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Jatropha as biodiesel feedstock

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  1. A review of the sustainability of Jatropha cultivation projects for biodiesel production in southern Africa: Implications for energy policy in Botswana
    Abstract

    Kgathi, D. L.; Mmopelwa, G.; Chanda, R.; Kashe, K.; Murray-Hudson, M. 2017. A review of the sustainability of Jatropha cultivation projects for biodiesel production in southern Africa: Implications for energy policy in Botswana. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment. 246314-324

    Jatropha camas L. biofuel development is considered a strategy for achieving energy security, climate change mitigation, foreign exchange savings and economic development. This paper reviews the experiences of some southern African countries with the impacts of Jatropha biofuel development on sustainability, with a view to providing lessons for biofuel development policy for Botswana. The review has shown that most of the large commercial plantations planned to produce jatropha seed for home consumption and export were not economically viable mainly due to low seed yield, high cost of production, delayed production and uncompetitive feedstock prices. On the other hand, smallholder-based jatropha biofuel projects were economically viable due to their low input costs. Analysis of social impacts showed that jatropha production has been associated with loss of rights to land, low compensation levels, and compromised food security where land and other production inputs were diverted from food crops to jatropha production. Positive social impacts in some countries included increased employment opportunities and incomes. Jatropha production is associated with environmental impacts such as loss of biodiversity, high water requirements and high carbon debts resulting from conversion of land. Positive environmental impacts included high energy return on investment and high GHG savings when Jatropha is cultivated on abandoned agricultural fields as revealed by research in some parts of West Africa. Policy considerations for the Government of Botswana include: providing support to biofuel projects at their early stage of development, discouraging large plantation business models until such time that research in Botswana produces high seed-yielding Jatropha varieties, introducing legal safeguards for protection of land rights of local communities, and ensuring that land-use change and high carbon debts are minimized as they have adverse impacts on biodiversity and climate change.
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  2. Investigation of carbon-based solid acid catalyst from Jatropha curcas biomass in biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Mardhiah, H. H.; Ong, H. C.; Masjuki, H. H.; Lim, S.; Pang, Y. L. 2017. Investigation of carbon-based solid acid catalyst from Jatropha curcas biomass in biodiesel production. Energy Conversion and Management. 14410-17

    In this study, a carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared using the de-oiled Jatropha curcas (JC) seed cake waste. The catalyst was consequently used to esterify the JC oil in order to lower the high free fatty acid content (FFA) to an acceptable level (< 4 mg KOH g(-1)) for biodiesel production. The chemical and physical properties of the catalyst were characterized using a variety of techniques. The conversion of FFA reached 99.13% under optimum conditions of 12:1 methanol/oil molar ratio, 7.5 wt% catalyst loading, 60 min reaction time and 60 degrees C reaction temperature at 350 rpm. The catalyst was also determined to outperform the conventionally used sulfuric acid catalyst in terms of reaction time needed to achieve the highest conversion yield. The high catalytic ability of the catalyst was associated with the high acid site density formed in the catalyst which was due to the high porosity and large pore size of the carbon framework of the catalyst. The hydrophobic nature of the catalyst also contributed to the stability of the catalyst in which it can be re-used up until the 4th cycle. The recyclability of the catalyst and its cheap feedstock makes the overall process much simpler, cost-efficient and environment-friendly. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  3. Kinetics of amidation of free fatty acids in jatropha oil as a for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Das, H. P.; Neeharika, T. S. V. R.; Sailu, C.; Srikanth, V.; Kumar, T. P.; Rani, K. N. P. 2017. Kinetics of amidation of free fatty acids in jatropha oil as a for biodiesel production. Fuel. 196169-177

    Owing to the growing demand for transportation fuel, enormous efforts are being carried on development of alternate fuels mainly biodiesel from various renewable sources. Different pretreatment methods are adopted for the preparation of biodiesel, major one of the them is the removal of free fatty acids (FFA). Literature reveals esterification as an essential unit process for the reduction of FFA by conversion into its respective esters. In this study, FFA present in jatropha oil were reduced by amidation reaction using monoethanolamine for use in biodiesel. The by-product obtained is fatty acid amide. The fatty acid amide obtained was separated from the feedstock by filtration or centrifugation. This pre-treated oil can be directly transesterified for the preparation of biodiesel without undergoing any process step for removal of unreacted amine. Also, the reaction kinetics of jatropha oil with monoethanolamine was studied with batch experiments at 34-64 degrees C and at molar ratios of FFA-monoethanolamine varying from 1:0.5 to 1:2 with different speeds of agitation. Based on the experimental results, 1:1.5 FFA-monoethanolamine molar ratio at 34 degrees C and 550 rpm gave maximum reduction in free fatty acids. The effect of reaction conditions such as temperature and molar ratio on the kinetics has been studied. Observed reaction rate data was fitted to the regression technique. Estimated kinetic model reaction rate constants and equilibrium constant were fitted to the Arrhenius and van't Hoff equations respectively. The deacidified jatropha oil was transesterified by conventional method and was characterized for its physico-chemical properties. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  4. Kinetics Study of Jatropha Oil Esterification with Ethanol in the Presence of Tin (II) Chloride Catalyst for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kusumaningtyas, R. D.; Ratrianti, N.; Purnamasari, I.; Budiman, A. 2017. Kinetics Study of Jatropha Oil Esterification with Ethanol in the Presence of Tin (II) Chloride Catalyst for Biodiesel Production. International Conference on Engineering, Science and Nanotechnology 2016 (Icesnano 2016). 1788

    Jatropha oil is one of the promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Jatropha oil is non-edible oil hence utilization of this oil would not compete with the needs of food. However, crude jatropha oil usually has high free fatty acid (FFA) content. Due to this fact, direct alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of crude jatropha oil for biodiesel production cannot be performed. FFA in crude jatropha oil will react with a base catalyst, resulting in soap as by product and hindering methyl ester (biodiesel) production. Therefore, prior to a transesterification reaction, it is crucial to run a pretreatment step of jatropha oil which can lower the FFA content in the oil. In this work, the pretreatment process was conducted through the esterification reaction of FFA contained in crude jatropha oil with ethanol over tin (II) chloride catalyst to reduce the acid value of the feedstock. The feedstock was Indonesia crude jatropha oil containing 12.03% of FFA. The esterification reaction was carried out in a batch reactor with a molar ratio of FFA to ethanol was 1: 60 and total reaction time was 180 minutes. Tin (II) chloride catalyst was varied at 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% wt, whereas the effect of the reaction temperature was studied at 35, 34, 55, and 65 degrees C. The best reaction conversion was 71.55%, achieved at the following condition: a reaction temperature of 65 degrees C, catalyst concentration of 10% wt, the reaction time of 180 min, and the molar ratio of FFA to ethanol was 1: 60. Kinetics study was also conducted in this work. It was found that esterification reaction of jatropha oil FFA with ethanol catalyzed by tin(II) chloride fitted the first-order pseudohomogeneous kinetics model. It was also revealed that the frequency factor (A) and the activation energy (Ea) were 4.3864 x 10(6) min(-1) and 56.2513 kJ/mole, respectively.
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  5. Optimisation of Process Parameter Conditions for Biodiesel Production by Reactive Extraction of Jatropha Seeds
    Abstract

    Supardan, M. D.; Fahrizal; Moulana, R.; Safrida, D.; Satriana; Mustapha, W. A. W. 2017. Optimisation of Process Parameter Conditions for Biodiesel Production by Reactive Extraction of Jatropha Seeds. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology. 12(3) 847-859

    Biodiesel can be produced by reactive extraction of jatropha seeds to reduce the cost and processing time associated with conventional methods. In this study, the relationship between various parameters of reactive extraction of jatropha seeds is investigated. The effect of processing time, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and hexane to oil weight ratios are examined to determine the best performance for biodiesel yield. Response surface methodology was used to statistically evaluate and optimise the process parameter conditions. It was found that the biodiesel production achieved an optimum biodiesel yield of 73.7% under the following conditions: processing time of 160 min, moisture content of jatropha seeds of 1% and hexane to oil weight ratio of 7.2.
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  6. Oxygen-Assisted Hydrogenation of Jatropha-Oil-Derived Biodiesel Fuel over an Alumina-Supported Palladium Catalyst To Produce Hydrotreated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters for High-Blend Fuels
    Abstract

    Mochizuki, T.; Abe, Y.; Chen, S. Y.; Toba, M.; Yoshimura, Y. 2017. Oxygen-Assisted Hydrogenation of Jatropha-Oil-Derived Biodiesel Fuel over an Alumina-Supported Palladium Catalyst To Produce Hydrotreated Fatty Acid Methyl Esters for High-Blend Fuels. Chemcatchem. 9(14) 2633-2637

    The partial hydrogenation of jatropha-oil-derived biodiesel fuel (BDF) with a high degree of unsaturated fatty acid tails was successfully performed on an alumina-supported palladium catalyst, denoted Pd/gamma-Al2O3, under mild conditions (100 degrees C and 0.5 MPa) to produce hydrotreated fatty acid methyl esters (H-FAMEs) enriched in monounsaturated components. Trace amounts of peroxides contained in the oil feedstock or the co-feeding of proper amounts of molecular oxygen (400-1500 ppm) resulted in enhanced activity and durability of Pd/gamma-Al2O3. The produced H-FAMEs exhibited significantly improved oxidation stability and uncompromised cold-flow properties, and they can serve as an excellent source of high-quality BDFs, particularly for high-blend fuels.
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  7. Steam Deacidification of High Free Fatty Acid in Jatropha Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Kombe, G. G.; Temu, A. K. 2017. Steam Deacidification of High Free Fatty Acid in Jatropha Oil for Biodiesel Production. Energy & Fuels. 31(6) 6206-6210

