substrate, and the enzyme are believed to play an important role in governing the conversion.
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  314. Esterification of free fatty acids to fatty acid alkyl esters in a bubble column reactor for use as biodiesel
    Abstract

    Stacy, C. J.; Melick, C. A.; Caimcross, R. A. 2014. Esterification of free fatty acids to fatty acid alkyl esters in a bubble column reactor for use as biodiesel. Fuel Processing Technology. 12470-77

    Biodiesel is readily produced from refined vegetable oils; however, many low-value degraded and waste oils contain a high concentration of free fatty acids, which are difficult to convert to fatty add alkyl esters for use as biodiesel. This paper evaluates the performance of an acid-catalyzed bubble column reactor that is highly robust for the esterification of free fatty acids to fatty acid alkyl esters. The bubble column reactor typically operated at 120 degrees C and ambient pressure; methanol bubbling through the reactor reacts with free fatty acids and strips by-product water, which enables high conversions and makes the reactor more robust to water than other reactor designs. This paper shows the effects alcohol, feedstock type and quality, alcohol flow rate, and oil feedstock on the reactor performance. Most reaction conditions produce greater than 98% conversion in less than 2 h, including reactions with alcohols containing 10% water by volume and lipids extracted from trap grease. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  315. Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer: A bio-based cold flow improver for waste cooking oil derived biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Cao, L. C.; Wang, J. N.; Liu, C.; Chen, Y. W.; Liu, K. J.; Han, S. 2014. Ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer: A bio-based cold flow improver for waste cooking oil derived biodiesel blends. Applied Energy. 132163-167

    This study was conducted to determine the cold flow properties of biodiesel-diesel blends (waste cooking oil derived biodiesel blended with 0# diesel) with ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVAC) as the cold flow improver. The cloud point, cold filter plugging point and pour point of B20 (20 vol.% biodiesel + 80 vol.% 0# diesel) decreased by 8 degrees C, 11 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively, after 0.04 wt.% EVAC treatment. The impacts of EVAC on the kinematic viscosity, total glycerol, oxidation stability, acid value and flash point of B20 were also determined. The B20 samples treated with EVAC satisfied ASTM D6751. The crystallization behavior of the blend was investigated via differential scanning calorimetry. The crystallization rate and crystal content of B20 decreased. EVAC is therefore an effective bio-based cold flow improver for biodiesel blends. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  316. Evaluation of environmental impact and gaseous emissions of biodiesel fuels and blends of selected feed-stocks
    Abstract

    Igbum, O. G.; Eloka-Eboka, A. C.; Ubwa, S. T.; Inambao, F. L. 2014. Evaluation of environmental impact and gaseous emissions of biodiesel fuels and blends of selected feed-stocks. International Journal of Global Warming. 6(1) 99-112

    Thermal and gaseous emissions of biodiesel feed-stocks: sandbox tree, fluted pumpkin, black date and wild melon whose potentials as biodiesel fuels have been established in the earlier works of Igbum et al. (2012) were evaluated in order to ascertain and establish their environmental and emission impacts on the local and global environment. Effects of blending ratios on the thermal/gaseous emissions of the biodiesel fuels from the seed oils were also investigated. The study involved the extraction of oils from the seeds using petroleum ether in a soxhlet apparatus, transesterification of the oils with methanol at the ratio of 6:1 and sodium hydroxide as a catalyst, reaction temperatures of 30 degrees C and 55 degrees C and at a reaction time of five minutes. Thereafter, the methyl esters were blended with automotive gas oil (AGO) at different proportions and ratios to produce B5, B10, B15, B20 and B100 of each seed oil and AGO. Blends were subjected to chemo-physical and gaseous emission analysis using different ASTM methods and GC mass spectrophotometer for the trapping and subsequent analysis of the effluents. Results showed that all the blends samples of the biodiesel possess lower gaseous emissions than AGO and are also within the ASTM standards. They are therefore more environmentally friendly than their fossil fuel counterpart. Their impact on the global and immediate environment are however friendly.
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  317. Evaluation of Indian milkweed (Calotropis gigantea) seed oil as alternative feedstock for biodiesel
    Abstract

    Phoo, Z. W. M. M.; Razon, L. F.; Knothe, G.; Ilham, Z.; Goembira, F.; Madrazo, C. F.; Roces, S. A.; Saka, S. 2014. Evaluation of Indian milkweed (Calotropis gigantea) seed oil as alternative feedstock for biodiesel. Industrial Crops and Products. 54226-232

    Calotropis gigantea (Indian milkweed) is a common plant in Asia that grows as a weed on open waste ground. Flowering and fruiting take place throughout the year. In this study, Indian milkweed oil was evaluated as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil was extracted from Indian milkweed seeds with hexane in a Soxhlet apparatus. The seeds were found to contain 33.3 wt% oil. The extracted oil was analyzed for the fatty acid profile and oil properties. Several previously unreported minor fatty acids were identified. Because the free fatty acid content in the oil was 27.5 wt%, acid-catalyzed esterification was conducted to esterify free fatty acids and alkali-catalyzed transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel. The triglyceride content, diglyceride content, monoglyceride content, free glycerol, methanol, ester content, carbon residue, acid value, oxidation stability, tocopherol, water content, kinematic viscosity, density, cloud point and flash point of the prepared biodiesel were determined. With the exception of oxidation stability, all fuel properties conformed to four standards (Philippine National Standard PNS2020:2003, Japanese Automotive Standards Organization JASO M360, European Standard EN 14214, American Society for Testing Materials ASTM D6751). However, it was found that this biodiesel can be only used in tropical countries due to the poor cold flow properties. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  318. Evaluation of potential biodiesel feedstock production from oleaginous insect Solenopsis sp.
    Abstract

    Bowling, J. J.; Anderson, J. B.; Armbrust, K. L.; Hamann, M. T. 2014. Evaluation of potential biodiesel feedstock production from oleaginous insect Solenopsis sp.. Fuel. 1175-7

    Oil production from single cells has been in development since the 1980s primarily for the pharmaceutical and neutraceutical industries, but the technology for using microorganisms to convert plant cellular material directly into oil is still undeveloped. The unusual amount of oil extracted from the imported fire ant (Solenopsis sp.) may be an indication of the presence of oleaginous microorganisms or enzymes supporting the digestion of raw sugars. Yield of the ant oil is 16% dry weight and contains most of the fatty acids also found in other biomass resources. Heat of combustion of the ant oil was 133,000 BTU/gal, an amount within the range of reported values for vegetable oil and biodiesel. This investigation also explores the potential source of the oil through stable isotope labeling and offers a unique perspective of a potentially new source of microorganisms or enzymes useful for reducing the cost of producing an alternative fuel. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  319. Evaluation of Waste Process Grease as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Marx, S.; Venter, R. 2014. Evaluation of Waste Process Grease as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 5(1) 75-86

    Awareness of the depletion of fossil energy reserves, the rising demand for energy in the world and the problems associated with the burning of fossil fuel encourage researchers to find alternative energy sources, such as biodiesel. The use of inedible and waste oils as feedstock for biodiesel production is an important way of converting waste into valuable energy products. In this study, waste process grease (WPG) was used to produce biodiesel via two processing routes. The traditional two-step alkaline catalyzed transesterification method (route 1) produced biodiesel that did not conform to the SANS1935 biodiesel standard of South Africa with regard to sulfur and phosphorous levels. The WPG in the second process route was modified by saponification with aqueous sodium hydroxide followed by acidulation with hydrochloric acid to be purified by means of column chromatography. A hydrophobic resin with methanol as the mobile phase was used to reduce the non-polar sulfur from the grease. The crude biodiesel produced by means of acid esterification using sulfuric acid as catalyst was purified using silica gel with hexane as the mobile phase. The sulfur level in the biodiesel was reduced to a low enough level to conform to the SANS1935 standard for biodiesel production. It was shown with this study that waste process grease from the metal working industry can be used to produce biodiesel that conforms to the SANS 1935 specification for sulfur and is suitable to be used in biodiesel blending. A preliminary economic assessment shows that owed to the complexity of the second process route, biodiesel produced by this process is not economically viable given the current petroleum diesel prices. With the rising trend in crude oil prices and the limited supply of feedstock for biodiesel, WPG is anticipated to become a viable feedstock for biodiesel production in future.
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  320. Experimental investigation of diesel and biodiesel post injections during active diesel particulate filter regenerations
    Abstract

    Chen, P. G.; Ibrahim, U.; Wang, J. M. 2014. Experimental investigation of diesel and biodiesel post injections during active diesel particulate filter regenerations. Fuel. 130286-295

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the common-rail diesel engine and aftertreatment system behaviors during active diesel particulate filter (DPF) regenerations with pure biodiesel and conventional diesel fuels. The experiments were conducted on a medium-duty diesel engine equipped with a high pressure common-rail fuel injection system. The comparative effects of post start of injection (SOI) timing, post fuel injection rate, and the number of post injections, on the engine behaviors including exhaust emissions (total hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx)), exhaust gas temperatures, torque output, and the THC and CO conversion efficiencies inside a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), are presented and discussed. Experimental results show that, for both fuels, the engine-out THC emissions at late post injection timings are significantly higher than that at early post injection timings, while the engine-out CO emissions reach the peak values in mid phase of power strokes and the engine-out NOx emissions can be reduced with a late-cycle post injection. Engine torque output and cylinder-out gas temperatures can be promoted obviously with an early post injection. Post injection rate is the dominant factor influencing the exhaust emissions at fixed post SOI timings. Regarding the main differences between the two fuels, substantially lower engine-out THC and CO emissions can be observed from late post injection with biodiesel than those with diesel. The addition of an early post injection to a late post injection has little effect on the engine-out THC emissions, but can lead to higher engine-out CO emissions and higher cylinder-out gas temperatures. Furthermore, substituting diesel with biodiesel in the engine can lower the cylinder-out gas temperature, the engine torque disturbance, and the THC and CO conversion efficiencies inside the DOC. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  321. Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Raw Materials Degradation on Performance, Combustion and Emissions of a Single Cylinder Engine Running on Biodiesel from Waste Lipids
    Abstract

    Awad, S.; Loubar, K.; Tazerout, M. 2014. Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Raw Materials Degradation on Performance, Combustion and Emissions of a Single Cylinder Engine Running on Biodiesel from Waste Lipids. Papers of the 22nd European Biomass Conference: Setting the Course for a Biobased Economy. 1173-1181

    In this paper, a single cylinder air cooled for strokes direct injection diesel engine was used to compare biodiesel from fat trap grease (AFRBD) with biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCOBD) and with diesel fuel. The main difference between both biodiesel samples resides in the presence of short chain and branched methyl esters on AFRBD, and in its lower non saturated fatty acids content. Comparison was based on engine performance, combustion parameters and emissions. AFRBD resulted on a slight drop of brake power at 1500 rpm but it increased engine efficiency at full load. Biodiesel reduced polluting emissions of the engine as compared to diesel fuel. WCOBD recorded higher reduction of unburned hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and particulate matter emissions but it increased the nitric oxides emissions. AFRBD has the advantage of reducing all pollutant emissions, including nitric oxides.
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  322. Exploration on the effect of phospholipids on free lipase-mediated biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Li, Y.; Du, W.; Liu, D. H. 2014. Exploration on the effect of phospholipids on free lipase-mediated biodiesel production. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B-Enzymatic. 10288-93

    Free lipase-mediated biodiesel production has been drawing great attention for its lower cost and faster reaction rate compared to immobilized lipase. Since biodiesel derived from vegetable oils may cause competition with food supply, the exploration of crude vegetable oils as well as microbial oils as the feedstock has aroused great interest worldwide. It is reported that those crude oils usually contain some amount of phospholipids, typically with content varying from 2% to 10%. Our previous study showed that phospholipids content within 2% in the oil feedstock was even beneficial to free lipase NS81006-catalyzed biodiesel production. However, there was no research about the influence of much higher phospholipids content on free lipase-mediated methanolysis for biodiesel production. In this paper, the effect of varied content of phospholipids on free lipase NS81006-mediated biodiesel production as well as the related mechanism was investigated for the first time. It was found that both the catalytic performance and reuse stability of free lipase NS81006 were inhibited with more than 5% phospholipids contained in the oil feedstock. Exploration on the related influence mechanism revealed that either phospholipids or methanol (with appropriate addition strategy) alone did not have negative effect on the catalytic performance of the lipase, while the coexistence of phospholipids and methanol in the system led to significant inhibitory effect on the lipase. The further exploration indicated that with the increase of phospholipids content, the amount of solubilized methanol gradually increased in the micelle, which may subsequently result in negative effect on the enzyme's catalytic performance. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  323. Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana S-ACP-DES3 in Escherichia coli for high-performance biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Scaglia, B.; Cassani, E.; Pilu, R.; Adani, F. 2014. Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana S-ACP-DES3 in Escherichia coli for high-performance biodiesel production. Rsc Advances. 4(108) 63387-63392

    The chemical characteristics of oil feedstocks greatly affect the physical properties of biodiesel. Bacteria, because of their very high growth-rate and their easy culture, can be used for making oilfeedstocks to produce biodiesel. In this way genetic transformation was recently applied to microorganisms to improve oil quality and hence biodiesel quality. In this work, Escherichia coli was genetically transformed by heterologous expression of Arabidopsis thaliana stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase3 (S-ACP-DES3): the cDNA coding for S-ACP-DES3 from Arabidopsis thaliana was cloned into the pET-15b vector and expressed in the E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain. The SACP-DES3 protein obtained was expressed in a soluble form after induction with IPTG and visualized by SDS-PAGE analysis. The recombinant Escherichia coli fatty acid profile showed an optimal unsaturated vs. monosaturated and saturated FAs combination. These results can be used as a starting point to try to modify oleaginous bacteria to get both high oil productivity and optimal oil composition.
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  324. Feasibility Evaluation of a Biodiesel Plant Fed by Recycled Edible Oils Comparing Two Alternative Production Technologies
    Abstract

    Korakaki, M.; Georgakellos, D. 2014. Feasibility Evaluation of a Biodiesel Plant Fed by Recycled Edible Oils Comparing Two Alternative Production Technologies. Global Nest Journal. 16(6) 1019-1028

    The present work is about the techno-economic evaluation of a biodiesel industrial unit that exclusively use recycled edible oils as feedstock, for two alternative production technologies. Nowadays, many biodiesel production units use a mixture of virgin vegetable oils and waste cooking oils. The examined unit will use only waste cooking oil as raw material. Thus, two different methods for biodiesel production are assessed on a financial basis for different biodiesel prices. The investigated methods are the alkaline transesterification (a very common biodiesel production method) and the supercritical transesterification (a method with non sensitivity in moisture and free fatty acids and thus not requiring a pre-treatment stage). According to the financial evaluation, the acceptance of the project for each technology is strongly affected by biodiesel's price. The results showed that the alkaline transesterification based project is accepted for the whole examined prices' range while for supercritical transesterification, the project is accepted for biodiesel prices of about 0.75-0.85 /L.
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  325. Fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans: A potential feedstock for high quality biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mandotra, S. K.; Kumar, P.; Suseela, M. R.; Ramteke, P. W. 2014. Fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans: A potential feedstock for high quality biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 15642-47

    Present investigation studied the potential of fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans as a feedstock for biodiesel production. To study the biomass and lipid yield, the culture was grown in BBM, Modified CHU-13 and BG-11 medium. Among the tested nitrogen concentration using Modified CHU-13 medium, the highest biomass and lipid yield of 1.113 +/- 0.05 g/L and 489 +/- 23 mg/L respectively was found in the culture medium with 0.32 g/L of nitrogen (KNO3). Different lipid extraction as well as transesterification methods were also tested. Fatty acid profile of alga grown in large scale indigenous made photobioreactor has shown abundance of fatty acids with carbon chain length of C16 and C18. Various biodiesel properties such as cetane number, iodine value and saponification value were found to be in accordance with Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP255) and European biodiesel standard EN14214 which makes S. abundans as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  326. Growth and lipid accumulation characteristics of Scenedesmus obliquus in semi-continuous cultivation outdoors for biodiesel feedstock production
    Abstract

    Feng, P. Z.; Yang, K.; Xu, Z. B.; Wang, Z. M.; Fan, L.; Qin, L.; Zhu, S. N.; Shang, C. H.; Chai, P.; Yuan, Z. H.; Hu, L. 2014. Growth and lipid accumulation characteristics of Scenedesmus obliquus in semi-continuous cultivation outdoors for biodiesel feedstock production. Bioresource Technology. 173406-414

    In an effort to identify suitable microalgal species for biodiesel production, seven species were isolated from various habitats and their growth characteristics were compared. The results demonstrated that a green alga Scenedesmus obliquus could grow more rapidly and synthesize more lipids than other six microalgal strains. S. obliquus grew well both indoors and outdoors, and reached higher mu(max) indoors than that outdoors. However, the cells achieved higher dry weight (4.36 g L-1), lipid content (49.6%) and productivity (183 mg L-1 day(-1)) outdoors than in indoor cultures. During the 61 days semi-continuous cultivation outdoors, high biomass productivities (450-550 mg L-1 day(-1)) and mu(max) (1.05-1.44 day(-1)) were obtained. The cells could also achieve high lipid productivities (151-193 mg L-1 day(-1)). These results indicated that S. obliquus was promising for lipids production in semi-continuous cultivation outdoors. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  327. Identification and characterization of a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus SDEC-8 for nutrient removal and biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Song, M. M.; Pei, H. Y.; Hu, W. R.; Zhang, S.; Ma, G. X.; Han, L.; Ji, Y. 2014. Identification and characterization of a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus SDEC-8 for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 162129-135

    The selection of the right strains is of fundamental important to the success of the algae-based oil industry. From the six newly isolated microalgae strains tested for growth, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles and biodiesel properties, Scenedesmus SDEC-8, with favorable C16:0 fatty acids (73.43%), showed the best combined results. Then, morphological and molecular identification were examined. From the three wastewaters samples, Scenedesmus SDEC-8 showed good ability to yield oil and remove nutrients, which were comparable with other reports. In b artificial wastewater (TN 40 mg L (1), TP 8 mg L (1)), Scenedesmus SDEC-8 achieved the highest value of lipid productivity (53.84 mg L (1) d (1)), MUFA content (35.35%) and total FAME content (59.57 +/- 0.02 mg g (1) DW), besides higher removal efficiencies of TN (99.18%) and TP (98.86%) helped effluent directly discharge and smaller dilution factor of N, P (3.3 and 9) which was good for lessening water utilization. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  328. Immobilization of a thermophilic solvent-stable lipase from Acinetobacter baylyi and its potential for use in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Winayanuwattikun, P.; Piriyakananon, K.; Wongsathonkittikun, P.; Charoenpanich, J. 2014. Immobilization of a thermophilic solvent-stable lipase from Acinetobacter baylyi and its potential for use in biodiesel production. Scienceasia. 40(5) 327-334

    Lipase transesterification of triglycerides is an environmentally safe alternative to chemical processing during biodiesel production. However, the cost and low stability of this enzyme remains problematic for commercial production. In this study, a thermophilic-solvent stable lipase from Acinetobacter baylyi (ABL) immobilized on Sepabeads EC-OD showed improved solvent stability. The optimal reaction conditions of immobilized ABL were comparable with those of the suspended lipase. Immobilization of ABL resulted in a broader pH activity range and enhanced storage stability. Optimal conditions for transesterification of palm oil were 6-step methanol feeding, 1:4 oil/methanol molar ratios, 20% enzyme loading, and 4% water content for 24 h at 40 degrees C. Conversions of oil feedstocks to biodiesel of between 13 and 93% were obtained. Reusability for transesterification of immobilized ABL was comparable to that of commercial lipases. This study found that immobilized ABL is one of the biocatalyst candidates for further development and application in enzyme-catalysed biodiesel synthesis.
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  329. Impact of fatty ester composition on low temperature properties of biodiesel-petroleum diesel blends
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R. 2014. Impact of fatty ester composition on low temperature properties of biodiesel-petroleum diesel blends. Fuel. 115500-506

    Several biodiesel fuels along with neat fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) commonly encountered in biodiesel were blended with ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel at blend levels permitted by ASTM D975 (B1-B5) and cold flow properties such as cloud point (CP), cold filter plugging point (CFPP) and pour point (PP) were measured. The objective was to determine whether or not the fatty acid composition of biodiesel affects cold flow properties of blends at levels such as B1 to B5. Statistical methods such as least squares regression and one-way analysis of variance coupled with Tukey's Studentized Range test were applied to the resulting cold flow property data. Statistical analysis revealed that fatty acid profile did not affect cold flow properties at low blend levels unless the biodiesel sample contained a high percentage (>48%) of long-chain saturated FAMEs. Other important conclusions were that variances in cold flow property data at low blend levels (B1 to B2) were minimal and generally statistically equivalent regardless of fatty acid composition. Lastly, application of least-squares statistical regression to CP, CFPP and PP data revealed distinct mathematical relationships between cold flow properties and blend ratio. Specifically, CP was best fit to an exponential decay model whereas PP exhibited linearity and CFPP provided the highest R-2 values when fitted to polynomial equations. In summary, this study demonstrated that in most cases feedstock selection for biodiesel fuel had minimal impact on cold flow properties at the blend levels permitted by ASTM D975, the US standard specification for diesel fuel oils. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  330. Impact of feedstock diversification on the cost-effectiveness of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Gulsen, E.; Olivetti, E.; Freire, F.; Dias, L.; Kirchain, R. 2014. Impact of feedstock diversification on the cost-effectiveness of biodiesel. Applied Energy. 126281-296

    While biodiesel production and consumption for use in transportation has risen considerably over the last decade, its competitiveness in the marketplace is largely due to regulatory and fiscal support from governmental bodies, exceeding $25 billion in 2010 in the EU and US alone. The price of feedstocks represent 80-85% of the total biodiesel cost, and with over 350 different oil feedstocks available for blending, there is potential to optimize feedstock blends to reduce costs. This paper presents a chanceconstrained optimization model that considers the technical constraints of conventional, first generation feedstocks, pricing trends, as well as the uncertainty and variation latent within these numbers. Further, the frequency with which a feedstock blend portfolio should be re-evaluated is considered through a case study. The model is then applied to a second case study for actual fuel constraint scenarios used in the EU and US. The results demonstrate the potential for substantial cost savings through targeted feedstock diversification, minimizing risks to producers from price fluctuations while still meeting technical fuel standards. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  331. Impacts of biodiesel feedstock and additives on criteria emissions from a heavy-duty engine
    Abstract

    Hajbabaei, M.; Karavalakis, G.; Johnson, K. C.; Guthrie, J.; Mitchell, A.; Durbin, T. D. 2014. Impacts of biodiesel feedstock and additives on criteria emissions from a heavy-duty engine. Fuel Processing Technology. 126402-414

    The reduction of emissions from diesel engines has been a key element in obtaining air quality and greenhouse gas reduction goals. Biodiesel is an important alternative fuel for diesel applications, but there is a tendency for biodiesel to increase nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, which remains an issue in nonattainment areas. This study investigated the effect of using low blend level biodiesel fuels and fuel additives on emissions. Emissions from three B5 biodiesel fuels and six B20-soybean oil methyl ester (SME) with additive blends were evaluated as potential biodiesel formulations for California. B5-SME and B5-waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) both showed measurable increases in NOx emissions, while a B5-animal fat methyl ester (AFME) showed a slight reduction or no change in NOx emissions compared to the CARB diesel. The B5-AFME blend also passed the criteria of the CARE diesel emissions equivalent certification test. Of the additives tested, only one provided reductions in NOx emissions for the B20-SME blends, but the reductions were not enough to pass the CARE diesel emissions equivalent certification test at the B20 level. Biodiesel blends generally showed either reductions or no significant changes in particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  332. Improvement in biodiesel production from soapstock oil by one-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis
    Abstract

    Su, E. Z.; Wei, D. Z. 2014. Improvement in biodiesel production from soapstock oil by one-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis. Energy Conversion and Management. 8860-65

    A major obstacle in the commercialization of biodiesel is its cost of manufacturing, primarily the raw material cost. In order to decrease the cost of biodiesel, soapstock oil was investigated as the feedstock for biodiesel production. Because the soapstock oil containing large amounts of free fatty acids (FFAs) cannot be effectively converted to biodiesel, complicated two-stage process (esterification followed by transesterification) was generally adopted. In this study, simple one-stage lipase catalyzed methanolysis of soapstock oil was developed via one-pot esterification and transesterification. Water produced by lipase catalyzed esterification of FFAs affected the lipase catalyzed transesterification of glycerides in the soapstock oil severely. Addition of tert-alcohol could overcome this problem and enhance the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield from 42.8% to 76.4%. The FAME yield was further elevated to 95.2% by optimizing the methanol/oil molar ratio, lipase amount, and water absorbent. The developed process enables the simple, efficient, and green production of biodiesel from soapstock oil, providing with a potential industrial application. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  333. Influence of anti-corrosion additive on the performance, emission and engine component wear characteristics of an IDI diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel
    Abstract

    Ashraful, A. M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Rashedul, H. K.; Sajjad, H.; Abedin, M. J. 2014. Influence of anti-corrosion additive on the performance, emission and engine component wear characteristics of an IDI diesel engine fueled with palm biodiesel. Energy Conversion and Management. 8748-57

    This study evaluates the effect of anti-corrosion additives such as 8% and 16% (vol.%) palm olein oil (PO) with ordinary diesel (OD) fuel on engine operation, emission behavior, engine part wear, and lubrication characteristics. This experiment was conducted on 4-cylinder and 4-stroke IDI diesel engine at different engine speed ranging from 1200 to 2800 RPM with 30% throttle setting under full load condition. The properties of the palm olein oil blends meet the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. At 2000 rpm, the experimental results revealed that the POD8A (0.2% Additive + 8% PO + 92% OD) and POD16A (0.2% Additive + 16% PO + 84% OD) blended fuels produced 0.5% and 0.51% higher brake power as well as 1.45% and 1.25% higher torque than same blends without additive, respectively. In comparison with ODE, the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was found 1.8% and 3.1% higher for POD8A and POD16A blends, respectively. Anti-corrosion additive is found more effectual in enhancing the engine performance as such additive helps in timely ignition for complete burn in the combustion chamber. The results from engine emission indicated that POD8A and POD16A blended fuel reduced CO emissions by 11% and 6.6% and NOx emission by 2.5% and 1.09%, respectively in compared with OD fuel. Although HC emissions for all blended fuel and OD fuel increased at higher engine speed, the average HC emissions of all blended fuel were not higher than OD fuel. The application of anti-corrosion additives in POD blends reduced ferrous (Fe) wear debris concentration (WBC) by 17.3%. The reductions in WBC were about 16.1%, 10.8%, and 193%, 17.6% for copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al), respectively. An exception was lead (Pb) which yielded higher WBC for all POD blended fuels in compared with OD fuel. Finally, it can be concluded that palm olein oil with additives gives better engine performance, reduces unnecessary exhaust emissions and wear debris concentration of engine parts. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  334. Influence of blending vegetable oil methyl esters on biodiesel fuel properties: Oxidative stability and cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Serrano, M.; Oliveros, R.; Sanchez, M.; Moraschini, A.; Martinez, M.; Aracil, J. 2014. Influence of blending vegetable oil methyl esters on biodiesel fuel properties: Oxidative stability and cold flow properties. Energy. 65109-115

    Properties of biodiesel can be related to the chemical composition of the biomass source used in transesterification. Saturated fatty acids confer high oxidative stability, while unsaturated fatty acids improve the cold flow properties, which are also influenced by the chain length. In the present study, blends of biodiesel produced from different vegetable oils were evaluated in order to obtain the proper blend to fulfill the European Standard EN14214 in terms of oxidative stability and cold flow properties. Citric acid was used to purify the methyl ester phase. Oxidative stability resulted highly dependent on polyunsaturated fatty esters while fatty ester chain length is a determining factor in cold flow performance of the blends. A preliminary study of the effectiveness of a commercial additive (a Poly alkyl methacrylate) in improving methyl ester flow at low temperatures was done, but no significant changes were found. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  335. Influence of feedstock source on the biocatalyst stability and reactor performance in continuous biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Silva, W. C. E.; Teixeira, L. F.; Carvalho, A. K. F.; Mendes, A. A.; de Castro, H. F. 2014. Influence of feedstock source on the biocatalyst stability and reactor performance in continuous biodiesel production. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 20(3) 881-886

    A biodiesel process in a packed bed reactor was used as a model system to show the strong dependence of the reactor behavior on the developing of chemical environment within the reactor. Ethanolysis runs of babassu and macaw palm oils were carried out in a solvent-free system using Burkholderia cepacia lipase immobilized on silica-PVA matrix. The best performance was found for the reactor running on macaw palm oil, which resulted in a stable operating system and an average yield of 87.6 +/- 2.5%. This strategy also gave high biocatalyst operational stability, revealing a half-life of 478 h. (C) 2013 The Korean Society of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  336. Influence of reaction conditions and type of alcohol on biodiesel yields and process economics of supercritical transesterification
    Abstract

    Micic, R. D.; Tomic, M. D.; Kiss, F. E.; Nikolic-Djoric, E. B.; Simikic, M. D. 2014. Influence of reaction conditions and type of alcohol on biodiesel yields and process economics of supercritical transesterification. Energy Conversion and Management. 86717-726