    Although non-edible oil feedstocks are available at a lower price than edible oil feedstocks, their high free fatty acid (FFA) content hinders their direct utilization in the production of biodiesel by alkali-catalyzed transesterification. In this study, the steam deacidification process, has been employed in reducing the FFA of crude Jatropha oil before alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The response surface methodology (RSM) established on the central composite design (CCD) was used to model and optimize the steam deacidification efficiency under two process variables, namely, temperature and amount of steam. The optimum conditions for deacidification efficiency of 98.74% were found to be the temperature of 235 degrees C and the amount of steam of 3.4% (w/w) of the feedstock. These conditions reduce the high FFA of crude Jatropha oil from 4.54 to 0.09%, which is below 1% recommended for base-catalyzed transesterification. The deacidified crude Jatropha oil was then transesterified using a homogeneous base catalyst and gave a conversion of 97.45%. The tested fuel properties of biodiesel, such as viscosity at 40 degrees C, acid value, gross calorific value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content, and density at 15 degrees C, were found to be comparable to those of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards.
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  8. Sustainable Development for Whom and How? Exploring the Gaps between Popular Discourses and Ground Reality Using the Mexican Jatropha Biodiesel Case
    Abstract

    Banerjee, A.; Halvorsen, K. E.; Eastmond-Spencer, A.; Sweitz, S. R. 2017. Sustainable Development for Whom and How? Exploring the Gaps between Popular Discourses and Ground Reality Using the Mexican Jatropha Biodiesel Case. Environmental Management. 59(6) 912-923

    In the last decade, jatropha-based bioenergy projects have gotten significant attention as a solution to various social, economic, and environmental problems. Jatropha's popularity stemmed out from different discourses, some real and some perceived, in scientific and non-scientific literature. These discourses positioned jatropha as a crop helpful in producing biodiesel and protecting sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels and increasing local, rural development by creating jobs. Consequently, many countries established national policies that incentivized the establishment of jatropha as a bioenergy feedstock crop. In this paper, we explore the case of jatropha bioenergy development in Yucatan, Mexico and argue that the popular discourse around jatropha as a sustainability and rural development tool is flawed. Analyzing our results from 70 semi-structured interviews with community members belonging to a region where plantation-scale jatropha projects were introduced, we found that these projects did not have many significant social sustainability benefits. We conclude from our case that by just adding bioenergy projects cannot help achieve social sustainability in rural areas alone. In ensuring social sustainability of bioenergy projects, future policymaking processes should have a more comprehensive understanding of the rural socioeconomic problems where such projects are promoted and use bioenergy projects as one of the many solutions to local problems rather than creating such policies based just on popular discourses.
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  9. Tribological characterization of vegetal lubricants: Comparative experimental investigation on Jatropha curcas L. oil, Rapeseed Methyl Ester oil, Hydrotreated Rapeseed oil
    Abstract

    Ruggiero, A.; D'Amato, R.; Merola, M.; Valasek, P.; Muller, M. 2017. Tribological characterization of vegetal lubricants: Comparative experimental investigation on Jatropha curcas L. oil, Rapeseed Methyl Ester oil, Hydrotreated Rapeseed oil. Tribology International. 109529-540

    Biodegradability, good lubricating properties and low production costs, are the reasons to consider the plant oils a good alternative as reference to replace the petroleum-based oils that have limited resources. The based plant oils are very attractive as alternative lubricant source. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate on physicochemical and tribological performances of three plant seed based oils in the lubricating contact pair AISI E52100 steel sliding against X21OCr12 steel. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), Hydrotreated Vegetable oil (HVO) from raw rapeseed oil and raw Jatropha curcas L. oil (JCL) were chosen. The oils were analysed for their chemical and physical properties such as viscosity, density flash point and TAN. The tribo-tests were carried out using ball-on-flat reciprocatory tribometer for several frequencies and normal loads. The oils exhibited good physicochemical properties and could be favourably used as lubricant feedstock in industrial application. The friction coefficient in all tests, for the HVO, stays in the range of 0.14-0.17, in the range of 0.11-0.14 for the Rapeseed Methyl Ester oil (RME) and in the range of 0.11-0.13 for the Jatropha curcas L. seed oil. JCL showed the lowest CoF among the three oils examined, followed by RME and HVO. Whereas, spheres lubricated with HVO underwent to the lowest wear but presented the highest roughness.
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  10. Hybridization of feedstocks-A new approach in biodiesel development: A case of Moringa and Jatropha seed oils
    Abstract

    Eloka-Eboka, A. C.; Inambao, F. L. 2016. Hybridization of feedstocks-A new approach in biodiesel development: A case of Moringa and Jatropha seed oils. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(11) 1495-1502

    In this study, two selected feedstocks, Moringa oleifera and Jatropha curcas seed oils, and their methyl esters (biodiesel) were subjected to two new different hybridization processes at varying proportions experimentally. The hybrid compositions were J(50)M(50), J(40)M(10), J(30)M(20), J(20)M(30), and J(10)M(40) from crude oil samples (in situ) and BM(50)J(50), BM(40)J(10), BM(30)J(20), BM(20)J(30), and BM(10)J(40) from produced biodiesel by transesterification (ex situ) using production variables and optimization sequences. The hybrids were evaluated for chemo-physical and thermal properties using American Society for Testing and Materials and South African National Standards standards for each specific test(s). Results obtained revealed the efficacy of hybridization in improving the specific biodiesel properties as fuels. Specific tests include viscosity, specific gravity, refractive index, cetane index, fatty acid composition, free and total glycerine (TG), free fatty acid (FFA) composition, flash point, pour and cloud points, and calorific values. These were all higher and better than the single-stock biodiesel fuels. Moringa oleifera biodiesel, which was proved an excellent biodiesel fuel in the previous studies of the authors having high oleic acid content (>70%), impacted positively on Jatropha in enhancing its potential, with positive correlation at a 95% confidence level (alpha > 0.05) and on analysis of variation (ANOVA). This is a new approach in biodiesel development as studies of this nature are scarce in the literature.
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  11. International experiences with the cultivation of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Gonzales, N. F. C. 2016. International experiences with the cultivation of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production. Energy. 1121245-1258

    This paper is the first of its kind, providing an identification of the problems encountered in all documented global experiences of cultivating the Jatropha curcas plant, covering 22 case studies. Influential components of the biodiesel production (stakeholders like government, farmers and enterprises as well as resources such as land and water) and how they are interconnected are pinpointed. In addition, the article gives recommendations to the main actors under ecological and socio-economic criteria to ensure a sustainable production of J. curcas oil in regions with appropriate climatic conditions for the plant's viability. Hence, this analysis of experiences discusses the following questions: What are the reasons and factors for the previous unsuccessful and unsustainable cultivation of J. curcas for producing biodiesel? Can it be lucrative and simultaneously achieve poverty alleviation/job creation under the constraints of efficient use of resources (land and water)?. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  12. Life Cycle Analysis of Jatropha Curcas as a Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstock in Argentina
    Abstract

    Beaver, A.; Castano, A. G.; Diaz, M. S. 2016. Life Cycle Analysis of Jatropha Curcas as a Sustainable Biodiesel Feedstock in Argentina. 2nd International Conference on Biomass (Iconbm 2016). 50433-438

    Despite constant changes to the industry in recent years, Argentina remains one of the most important producers of biodiesel in the world. Approximately 90% of the biodiesel produced in Argentina is from soybean, a fact which has raised concern over the fuel's sustainability. For this reason, alternative crops such as Jatropha curcas are being explored. The aim of this study is to assess the environmental impact of Jatropha-based biodiesel for the specific case of Argentina through life cycle assessment (LCA). The processes considered in this study include Jatropha seed cultivation, seed transportation, oil extraction, and transesterification. Two cultivation scenarios are examined in order to explore trade-offs between land use type and agricultural inputs. This study also incorporates land and water use, which are typically omitted from LCA due to complexity and lack of available information. Inventory data for the system were collected and analyzed using the ReCiPe impact assessment method. The results show a 21% reduction of kg CO2 equivalent for the overall Jatropha biodiesel production process when using fertile land with low-input agriculture instead of marginal land use with fertilizer and irrigation.
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  13. Optimization of biodiesel production process for mixed Jatropha curcas-Ceiba pentandra biodiesel using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Dharma, S.; Masjuki, H. H.; Ong, H. C.; Sebayang, A. H.; Silitonga, A. S.; Kusumo, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I. 2016. Optimization of biodiesel production process for mixed Jatropha curcas-Ceiba pentandra biodiesel using response surface methodology. Energy Conversion and Management. 115178-190

    Exploring and improvement of biodiesel production from non-edible vegetable oil is one of the effective ways to solve limited amount of traditional raw materials and their high prices. The main objective of this study is to optimize the biodiesel production process parameters (methanol-to-oil ratio, agitation speed and concentration of the potassium hydroxide catalyst) of a biodiesel derived from non-edible feedstocks, namely Jatropha curcas and Ceiba pentandra, using response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken experimental design. Based on the results, the optimum operating parameters for transesterification of the J50C50 oil mixture at 60 degrees C over a period of 2 h are as follows: methanol-to-oil ratio: 30%, agitation speed: 1300 rpm and catalyst concentration: 0.5 wt.%. These optimum operating parameters gives the highest yield for the J50C50 biodiesel with a value of 93.33%. The results show that there is a significant improvement in the physicochemical properties of the J50C50 biodiesel after optimization, whereby the kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C, density at 15 degrees C, calorific value, acid value and oxidation stability is 3.950 mm(2)/s, 831.2 kg/m(3), 40.929 MJ/kg, 0.025 mg KOH/g and 10.01 h, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the optimized J50C50 biodiesel fulfill the requirements given in the ASTM D6751 and EN14214 standards. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  14. Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm, jatropha, and moringa oil methyl ester
    Abstract