    Experiments with transesterification of rapeseed oil in supercritical alcohols (methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol) were carried out in a batch reactor at various reaction temperatures (250-350 degrees C), working pressure (8-12 MPa), reaction time, and constant 42:1 alcohol to oil molar ratio. Influence of different alcohols and reaction conditions on biodiesel yield was investigated using linear multiple regression models. Temperature had the highest impact on yields, followed by reaction time and pressure. With increased molecular weight of alcohols, relative importance of temperature for explanation of yields decreased and relative importance of time and pressure increased. Economic assessment has revealed that transesterification in supercritical methanol has the lowest direct material and energy costs. Yield has crucial impact on process economics. Direct costs decrease with increase in biodiesel yields. Even at very low prices of oil feedstock the lowest cost is achieved at the highest yield. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  337. Intensified synthesis of biodiesel using hydrodynamic cavitation reactors based on the interesterification of waste cooking oil
    Abstract

    Maddikeri, G. L.; Gogate, P. R.; Pandit, A. B. 2014. Intensified synthesis of biodiesel using hydrodynamic cavitation reactors based on the interesterification of waste cooking oil. Fuel. 137285-292

    In the present work, hydrodynamic cavitation reactor has been used for the intensification of synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) based on the interesterification reaction. Experiments have been performed using different cavitating devices such as orifice plate, circular and slit venturi and under varying operating parameters viz. inlet pressure (2-5 bar), molar ratio of oil to methyl acetate (over the range of 1:10-1:14) and catalyst loading over the range of 0.5-1.25% by weight of oil. Maximum yield (90%) of biodiesel from WCO was obtained at oil to methyl acetate ratio of 1:12 and catalyst loading of 1.0% using slit venturi at the inlet pressure of 3 bar. Also, higher cavitational yield (biodiesel produced per unit energy consumed) was obtained for the hydrodynamic cavitation based approach as compared to the ultrasound based approach and conventional method. The observed intensification is attributed to the microscale turbulence generated due to the cavitational effects that help in intensifying the transfer processes. Overall, the potential of WCO to produce good quality methyl esters in energy efficient manner using hydrodynamic cavitation reactor has been demonstrated based on the cavitational yield calculations and properties of synthesized biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  338. Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Cerbera Manghas Biofuel Sources
    Abstract

    Ong, H. C.; Silitonga, A. S.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.; Chong, W. T. 2014. Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Cerbera Manghas Biofuel Sources. International Conference on Applied Energy, Icae2014. 61436-439

    Biodiesel from vegetable oils has attracted a great deal of interest as a alternative fuel for fossil diesel. This effort able to reduce the dependence on petroleum based fuels and provides a fuel with more benign environmental. Non edible vegetable oils are attracting more attention than edible oils due to the concern on food versus fuel and other environmental issues. Cerbera manghas oil is one of the promising non-edible feedstocks. Biodiesel production from cerbera manghas vegetable was first time reported and investigated. The viscosity of crude oil was 32.83 mm(2)/s and 12.64 mg KOH/g for acid value which is far above the 2%. Therefore, cerbera manghas methyl ester (CMME) was produced via two step acid-alkaline transesterification using H2SO4 as acid catalyst and KOH as alkaline catalysts. Hence 98.5% of biodiesel was achieved with 9:1 methanol in presence of 1% sodium hydroxide. Moreover, blending of CCME with diesel resulted in an improvement which the viscosity is reduced to 3.54 mm(2)/s. On the other hand, the blending of CMME also shown the remarkable improvement in oxidation stability (14.55 hours). The properties of cerbera manghas methyl ester fell within the recommended biodiesel standards It can be conclude that cerbera manghas oil is promising feedstock for future production of biodiesel (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  339. Jatropha cinerea SEED OIL AS A POTENTIAL NON-CONVENTIONAL FEEDSTOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCED BY AN ULTRASONIC PROCESS
    Abstract

    Soto-Leon, S.; Lopez-Camacho, E.; Milan-Carrillo, J.; Sanchez-Castillo, M. A.; Cuevas-Rodriguez, E.; Picos-Corrales, L. A.; Contreras-Andrade, I. 2014. Jatropha cinerea SEED OIL AS A POTENTIAL NON-CONVENTIONAL FEEDSTOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCED BY AN ULTRASONIC PROCESS. Revista Mexicana De Ingenieria Quimica. 13(3) 739-747

    This work demonstrates that Jatropha cinerea (J. cinerea) seed oil has potential as a new, non-conventional, bio-energy resource. The physical and chemical properties of J. cinerea seeds, collected from its natural habit, were evaluated. The length-, diameter- and weight- of seeds were in the ranges of 8 to 12 mm, 7.5 to 11 mm, and 0.2 to 0.7 g, respectively. Additionally, the amount of oil in the seed kernel was 65.77 wt.%, and it contained 15% saturated, 33% monounsaturated, and 51% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major constituent (50.8 wt%) of crude J. cinerea oil was linoleic acid. Based on its content of phorbol esters (0.22 mg g-1), J. cinerea was considered to be a non-toxic Jatropha species. Iodine, saponification, and acid values of the J. cinerea seed oil were similar to those of the J. curcas seeds oil; therefore, it was suggested that J. cinerea oil had the quality required for biodiesel production from J. cinerea seeds oil was produced by a sonotransesterification process, evaluating the effect of the methanol: oil molar ratio (MOR), temperature, and reaction time. The best conditions for biodiesel production were 25 degrees C, a MOR of 4:1, and a notably short reaction time of 20 s. These conditions were very advantageous as compared to those required by conventional processes, and very promising for the development of a low cost biodiesel production process using J. cinerea seed oil as a feedstock.
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  340. Latest trends in feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract
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  341. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies
    Abstract

    Li, X.; Mupondwa, E. 2014. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies. Science of the Total Environment. 48117-26

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. Crown Copyright (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  342. Lipid productivity and fatty acid composition-guided selection of Chlorella strains isolated from Malaysia for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Vello, V.; Phang, S. M.; Chu, W. L.; Majid, N. A.; Lim, P. E.; Loh, S. K. 2014. Lipid productivity and fatty acid composition-guided selection of Chlorella strains isolated from Malaysia for biodiesel production. Journal of Applied Phycology. 26(3) 1399-1413

    The need to develop biomass-based domestic production of high-energy liquid fuels (biodiesel) for transportation can potentially be addressed by exploring microalgae with high lipid content. Selecting the strains with adequate oil yield and quality is of fundamental importance for a cost-efficient biofuel feedstock production based on microalgae. This work evaluated 29 strains of Chlorella isolated from Malaysia as feedstock for biodiesel based on volumetric lipid productivity and fatty acid profiles. Phylogenetic studies based on 18S rRNA gene revealed that majority of the strains belong to true Chlorella followed by Parachlorella. The strains were similarly separated into two groups based on fatty acid composition. Of the 18 true Chlorella strains, Chlorella UMACC187 had the highest palmitic acid (C16:0) content (71.3 +/- 4.2 % total fatty acids, TFA) followed by UMACC84 (70.1 +/- 0.7 %TFA), UMACC283 (63.8 +/- 0.7 %TFA), and UMACC001 (60.3 +/- 4.0 %TFA). Lipid productivity of the strains at exponential phase ranged from 34.53 to 230.38 mg L-1 day(-1), with Chlorella UMACC050 attaining the highest lipid productivity. This study demonstrated that Chlorella UMACC050 is a promising candidate for biodiesel feedstock production.
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  343. Macauba oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel: Characterization and ester conversion by the supercritical method
    Abstract

    Navarro-Diaz, H. J.; Gonzalez, S. L.; Irigaray, B.; Vieitez, I.; Jachmanian, I.; Hense, H.; Oliveira, J. V. 2014. Macauba oil as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel: Characterization and ester conversion by the supercritical method. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 93130-137

    In this work different samples of Brazilian macauba oil obtained from mechanical pressing were characterized and production of esters of fatty acids using a catalyst-free continuous process under supercritical alcohols was assessed. Analysis of oil samples showed that the major fatty acid on pulp oil was oleic acid (mean value 62.8%), the amount of free fatty acid (FFA) was very high (37.4-65.4%), samples contained glycerides (7.4-16.5% TAG, 14.2-16.8% DAG and 1.0-3.4% MAG) and moisture was around 1.0%. Oil was processed in a continuous reactor using supercritical methanol or ethanol and the effects of temperature (573, 598, 623 and 648K), pressure (10,15 and 20 MPa), oil to alcohol molar ratio (1:20, 1:30 and 1:40), water concentration (0, 5 and 10 wt% added) and the flow rate of reaction mixture (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mL/min) on process efficiency were evaluated. The highest ester content achieved in reactions with supercritical methanol was 78.5% (648 K, 15 MPa, 1:30 oil:methanol molar ratio, 5 wt% water and 2.5 mL/min flow rate), while with supercritical ethanol was 69.6% (598 K, 15 MPa, 1:30 oil:ethanol molar ratio, 5 wt% water and 2.0 mL/min flow rate). The extent of the reaction was explored using a novel parameter, convertibility, which corresponds to the maximum ester content attainable from the feedstock. According to the convertibility of macauba pulp oil, the highest ester content corresponded to efficiencies of 98.0% and 86.9%, respectively. Results demonstrate that macauba oil might be a potential alternative for biodiesel production, though purification steps should be taken into account to achieve biodiesel specifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  344. Microalgae Versus Land Crops as Feedstock for Biodiesel: Productivity, Quality, and Standard Compliance
    Abstract

    Nascimento, I. A.; Marques, S. S. I.; Cabanelas, I. T. D.; de Carvalho, G. C.; Nascimento, M. A.; de Souza, C. O.; Druzian, J. I.; Hussain, J.; Liao, W. 2014. Microalgae Versus Land Crops as Feedstock for Biodiesel: Productivity, Quality, and Standard Compliance. Bioenergy Research. 7(3) 1002-1013

    Despite certain environmental advantages over fossil diesel, land crop-derived biodiesels may not satisfy the increasing worldwide demand for transportation fuels. As an abundant photosynthesizer, algae could be an adequate surrogate for biodiesel production. Nevertheless, high production costs, scarce selected species, and inaccurate assumptions about production yields represent industrial uncertainties. In this study, a reliable approach to analyzing algal biodiesel production has been developed based on species-to-species variations in oil productivity and quality. This approach compares biodiesels from Chlorophyta strains with land crop feedstock according to (i) potential yields, (ii) oil quality, and (iii) compliance with biodiesel quality standards. Algal yields were assessed by (i) extrapolating the strain-specific laboratory results to commercial-scale growth systems; (ii) converting volumetric to areal biomass productivity; and (iii) estimating oil yields for each strain, as the product of their projected areal biomass productivity for each growth system, and the oil percentage in biomass as determined in the laboratory. Biodiesel fuel properties were estimated by using fatty acid methyl ester profile predictive models. The Chlorophyta strains in this study provided annual oil yields that were generally higher than those of land crops by one order of magnitude. Six strains yielding more than 40 mg oil l(-1) day(-1) were identified as adequate for sustaining biodiesel production. Trebouxiophyceae algae were the most productive. Critical biodiesel parameters from both feedstock types suggest that most microalgae-derived biodiesels meet international fuel quality standards with better values than those of land crops. Because some of the highly productive feedstock does not simultaneously meet all the standards for a high quality biodiesel, optimization solutions are discussed.
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  345. Microbial lipid produced by Yarrowia lipolytica QU21 using industrial waste: A potential feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Poli, J. S.; da Silva, M. A. N.; Siqueira, E. P.; Pasa, V. M. D.; Rosa, C. A.; Valente, P. 2014. Microbial lipid produced by Yarrowia lipolytica QU21 using industrial waste: A potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology. 161320-326

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of medium composition and culture conditions on lipid content, fatty acid profile and biomass production by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica QU21. Lipid production by the yeast growing on glycerol/(NH4)(2)SO4 (10%/0.1%) reached 1.48 g/L (30.1% according to total cell dry weight). When glycerol was replaced by crude glycerol (industrial waste), the lipid yield was 1.27 g/L, with no significant difference. Some particular fatty acids were found when crude glycerol was combined with fresh yeast extract (FYE, brewery waste), as linolenic acid (C18:3n3), eicosadienoic acid (C20:2), eicosatrienoic acid (C20:3n3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3). In addition, the FYE promoted an increase of more than 300% on polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA), which is an undesirable feature for biodiesel production. The fatty acid composition of the oil produced by Y. lipolytica QU21 growing on crude glycerol/(NH4)(2)SO4 presented a potential use as biodiesel feedstock, with low PUFA content. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  346. New insights in the deactivation of sulfonic modified SBA-15 catalysts for biodiesel production from low-grade oleaginous feedstock
    Abstract

    Melero, J. A.; Bautista, L. F.; Iglesias, J.; Morales, G.; Sanchez-Vazquez, R.; Wilson, K.; Lee, A. F. 2014. New insights in the deactivation of sulfonic modified SBA-15 catalysts for biodiesel production from low-grade oleaginous feedstock. Applied Catalysis a-General. 488111-118

    Arenesulfonic-acid functionalized SBA-15 materials have been used in the production of biodiesel from low grade oleaginous feedstock. These materials display an outstanding catalytic activity, being able to promote the transformation of crude palm oil with methanol into fatty acid methyl esters with high yield (85%) under mild reaction conditions. However, high sensitivity of the catalyst against poisoning by different substances has also been detected. Thus, alkaline metal cations, such as sodium or potassium exert a negative influence on the catalytic activity of these materials, being necessary amounts around 500 ppm of sodium in the reaction media to decrease the catalytic activity of these materials to a half of its initial value in just two reaction runs. The deactivation of arenesulfonic acid functionalized SBA-15 materials seems to occur in this case by ion exchange of the acid protons at the sulfonic groups. Organic unsaponifiable compounds like lecithin or retinol also induce a negative influence in the catalytic activity of these sulfonic acid-based materials, though not so intense as in the case of alkaline metals. The deactivating mechanism associated to the influence of the organic compounds seems to be linked to the adsorption of such substances onto the catalytic acid sites as well as on the silica surface. The accumulation of lecithin in the surface of catalyst, observed by means of thermogravimetric analysis, suggest the creation of a strong interaction, probably by ion pair, between this compound and the sulfonic acid group. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  347. Optimization of high-energy density biodiesel production from camelina sativa oil under supercritical 1-butanol conditions
    Abstract

    Sun, Y. Q.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muppaneni, T.; Reddy, H. K.; Patil, P. D.; Li, C. Z.; Jiang, L. J.; Deng, S. G. 2014. Optimization of high-energy density biodiesel production from camelina sativa oil under supercritical 1-butanol conditions. Fuel. 135522-529

    Transesterification of camelina sativa oil to produce fatty acid butyl esters under supercritical 1-butanol conditions was systematically studied at alcohol to oil molar ratios of 20:1-60:1, reaction temperatures of 280-320 degrees C, and reaction times of 20-100 min. The response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the effects of process parameters on the transesterification yield and biodiesel quality. Two mathematic models for different time ranges of 20-60 min and 30-100 min were developed and combined to predict the response over a long reaction time range. The predicted responses agree well with the experimental yields. A maximum biodiesel yield of 87.6% was obtained at a reaction time of 305 degrees C, 1-butanol to camelina oil molar ratio of 40: 1, and reaction time of 80 min. The physical properties of butyl biodiesel were evaluated and compared with those of regular diesel. The good cold temperature property (pour point of -19 degrees C) and high calorific value (HHV of 39.97 MJ/kg) make the camelina oil butyl biodiesel an ideal liquid transportation fuel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  348. Optimization of the cultivation conditions for Synechococcus sp PCC7942 (cyanobacterium) to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Silva, C. S. P.; Silva-Stenico, M. E.; Fiore, M. F.; de Castro, H. F.; Da Ros, P. C. M. 2014. Optimization of the cultivation conditions for Synechococcus sp PCC7942 (cyanobacterium) to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Algal Research-Biomass Biofuels and Bioproducts. 31-7

    Cyanobacteria have several advantages as lipid feedstock for biodiesel production compared to microalgae. These benefits include the ability to increase lipid content via genetic manipulation, a high growth rate, nitrogen-fixation and a simpler cell wall, which aids in lipid extraction. Moreover, these bacteria have the capability to convert solar energy into biomass that is two times greater than microalgae and ten times greater than corn and sugar cane. The aim of this study was to optimize the cultivation conditions of Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 and to evaluate the lipid feedstock to generate biodiesel via an enzymatic route. For this purpose, the effect of light intensity (50-150 mol m(-2) s(-1)) and the concentration of Na2CO3 (0.5(-1).5 g L-1) were studied according to a 2(2) full-factorial design. Under optimized conditions, the biomass productivity (Q(P)) of 124.0 +/- 3.2 mg L-1 day(-1), lipid content of 29.0 +/- 2.1% and lipid productivity of 35.9 +/- 0.5 mg L-1 day(-1) were obtained. The fatty acid profile indicated differences when the medium was enriched with Na2CO3 and cultured in high light intensity, resulting in an increase in unsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid, which accounts for 40% of the fatty acids in Synechococcus sp. PCC7942. The lipid feedstock was characterized and used as feedstock for biodiesel synthesis using Novozym (R) 435 as a catalyst and ethanol as an acyl acceptor. The biocatalyst was able to form ethyl esters from all of the fatty acids present in the lipid feedstock, attaining a conversion of 97.1%. Analysis of Synechococcus sp. PCC7942 lipids indicated the potential of this cyanobacterium as a biodiesel feedstock. The primary fatty acids of this cyanobacterium were C16-C18, which is suitable for the production of good-quality biodiesel. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
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  349. Orychophragmus violaceus L., a marginal land-based plant for biodiesel feedstock: Heterogeneous catalysis, fuel properties, and potential
    Abstract

    Wang, R.; Wu, Y. Y.; Hang, H. T.; Liu, Y.; Xie, T. X.; Zhang, K. Y.; Li, H. T. 2014. Orychophragmus violaceus L., a marginal land-based plant for biodiesel feedstock: Heterogeneous catalysis, fuel properties, and potential. Energy Conversion and Management. 84497-502

    The development of biomass on marginal lands has been investigated and proven to be feasible. Orychophragmus violaceus grows naturally in the karst region and shows a stronger bicarbonate-use capacity and adaptability than some other plants. In the present study, the systemic parameters of seed samples from four locations were determined, including the oil contents (30.59-36.81 wt%), acid values (2.76-5.68 mg KOH/g), iodine values (111.02-147.58 g I-2/100 g), and fatty acid composition. O. violaceus oil was mainly composed of palmitic acid (C16:0, 10.65-13.06 wt%), stearic acid (C18:0, 6.41-8.31 wt%), oleic acid (C18:1, 16.56-25.58 wt%), and linoleic acid (C18:2, 46.07-52.16 wt%). O. violaceus seed oil from Guiyang was converted to biodiesel by calcined porous calcite. The catalyst amount was optimised, and refined biodiesel was prepared by vacuum distillation. The fuel properties of the O. violaceus biodiesel samples all met the EN 14214 (2012) standards, except for the cetane number and oxidation stability. In summary, O. violaceus from the karst marginal land is highly recommended as a biomass feedstock. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  350. Phosphotungstic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for the one-pot production of biodiesel from grease via esterification and transesterification
    Abstract

    Zillillah; Ngu, T. A.; Li, Z. 2014. Phosphotungstic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for the one-pot production of biodiesel from grease via esterification and transesterification. Green Chemistry. 16(3) 1202-1210

    A novel, active, and recyclable magnetic nano-size solid acid catalyst was developed for the high-yielding transformation of waste grease to biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) via simultaneous esterification of free fatty acids (FFAs) and transesterification of triglycerides with methanol in one pot. The coreshell structured magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) HPW-PGMA-MNPs consist of iron oxide MNPs as the core, poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) as the shell, and phosphotungstic acid (HPW) as the surface acid group. They were conveniently prepared in a 93% yield from PGMA-MNPs via phosphonation with Na2HPO4 and subsequent treatment with Na2WO4 center dot 2H(2)O under acidic conditions, allowing for in situ formation of HPW on the particle surface with a high acidity of 1.13 mmol g(-1) and a particle size of 90 nm. The catalyst was fully characterized by EDX, FT-IR, FESEM, TEM, and VSM. It demonstrated a much better catalytic performance for the transesterification of triacetin and for the one-pot transformation of grease to biodiesel than commercially available solid acid catalysts such as Amberlyst 15, Purolite CT-275, and zeolite. One-pot transformation of grease (21.3 wt% FFAs) with methanol using HPW-PGMA-MNPs (4 wt %) gave a 98% FAME yield after 24 h, with 96% conversion for the esterification and > 98% conversion for the transesterification. HPW-PGMA-MNPs were easily separated from the reaction mixture under a magnetic field and efficiently reused for further cycles of transformation, retaining 95% productivity in the 10th reaction cycle. Thus, the developed magnetic nano-size solid acid catalyst is potentially useful for the green and economic production of biodiesel from waste grease.
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  351. Pistacia terebintus L. Seed Oil: A New Possible Source of Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Baysal, Z.; Uyar, F.; Saydut, A.; Kaya, C.; Kafadar, A. B.; Hamamci, C. 2014. Pistacia terebintus L. Seed Oil: A New Possible Source of Biodiesel. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 36(16) 1827-1834

    Pistacia terebintus, a member of the family Anacardiaceae, is a perennial plant that widely grows in the southern and western regions of Anatolia. Pistacia terebintus L. seeds contain 66% oil, which allows the possibility of economical exploitation. The main monounsaturated fatty acid is oleic (55-75% w/w), polyunsaturated linoleic (15-38% w/w), while the main saturated fatty acid is palmitic (8-20% w/w). Pistacia terebintus L. seed oil was investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of a biodiesel fuel. Three commonly used catalysts for alkaline-catalyzed transesterification, i.e., sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and sodium methoxide, were evaluated using conventional heating with Pistacia terebintus L. oil. High biodiesel yield (97.8%) was obtained by using sodium methoxide, because they only contain the hydroxide group, necessary for saponification, as a low proportion impurity. The methyl ester has relatively closer fuel properties to diesel than that of raw seed oil. Plant improvement programs could make Pistacia terebintus L. a viable alternative for biodiesel production.
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  352. Pollen Source Effects on Fruit and Seed Traits of Jatropha curcas L.-A Renewable Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Samocha, Y.; Eisikowitch, D.; Vaknin, Y. 2014. Pollen Source Effects on Fruit and Seed Traits of Jatropha curcas L.-A Renewable Biodiesel Feedstock. Bioenergy Research. 7(4) 1270-1279

    The effects of the pollen source on fruit and seed traits of Jatropha curcas and on potential biodiesel traits were investigated using analysis of breeding system and reciprocal pollination of various genotypes. The field experiments were carried out under Mediterranean conditions in Bet-Dagan, Israel. The breeding system was investigated by comparison of self-pollination with cross, open, and spontaneous self-pollination. Self-pollination, compared with cross-pollination, resulted in significantly lower levels of seed weight, oil concentration, oil content, and linoleic acid concentration in the seed-oil and with higher concentration of oleic acid. These seed traits were measured by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) as previously calibrated for J. curcas. Spontaneous self-pollination resulted in extremely low fruit and seed sets, and apomixis was totally absent. Pollen source effects were investigated by reciprocal pollination of selected genotypes; 'Ethiopia,' 'Niger,' and 'Suriname' both receiving and donating pollen. In addition, the genotype Brazil was used only as pollen source for the above mentioned genotypes. We found that most seed and oil traits were determined by the pollen recipient regardless of the type of pollen source. Additionally, when pollinated with Brazil, Ethiopia resulted in lower seed set, Niger resulted in higher content of seed protein and lower concentration of stearic acid in the seed oil, and Suriname resulted in higher concentration of linoleic acid and lower concentration of oleic acid. We suggest that enhancement of oil yield and oil quality in future plantations should be based either on a single elite genotype with nondetrimental self-pollination traits or on several elite genotypes with improved compatibility both as pollen sources and pollen recipients.
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  353. Potential non-edible oil feedstock for biodiesel production in Africa: A survey
    Abstract

    Yang, L. Q.; Takase, M.; Zhang, M.; Zhao, T.; Wu, X. Y. 2014. Potential non-edible oil feedstock for biodiesel production in Africa: A survey. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 38461-477

    Africa is a continent full of untapped natural resources ranging from biodiversity to vast water bodies but faced with food and energy crises. Prices of fuel are also escalating. With researchers and experts scrambling for the solution, biodiesel from vegetable oil will receive more attention. But the edible feedstock as the obvious cheapest choice will not be sustainable enough for the increasing energy and food demand; hence, there is a need for guaranteed feedstock. This study was therefore undertaken to explore feedstock that would not be suitable for food but useful for biodiesel in Africa. Among the highlight areas of the study include current energy situation in Africa, technologies of biodiesel production, current state of biodiesel in Africa, driving forces for increase in biodiesel production, current existing problems of biodiesel commercialization, potential benefits of biodiesel processes, need for non-edible oil plants, potential non-edible biodiesel feedstock, biology, distribution and chemistry of the selected non-edible oil plants. The study also throws light on the implication of biodiesel on the environment and the outlook. From the study, the use of non-edible oils can be guaranteed as sustainable feedstock for biodiesel since most of the non-edible plants can be grown on wastelands to reclaim them, not compete with food crops for limited lands, are relatively cheap, available and offer similar or even higher yields of biodiesel and fuel properties as the edibles. Developing biodiesel industry in Africa can help curb the high rate of unemployment through job creation as well as increase in income level of the rural populace. Weaning African economies from oil import dependencies could also be an economic achievement. It can be deduced from the study that there are promising non-edible oil resources in the system for biodiesel industrialization in Africa. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  354. Predicting the higher heating values of waste frying oils as potential biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Sanli, H.; Canakci, M.; Alptekin, E. 2014. Predicting the higher heating values of waste frying oils as potential biodiesel feedstock. Fuel. 115850-854

    In the literature, there are several empirical models to estimate the higher heating values of vegetable oils and biodiesel fuels. In this study, five of these models found in the literature were used to estimate the higher heating value of waste frying oils. When some models are used to estimate HHVs of waste frying oils, the relative errors were found up to 5% compared to the values obtained experimentally. Therefore, a new empirical formula based on the fatty acid composition was developed to predict the HHV of waste frying oils. For this purpose, 35 samples taken from different facilities producing waste frying oils (fast-foods, fish restaurants and hospital restaurants) were analyzed and their properties (such as viscosity, density, iodine value, saponification value, HHV and fatty acid distributions) were determined. Subsequently, to develop an empirical formula, a regression analysis was performed between the HHVs and fatty acid compositions of the waste frying oils. When the experimentally determined and estimated values were compared, it was proven that the new empirical formula gave precise results. By using this model, the mean absolute and relative errors were found around 148.40 kJ/kg and 0.37%, respectively. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  355. Production of Microalgal Lipids as Biodiesel Feedstock with Fixation of CO2 by Chlorella vulgaris
    Abstract

    Hu, Q.; Zeng, R.; Zhang, S. X.; Yang, Z. H.; Huang, H. 2014. Production of Microalgal Lipids as Biodiesel Feedstock with Fixation of CO2 by Chlorella vulgaris. Food Technology and Biotechnology. 52(3) 285-291

    The global warming and shortage of energy are two critical problems for human social development. CO2 mitigation and replacing conventional diesel with biodiesel are effective routes to reduce these problems. Production of microalgal lipids as biodiesel feedstock by a freshwater microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, with the ability to fixate CO2 is studied in this work. The results show that nitrogen deficiency, CO2 volume fraction and photoperiod are the key factors responsible for the lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris. With 5 % CO2, 0.75 g/L of NaNO3 and 18:6 h of light/dark cycle, the lipid content and overall lipid productivity reached 14.5 % and 33.2 mg/(L.day), respectively. Furthermore, we proposed a technique to enhance the microalgal lipid productivity by activating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) with an enzyme activator. Citric acid and Mg2+ were found to be efficient enzyme activators of ACCase. With the addition of 150 mg/L of citric acid or 1.5 mmol/L of MgCl2, the lipid productivity reached 39.1 and 38.0 mg/(L.day), respectively, which was almost twofold of the control. This work shows that it is practicable to produce lipids by freshwater microalgae that can fixate CO2, and provides a potential route to solving the global warming and energy shortage problems.
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  356. Properties and emission indicators of biodiesel fuels obtained from waste oils from the Turkish industry
    Abstract

    Altun, S.; Lapuerta, M. 2014. Properties and emission indicators of biodiesel fuels obtained from waste oils from the Turkish industry. Fuel. 128288-295

    Three waste oils from traditional manufacturing industries in Turkey, such as leather fat, obtained as a by-product in the leather industry, waste anchovy fish oil, derived from the fish-processing industry, and waste frying cottonseed oil from food industry, have been evaluated as alternative raw materials for biodiesel production, with potentially low life-cycle greenhouse emissions. Measured properties such as heating value, density, viscosity, flash point, acidity and cold flow properties, showed that the obtained biodiesel fuels fulfilled both the European and American quality standards and could be used to partially replace petroleum diesel in automotive engines. From gas chromatography analysis, detailed fatty acid profile was obtained, which permitted the application of group contribution methods for the estimation of thermodynamic properties (critical parameters, acentric factor) and thermochemical properties (enthalpies of vaporization and formation). This information was useful to calculate some indicators related to the most important diesel engine emissions, such as soot (main component of particulate matter) and nitric oxide emissions. Soot indicators reveal significant reduction potential with respect to fossil diesel fuels, and, among the studied biodiesel fuels, soot emissions would be lowest for the most saturated and shortest carbon-chain length biodiesel fuel. Adiabatic flame temperature, selected as the main nitric oxide emission indicator, shows small differences among the studied biofuels. Both the properties and emission indicators of the biodiesel fuels studied are within the typical ranges of other conventional biodiesel fuels. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  357. Properties and use of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and diesel fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine
    Abstract

    Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Atabani, A. E.; Arbab, M. I.; Cheng, S. F.; Gouk, S. W. 2014. Properties and use of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and diesel fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management. 82169-176