    Rashed, M. M.; Kalam, M. A.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mofijur, M.; Rasul, M. G.; Zulkifli, N. W. M. 2016. Performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with palm, jatropha, and moringa oil methyl ester. Industrial Crops and Products. 7970-76

    This paper aims to investigate the diesel engine performance and emission characteristics fueled with moringa biodiesel and compare those with the performance and emission characteristics of palm biodiesel, jatropha biodiesel, and diesel fuel. In this study, only 20% of each biodiesel (described by MB20, PB20, and JB20, respectively) was tested in diesel engine, given that open literature indicates the possible use of biodiesel of up to 20% in a diesel engine without modification. The physical and chemical properties of all fuel samples are also presented and compared with ASTM 06751 standards. A naturally aspirated multi-cylinder, four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine was used to evaluate their performance at different speeds and full load condition. All biodiesel fuel samples reduce brake power (BP) and increase brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than diesel fuel. Engine emission results indicated that blended fuel reduces the average carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) emissions except nitric oxides (NO) emissions than diesel fuel. Among the biodiesel-blended fuel, Palm biodiesel showed better performance and minimal emission than jatropha and moringa biodiesel fuel. Although PB20 showed better performance, but performance of MB20 biodiesel blend is comparable with other fuels. Correspondingly, 20% of moringa biodiesel can be used in a diesel engine without any engine modification. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  15. Rapid transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil to biodiesel using novel catalyst with a microwave heating system
    Abstract

    Buasri, A.; Lukkanasiri, M.; Nernrimnong, R.; Tonseeya, S.; Rochanakit, K.; Wongvitvichot, W.; Masa-Ard, U.; Loryuenyong, V. 2016. Rapid transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil to biodiesel using novel catalyst with a microwave heating system. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 33(12) 3388-3400

    We used a microwave heating system to increase Jatropha biodiesel yield, and to reduce both reaction time and energy consumption. The feasibility of converting natural and non-edible feedstocks including arcuate mussel shells and dolomitic rocks, into a novel high-performance, reusable, low-cost and heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of biodiesel was also explored. Arcuate mussel shells and dolomitic rocks were first ground and calcined at 900 A degrees C for 2 h. After calcination, calcium oxide (CaO) or a mixed oxide of calcium and magnesium (CaO center dot MgO) was obtained as white powder, which was then chemically activated to improve the physical, chemical and surface properties, and catalytic activities of the catalysts. By heating CaO from waste shells in an excess dehydrated methanol under 65 A degrees C at 8 h with nitrogen (N-2) flow, calcium methoxide (Ca(OCH3)(2)) catalyst was prepared. The CaO from natural rocks was, however, turned into calcium glyceroxide complex, by combining with methanol and glycerol of the by-product. It was determined that calcium glyceroxide (Ca[O(OH)(2)C3H5](2)) was formed during the transesterification and acted as the most active phase. Catalyst characterization was by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and basic strength measurements. The reaction parameters, including reaction time, microwave power, methanol/oil molar ratio, catalyst dosage and catalyst reusability, were studied for fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield. The results indicated that Ca(OCH3)(2) and Ca[O(OH)(2)C3H5](2) catalysts derived from waste shells and natural rocks showed good reusability, high energy efficient, environmental-friendly, low cost and facile route for the synthesis of biodiesel.
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  16. The Optimization Process of Biodiesel Production Using Multiple Feedstock (CPO And Jatropha) with Assistance of Ultrasound at 40 Khz
    Abstract

    Fajar, B.; Wilis; Widayat 2016. The Optimization Process of Biodiesel Production Using Multiple Feedstock (CPO And Jatropha) with Assistance of Ultrasound at 40 Khz. Proceedings of the 3rd Aun/Seed-Net Regional Conference on Energy Engineering and the 7th International Conference on Thermofluids (Rcene/Thermofluid 2015). 1737

    CPO prices are unstable, therefore affecting the supply of feedstock to produce biodiesel [2]. To overcome the shortage of feedstock, it is necessary to use multiple feedstock, in this case is CPO and Jatropha [1]. This objective of this work to optimizate biodiesel production using multifeedstock (CPO and Jatropha) with assistance of ultrasound. The optimization was to find the highest yield and the least production time. Experiments was carried out using an ultrasonic bath at a frequency of 40 kHz. The ratio of CPO and Jatropha was 1: 1, 3: 1, 4: 1 while the ratio of methanol and oil was 5: 1, 6: 1, 7: 1 and the reaction time was 50, 60, and 70 minutes. KOH was used as a catalyst. The experiment data was optimized using a Response Surface Methodology [3,4]. The optimum point was at a frequency of 40 kHz obtained at a 2.8: 1 mixture of CPO - Jatropha, 6.4: 1 molar ratio of methanol-oil and 61.5 minutes of reaction time. The results of quality testing shows that the biodiesel produced meets the ASTM standard D6751 and SNI 04-7182-2006 [5].
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  17. A review of processing and machinery for Jatropha curcas L. fruits and seeds in biodiesel production: Harvesting, shelling, pretreatment and storage
    Abstract

    Lim, B. Y.; Shamsudin, R.; Baharudin, B. T. H. T.; Yunus, R. 2015. A review of processing and machinery for Jatropha curcas L. fruits and seeds in biodiesel production: Harvesting, shelling, pretreatment and storage. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 52991-1002

    The harvested Jatropha fruits need to be cleaned, dehulled and stored properly as part of the production of Jatropha biodiesel. During processing, the oil yield and quality of the extracted crude oil can be further improved by removing the husks (outer coating) of the seeds before any necessary seed treatment. This report attempts to provide an insight into the major issues of the process from harvesting the Jatropha fruits to the final storage of the seeds and pretreatment of the Jatropha seeds prior to the oil extraction process in production. This report describes a few aspects of the processes including common methods, research and technologies involved so that some improving strategies can be devised. The final part of this report also describes current development trends and the future prospect of Jatropha as a biodiesel. The paper has determined that both the harvest and shelling processes are basically performed manually, especially in rural areas. These activities are time consuming and introduce a high labour cost (80% of the feedstock cost) that can potentially make the Jatropha oil economically uncompetitive. A solution consisting of process mechanisation and mechanical device development are proposed to improve the sustainability of the industry and to meet the increasing world demand. An improvement in oil yield can also be achieved by fruit/seed pretreatment such as drying, shelling and heating. However, improper control may lead to the formation of oxidation products such as free fatty acids which will affect the efficiency of biodiesel production. This is an important sustainability issue which is related to the future development of Jatropha biodiesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  18. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and quality with Jatropha curcas oil: exploring its potential for Central America
    Abstract

    Bueso, F.; Moreno, L.; Cedeno, M.; Manzanarez, K. 2015. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production and quality with Jatropha curcas oil: exploring its potential for Central America. Journal of Biological Engineering. 9

    Background: Extensive native Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha) crop areas have been planted in Central America marginal lands since 2008 as a non-edible prospective feedstock alternative to high-value, edible palm oil. Jatropha biodiesel is currently exclusively produced in the region at commercial scale utilizing alkaline catalysts. Recently, a free, soluble Thermomyces lanuginosus (TL) 1,3 specific lipase has shown promise as biocatalyst, reportedly yielding up to 96 % ASTM D6751 compliant biodiesel after 24 h transesterification of soybean, canola oils and other feedstocks. Biodiesel conversion rate and quality of enzymatically catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil was evaluated. Two lipases: free, soluble TL and immobilized Candida antarctica (CA) catalyzed methanolic transesterification of crude Jatropha and refined palm oil.
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  19. Numerical simulation of mixing and reaction of jatropha curcas oil and ethanol for synthesis of biodiesel in micromixers
    Abstract

    Santana, H. S.; Silva, J. L.; Taranto, O. P. 2015. Numerical simulation of mixing and reaction of jatropha curcas oil and ethanol for synthesis of biodiesel in micromixers. Chemical Engineering Science. 132175-184

    Great advances have been recently made in the area of miniaturization of systems. One of the most important aspects of these microdevices is the mixing of the reacting species, which will determine its conversion to the desired product. These microdevices have been successfully applied in the synthesis of biodiesel, mainly due to increased conversion of reactants in a short residence time. Oils derived from non-edible oil seeds are promising feedstock sources for biodiesel, especially farropha species. As a result, this paper numerically studied the mixing and reaction of Jatropha curcas oil and ethanol in micromixers for the production of biodiesel. Three types of micromixers were studied: T-micromixer, Cross-micromixer and Double-T-micromixer. The efficiency of each type was analyzed using a mixing index, which is calculated using the variation of mass fraction, and the conversion of oil. The mixing of the fluid was analyzed with different Reynolds numbers and the conversion of oil was analyzed for different Reynolds numbers and residence times. All showed excellent degree of mixture for low Reynolds numbers, with the Cross-micromixer showing the highest degree of mixing. By increasing the Reynolds number the mixing in the T-micromixer was increased, reduced in the Double-T-micromixer and did not affect the mixture in the Cross-micromixer, It was observed that the conversion obtained in all micromixers is practically constant and is not affected by the variation of Reynolds number studied (10-100). The Cross-micromixer presented the best reaction yield. An increment in residence time increased the conversion of oil. This work numerically demonstrated the possibility of using J. curcas as a feedstock for synthesis of biodiesel in microchannels. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  20. Study On Production of Biodiesel From Jatropha Oil and the Performance and Emission of a Diesel Engine
    Abstract