    Researchers have recently attempted to discover alternative energy sources that are accessible, technically viable, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and its 10% and 20% by-volume blends (B10 and B20) in comparison with diesel fuel (B0). The performance and emission of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine were determined at various speeds and full load conditions. The properties of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blends complied with ASTM D6751 standards. Over the entire range of speeds, B10 and B20 fuels reduced brake power and increased brake specific fuel consumption compared with B0. In engine emissions, B10 and B20 fuels reduced carbon monoxide emission by 10.60% and 22.93% as well as hydrocarbon emission by 9.21% and 23.68%, but slightly increased nitric oxide emission by 8.46% and 18.56%, respectively, compared with B0. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and its blends B10 and B20 can be used as diesel fuel substitutes. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  358. Rapid palm-biodiesel production assisted by a microwave system and sodium methoxide catalyst
    Abstract

    Lin, Y. C.; Hsu, K. H.; Lin, J. F. 2014. Rapid palm-biodiesel production assisted by a microwave system and sodium methoxide catalyst. Fuel. 115306-311

    In this study, sodium methoxide (CH3ONa) catalyst with a microwave heating system was used to improve palm methyl ester yields, and reduce both reaction time and energy consumption. The experimental results indicate that the palm methyl ester yield first increased along with the amount of catalyst, reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, and reaction power, and then decreased as these parameters rose above certain levels. In conclusion, the best methyl ester yield was 99.5% with methyl ester content of 99.8% and biodiesel yield of 99.7% at 0.75 wt% CH3ONa catalyst, a methanol to oil molar ratio of 6, reaction time of 3 min, and microwave power of 750 W. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  359. Recent scenario and technologies to utilize non-edible oils for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Khan, T. M. Y.; Atabani, A. E.; Badruddin, I. A.; Badarudin, A.; Khayoond, M. S.; Triwahyono, S. 2014. Recent scenario and technologies to utilize non-edible oils for biodiesel production. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 37840-851

    It is well known that energy consumption is rapidly increasing due to population growth, higher standard of living and increased production. Significant amounts of energy resources are being consumed by the transportation sector leading to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and environmental pollution. Biodiesel is one of the technically and economically feasible options to tackle the aforesaid problems. Biodiesel is produced mainly from edible oils. However, it is believed that the extensive use of edible oils for biodiesel production may lead to food shortages in most of the developing countries. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to review the necessity and potentiality of the non-edible oils and to identify the emerging technologies to produce biodiesel. Special attention has been paid to the impact of biofuels on agricultural commodity prices and the food-fuel debate. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  360. Review on Biodiesel Production from Various Feedstocks Using 12-Tungstophosphoric Acid (TPA) as a Solid Acid Catalyst Precursor
    Abstract

    Baroi, C.; Dalai, A. K. 2014. Review on Biodiesel Production from Various Feedstocks Using 12-Tungstophosphoric Acid (TPA) as a Solid Acid Catalyst Precursor. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(49) 18611-18624

    Solid acid catalysts are an important class of catalysts because of their applications in various organic reactions. A 12-tungstophosphoric acid (TPA) is a member of heteropoly acid (HPA) compounds, which grabbed attention because of its low volatility, low corrosivity, higher activity, and acidity compared to sulfuric acid. However, the major problems of using TPA are its solubility in polar media, and its lower surface area. Therefore, various techniques are applied to use it as heterogeneous catalysts. Biodiesel is a diesel substitute renewable fuel, which is produced from various renewable feedstocks through transesterification or esterification reactions. Acid catalysts can catalyze both transesterification and esterification reactions. For this reason, research has been conducted to study the catalytic activity of various TPA precursory solid acid catalysts for biodiesel production. In this Review, a data mining technique has been applied to extract valuable information from the previously published literature. For this purpose, an artificial neural network (ANN) model has been developed based on the published research data to capture the general trends or to make predictions. Both catalyst properties and reaction conditions are trended and predicted using the network model.
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  361. Rhazya stricta Decne seed oil as an alternative, non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Nehdi, I. A.; Sbihi, H. M.; Al-Resayes, S. I. 2014. Rhazya stricta Decne seed oil as an alternative, non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management. 81400-406

    Rhazya stricta Decne (R. stricta) is a hardy, drought-resistant, and arid land plant that is widely distributed from the Middle East to South Asia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of R. stricta seed oil as an alternative source of triacylglycerols that may be suitable for the synthesis of biodiesel. The oil content of the seeds was approximately 14% and was mainly composed of the fatty acids linoleic (60.95%) and oleic (25.48%) acid. R. stricta methyl esters (RSME) were prepared by a base-catalyzed transesterification reaction. The conversion rate of the triacylglycerols to the corresponding methyl esters was determined by H-1-NMR to be approximately 97%. This study showed that the fuel properties of the RSMEs are comparable to other vegetable oil methyl esters that are commonly used as biodiesels. R. stricta plantations will therefore be suitable for promoting sustainable agriculture and for producing biodiesel with viable prices in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  362. Screening, Growth Medium Optimisation and Heterotrophic Cultivation of Microalgae for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Jia, Z. C.; Liu, Y.; Daroch, M.; Geng, S.; Cheng, J. J. 2014. Screening, Growth Medium Optimisation and Heterotrophic Cultivation of Microalgae for Biodiesel Production. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 173(7) 1667-1679

    This article presents a study on screening of microalgal strains from the Peking University Algae Collection and heterotrophic cultivation for biodiesel production of a selected microalgal strain. Among 89 strains, only five were capable of growing under heterotrophic conditions in liquid cultures and Chlorella sp. PKUAC 102 was found the best for the production of heterotrophic algal biodiesel. Composition of the growth medium was optimised using response surface methodology and optimised growth conditions were successfully used for cultivation of the strain in a fermentor. Conversion of algal lipids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) showed that the lipid profile of the heterotrophically cultivated Chlorella sp. PKUAC 102 contains fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production.
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  363. Second Generation Biodiesel: Potential Alternative to- Edible Oil-Derived Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N.; Azad, A. K.; Hazrat, M. A. 2014. Second Generation Biodiesel: Potential Alternative to- Edible Oil-Derived Biodiesel. International Conference on Applied Energy, Icae2014. 611969-1972

    The extensive use of fossil fuels is depleting its reserve and produces harmful emission causing environmental issues. Hence, considerable attention has been given to alternative sources such as biodiesel. Currently, biodiesel is mainly produced from conventionally grown edible oil plants thus leading to a competition of usage of food versus fuel. The increasing criticism of the sustainability of first generation biodiesels (those derived from edible oils) has raised attention to the use of so-called second and third generation biodiesels. The second generation biodiesel includes non edible vegetable oils, waste cooking oils as well as animal fats. These are considered as promising substitute for traditional edible food crops as they neither compete with food crops nor lead to land-clearing. This study introduces second generation biodiesel to be used as biodiesel feedstocks. Several aspects of these feedstocks are reviewed and discussed in this paper. These aspects include different sources of biodiesel feedstocks, biodiesel conversion technology and performance and emission characteristics of second generation biodiesel. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  364. Seed oils from non-conventional sources in north-east India: potential feedstock for production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Barua, P.; Dutta, K.; Basumatary, S.; Deka, D. C.; Deka, D. C. 2014. Seed oils from non-conventional sources in north-east India: potential feedstock for production of biodiesel. Natural Product Research. 28(8) 577-580

    A total of nine oilseeds with more than 15wt% oil have been investigated for evaluating them as feedstock for biodiesel industries. Fatty acid profiles of all the nine oil samples have been determined by GC-MS analysis. The saponification numbers, gross heats of combustion of the oils and those of corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as well as cetane indices of the FAMEs have been calculated empirically. Iodine values have been determined experimentally. These values have been used for predicting the quality of the corresponding biodiesels. If prepared from these oils, biodiesels are likely to meet the major specification of biodiesel standards of the USA, Germany and European Standard Organisation. Seed oil from Cucumis sativus is found rich in linoleic acid which is considered an essential fatty acid of biological significance.
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  365. Silybum marianum oil as a new potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel: A comparison of its production using conventional and ultrasonic assisted method
    Abstract

    Takase, M.; Feng, W. W.; Wang, W.; Gu, X. Y.; Zhu, Y.; Li, T.; Yang, L. Q.; Wu, X. Y. 2014. Silybum marianum oil as a new potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel: A comparison of its production using conventional and ultrasonic assisted method. Fuel Processing Technology. 12319-26

    Alkaline transesterification of Silybum marianum seed oil to biodiesel using methanol and ethanol was studied. The two methods used were conventional stirring (600 rpm) and ultrasonication (40 kHz). Oil was extracted from the seeds, followed by physico-chemical properties' determination and transesterification to biodiesel. The seeds contained 46% oil which had low free fatty acids (FFA) (0.68%). Linoleic acid (65.68%) was the main composition of the oil. Ultrasonication transesterification with methanol gave the highest yield (95.75%) after 20 min. Yields of methyl esters were higher than respective yields of ethyl esters. Using first order reaction kinetics model, the reaction rate constants were 2.3 X 10(-2) s(-1) and 7.0 X 10(-3) s(-1) for ultrasonication using methanol and ethanol, respectively. With the exception of oxidative stability (2.1 h) and iodine values (132-methyl and 133-ethyl esters), properties out of range but can easily be improved, the remaining properties including cetane number, flash point and the cold flow ones of both methyl and ethyl esters were similar and comparable to Chinese, ASTM and European Union standards. The findings of this study complement with the abundance of S. marianum oil at cultivation and silymarin industrial production as by-product indicates its potentially new non-edible feedstock for biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  366. Somatic Embryogenesis Media Optimization Study of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas) as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Nindita, A.; Purwoko, B. S.; Efendi, D.; Dewi, I. S. 2014. Somatic Embryogenesis Media Optimization Study of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas) as Biodiesel Feedstock. Conference and Exhibition Indonesia Renewable Energy & Energy Conservation (Indonesia Ebtke-Conex 2013). 4721-28

    Jatropha curcas as potential biodiesel feedstock is difficult to propagate through tissue culture. The research development for Jatropha is massive nowadays and propagation can be conducted through conventional or non-conventional techniques in biotechnology. Biotechnology approach through organogenesis and embryogenesis pathways is needed. The objectives of the research were to obtain in vitro culture media optimization through embryogenesis pathway. Plant materials used in this experiment were embryo axis and cotyledon to obtain somatic embryo. The result of the experiment showed that somatic embryos were obtained only from MS medium supplemented with picloram 1.0 mg/l for both embryo axis and cotyledon explant. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier
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  367. Statistical Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil in a Microchannel Reactor
    Abstract

    Dai, J. Y.; Li, D. Y.; Zhao, Y. C.; Xiu, Z. L. 2014. Statistical Optimization for Biodiesel Production from Soybean Oil in a Microchannel Reactor. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 53(22) 9325-9330

    Microreactors are efficient with regard to the continuous production of biodiesel, because of their enhanced mass transfer. In this study, a novel structure of microchannel reactor was studied to synthesize biodiesel from soybean oil via alkali-catalyzed transesterification. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the relationship between biodiesel yield and reaction parameters, such as residence time, reaction temperature, catalyst amount, and molar ratio of methanol to oil. A three-level four-factor Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to fit the available response data to a second-order polynomial regression model. Under the optimum conditions of a residence time of 14.9 s, a methanol/oil molar ratio of 8.5, 1.17 wt % KOH, and 59 degrees C, the biodiesel yield reached 99.5%. The effect of moisture and free fatty acid on biodiesel production were also explored.
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  368. Synthesis of racemic lactide using glycerol by-product from biodiesel fuel production process as feedstock
    Abstract

    Hasegawa, T.; Nomura, N.; Moriya, T.; Nishikawa, H.; Yamaguchi, S.; Kishida, H. 2014. Synthesis of racemic lactide using glycerol by-product from biodiesel fuel production process as feedstock. 11th Eco-Energy and Materials Science and Engineering (11th Emses). 56195-200

    To reduce CO2 emission, the utilization of biodiesel fuel (BDF) has expanded worldwide last decade. Accordingly, more and more glycerol that is a by-product of the BDF production process is discharged, and an effective conversion of glycerol into valuable substances has been desired. In this article, we describe a study of conversion from glycerol into racemic lactide which is to be a monomer of stereoblock poly(lactic acid) (sb-PLA) by using an achiral homosalen-aluminum complex as a polymerization catalyst. This sb-PLA is semi-crystalline and has high melting point (up to 210 degrees C). The glycerol was first converted into racemic lactic acid by hydrothermal reaction with an alkaline catalyst under the following conditions: temperature, 300 degrees C; pressure, 10 MPa; reaction time, 3.5 h. The conversion of glycerol into lactic acid was 62.5%. The racemic lactic acid was then converted into the mixture of lactide isomers, followed by purification process to afford racemic lactide (rac-LA). Purity of the obtained rac-LA was more than 99%. It demonstrates that glycerol can be a good feedstock of rac-LA for the first time. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
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  369. The combined production of ethanol and biogas from microalgal residuals to sustain microalgal biodiesel: A theoretical evaluation
    Abstract

    Zhu, L. D. 2014. The combined production of ethanol and biogas from microalgal residuals to sustain microalgal biodiesel: A theoretical evaluation. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 8(1) 7-15

    To date, researchers have expressed increasing interest in the potential of using microalgae as a biofuel feedstock and technological solution for CO2 sequestration. Microalgae-derived biodiesel production is one of the best choices for biofuels production, since microalgae have substantial amounts of lipids which can be used for biodiesel conversion. Nonetheless, after the production of algal biodiesel, large quantities of residuals or post-extracts are left over, threatening environmental hygiene if not disposed of appropriately. In this respect, it is critical that the utilization of these remnants is taken into account in an effort to make microalgal biodiesel sustainable. This paper evaluates the theoretical biodiesel, ethanol, and methane yields and the relative calorific values in the production chain of algal biofuels. It is found that fermentation and anaerobic digestion of microalgae residuals are two steps which could assist in dealing with the problem of algal waste, as well as the economic and energetic balance of such a promising technology. It also discusses in detail the potential of the continuous conversion of algal residuals into ethanol and methane, with particular focus on the energetic interest, and nitrogen and phosphorus recycling. Key technical issues related to fermentation and anaerobic digestion are indentified, the strategies to improve their production highlighted, and the necessity of producing algal biodiesel and/or ethanol discussed. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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  370. THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH TEA SEED (Camellia sinensis) OIL BIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS
    Abstract

    Serin, H.; Akar, N. Y. 2014. THE PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF A DIESEL ENGINE FUELED WITH TEA SEED (Camellia sinensis) OIL BIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS. International Journal of Green Energy. 11(3) 292-301