    Nor, N. F. M.; Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Shamsuddin, S. A.; Ismail, M. S.; Hashim, A. H. 2015. Study On Production of Biodiesel From Jatropha Oil and the Performance and Emission of a Diesel Engine. International Conference on Mathematics, Engineering and Industrial Applications 2014 (Icomeia 2014). 1660

    The use of nonedible oil as a feedstock is needed to replace edible oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. This nonedible oils in diesel engine however leads to low performance and higher emission due to its high viscosity. The characteristics of the fuel can be improved through transesterification process. The yield of biodiesel from Jatropha oil using potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration of 1%, reaction temperature 60 degrees C, reaction time 40 minutes and molar ratio methanol to oil 6:1 was 70.1% from the lab scale. The experimental study on the performances and emissions of a diesel engine is carried out using the Jatropha biodiesel produced from the transesterification process and compared with pure diesel. Results show that B20 has closer performance to diesel and lower emission compared to B5 and diesel in terms of CO2 and HC.
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  21. Synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil using waste eggshell and study of its fuel properties
    Abstract

    Chavan, S. B.; Kumbhar, R. R.; Madhu, D.; Singh, B.; Sharma, Y. C. 2015. Synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil using waste eggshell and study of its fuel properties. Rsc Advances. 5(78) 63596-63604

    High purity calcium oxide (CaO) was prepared from eggshell and used as a catalyst for the production of biodiesel. Non-edible oil, Jatropha curcas was used as a feedstock for the synthesis of biodiesel. High purity calcium oxide (CaO) was obtained when the eggshell was subjected to calcination at 900 degrees C for similar to 2.5 h. Confirmation of the catalyst was carried out by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), and differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA). The synthesized biodiesel was characterized using H-1 NMR. Pure biodiesel was obtained in high yield by taking into account various parameters such as a proper methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time. Reusability of the catalyst was observed and the catalyst worked efficiently up to six times without significant loss of activity. Physical and chemical properties of biodiesel such as density, kinematic viscosity, cloud point, etc. were studied.
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  22. Jatropha cinerea SEED OIL AS A POTENTIAL NON-CONVENTIONAL FEEDSTOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCED BY AN ULTRASONIC PROCESS
    Abstract

    Soto-Leon, S.; Lopez-Camacho, E.; Milan-Carrillo, J.; Sanchez-Castillo, M. A.; Cuevas-Rodriguez, E.; Picos-Corrales, L. A.; Contreras-Andrade, I. 2014. Jatropha cinerea SEED OIL AS A POTENTIAL NON-CONVENTIONAL FEEDSTOCK FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCED BY AN ULTRASONIC PROCESS. Revista Mexicana De Ingenieria Quimica. 13(3) 739-747

    This work demonstrates that Jatropha cinerea (J. cinerea) seed oil has potential as a new, non-conventional, bio-energy resource. The physical and chemical properties of J. cinerea seeds, collected from its natural habit, were evaluated. The length-, diameter- and weight- of seeds were in the ranges of 8 to 12 mm, 7.5 to 11 mm, and 0.2 to 0.7 g, respectively. Additionally, the amount of oil in the seed kernel was 65.77 wt.%, and it contained 15% saturated, 33% monounsaturated, and 51% polyunsaturated fatty acids. The major constituent (50.8 wt%) of crude J. cinerea oil was linoleic acid. Based on its content of phorbol esters (0.22 mg g-1), J. cinerea was considered to be a non-toxic Jatropha species. Iodine, saponification, and acid values of the J. cinerea seed oil were similar to those of the J. curcas seeds oil; therefore, it was suggested that J. cinerea oil had the quality required for biodiesel production from J. cinerea seeds oil was produced by a sonotransesterification process, evaluating the effect of the methanol: oil molar ratio (MOR), temperature, and reaction time. The best conditions for biodiesel production were 25 degrees C, a MOR of 4:1, and a notably short reaction time of 20 s. These conditions were very advantageous as compared to those required by conventional processes, and very promising for the development of a low cost biodiesel production process using J. cinerea seed oil as a feedstock.
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  23. Performance and emission analysis of Jatropha curcas and Moringa oleifera methyl ester fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine
    Abstract

    Rahman, M. M.; Hassan, M. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Atabani, A. E.; Memon, L. A.; Rahman, S. M. A. 2014. Performance and emission analysis of Jatropha curcas and Moringa oleifera methyl ester fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine. Journal of Cleaner Production. 65304-310

    Research on alternative fuels is increasing due to environmental concerns and diminishing fossil fuel reserves. Biodiesel is one of the best renewable replacements for petroleum-based fuels. This paper examines the potential of biodiesel obtained from Jatropha curcas and Moringa oleifera oils. The physico-chemical properties of J. curcas and M. oleifera methyl esters were presented, and their 10% by volume blends (JB10 and MB10) were compared with diesel fuel (B0). The performance of these fuels and their emissions were assessed in a fully loaded multi-cylinder diesel engine at various engine speeds. The properties of J. curcas and M. oleifera biodiesels and their blends agreed with ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. Engine performance test results indicated that the JB10 and the MB10 fuels produced slightly lower brake powers and higher brake specific fuel consumption values compared to diesel fuel over the entire range of speeds. Engine emission results indicated that the JB10 and MB10 fuels reduced the average emissions of carbon monoxide by 14 and 11%, respectively; and hydrocarbons by 16 and 12%, respectively. However, the JB10 and MB10 fuels slightly increased nitrous oxides emissions by 7 and 9%, respectively, and carbon dioxide by 7 and 5%, respectively compared to B0. In conclusion, J. curcas and M. oleifera are potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and the JB10 and MB10 blends can replace diesel fuel without modifying engines to produce cleaner exhaust emissions. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  24. Performance, emissions, and heat losses of palm and jatropha biodiesel blends in a diesel engine
    Abstract

    Abedin, M. J.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Sanjid, A.; Rahman, S. M. A.; Fattah, I. M. R. 2014. Performance, emissions, and heat losses of palm and jatropha biodiesel blends in a diesel engine. Industrial Crops and Products. 5996-104

    After the successful implementation of B5, 5% palm (Elaeis guineensis) based biodiesel, in Malaysia on June 1,2011, the Malaysian government is now looking to phase out B5 by replacing it with B10 or even a higher blending ratio. Being non-edible feedstock, jatropha (Jatropha curcas) can play a vital role along with the existing palm oil. This experiment was conducted in a four-cylinder diesel engine fuelled with B5, 10%, and 20% blends of palm (PB10 and PB20) and jatropha (JB10 and JB20) biodiesel and compared with fossil diesel at full load and in the speed range of 1000 to 4000 RPM. The brake power was decreased on average 2.3% to 10.7% while operating on 10% and 20% blends of palm and jatropha biodiesel. An average of 26.4% BSFC increment was observed for PB20 and JB20 blends. An average of 30.7% carbon monoxide (CO) and 25.8% hydrocarbon (HC) emission reductions were found for 20% blends. On average, the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission is decreased by 3.3% while operating on PB10 and PB20 blends, whereas it is increased by 3.0% while operating on JB10 and JB20 blends. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  25. Pollen Source Effects on Fruit and Seed Traits of Jatropha curcas L.-A Renewable Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Samocha, Y.; Eisikowitch, D.; Vaknin, Y. 2014. Pollen Source Effects on Fruit and Seed Traits of Jatropha curcas L.-A Renewable Biodiesel Feedstock. Bioenergy Research. 7(4) 1270-1279

    The effects of the pollen source on fruit and seed traits of Jatropha curcas and on potential biodiesel traits were investigated using analysis of breeding system and reciprocal pollination of various genotypes. The field experiments were carried out under Mediterranean conditions in Bet-Dagan, Israel. The breeding system was investigated by comparison of self-pollination with cross, open, and spontaneous self-pollination. Self-pollination, compared with cross-pollination, resulted in significantly lower levels of seed weight, oil concentration, oil content, and linoleic acid concentration in the seed-oil and with higher concentration of oleic acid. These seed traits were measured by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) as previously calibrated for J. curcas. Spontaneous self-pollination resulted in extremely low fruit and seed sets, and apomixis was totally absent. Pollen source effects were investigated by reciprocal pollination of selected genotypes; 'Ethiopia,' 'Niger,' and 'Suriname' both receiving and donating pollen. In addition, the genotype Brazil was used only as pollen source for the above mentioned genotypes. We found that most seed and oil traits were determined by the pollen recipient regardless of the type of pollen source. Additionally, when pollinated with Brazil, Ethiopia resulted in lower seed set, Niger resulted in higher content of seed protein and lower concentration of stearic acid in the seed oil, and Suriname resulted in higher concentration of linoleic acid and lower concentration of oleic acid. We suggest that enhancement of oil yield and oil quality in future plantations should be based either on a single elite genotype with nondetrimental self-pollination traits or on several elite genotypes with improved compatibility both as pollen sources and pollen recipients.
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  26. Rapid Jatropha-biodiesel production assisted by a microwave system and a sodium amide catalyst
    Abstract

    Lin, Y. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chen, C. E.; Yang, P. M.; Jhang, S. R. 2014. Rapid Jatropha-biodiesel production assisted by a microwave system and a sodium amide catalyst. Fuel. 135435-442

    In this study, a sodium amide (NaNH2) catalyst and a microwave heating system were used to increase Jatropha methyl ester yields, and reduce both reaction time and energy consumption. The experimental results indicate that the yield increased as the catalyst amount, reaction time, methanol-to-oil molar ratio, and temperature increased, and then decreased when the values of these parameters increased. The highest Jatropha methyl ester yield produced by operating a conventional heating system (CHS) was 95.6% when using 1.0 wt.% of a NaNH2 catalyst, a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 8, a reaction time of 7 min, and a temperature of 65 degrees C. The highest yield produced by applying microwave heating system (MW) was 96.2% when using 1.0 wt.% of a NaNH2 catalyst, a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 8, a reaction time of 90 min, and a temperature of 65 degrees C. The total amount of energy required for MW was 10 times less than that required for CHS. The experimental results indicate that MW performs more favorably and is more energy efficient compared with CHS, and offers a rapid, simple method biodiesel production. Through a proper research focus and development, Jatropha oil can become the next ideal feedstock for biodiesel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  27. Single-step ultrasonic synthesis of biodiesel from crude Jatropha curcas oil
    Abstract

    Choudhury, H. A.; Srivastava, P.; Moholkar, V. S. 2014. Single-step ultrasonic synthesis of biodiesel from crude Jatropha curcas oil. Aiche Journal. 60(5) 1572-1581

    A novel single-step process with chlorosulfonic acid catalyst for ultrasonic biodiesel synthesis using feedstock with high free fatty acid content is investigated.Jatropha curcas oil has been used as the model feedstock with methanol as alcohol. The distinct merit of chlorosulfonic acid is that it catalyzes both esterification and transesterification reactions. Moreover, chlorosulfonic acid also counteracts inhibition caused by water formed during esterification, which is the cause for very slow kinetics of acid catalyzed transesterification. In addition, sonication of the reaction mixture also causes strong micromixing and emulsification that enhances the transesterification kinetics. Statistical optimization of the process shows 93% yield for 8.5 wt % catalyst, 20:1 alcohol to oil molar ratio and temperature of 333 K. Peculiar feature of this process is that high yield is seen at moderate temperature and molar ratio, which are much smaller than that for conventional sulfuric acid catalyzed processes. The activation energy for the process (57 kJ/mol) is at least 3x lower than the energy for sulfuric acid catalyzed transesterification. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that the net Gibbs energy change for the single-step process is almost same as that for sulfuric acid catalyzed process. (c) 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 60: 1572-1581, 2014
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  28. Somatic Embryogenesis Media Optimization Study of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas) as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Nindita, A.; Purwoko, B. S.; Efendi, D.; Dewi, I. S. 2014. Somatic Embryogenesis Media Optimization Study of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas) as Biodiesel Feedstock. Conference and Exhibition Indonesia Renewable Energy & Energy Conservation (Indonesia Ebtke-Conex 2013). 4721-28

    Jatropha curcas as potential biodiesel feedstock is difficult to propagate through tissue culture. The research development for Jatropha is massive nowadays and propagation can be conducted through conventional or non-conventional techniques in biotechnology. Biotechnology approach through organogenesis and embryogenesis pathways is needed. The objectives of the research were to obtain in vitro culture media optimization through embryogenesis pathway. Plant materials used in this experiment were embryo axis and cotyledon to obtain somatic embryo. The result of the experiment showed that somatic embryos were obtained only from MS medium supplemented with picloram 1.0 mg/l for both embryo axis and cotyledon explant. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier
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  29. Transesterification of Jatropha curcas crude oil to biodiesel on calcium lanthanum mixed oxide catalyst: Effect of stoichiometric composition
    Abstract

    Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Teo, S. H.; Rashid, U.; Islam, A.; Hussien, M. Z.; Lee, K. T. 2014. Transesterification of Jatropha curcas crude oil to biodiesel on calcium lanthanum mixed oxide catalyst: Effect of stoichiometric composition. Energy Conversion and Management. 881290-1296

    Heterogeneous solid mixed oxide (CaO-La2O3) catalysts with different molar ratios of calcium to lanthanum (Ca-to-La) were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized solid CaO-La2O3 mixed metal oxide catalysts were utilized in transesterification of Jatropha curcus oil as feedstock to produce biodiesel. Under the optimized conditions at 65 degrees C, 4% catalyst dose with 24:1 MeOH to Jatropha oil molar ratio, the transesterification reaction exhibited 86.51% of biodiesel yield. The prepared catalysts were characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption with Brunauer-Emmer-Teller (BET) method, temperature-programmed desorption of CO2 (CO2-TPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Influence of Ca-to-La atomic ratio in the mixed metal oxide catalyst, catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, different oils on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield were appraised. Different catalyst regeneration procedures were also performed to investigate the reusability of the CaO-La2O3 catalyst. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  30. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Yunus, S.; Abdullah, N. R.; Mamat, R.; Rashid, A. A. 2013. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia. 2nd International Conference on Mechanical Engineering Research (Icmer 2013). 50

    The high demand to replace petroleum fuel makes renewable and sustainable sources such as Palm oil, Jatropha oil and Algae a main focus feedstock for biodiesel production in Malaysia. There are many studies conducted on Palm oil and Jatropha oil, however, the use of Algae as an alternative fuel is still in its infancy. Malaysia already implemented B5 based Palm oil as a feedstock and this biodiesel has been proven safe and can be used without any engine modification. The use of biodiesel produced from these feedstock will also developed domestic economic and provide job opportunities especially in the rural area. In addition, biodiesel has many advantages especially when dealing with the emissions produce as compared to petroleum fuel such as; it can reduce unwanted gases and particulate matter harmful to the atmosphere and mankind. Thus, this paper gathered and examines the most prominent engine emission produced from Palm oil and Jatropha feedstock and also to observe the potential of Algae to be one of the sources of alternative fuel in Malaysia.
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  31. Macroeconomic and distributional impacts of jatropha-based biodiesel in Mali
    Abstract

    Boccanfuso, Dorothée; Boccanfuso, Dorothée; Coulibaly, Massa; Savard, Luc; Timilsina, Govinda R. 2013. Macroeconomic and distributional impacts of jatropha-based biodiesel in Mali. Policy research working paper. 1 online resource (39 p

    Mali, a landlocked West African nation at the southern edge of the Sahara Desert, has introduced a program to produce biodiesel using jatropha curcas, a non-edible shrub widely available throughout the country by farmers for generations as a living fence for their gardens. The aim of the program is to partially substitute diesel, which is entirely supplied through imports, with domestic biodiesel produced from a feedstock that does not have any commercial value otherwise and thus has zero opportunity cost. This paper uses a computable general equilibrium model to investigate economy-wide and distributional impacts of large-scale jatropha production on different types of lands, and conversion of jatropha oil to biodiesel for domestic consumption. It assesses impacts on agricultural and other commodity markets, resource and factor markets, and international trade. The results are fed into a detailed household survey-based micro-simulation model to assess impacts on poverty and income distribution. The study finds that the expansion of jatropha farming would be beneficial in terms of both macroeconomic and distributional impacts as long as idle lands, which have been neither used for agriculture nor protected as forests, are utilized. However, if jatropha plantation is carried out on existing agriculture lands, the economy-wide impacts would be negative although it would still help reduce rural poverty.
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  32. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM Jatropha curcas OIL AND PALM OIL
    Abstract

    Liang, Y. C.; Nang, H. L. L.; May, C. Y. 2013. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF BIODIESEL PRODUCED FROM Jatropha curcas OIL AND PALM OIL. Journal of Oil Palm Research. 25(2) 159-164

    Due to the increase in the petroleum fuel and edible oil prices and the continuous debate on fuel vs. the food Issue, effort has been taken to look into the possibility of using a cheaper non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. Jatropha curcas oil is one of the non-edible feedstock which has been considered in recent years. In the present study, J. curcas oil was transesterified to jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) and subjected to a full range biodiesel characteristics analysis. It was found that the fatty acid compositions of JOME are very different compared with palm biodiesel (methyl ester of refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil, RBDPOME). JOME consists of 43% methyl oleate and 34% methyl linoleate with total unsaturation of 79%, whereas RBDPOME consists of 39% methyl oleate and 10% methyl linoleate with total unsaturation of approximately 50%. Due to the higher degree of unsaturation especially the methyl linoleate, JOME has lower cold flow properties, namely the cloud point (4.6 degrees C), pour point (3 degrees C) and cold filter plugging point (0 degrees C). JOME is more prone to oxidation and polymerisation, and possesses a lower cetane number when compared to RBDPOME.
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  33. Production and comparative fuel properties of biodiesel from non-edible oils: Jatropha curcas, Sterculia foetida and Ceiba pentandra
    Abstract

    Ong, H. C.; Silitonga, A. S.; Masjuki, H. H.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Chong, W. T.; Boosroh, M. H. 2013. Production and comparative fuel properties of biodiesel from non-edible oils: Jatropha curcas, Sterculia foetida and Ceiba pentandra. Energy Conversion and Management. 73245-255