    The study presents the results of investigations carried out on a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine operated with tea seed (Camellia sinensis) oil biodiesel. The oil from tea seeds was extracted from grounded seeds using the Soxhlet extraction apparatus. The biodiesel was produced by transesterification of tea seed oil with methanol in the presence of a catalyst (NaOH). After being blended with regular diesel fuel (D), the fuel properties of tea seed biodiesel (B) was determined according to ASTM and EN standards. The fuel mixtures (biodiesel content at the volumetric ratios of 10%B-90%D (B10), 20%B-80%D (B20), and 100%B (B100)) were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The results indicated a decrease in the observed power output with the increase in biodiesel content in the mixture. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) values were increased depending on the amount of biodiesel in the test fuels. While CO and CO2 emissions were reduced, NOx emissions were increased with increasing biodiesel contents in the mixture. It can be concluded that, tea seed oil, as an agricultural crop, might be a reasonable raw material for the biodiesel production. It was also shown that, up to 20% volumetric content of tea seed biodiesel could be effectively used in fuel mixture serving the purpose of reduction in diesel fuel usage.
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  371. The Production of Biodiesel From A Bastard Poom Feedstock
    Abstract

    Sinthorn, C.; Wongwuttanasatian, T. 2014. The Production of Biodiesel From A Bastard Poom Feedstock. International Journal of Green Energy. 11(9) 910-917

    This study was conducted on the production of biodiesel from bastard poom via transesterification with potassium hydroxide as the catalyst. Certain experimental conditions were set for determining the maximum biodiesel produced. The most appropriate methanol solvent per bastard poom found was 1:4 by volume and 2 mass per unit volume of potassium hydroxide at 60 degrees C for 30 min. The amount of biodiesel obtained was 88.56% by mass of crude oil. The following fuel properties were noted: the biodiesel had a golden yellow color without any residue. Its cloud point was at 2.4 degrees C, the pour point at -1 degrees C, the density at 15 degrees C of 890 kg/m(3) , and the flash point at over 290 degrees C. The acid value was 0.49 mgKOH-g, the water content was 610 mg-kg, combustion heating value was roughly 38,590 kJ-kg, the viscosity was 5.68 mm(2)-s at 40 degrees C, and copper corrosion was at 1A level. The analysis of water property of biodiesel from bastard poom showed its properties within Thai biodiesel standards. This indicates that bastard poom is suitable for developing as an alternative fuel.
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  372. The utilization of Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oil as biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia
    Abstract

    Gunawan, S.; Wasista, H. W.; Kuswandi, K.; Widjaja, A.; Ju, Y. H. 2014. The utilization of Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oil as biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. Industrial Crops and Products. 52286-291

    In this study, the production of biodiesel from Xylocarpus moluccensis seed oil by esterification followed directly by transesterfication without employing a separation step was investigated. The composition of X. moluccensis seed oil was triacylglycerols (81.23%), diacylglycerols (3.70%), monoacylglycerols (2.26%), free fatty acids (10.5%), and wax esters and gums (1.23%). Our results suggest that FAME yield (97%) was obtained under the following operation conditions: methanol to rice bran ratio of 2 ml/g, sulfuric acid concentration in methanol of 1% (v/v) and reaction time of 20 min, an esterification operated on X. moluccensis seed oils could reduce FFA contents from 10% to 1.5%. Then, it was subjected to a second step reaction by adding potassium hydroxide of 0.3% and allowing to react for another 15 min. It was found that the content of saturated fatty acids in this study were 22%. This means that the biodiesel produced from X. moluccensis seed oil has better cold flow properties, compared to that obtained while using palm oil. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  373. Transesterification of non edible feedstock with lithium incorporated egg shell derived CaO for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Boro, J.; Konwar, L. J.; Deka, D. 2014. Transesterification of non edible feedstock with lithium incorporated egg shell derived CaO for biodiesel production. Fuel Processing Technology. 12272-78

    A series of Li doped egg shell derived CaO is prepared for biodiesel production from nonedible oil feedstock. The catalyst is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurements and their basic strengths were measured by Hammett indicators. Maximum conversion of 94% is observed with 5% of catalyst amount and 2% of Li loading is observed to be optimum for better conversions. Though the catalyst is not reusable its catalytic activity can be improved by activating it at appropriate temperature and reloading it with Li. NMR studies showed that the final product separated after transesterification is biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  374. Use of the microalga Monoraphidium sp grown in wastewater as a feedstock for biodiesel: Cultivation and fuel characteristics
    Abstract

    Holbrook, G. P.; Davidson, Z.; Tatara, R. A.; Ziemer, N. L.; Rosentrater, K. A.; Grayburn, W. S. 2014. Use of the microalga Monoraphidium sp grown in wastewater as a feedstock for biodiesel: Cultivation and fuel characteristics. Applied Energy. 131386-393

    The use of microalgae as feedstocks for biodiesel is potentially limited by climatic conditions with low light and temperature levels. Monoraphidium sp. Dek19 was identified by 18S rRNA gene sequencing. This is a species indigenous to the upper Midwestern USA which grows to high densities in wastewater with bioremediation resulting in a reduction of nitrate and phosphate levels. Mesocosm pool cultures (171L) were used to characterize growth of this species in larger volumes than typical of previous lab-based studies. The alga was shown to be cold-tolerant and to grow to workable density within 15 days at relatively low light intensities in sterilized treated effluent. It was harvested by FeCl3 flocculation and filtration, and lipid content was measured at 26% of dry weight. Pool cultures yielded enough biomass to extract lipids and transesterify them to biodiesel for testing in a stationary engine. GC analysis showed FAMEs produced from Monoraphidium sp. to have a similar fatty acid profile to soybean oil. Engine testing of this algal biodiesel in blends with petrodiesel showed a significant reduction in NOx emissions. The results of this study indicate in general that searching for species of algae adapted to local environments is a good strategy for developing biodiesel feedstocks, and specifically that Monoraphidium sp. Dek19 represents a species isolate that could be used to produce this fuel economically using wastewater in Northern locations with cool climates. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  375. Utilization of glycerin byproduct derived from soybean oil biodiesel as a carbon source for heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris
    Abstract

    Anastacio, G. S.; Santos, K. O.; Suarez, P. A. Z.; Torres, F. A. G.; De Marco, J. L.; Parachin, N. S. 2014. Utilization of glycerin byproduct derived from soybean oil biodiesel as a carbon source for heterologous protein production in Pichia pastoris. Bioresource Technology. 152505-510

    Crude glycerol, also known as glycerin, is the main byproduct of the biodiesel industry. It has been estimated that up to 40,000 tons of glycerin will be produced each year by 2020. This study evaluated the value-added use of crude glycerol derived from soybean biodiesel preparation as a carbon source for heterologous protein production using the yeast Pichia pastoris. Eleven glycerin samples were obtained by methanolysis of soybean oil using different acids or bases as catalysts. Cell growth experiments showed that crude glycerol containing either potassium or sodium hydroxide resulted in 1.5-2 times higher final cell densities when compared to glycerol P. A. Finally, crude glycerol containing sodium hydroxide was successfully utilized for constitutive heterologous a-amylase production in P. pastoris. This study demonstrated that crude glycerol without any purification steps may be directly used as carbon source for protein production in P. pastoris. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  376. Vegetable Oil Based Biodiesel Feedstock Potential in Indonesia
    Abstract

    Mayasari, F.; Dalimi, R. 2014. Vegetable Oil Based Biodiesel Feedstock Potential in Indonesia. 2014 Makassar International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics (Miceei). 37-41

    Biodiesel is a renewable energy that comes from natural biodiesel feedstock, such as vegetable oil, animal fat, waste oil, algae, etc. It becomes one of the best alternative solutions for global fossil fuel energy crisis, because it has similar characteristic with diesel oil (petrodiesel).
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  377. Waste animal fats as feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bankovic-Ilie, I. B.; Stojkovic, I. J.; Stamenkovic, O. S.; Veljkovic, V. B.; Hung, Y. T. 2014. Waste animal fats as feedstocks for biodiesel production. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 32238-254

    Biodiesel, an alternate and ecologically acceptable substitute for the conventional fuel, is usually produced from a wide range of edible vegetable oils, which are normally used for human consumption and whose prices are expected to increase in the future. In this regard, reliable and low-cost raw materials have increasingly drawn interest for biodiesel production, such as by-products of the meat-processing industries or waste animal fats. This paper provides a review of the different methods employed for biodiesel production from waste animal fats employing transesterification reaction. The aim of this paper is to present the exploitation possibilities of waste animal fats as low-cost feedstocks for biodiesel production. Also, the various methods for treatment of waste animal fats such as chemical (homogeneous and heterogeneous) and enzyme catalysis as well as non-catalytic processes were considered with emphasis on the influence of the operating and reaction conditions on the process rate and the ester yield. In depth discussions were given to the process optimization, kinetics and possibilities for improvement of biodiesel production from waste animal. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  378. A comparative evaluation of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel synthesized from edible and non-edible oils and study on the effect of biodiesel blending
    Abstract

    Atabani, A. E.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.; Badruddin, I. A.; Yussof, H. W.; Chong, W. T.; Lee, K. T. 2013. A comparative evaluation of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel synthesized from edible and non-edible oils and study on the effect of biodiesel blending. Energy. 58296-304

    Traditionally, biodiesel has been produced from edible oils due to their low free fatty acids. However, their use has elevated some issues such as food versus fuel and many other problems that have negatively affected their economic viability. Therefore, exploration of non-edible oils may significantly reduce the cost of biodiesel especially in poor countries which can barely afford the high cost of edible oils. This paper aims to produce biodiesel from several edible and non-edible oils that are readily available in the South East Asian market. These oils include; Jatropha curcas, Calophyllum inophyllum, Sterculia foetida, Moringa oleifera, Croton megalocarpus, Patchouli, Elaeis guineensis (palm), Cocos nucifera (coconut), Brassica napus (canola) and Glycine Max (soybean) oils. This was followed by an investigation of physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesel. This paper also discusses the concept of biodiesel blending to improve some of the properties of these feedstocks. For instance, blending of SFME and CoME improves the viscosity of SFME from 6.3717 mm(2)/s to 5.3349 mm(2)/s (3:1), 4.4912 mm(2)/s (1:1) and 3.879 mm(2)/s (1:3). The properties of other biodiesel blends were estimated using the polynomial curve fitting method. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  379. A study on low temperature and pressure hydrogenation of cyclopropenoid-group containing non-edible oil for biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Hudaya, T.; Liana; Soerawidjaja, T. H. 2013. A study on low temperature and pressure hydrogenation of cyclopropenoid-group containing non-edible oil for biodiesel feedstock. International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (Icseea) 2012. 32209-215

    One of the potential non-edible biodiesel feedstocks in Indonesia is kapok seed oil (Ceiba pentandra). However, the biodiesel made directly from kapok seed oil will not comply with the requirement of Indonesian Biodiesel Standard, because the oil contains cyclopropenoid group, i.e. a reactive group that easily polymerizes, making the biodiesel viscous and thus could plug the fuel injection nozzle on the diesel engine. The aim of this study is to determine the suitable conditions for low T and P catalytic transfer hydrogenation process to eliminate the cyclopropenoid group in kapok seed oil. Potassium formate (10 M) was used as a hydrogen donor solution and the catalyst was a 5%-palladium on carbon (5%-Pd/C) utilized at a level of 0,5%-mass to oil. The concentrations of cyclopropenoid group at the beginning and the end of the hydrogenation were determined titrimetrically using Durbetaki reagent. The best condition for catalytic transfer hydrogenation of kapok seed oil found in this study was at 65 degrees C for 9 hours, which resulted in about 61% decrease of the cyclopropenoid group. Iodine number measurements indicated that the hydrogenation process merely occured on the cyclopropenoid group, because the group was more reactive than the monoenoic/dienoic bonds on the aliphatic fatty acid chains of the oil. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  380. A study on the effects of promising edible and non-edible biodiesel feedstocks on engine performance and emissions production: A comparative evaluation
    Abstract

    Mofijur, M.; Atabani, A. E.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Masum, B. M. 2013. A study on the effects of promising edible and non-edible biodiesel feedstocks on engine performance and emissions production: A comparative evaluation. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 23391-404

    Global energy demand is increasing due to the population growth and industrialization. In order to fulfill the energy demand with considering global concern, it is necessary to find out alternative fuel sources. Biodiesel is one of the best choices because of its immense potential to be part of energy mix in the near future as well as the capability of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. This paper aims to provide information to the engineers, industrialists and researchers who are interested on biodiesel. The paper presents a comprehensive review on the impact of potential biodiesel feedstocks (edible and non-edible) on engine performance and exhaust emissions including details of engine and operating condition. A large number of literatures from highly rated journals in scientific indexes are reviewed including the most recent publications. Most of the authors showed that using biodiesel from various feedstocks in diesel engines slightly lowered brake power and brake thermal efficiency but increases BSFC than diesel fuel. It was also reported that biodiesel significantly reduced the PM, HC, CO and CO2 emissions but gives slightly higher NOx emissions. It was shown that NO can be reduced by some approaches such as blending with additives and EGR technique. The study concluded that biodiesel can be used in compression ignition engine with no or minor engine modification. Finally biodiesel can be used as a substitute of diesel fuel to fulfill the energy demand, reduce dependency on fossil fuel as well as the exhaust emissions of the engine. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  381. A Universal Procedure for Crude Glycerol Purification from Different Feedstocks in Biodiesel Production: Experimental and Simulation Study
    Abstract

    Xiao, Y.; Xiao, G. M.; Varma, A. 2013. A Universal Procedure for Crude Glycerol Purification from Different Feedstocks in Biodiesel Production: Experimental and Simulation Study. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 52(39) 14291-14296

    It is important to utilize crude glycerol, the main byproduct of biodiesel production, to manufacture high value-added chemicals. Since crude glycerol typically contains less than 65 wt % glycerol, purification is the first step for its utilization. Owing to the wide variety of triglycerides, alcohols, catalysts, and separation processes used in biodiesel production, crude glycerol composition varies widely, leading to different crude glycerol purifications. In the present work, we develop a universal procedure for crude glycerol purification, including as key steps initial microfiltration of the crude glycerol, saponification, acidification, phase separation, and biphasic extraction of upper- and lower-layer products. The procedure was utilized to purify crude glycerol samples from two biodiesel production companies, experimentally upgrading both samples to >94 wt % purity. On an Aspen Plus software platform, the purification procedure was simulated using a process model based on two submodels to obtain a good match with the experiments. The developed procedure is suitable for the purification of crude glycerol obtained from different biodiesel production technologies.
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  382. Acid-catalyzed esterification and kinetics of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil for biodiesel preparation
    Abstract

    Zhang, J.; Wang, X. J.; Han, Q. L.; Li, S. Y.; Liu, H.; Gou, X. L. 2013. Acid-catalyzed esterification and kinetics of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil for biodiesel preparation. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment. 17(12) 38-44

    We developed a method to reduce the acid value of crude Zanthoxylum bungeanum seed oil (ZSO) with high free fatty acids. The acid value of ZSO was reduced from 56.23 mg KOH/g to 1.56 mg KOH/g by using one-step, acid-catalyzed esterification under the following optimum conditions: methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 30: 1; 1.5% H2SO4; temperature of 60 degrees C; and a reaction time of 120 min. The variation analysis of the orthogonal tests reveals the following sequence of different factors that contribute to esterification: mole ratio of methanol to ZSO > w (catalyst) > reaction temperature > reaction time.
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  383. Acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) Kernel Oil as an Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Turkey
    Abstract