    Biodiesel production from non-edible vegetable oil is one of the effective ways to overcome the problems associated with energy crisis and environmental issues. The non-edible oils represent potential sources for future energy supply. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of crude Jatropha curcas oil (CJCO), crude Sterculia foetida oil (CSFO) and crude Ceiba pentandra oil (CCPO) and its methyl ester have been studied. The acid values of three oils were found to be 12.78 mg KOH per g, 5.11 mg KOH per g and 11.99 mg KOH per g which required acid-esterification and alkali-transesterification process. Acid value was decreased by esterification process using sulfuric acid anhydrous (H2SO4) as a catalyst and alkaline (NaOH) catalyst transesterification was carried out for the conversion of crude oil to methyl esters. The optimal conditions of FAME yield achieved for those three biodiesel were 96.75%, 97.50% and 97.72% respectively. Furthermore, the fuel properties of J. curcas methyl ester (JCME), S. foetida methyl ester (SFME) and C pentandra methyl ester (CPME) were determined and evaluated. As a result, those produced biodiesel matched and fulfilled ASTM 6751 and EN 14214 biodiesel standards. Based on the results, JCME, SFME and CPME are potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  34. State-of-the-art of the Jatropha curcas productive chain: From sowing to biodiesel and by-products
    Abstract

    Contran, N.; Chessa, L.; Lubino, M.; Bellavite, D.; Roggero, P. P.; Enne, G. 2013. State-of-the-art of the Jatropha curcas productive chain: From sowing to biodiesel and by-products. Industrial Crops and Products. 42202-215

    In the forthcoming years, 1-2 million hectares of Jatropha curcas L are expected to be annually planted, reaching 12.8 million hectares worldwide by 2015. This considerable expansion is due to its products and byproducts multiple uses and its amazing adaptability. J. curcas oil extracted by seeds is a promising renewable feedstock for biodiesel production and, together with the oil extraction by-products, it can be used as cooking/lighting fuel, bio-pesticide, organic fertilizer, combustible fuel, and for soap making. The capability to grow on poor quality soils not suitable for food crop makes J. curcas a possible solution of all the controversies related to biodiesel production. Furthermore. J. curcas contributes to mitigate environmental problems, such as marginal land or abandoned farmland reclamation. Nevertheless, J. curcas is not a "miracle tree": (i) the full potential of J. curcas is far from being achieved and its talents are still to be supported by scientific evidences: (ii) J. curcas capabilities are not easily exploitable and applicable simultaneously; (iii) its use is controversial and potentially unsustainable due to the current knowledge gaps about the impacts and potentials of J. curcas plantations. The aims of this review are to detail each phase of J. curcas productive chain from sowing to biodiesel and by-products, in order to logically organize the knowledge around J. curcas system, and to compare potentialities and criticalities of J. curcas, highlighting the agronomical, management, and environmental issues which should be still investigated. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  35. Techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas via a supercritical methanol process
    Abstract

    Yusuf, N. N. A. N.; Kamarudin, S. K. 2013. Techno-economic analysis of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas via a supercritical methanol process. Energy Conversion and Management. 75710-717

    This paper presents the conceptual design and economic evaluation of a production of methyl esters (biodiesel) from Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) via a supercritical methanol process with glycerol as a by-product. The process consists of four major units: transesterification (PFR), methanol recovery (FT) and (DC1), recovery of glycerol (DEC), and biodiesel purification (DC2). The material and heat balance are also presented here. A biodiesel production of 40,000 tonnes-yr(-1) is taken as case study. Biodiesel obtained from supercritical transesterification with Jatropha curcas oil as feedstock resulting in high purity methyl esters (99.96%) with almost pure glycerol (96.49%) obtained as by-product. The biodiesel can be sold at USD 0.78 kg(-1), while the manufacturing and capital investment costs are in the range of USD 25.39 million-year(-1) and USD 9.41 million year(-1), respectively. This study proved that biodiesel from JCO is the least expensive with purities comparable to those found in other studies. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  36. An optimum biodiesel combination: Jatropha and soapnut oil biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Chen, Y. H.; Chiang, T. H.; Chen, J. H. 2012. An optimum biodiesel combination: Jatropha and soapnut oil biodiesel blends. Fuel. 92(1) 377-380

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) oils are considered potential non-edible oil feedstocks for biodiesel production and present complementary fuel properties. Apparently, the poor oxidation stability of jatropha oil biodiesel and the high cold filter plugging point of soapnut oil biodiesel can be successfully improved to satisfy all biodiesel specifications at an optimum blending ratio. The optimum biodiesel combination was further blended with diesel at various volumetric percentages to evaluate the variations of fuel properties. The biodiesel-diesel blends up to B40 would show the satisfactory fuel properties. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  37. Iron Oxide Catalysts Supported on Porous Silica for the Production of Biodiesel from Crude Jatropha Oil
    Abstract

    Suzuta, T.; Toba, M.; Abe, Y.; Yoshimura, Y. 2012. Iron Oxide Catalysts Supported on Porous Silica for the Production of Biodiesel from Crude Jatropha Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 89(11) 1981-1989

    A heterogeneous catalyst, FeO (x) /SiO2, prepared by the pore-filling method, was found to be active in the transesterification of crude Jatropha oil with methanol. When the transesterification reaction was carried out with a reaction temperature of 220 A degrees C, a catalyst amount of 15 wt%, a methanol/oil molar ratio of 218:1, and a reaction time of 3 h, the yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in the product exceeded 99.0 %, and met with EN standards for allowable contents of glycerine and mono-, di-, and tri-glycerides. The correlation between the FAME production activity and measured acidity of the FeO (x) /SiO2 catalysts showed that the transesterification reaction was promoted via the acidic function of these catalysts, which are less inhibited by coexisting free fatty acids in the feedstock triglycerides.
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  38. Life cycle assessment of energy performance of biodiesel produced from Jatropha curcas
    Abstract

    Chatterjee, R.; Sharma, V.; Kumar, S. 2012. Life cycle assessment of energy performance of biodiesel produced from Jatropha curcas. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy. 4(5)

    Jatropha curcas has been widely considered as a potential feedstock for production of biodiesel in several tropical countries. Globally biodiesel is gaining importance because of its environmental advantages. This paper deals with the energy consumption for the biodiesel production from J. curcas. Two plantation models of Jatropha, perennial and annual harvesting and their energy benefits are considered. In perennial plantation, the biodiesel yield is more than the annual harvesting. On the other hand, overall energy output from the annual harvesting system is almost twice than that of perennial system. The energy benefits of Jatropha cultivation on two different types of soil (poor and normal soils) were evaluated with and without irrigation. The energy balance is also calculated on the basis of rainfall and different water level depth. The study estimated the net energy balance and net energy ratio for both the models and found that the energy values were high for both the systems. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4754156]
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  39. Overview on the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. by using heterogenous catalysts
    Abstract

    Yusuf, N. N. A. N.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Yaakob, Z. 2012. Overview on the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. by using heterogenous catalysts. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 6(3) 319-334

    Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered a future feedstock for biodiesel production because it is easily grown in harsh environments and is a non-edible crop that is not in demand as a food source. Three basic methods are used to produce biodiesel from oils/fats, namely the base-catalyzed transesterification, acid-catalyzed transesterification, and enzymatic catalysis. However, heterogeneous transesterification using a solid catalyst rather than a liquid acid or base catalyst is a more environmentally responsible way to utilize crude Jatropha oil for biodiesel production. The use of a heterogeneous catalyst also avoids neutralization and washing steps, thereby leading to a simpler and more efficient process. This paper presents an overview of the production of biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas Linnaeus (JCL) using a heterogeneous catalyst. This review also includes the current economic trend of biofuel production particularly on the production of biodiesel. Different types of conventional and advanced methods like ultrasound, microwave, membrane reactor, supercritical methanol, etc., using several types of heterogeneous catalysts like calcium oxide (CaO), sulfanated zirconia alumina (SZA) and others in the JCO biodiesel transesterification process are discussed in detail. The system design of the transesterification process via process simulation and optimization are also presented. Finally, the persistent challenges facing this process are discussed. (c) 2012 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
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  40. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jatropha curcas L. of North East India for exploration of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Mazumdar, P.; Borugadda, V. B.; Goud, V. V.; Sahoo, L. 2012. Physico-chemical characteristics of Jatropha curcas L. of North East India for exploration of biodiesel. Biomass & Bioenergy. 46546-554

    Oil content of wild genotypes of Jatropha curcas L. collected from Assam, North East India, was studied. A total of 20 genotypes were used to investigate the oil content and variation in the oil content was found to be between 23.70 and 46.60%. Among them four high oil yielding genotypes was selected. Physicochemical properties of the oil and biodiesel obtained from those four genotypes were analyzed to check the suitability of these genotypes as potential candidate for biodiesel production. The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis showed amount of total monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) is more in comparison to polyunsaturated fatty acid. H-1 NMR profile of the oil and biodiesel demonstrated the successful conversion to methyl ester. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under nitrogen and oxygen environment revealed the thermal and oxidative stability of oil and methyl esters. The obtained results were found to be within acceptable range of standards specifications of ASTM D6751, showing a promising source for biodiesel production in North East India. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  41. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in Malaysia
    Abstract

    Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Hazrat, M. A.; Liaquat, A. M.; Shahabuddin, M.; Varman, M. 2012. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in Malaysia. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 16(7) 5007-5020

    The increasing energy demands along with the expected depletion of fossil fuels have promoted to search for alternative fuels that can be obtained from renewable energy resources. Biodiesel as a renewable energy resource has drawn the attention of many researchers and scientists because its immense potential to be part of a sustainable energy mix in near future.
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  42. Synthesis of Jatropha curcas oil-based biodiesel in a pulsed loop reactor
    Abstract

    Syam, A. M.; Yunus, R.; Ghazi, T. I. M.; Choong, T. S. Y. 2012. Synthesis of Jatropha curcas oil-based biodiesel in a pulsed loop reactor. Industrial Crops and Products. 37(1) 514-519

    Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) has a high content of free fatty acids and has been used extensively as a feedstock in biodiesel production. In the present study, the transesterification reaction of JCO to Jatropha curcas methyl ester (biodiesel) was performed in a continuous pulsed loop reactor under atmospheric conditions. The JCO was pre-treated prior to the reaction to reduce the free fatty acid content to below 1% (w/w). The operating parameters of the loop reactor were optimised based on the conversion of the JCO to Jatropha curcas biodiesel and included reaction temperature, molar ratio of oil to MeOH, reaction time and oscillation frequency. The findings show that the highest reaction conversion of 99.7% (w/w) was achieved using KOH catalyst and 98.8% conversion was obtained using NaOCH3 catalyst. The optimal operating conditions were a molar ratio of 6:1, an oscillation frequency of 6 Hz, temperature of 60 degrees C, feedstock FFA content of 0.5% (w/w) and only 10 min of reaction time. As a commercial commodity, the physical properties of biodiesel were analysed, and they compared well with the characteristics of fossil-based diesel fuel. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  43. The Significance of Pollination Services for Biodiesel Feedstocks, with Special Reference to Jatropha curcas L.: A Review
    Abstract

    Vaknin, Y. 2012. The Significance of Pollination Services for Biodiesel Feedstocks, with Special Reference to Jatropha curcas L.: A Review. Bioenergy Research. 5(1) 32-40

    The importance of pollination services for insect-pollinated crops in general, and for the major biodiesel crops, such as Jatropha curcas L., in particular, is reviewed. The dependence of the major biodiesel feedstocks on pollinators ranges from almost zero to low dependence in soybean, through low to medium dependence in rapeseed, and up to high dependence in the African oil palm and in J. curcas. Currently, the basic requirement of J. curcas for pollination services is largely neglected. In light of the enormous scale of existing and future plantations of J. curcas, and of the effective pollination by native pollinators in most commercial crops, it is clear that the local insect fauna of any given habitat, on any continent, will not be able to satisfy the pollination requirements of any plantation, once it becomes established and starts blooming. It is suggested that the best way to address the pending catastrophe of severely reduced yields in J. curcas plantations that would result from reduced reproductive success would be to use honeybees as the prime pollinators, regardless of the pollination services provided by the local insect fauna. Basic research on the contribution of honeybees to the reproductive success of J. curcas should be carried out and used as a guideline for planning future provision of proper honeybee pollination services in any given plantation, characterized by its specific size, age, planting density, soil type, irrigation, fertilization, and climatic conditions.
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  44. Transesterification of jatropha curcas oil to biodiesel by using short necked clam (orbicularia orbiculata) shell derived catalyst
    Abstract

    Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Lee, H. V.; Lau, P. L. 2012. Transesterification of jatropha curcas oil to biodiesel by using short necked clam (orbicularia orbiculata) shell derived catalyst. Energy Exploration & Exploitation. 30(5) 853-866

    Investigation has been conducted to develop an environmental friendly and economically feasible process for biodiesel production. Natural short necked clam shell was utilized as calcium oxide (CaO) source for transesterification of non-edible Jatropha curcas oil to biodiesel. The powdered clam shell was calcined at 900 degrees C for 3 h to transform calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in shell to active CaO catalyst. The effect of catalyst loading, methanol to oil molar ratio and reaction time on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was investigated. Under optimal condition, biodiesel yield achieved 93% within 6 h at 65 degrees C. As a result, the catalytic activity of waste clam shell-derived catalyst is comparable to commercial CaO catalyzed reaction. Hence, it can be used as another renewable yet cost-effective catalyst source for biodiesel production.
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  45. A review of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas L. oil
    Abstract

    Koh, M. Y.; Ghazi, T. I. M. 2011. A review of biodiesel production from jatropha curcas L. oil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(5) 2240-2251

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. However, the limited reserve of fossil fuel has drawn the attention of many researchers to look for alternative fuels which can be produced from renewable feedstock.
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  46. A review on prospect of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel in Indonesia
    Abstract

    Silitonga, A. S.; Atabani, A. E.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.; Badruddin, I. A.; Mekhilef, S. 2011. A review on prospect of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel in Indonesia. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(8) 3733-3756

    Energy is fundamental to the quality of life in the earth. Meeting the growing demand for energy sustainably is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Indonesia is a developing country and the world's fourth most populous nation. Total annual energy consumption increased from 300,147 GWh in 1980, 625,500 GWh in 1990, 1,123,928 in 2000 and to 1490,892 in 2009 at an average annual increase of 2.9%. Presently, fossil-fuel-based energies are the major sources of energy in Indonesia. During the last 12 years, Indonesia has recorded the most severe reduction in fossil fuel supplies in the entire Asia-Pacific region. This reduction has stimulated promoting the usage of renewable energy resources capable of simultaneously balancing economic and social development with environmental protection. Biodiesel is an alternative and environmentally friendly fuel that will participate in increasing renewable energy supply. Jatropha curcas is one of biodiesel resources that offer immediate and sustained greenhouse gas advantages over other biodiesel resources. Globally, J. curcas has created an interest for researchers because it is non-edible oil, does not create a food versus fuel conflict and can be used to produce biodiesel with same or better performance results when testing in diesel engines.
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  47. Identification and expression analysis of two small heat shock protein cDNAs from developing seeds of biodiesel feedstock plant Jatropha curcas
    Abstract

    Omar, S. A.; Fu, Q. T.; Chen, M. S.; Wang, G. J.; Song, S. Q.; Elsheery, N. I.; Xu, Z. F. 2011. Identification and expression analysis of two small heat shock protein cDNAs from developing seeds of biodiesel feedstock plant Jatropha curcas. Plant Science. 181(6) 632-637

    Plant small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are known to be important for environmental stress tolerance and involved in various developmental processes. In this study, two full-length cDNAs encoding sHSPs, designated JcHSP-1 and JcHSP-2, were identified and characterized from developing seeds of a promising biodiesel feedstock plant Jatropha curcas by expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing of embryo cDNA libraries and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). JcHSP-1 and JcHSP-2 contained open-reading frames encoding sHSPs of 219 and 157 amino acids, with predicted molecular weights of 24.42 kDa and 18.02 kDa, respectively. Sequence alignment indicated that both JcHSP-1 and JcHSP-2 shared high similarity with other plant sHSPs. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcriptional level of both JcHSP-1 and JcHSP-2 increased along with natural dehydration process during seed development. A sharp increase of JcHSP-2 transcripts occurred in response to water content dropping from 42% in mature seeds to 12% in dry seeds. Western blot analysis revealed that the accumulation profile of two cross-reacting proteins, whose molecular weight corresponding to the calculated size of JcHSP-1 and JcHSP-2, respectively, was well consistent with the mRNA expression pattern of JcHSP-1 and JcHSP-2 in jatropha seeds during maturation and natural dehydration. These results indicated that both JcHSPs might play an important role in cell protection and seed development during maturation off. curcas seeds. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  48. Land use and second-generation biofuel feedstocks: The unconsidered impacts of Jatropha biodiesel in Rajasthan, India
    Abstract

    Findlater, K. M.; Kandlikar, M. 2011. Land use and second-generation biofuel feedstocks: The unconsidered impacts of Jatropha biodiesel in Rajasthan, India. Energy Policy. 39(6) 3404-3413

    Governments around the world see biofuels as a common solution to the multiple policy challenges posed by energy insecurity, climate change and falling farmer incomes. The Indian government has enthusiastically adopted a second-generation feedstock - the oilseed-bearing shrub, Jatropha curcas - for an ambitious national biodiesel program. Studies estimating the production capacity and potential land use implications of this program have typically assumed that the 'waste land' slated for Jatropha production has no economic value and that no activities of note will be displaced by plantation development. Here we examine the specific local impacts of rapid Jatropha plantation development on rural livelihoods and land use in Rajasthan, India. We find that in Jhadol Tehsil, Jatropha is planted on both government and private land, and has typically displaced grazing and forage collection. For those at the socioeconomic margins, these unconsidered impacts counteract the very benefits that the biofuel programs aim to create. The Rajasthan case demonstrates that local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making for national targets and global biofuel promotion efforts. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  49. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel from soybean, jatropha and microalgae in China conditions
    Abstract

    Hou, J.; Zhang, P. D.; Yuan, X. Z.; Zheng, Y. H. 2011. Life cycle assessment of biodiesel from soybean, jatropha and microalgae in China conditions. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(9) 5081-5091

    Increasing demand for transport fuels has driven China to attach great importance to biodiesel development. To evaluate the environmental impacts caused by producing and driving with biodiesel made from soybean, jatropha, and microalgae under China conditions, the LCA methodology is used and the assessment results are compared with fossil diesel. The solar energy and CO(2) uptake in biomass agriculture and reduction of dependency on fossil fuels lead to a better performance on abiotic depletion potential (ADP), global warming potential (GWP), and ozone depletion potential (ODP) in the life cycle of biodiesel compared to fossil diesel. Except for ADP, GWP and ODP, producing and driving with biodiesel does not offer benefits in the other environmental impact categories including eutrophication, acidification, photochemical oxidation, and toxicity. Jatropha and microalgae are more competitive biodiesel feedstock compared to soybean in terms of all impacts. By using global normalization references and weighting method based on ecotaxes, the LCA single score for the assessed 10 mid-point impact categories of soybean, jatropha, and microalgae based biodiesel is 54, 37.2 and 3.67 times of that of fossil diesel, respectively. Improvement of biomass agriculture management, development of biodiesel production technologies, bettering energy structure and promoting energy efficiency in China are the key measures to lower environmental impacts in the life cycle of biodiesel in the future. Various sensitivity analyses have also been applied, which show that, choice of allocation method, transport distance, uncertainty in jatropha and microalgae yield and oil content, and recycling rate of harvest water of microalgae have significant influence on the life cycle environmental performance of biodiesel. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  50. Lifecycle assessment of the economic, environmental and energy performance of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel in China
    Abstract