    Karabas, H. 2013. Acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) Kernel Oil as an Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Turkey. Journal of Energy Resources Technology-Transactions of the Asme. 135(1)

    The acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) kernel oil is extracted from the kernels of the acorn that is grown in Sakarya which is in the Marmara region, Turkey. Acorn kernel oil (AKO) is obtained in 10 wt. %, by solvent extraction. Acorn kernel oil is investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of a biodiesel fuel. The fatty acid profile of the oil consists primarily of oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Before processing alkalin transesterification reaction, the high free fatty acid (FFA) of the crude acorn kernel oil is decreased by using acid esterification method. Biodiesel is prepared from acorn kernel (AK) by transesterification of the acid esterified oil with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. The maximum oil to ester conversion was 90%. The viscosity of biodiesel is closer to that of diesel and the heating value is about 6.4% less than that of petroleum diesel No. 2. All of the measured properties of the produced acorn kernel oil methyl ester (AKOME) are being compared to the current quality requirements according to EN14214 and ASTM D 6751. The comparison shows that the methyl esters of acorn kernel oil could be possible used as diesel fuel replacements. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4007692]
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  384. Alternative feedstock for the biodiesel and energy production: The OVEST project
    Abstract

    Prussi, M.; Chiaramonti, D.; Recchia, L.; Martelli, F.; Guidotti, F.; Pari, L. 2013. Alternative feedstock for the biodiesel and energy production: The OVEST project. Energy. 582-8

    A large share of the vegetable oil market is today shifting from food to the energy sector. This trend led to discussions about the chance of confliction between these two chains and its possible social and environmental consequences. Moreover the increasing interest in pure vegetable oils for energy and biodiesel production are associated to a period of market volatilities and high prices. The economics of the biodiesel production is suffering the actual market situation.
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  385. Alternative Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Ribeiro, A.; Carvalho, J.; Castro, J.; Araujo, J.; Vilarinho, C.; Castro, F. 2013. Alternative Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production. Advanced Materials Forum Vi, Pts 1 and 2. 730-732623-+

    The increasing in the world population has continuously increased the energy demand. As an effective fuel, petroleum has been serving the world to meet its energy needs. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies and all the environmental issues around its use could be responsible for a major deficit in the future. Thus, the development of alternative energy sources, are to be welcomed. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has many benefits. It is biodegradable, non-toxic and compared to petroleum-based diesel, has a more favorable combustion emission profile, such as low emissions of carbon monoxide, particulate matter and unburned hydrocarbons. In brief, these merits make biodiesel a good alternative to petroleum based fuel.
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  386. An effective acid catalyst for biodiesel production from impure raw feedstocks
    Abstract

    Tran, H. L.; Ryu, Y. J.; Seong, D. H.; Lim, S. M.; Lee, C. G. 2013. An effective acid catalyst for biodiesel production from impure raw feedstocks. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering. 18(2) 242-247

    Biodiesel consists of fatty acids short chain alkyl esters produced through transesterification and esterification of fats and oils. Production of biodiesel is strongly affected by the purity of raw lipids, and catalysts play important role in these processes. Although direct utilization of impure feedstocks is more economical, their use necessitates development of effective catalysts to overcome hindering influences of impurities. In this study, sulfuryl chloride, thionyl chloride, acetyl chloride, p-toluenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid, methanesulfonic acid, dimethylsulfate and sulfuric acid were investigated as catalysts for the production of biodiesel because acids have higher tolerance to water and free fatty acids in oils and can simultaneously catalyze both the esterification and transesterification reactions. Sulfuryl chloride was found to be an effective catalyst for production of biodiesel from soybean oil, its waste oil and microalgal lipids.
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  387. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Yunus, S.; Abdullah, N. R.; Mamat, R.; Rashid, A. A. 2013. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia. 2nd International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (Icmer 2013). 50

    The high demand to replace petroleum fuel makes renewable and sustainable sources such as Palm oil, Jatropha oil and Algae a main focus feedstock for biodiesel production in Malaysia. There are many studies conducted on Palm oil and Jatropha oil, however, the use of Algae as an alternative fuel is still in its infancy. Malaysia already implemented B5 based Palm oil as a feedstock and this biodiesel has been proven safe and can be used without any engine modification. The use of biodiesel produced from these feedstock will also developed domestic economic and provide job opportunities especially in the rural area. In addition, biodiesel has many advantages especially when dealing with the emissions produce as compared to petroleum fuel such as; it can reduce unwanted gases and particulate matter harmful to the atmosphere and mankind. Thus, this paper gathered and examines the most prominent engine emission produced from Palm oil and Jatropha feedstock and also to observe the potential of Algae to be one of the sources of alternative fuel in Malaysia.
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  388. Analysis of Microalgal Biorefineries for Bioenergy from an Environmental and Economic Perspective Focus on Algal Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Harrison, S. T. L.; Richardson, C.; Griffiths, M. J. 2013. Analysis of Microalgal Biorefineries for Bioenergy from an Environmental and Economic Perspective Focus on Algal Biodiesel. Biotechnological Applications of Microalgae: Biodiesel and Value-Added Products. 113-136

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  389. Assessment of Chemical and Physico-Chemical Properties of Cyanobacterial Lipids for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Da Ros, P. C. M.; Silva, C. S. P.; Silva-Stenico, M. E.; Fiore, M. F.; De Castro, H. F. 2013. Assessment of Chemical and Physico-Chemical Properties of Cyanobacterial Lipids for Biodiesel Production. Marine Drugs. 11(7) 2365-2381

    Five non-toxin producing cyanobacterial isolates from the genera Synechococcus, Trichormus, Microcystis, Leptolyngbya and Chlorogloea were examined in terms of quantity and quality as lipid feedstock for biofuel production. Under the conditions used in this study, the biomass productivity ranged from 3.7 to 52.7 mgL(-1)day(-1) in relation to dry biomass, while the lipid productivity varied between 0.8 and 14.2 mgL(-1)day(-1). All cyanobacterial strains evaluated yielded lipids with similar fatty acid composition to those present in the seed oils successfully used for biodiesel synthesis. However, by combining biomass and lipid productivity parameters, the greatest potential was found for Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, M. aeruginosa NPCD-1 and Trichormus sp. CENA77. The chosen lipid samples were further characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), viscosity and thermogravimetry and used as lipid feedstock for biodiesel synthesis by heterogeneous catalysis.
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  390. Biodiesel catalysts for algal oil and other low quality feedstocks
    Abstract

    Adams, D.; Chuck, C.; Davidson, M. 2013. Biodiesel catalysts for algal oil and other low quality feedstocks. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society. 246

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  391. Biodiesel from Camelina sativa: A comprehensive characterisation
    Abstract

    Ciubota-Rosie, C.; Ruiz, J. R.; Ramos, M. J.; Perez, A. 2013. Biodiesel from Camelina sativa: A comprehensive characterisation. Fuel. 105572-577

    In order to evaluate the Camelina sativa biodiesel (CSB) as a viable biofuel alternative, a comprehensive characterisation was performed based on the European and the American standards (EN 14214 and ASTM D6751). For the first time, more than thirty parameters was analysed. The results show that C. sativa oil contains approximately 90% unsaturated fatty acids. This unusual fatty acid pattern is the result of the abundance of C18:1 (12.8-14.7%), C18: 2 (16.3-17.2%), C18: 3 (36.2-39.4%) and C20:1 (14.0-15.5%) fatty acids. The high C18: 3 content is incompatible with EN 14214 specifications and negatively affects biodiesel properties such as the cetane number, the iodine value, the oxidation stability and the linolenic acid methyl ester content. Other critical parameters are the atmospheric equivalent temperature (AET, 90% recovered) and the polyunsaturated (>= 4 double bonds) methyl ester content. For these reasons, C. sativa biodiesel presents serious drawbacks for biodiesel applications, although could be good biodiesel feedstocks if the high degree of unsaturation and the molecular weight of the oil are reduced. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  392. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock
    Abstract

    Rashid, U.; Ibrahim, M.; Yasin, S.; Yunus, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Knothe, G. 2013. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock. Industrial Crops and Products. 45355-359

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane number, cloud, pour, and cold filter plugging points, kinematic viscosity, oxidative stability, flash point, sulfur content, ash content, density and acid value. The citrus seed oil methyl esters were found to satisfy both ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. The NMR spectra of the methyl esters of C. reticulata seed oil are reported. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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  393. Biodiesel from Microalgae, Yeast, and Bacteria: Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions
    Abstract

    Wahlen, B. D.; Morgan, M. R.; McCurdy, A. T.; Willis, R. M.; Morgan, M. D.; Dye, D. J.; Bugbee, B.; Wood, B. D.; Seefeldt, L. C. 2013. Biodiesel from Microalgae, Yeast, and Bacteria: Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions. Energy & Fuels. 27(1) 220-228

    Biodiesels (fatty acid methyl esters) derived from oleaginous microbes (microalgae, yeast, and bacteria) are being actively pursued as potential renewable substitutes for petroleum diesel. Here, we report the engine performance characteristics of biodiesel produced from a microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis), a yeast (Cryptococcus curvatus), and a bacteria (Rhodococcus opacus) in a two-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with an eddy current brake dynamometer, comparing the fuel performance to petroleum diesel (#2) and commercial biodiesel from soybeans. Key physical and chemical properties, including heating value, viscosity, density, and cetane index, for each of the microbial-derived biofuels were found to compare favorably to those of soybean biodiesel. Likewise, the horsepower, torque, and brake specific fuel consumption across a range of engine speeds also compared favorably to values determined for soybean biodiesel. Analysis of exhaust emissions (hydrocarbon, CO, CO2, O-2, and NOx) revealed that all biofuels produced significantly less CO and hydrocarbon than petroleum diesel. Surprisingly, microalgae biodiesel was found to have the lowest NOx output, even lower than petroleum diesel. The results are discussed in the context of the fatty acid composition of the fuels and the technical viability of microbial biofuels as replacements for petroleum diesel.
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  394. Biodiesel production from highly unsaturated feedstock via simultaneous transesterification and partial hydrogenation in supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Shin, H. Y.; Ryu, J. H.; Bae, S. Y.; Kim, Y. C. 2013. Biodiesel production from highly unsaturated feedstock via simultaneous transesterification and partial hydrogenation in supercritical methanol. Journal of Supercritical Fluids. 82251-255

    In this study, a supercritical one-pot process combining transesterification and partial hydrogenation was proposed to test its technical feasibility. Simultaneous transesterification of soybean oil and partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated compounds over Cu catalyst in supercritical methanol was performed at 320 degrees C and 20 MPa. Hydrogenation proceeded simultaneously during the transesterification of soybean oil in supercritical methanol, and hydrogenation occurred during the reaction despite the absence of hydrogen gas. The polyunsaturated methyl esters obtained in the biodiesel were mainly converted to monounsaturated methyl esters by partial hydrogenation. Key properties of the partially hydrogenated methyl esters were improved and complied with standard specifications for biodiesel. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  395. Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris
    Abstract

    Wang, W. R.; Zhou, W. W.; Liu, J.; Li, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. K. 2013. Biodiesel production from hydrolysate of Cyperus esculentus waste by Chlorella vulgaris. Bioresource Technology. 13624-29

    To reduce the cost of algal-based biodiesel, a waste material from oil industry, Cyperus esculentus waste, was used as the carbon source of the oleaginous microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. It demonstrated that C vulgaris grew better in C esculentus waste hydrolysate (CEWH1) than in glucose medium under the same reducing sugar concentration. CEWH concentration influenced the cell growth and lipid production significantly. The maximum lipid productivity 438.85 mg l(-1) d(-1) was achieved at 40 g l(-1). Fed-batch culture was performed to further enhance lipid production. The maximum biomass, lipid content and lipid productivity were 20.75 g l(-1), 36.52%, and 621.53 mg l(-1) d(-1), respectively. The produced biodiesel was analyzed by GC-MS and the results suggested that lipids produced from CEWH could be a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  396. Biodiesel production from leather industry wastes as an alternative feedstock and its use in diesel engines
    Abstract

    Altun, S.; Yasar, F. 2013. Biodiesel production from leather industry wastes as an alternative feedstock and its use in diesel engines. Energy Exploration & Exploitation. 31(5) 759-770

    Waste leather fat is produced by the leather industry in fleshing processing and discarded as waste. These wastes can be used as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to their considerable fat content. In this work, raw fleshing oil which is a fat-originated waste of the leather industry was transesterified using methanol in the presence of an alkali catalyst to obtain biodiesel. The obtained biodiesel was then used in a four-stroke and direct injection diesel engine to evaluate the biodiesel behavior as an alternative diesel fuel, at a constant speed under variable load conditions. Blends [20 and 50% (v/v)] of biodiesel with diesel reference fuel were tested too. The emissions test results compared with diesel reference fuel showed that diesel engine fueled by biodiesel emitted significantly lower opacity and gaseous emissions than the same engine fueled by diesel reference fuel, and with very similar performance. The obtained data indicated that biodiesel from leather industry wastes is promising as an alternative fuel for diesel engines, and can be used to substitute diesel fuel in terms of performance and emission parameters without any engine modification.
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  397. Biodiesel production from Phoenix dactylifera as a new feedstock
    Abstract

    Amani, M. A.; Davoudi, M. S.; Tahvildari, K.; Nabavi, S. M.; Davoudi, M. S. 2013. Biodiesel production from Phoenix dactylifera as a new feedstock. Industrial Crops and Products. 4340-43

    Biodiesel is one of the renewable and clean burning fuels, which can be used in diesel engines. Biodiesel is usually generated from food-grade vegetable oils using transesterification process. Using the food-grade vegetable oils is not economical since they are more expensive than diesel fuel. Therefore, it is said that the main obstacle for commercialization of biodiesel is its high cost. The kind of feedstock, which is used is the most effective factor on the biodiesel characteristics and the price. So, at first finding a proper feedstock has an important role in different places. Therefore in this research the possibility of using date seed as a cheap feedstock for biodiesel production was investigated, because it is produced largely in the hot arid regions of southwestern Asia and northern Africa. After extracting oil and producing biodiesel from Phoenix dactylifera (date seed) oil, the properties of biodiesel were evaluated by fuel standard tests and the results were compared with EN14214 and ASTM D6751 standards and also compared with the properties of produced. According to the results, the important benefit of the biodiesel from the date seed oil is high cetane number (60.3), low iodine value (46), viscosity (3.84 mm(2)/s) and flash point (140 degrees C) and the only weak point is its high pouring point (-1 degrees C) which limits the use of date seed biodiesel in cold weather in comparison with other vegetable biodiesel fuels. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  398. Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat with low free fatty acids by an integrated catalytic process of composite membrane and sodium methoxide
    Abstract

    Shi, W. Y.; Li, J. X.; He, B. Q.; Yan, F.; Cui, Z. Y.; Wu, K. W.; Lin, L. G.; Qian, X. M.; Cheng, Y. 2013. Biodiesel production from waste chicken fat with low free fatty acids by an integrated catalytic process of composite membrane and sodium methoxide. Bioresource Technology. 139316-322

    An integrated process of catalytic composite membranes (CCMs) and sodium methoxide was developed to produce biodiesel from waste chicken fat. The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the chicken oil were converted to methyl esters by esterification with methanol using a novel sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES)/PES/non-woven fabric (NWF) CCMs in a flow-through catalytic membrane reactor. The CCM is that the NWF fibers were fully embedded in SPES/PES with a homogeneous and microporous structure. The oil obtained after esterification was carried out by transesterification of sodium methoxide. The results showed that the FFAs conversion obtained by CCMs with the acid capacity of 25.28 mmol (H+) was 92.8% at the residence time 258 s. The CCMs present a good stability during the continuous running of 500 h. The conversion of transesterification was 98.1% under the optimum conditions. The quality of the biodiesel met the international standards. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved,
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  399. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by solid acid SO42-/TiO2/La3+
    Abstract

    Wang, K.; Jiang, J. C.; Si, Z.; Liang, X. Y. 2013. Biodiesel production from waste cooking oil catalyzed by solid acid SO42-/TiO2/La3+. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 5(5)

    A solid acid catalyst SO42-/TiO2/La3+ was prepared via sol-gel method using tetrabutyl titanate as TiO2 precursor. The catalyst simultaneously catalyzed esterification and transesterification resulting in the synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil with high content of free fatty acids as feedstock. The optimization of reaction conditions was also performed. The maximum yield of more than 90% could be obtained under the optimized conditions that catalyst amount 5 wt.% of oil, 10:1 molar ratio (methanol to oil), temperature 110 degrees C, and esterification of 1 h. The catalyst can be reused for five times by activation without observing the decrease of its catalytic performance. The final products were purified by molecular distillation and detected by GC-MS. The content of fatty acid methyl esters was 96.16%. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
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  400. Biodiesel production in Brazil and alternative biomass feedstocks
    Abstract

    Bergmann, J. C.; Tupinamba, D. D.; Costa, O. Y. A.; Almeida, J. R. M.; Barreto, C. C.; Quirino, B. F. 2013. Biodiesel production in Brazil and alternative biomass feedstocks. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 21411-420

    Renewable biofuels are increasingly important in the Brazilian energy matrix. In 2010, the country became the second world producer of biodiesel with a production of 2.4 million of m(3) in that year, only behind Germany. In 2011, both the United States and Argentina increased production and now Brazil is the fourth world producer of biodiesel. The Brazilian biodiesel production federal program has been designed so that small family farmers, as well as large agribusiness operations, are encouraged to produce vegetable oil crops for biodiesel production. Brazil is the second largest world producer of soybeans, currently the main feedstock used for biodiesel production in the country. Due to the increasing demand for biodiesel and low oil productivity from soybean, Brazil is searching for alternative oilseed crops from which biodiesel can be produced. In this review, the current scenario for biodiesel production in Brazil is discussed, as well as vegetable oil crops that are being considered as potential biodiesel feedstocks in addition to soybeans. Brazil's biodiesel industry is currently operating only at 47% of its capacity. Therefore, it is expected that biodiesel production in Brazil will further increase. Due to the size of the country's bioethanol and biodiesel industries, Brazil can already be considered one of the world powers in sustainable biofuel production, an strategic area of the world's emerging bio-based economy. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  401. Biodiesel Properties and Alternative Feedstocks
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R. 2013. Biodiesel Properties and Alternative Feedstocks. Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers. 205-233

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  402. Catalytic Packed-Bed Reactor Configuration for Biodiesel Production Using Waste Oil as Feedstock
    Abstract

    Borges, M. E.; Diaz, L. 2013. Catalytic Packed-Bed Reactor Configuration for Biodiesel Production Using Waste Oil as Feedstock. Bioenergy Research. 6(1) 222-228

    Pumice, a natural porous silica material, exchanged with potassium is an efficient heterogeneous particulate catalytic material for triglycerides and free fatty acids transesterification reaction from sunflower oil and waste frying oil at low temperature. In this work, a packed-bed catalytic configuration reactor using this catalytic material was developed for biodiesel fuel production from sunflower oil and frying oil feedstock. Reactor operation variables as methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst amount, reaction time, and reaction temperature were studied. Results were compared with those obtained from the same transesterification reaction proceeding in a slurry batch reactor. The packed-bed catalytic reactor configuration can be useful in order to minimize catalyst mechanical damage occurring in the slurry reactor due to continuous stirring. The possibility of using a packed-bed reactor shows some advantages because the catalyst stays confined in the reactor bed and the reaction products can be easily separated, besides the mechanical stability of the catalyst particles is achieved.
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  403. Comparison of Algal Biodiesel Production Pathways Using Life Cycle Assessment Tool
    Abstract

    Singh, A.; Olsen, S. I. 2013. Comparison of Algal Biodiesel Production Pathways Using Life Cycle Assessment Tool. Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources. 145-168

    The consideration of algal biomass in biodiesel production increased very rapidly in the last decade. A life cycle assessment (LCA) study is presented to compare six different biodiesel production pathways (three different harvesting techniques, i.e., aluminum as flocculent, lime flocculent, and centrifugation, and two different oil extraction methods, i.e., supercritical CO2 (sCO(2)) and press and co-solvent extraction). The cultivation of Nannochloropsis sp. considered in a flat-panel photobioreactor (FPPBR). These algal biodiesel production systems were compared with the conventional diesel in a EURO 5 passenger car used for transport purpose (functional unit 1 person km (pkm). The algal biodiesel production systems provide lesser impact (22-105 %) in comparison with conventional diesel. Impacts of algal biodiesel on climate change were far better than conventional diesel, but impacts on human health, ecosystem quality, and resources were higher than the conventional diesel. This study recommends more practical data at pilot-scale production plant with maximum utilization of byproducts generated during the production to produce a sustainable algal biodiesel.
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  404. Comparison of Novozyme 435 and Purolite D5081 as heterogeneous catalysts for the pretreatment of used cooking oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Haigh, K. F.; Abidin, S. Z.; Vladisavljevic, G. T.; Saha, B. 2013. Comparison of Novozyme 435 and Purolite D5081 as heterogeneous catalysts for the pretreatment of used cooking oil for biodiesel production. Fuel. 111186-193

    The catalytic performance of two types of catalysts, an ion-exchange resin, Purolite D5081 and an immobilised enzyme, Novozyme 435, was compared for the esterification pretreatment of used cooking oil (UCO) for the preparation of biodiesel. The reactions were carried out using a jacketed batch reactor with a reflux condenser. The effect of mass transfer limitations was investigated and it was shown that internal and external mass transfer limitations were negligible. An immobilised enzyme, Novozyme 435, was investigated because it has been shown to give high free fatty acids (FFAs) conversion. This catalyst has been compared to an ion-exchange resin, Purolite D5081, which was developed for the esterification of UCO for the production of biodiesel. It was found that a conversion of 94% was achieved using Purolite D5081 compared to 90% conversion with Novozyme 435. However, the optimum methanol to FFA ratio for Purolite D5081 was 98: 1 compared to 6.2:1 for Novozyme 435. In addition, it has been found that with Novozyme 435 there are side reactions which result in the formation of additional fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and FFAs at longer reaction times. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  405. Conversion of free fatty acids in low grade crude palm oil to methyl esters for biodiesel production using chromosulfuric acid
    Abstract

    Hayyan, A.; Mjalli, F. S.; Hashim, M. A.; Hayyan, M.; AlNashef, I. M. 2013. Conversion of free fatty acids in low grade crude palm oil to methyl esters for biodiesel production using chromosulfuric acid. Bulgarian Chemical Communications. 45(3) 394-399

    In this study low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO) was proposed as a potential agro-industrial raw material for biodiesel production. Chromosulfuric acid was used as a new homogenous catalyst in the pre-treatment process to reduce the free fatty acids (FFA) content in LGCPO to the acceptable level for producing biodiesel via alkaline transesterification reaction. The results of esterification reaction showed that the FFA of LGCPO was reduced from 7.0 % to less than 1% using optimum operating conditions. The yield of the final product after the alkaline transesterification was 85% with 0.14 % FFA content and ester content 97.5% (mol mol(-1)) which meets the international standard quality specifications for biodiesel.
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  406. Coupled production of single cell oil as biodiesel feedstock, xylitol and xylanase from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept using fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands
    Abstract

    Kamat, S.; Khot, M.; Zinjarde, S.; RayiKumar, A.; Gade, W. N. 2013. Coupled production of single cell oil as biodiesel feedstock, xylitol and xylanase from sugarcane bagasse in a biorefinery concept using fungi from the tropical mangrove wetlands. Bioresource Technology. 135246-253

    This work evaluates sugarcane bagasse (SCB) conversion, in a biorefinery approach, to coproduce biodiesel and high value products using two novel mangrove fungi. On acid pre-treatment, sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SCBH) resulted in a xylitol yield of 0.51 g/g xylose consumed in 72 h by Williopsis saturnus. After SCB pretreatment, sugarcane bagasse residue (SCBR) was utilized using Aspergillus terreus for production of xylanase (12.74 U/ml) and cell biomass (9.8 g/L) which was extracted for single cell oil (SCO; 0.19 g/g) and transesterified to biodiesel. The FAME profile exhibited long chain SFAs and PUFAs with predicted biodiesel properties lying within the range specified by international standards. This biorefining approach of SCB utilization for co-production of xylitol, xylanase and SCO gains importance in terms of sustainability and eco-friendliness. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  407. Dark fermentative hydrogen production with crude glycerol from biodiesel industry using indigenous hydrogen-producing bacteria
    Abstract

    Lo, Y. C.; Chen, X. J.; Huang, C. Y.; Yuan, Y. J.; Chang, J. S. 2013. Dark fermentative hydrogen production with crude glycerol from biodiesel industry using indigenous hydrogen-producing bacteria. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 38(35) 15815-15822

    Glycerol is an inevitable by-product from biodiesel synthesis process and could be a promising feedstock for fermentative hydrogen production. In this study, the feasibility of using crude glycerol from biodiesel industry for biohydrogen production was evaluated using seven isolated hydrogen-producing bacterial strains (Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium pasteurianum, and Klebsiella sp.). Among the strains examined, C. pasteurianum CH4 exhibited the best biohydrogen-producing performance under the optimal conditions of: temperature, 35 degrees C; initial pH, 7.0; agitation rate, 200 rpm; glycerol concentration, 10 g/l. When using pure glycerol as carbon source for continuous hydrogen fermentation, the average H-2 production rate and H-2 yield were 103.1 +/- 8.1 ml/h/l and 0.50 +/- 0.02 mol H-2/mol glycerol, respectively. In contrast, when using crude glycerol as the carbon source, the H-2 production rate and H-2 yield was improved to 166.0 +/- 8.7 ml/h/l and 0.77 +/- 0.05 mol H-2/mol glycerol, respectively. This work demonstrated the high potential of using biodiesel by-product, glycerol, for cost-effective biohydrogen production. Copyright (C) 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  408. De novo assembly of the pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) transcriptome provides tools for the development of a winter cover crop and biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Dorn, K. M.; Fankhauser, J. D.; Wyse, D. L.; Marks, M. D. 2013. De novo assembly of the pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) transcriptome provides tools for the development of a winter cover crop and biodiesel feedstock. Plant Journal. 75(6) 1028-1038

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) has potential as an oilseed crop that may be grown during fall (autumn) and winter months in the Midwestern United States and harvested in the early spring as a biodiesel feedstock. There has been little agronomic improvement in pennycress through traditional breeding. Recent advances in genomic technologies allow for the development of genomic tools to enable rapid improvements to be made through genomic assisted breeding. Here we report an annotated transcriptome assembly for pennycress. RNA was isolated from representative plant tissues, and 203million unique Illumina RNA-seq reads were produced and used in the transcriptome assembly. The draft transcriptome assembly consists of 33873 contigs with a mean length of 1242bp. A global comparison of homology between the pennycress and Arabidopsis transcriptomes, along with four other Brassicaceae species, revealed a high level of global sequence conservation within the family. The final assembly was functionally annotated, allowing for the identification of putative genes controlling important agronomic traits such as flowering and glucosinolate metabolism. Identification of these genes leads to testable hypotheses concerning their conserved function and to rational strategies to improve agronomic properties in pennycress. Future work to characterize isoform variation between diverse pennycress lines and develop a draft genome sequence for pennycress will further direct trait improvement.
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  409. Decanter cake as a feedstock for biodiesel production: A first report
    Abstract

    Maniam, G. P.; Hindryawati, N.; Nurfitri, I.; Jose, R.; Ab Rahim, M. H.; Dahalan, F. A.; Yusoff, M. M. 2013. Decanter cake as a feedstock for biodiesel production: A first report. Energy Conversion and Management. 76527-532

    Decanter cake (DC), with an oil content of 11.5 +/- 0.18 wt.%, was subjected to ultrasound-aided transesterification using boiler ash as a base catalyst, petroleum ether and hexane as co-solvents. Optimization work revealed that at MeOH:oil mass ratio of 6:1 and 2.3 wt.% catalyst (based on DC weight) with 1:2 co-solvents:DC mass ratio as the optimal reaction conditions. Both decanter cake and boiler ash, waste materials from oil palm mill, were successfully utilized to produce methyl ester (biodiesel) with highest conversion of 85.9 wt.% in a 1 h reaction period at 55 (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  410. Development and Scale-up of Aqueous Surfactant-Assisted Extraction of Canola Oil for Use as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Tuntiwiwattanapun, N.; Tongcumpou, C.; Haagenson, D.; Wiesenborn, D. 2013. Development and Scale-up of Aqueous Surfactant-Assisted Extraction of Canola Oil for Use as Biodiesel Feedstock. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 90(7) 1089-1099

    Aqueous surfactant-assisted extraction (ASE) has been proposed as an alternative to n-hexane for extraction of vegetable oil; however, the use of inexpensive surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the effect of ASE on the quality of biodiesel from the oil are not well understood. Therefore, the effects on total oil extraction efficiency of surfactant concentration, extraction time, oilseed to liquid ratio and other parameters were evaluated using ASE with ground canola and SDS in aqueous solution. The highest total oil extraction efficiency was 80 %, and was achieved using 0.02 M SDS at 20 A degrees C, solid-liquid ratio 1:10 (g:mL), 1,000 rpm stirring speed and 45 min contact time. Applying triple extraction with three stages reduced the amount of SDS solution needed by 50 %. The ASE method was scaled up to extract 300 g of ground canola using the best combination of extraction conditions as described above. The extracted oil from the scale-up of the ASE method passed the recommendation for biodiesel feedstock quality wit