    Wang, Z. X.; Calderon, M. M.; Lu, Y. 2011. Lifecycle assessment of the economic, environmental and energy performance of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel in China. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(7) 2893-2902

    Due to issues relating to the sustainability of biofuel production, second generation biofuel has attracted much attention. As a promising feedstock of second generation biodiesel, Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) is being massively planted on marginal land in China, but its viability as a biofuel source has not been systematically assessed. This paper performed a lifecycle assessment of the economic, environmental and energy (3E) performance of the JCL biodiesel, assuming JCL oil is either used for direct blending with diesel or further processed into JCL methyl ester (JME). The results show that, at the current technical levels, the production of JCL biodiesel is financially infeasible, but has positive environmental and energy performance. Despite the additional cost incurred in the transesterification process, the net present value of JME is slightly higher than that of JCL oil when a part of the cost is allocated to the co-product, i.e., glycerin. As compared with that of diesel, the production and consumption of per liter JCL oil and JME can reduce 7.34 kg and 8.04 kg CO(2) equivalent, respectively. The energy balances of both JCL oil and JME are 1.57 and 1.47, respectively, in terms of the ratio of the heat value of biodiesel and that of energy input. The main factors affecting the 3E performance of JCL biodiesel are seed yield, co-product output, and farm energy input. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  51. Physical wounding-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of juvenile cotyledons of a biodiesel-producing plant, Jatropha curcas L.
    Abstract

    Khemkladngoen, N.; Cartagena, J. A.; Fukui, K. 2011. Physical wounding-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of juvenile cotyledons of a biodiesel-producing plant, Jatropha curcas L.. Plant Biotechnology Reports. 5(3) 235-243

    The non-edible plant Jatropha curcas L. is one of the most promising feedstock for sustainable biodiesel production as it is not a source of edible vegetable oils, produces high amounts of oil (approx. 30-60% in dry seeds) and does not require high-cost maintenance. However, as with other undomesticated crops, the cultivation of J. curcas presents several drawbacks, such as low productivity and susceptibility to pests. Hence, varietal improvement by genetic engineering is essential if J. curcas is to become a viable alternative source of biodiesel. There is to date no well-established and efficient transformation system for J. curcas. In this study, we tested various physical wounding treatments, such as sonication and sand-vortexing, with the aim of developing an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for J. curcas. The highest stable transformation rate (53%) was achieved when explants were subjected to 1 min of sonication followed by 9 min of shaking in Agrobacterium suspension. The transformation frequency achieved using this protocol is the highest yet reported for J. curcas.
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  52. Process optimization design for jatropha-based biodiesel production using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Yunus, R.; Juan, J. C.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2011. Process optimization design for jatropha-based biodiesel production using response surface methodology. Fuel Processing Technology. 92(12) 2420-2428

    Biodiesel of non food vegetal oil origin is gaining attention as a replacement for current fossil fuels as its non-food chain interfering manufacturing processes shall prevent food source competition which is expected to happen with current biodiesel production processes. As a result, non edible Jatropho curcas plant oil is claimed to be a highly potential feedstock for non-food origin biodiesel.CaO-MgO mixed oxide catalyst was employed in transesterification of non-edible J. curcas plant oil in biodiesel production. Response surface methodology (RSM) in conjunction with the central composite design (CCD) was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the biodiesel production process. It was found that the production of biodiesel achieved an optimum level of 93.55% biodiesel yield at the following reaction conditions: 1) Methanol/oil molar ratio: 38.67, 2) Reaction time: 3.44 h, 3) Catalyst amount: 3.70 wt.%, and 4) Reaction temperature: 115.87 degrees C. In economic point of view, transesterification of J. curcas plant oil using CaO-MgO mixed oxide catalyst requires less energy which contributed to high production cost in biodiesel production. The incredibly high biodiesel yield of 93.55% was proved to be the synergetic effect of basicity between the active components of CaO-MgO shown in the physicochemical analysis. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  53. Production and selected fuel properties of biodiesel from promising non-edible oils: Euphorbia lathyris L., Sapium sebiferum L. and Jatropha curcas L.
    Abstract

    Wang, R.; Hanna, M. A.; Zhou, W. W.; Bhadury, P. S.; Chen, Q.; Song, B. A.; Yang, S. 2011. Production and selected fuel properties of biodiesel from promising non-edible oils: Euphorbia lathyris L., Sapium sebiferum L. and Jatropha curcas L.. Bioresource Technology. 102(2) 1194-1199

    A comparative study on the composition, biodiesel production and fuel properties of non-edible oils from Euphorbia lathyris L (EL), Sapium sebiferum L (SS), and Jatropha curcas L (JC) was conducted. Under optimal conditions, the FAME content and yield of the three oils were greater than 97.5 wt.% and 84.0%, respectively. The best biodiesel was produced from EL due to its high monounsaturation (82.66 wt.%, Cn: 1), low polyunsaturation (6.49 wt.%, Cn: 2, 3) and appropriate proportion of saturated components (8.78 wt.%, Cn: 0). Namely, EL biodiesel possessed a cetane number of 59.6, an oxidation stability of 10.4 h and a cold filter plug point of -11 degrees C. However, the cetane number (40.2) and oxidative stability (0.8 h) of dewaxed SS kernel oil (DSSK) biodiesel were low due to the high polyunsaturation (72.79 wt.%). In general, the results suggest that E. lathyris L. is a promising species for biodiesel feedstock. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  54. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from crude jatropha (Jatropha curcas Linnaeus) oil using aluminium oxide modified Mg-Zn heterogeneous catalyst
    Abstract

    Olutoye, M. A.; Hameed, B. H. 2011. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from crude jatropha (Jatropha curcas Linnaeus) oil using aluminium oxide modified Mg-Zn heterogeneous catalyst. Bioresource Technology. 102(11) 6392-6398

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as a substitute to petroleum diesel was investigated in this study from crude jatropha oil (CJO), a non-edible, low-cost alternative feedstock, using aluminium modified heterogeneous basic oxide (Mg-Zn) catalyst. The transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters yielded 94% in 6 h with methanol-oil ratio of 11:1, catalyst loading of 8.68 wt.% at 182 degrees C and the properties of CJO fuel produced were determine and found to be comparable to the standards according to ASTM. In the range of experimental parameters investigated, it showed that the catalyst is selective to production of methyl esters from oil with high free fatty acid (FFA) and water content of 7.23% and 3.28%, respectively in a single stage process. Thus, jatropha oil is a promising feedstock for methyl ester production and large scale cultivation will help to reduce the product cost. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  55. Potential land for plantation of Jatropha curcas as feedstocks for biodiesel in China
    Abstract

    Wu, W. G.; Huang, J. K.; Deng, X. Z. 2010. Potential land for plantation of Jatropha curcas as feedstocks for biodiesel in China. Science China-Earth Sciences. 53(1) 120-127

    As a renewable energy, biofuel has attracted great attention in China and the rest of world. Concerned with the national food security, China recently has shifted its biofuel development priority from grain-based to non-grain-based biofuels, including forest-based biodiesel, since 2007. Jatropha curcas is one of major biodiesel feedstocks. However, there is rising debate on availability of land for expanding Jatropha curcas areas. The overall goal of this paper is to evaluate potential land for Jatropha curcas used as feedstock for biodiesel in China. Based on remote sensing data on land use, data on meteorological, soil and land slope, and suitable environment for Jatropha curcas plantation, this study uses Agro Ecological Zone method and considers social-economic constraints to evaluate potential suitable land for Jatropha curcas plantation in China's major Jatropha curcas production region, Southwest China. The results show that while there are some potential lands to expand Jatropha curcas areas, amount of these lands will hardly meet the government's target for Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels development in the future. China may need to reconsider its long-term targets on the development of Jatropha curcas-based biodiesels.
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  56. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India: A review
    Abstract

    Jain, S.; Sharma, M. P. 2010. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 14(2) 763-771

    The increasing industrialization and modernization of the world has to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum products Economic development in developing countries has led to huge increase in the energy demand. In India, the energy demand is increasing at a rate of 6 5% per annum. The crude oil demand of the country is met by import of about 80%. Thus the energy security has become a key Issue for the nation as a whole. Petroleum-based fuels are limited. The finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these reserves are facing foreign exchange crises, mainly due to the import of crude oil. Hence it is necessary to look forward for alternative fuels. which can be produced from feedstocks available within the country
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  57. Reactive extraction and in situ esterification of Jatropha curcas L. seeds for the production of biodiesel
    Abstract

    Shuit, S. H.; Lee, K. T.; Kamaruddin, A. H.; Yusup, S. 2010. Reactive extraction and in situ esterification of Jatropha curcas L. seeds for the production of biodiesel. Fuel. 89(2) 527-530

    Jatropha curcas L. has recently been hailed as the promising feedstock for biodiesel production as it does not compete with food sources. Conventional production of biodiesel from J. curcas L. seeds involve two main processing steps; extraction of oil and subsequent esterification/transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters ( FAME). In this study, the feasibility of in situ extraction, esterification and transesterification of J. curcas L. seeds to biodiesel was investigated. It was found that the size of the seed and reaction period effect the yield of FAME and amount of oil extracted significantly. Using seed with size less than 0.355 mm and n-hexane as co-solvent with the following reaction conditions; reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, reaction period of 24 h, methanol to seed ratio of 7.5 ml/g and 15 wt% of H(2)SO(4), the oil extraction efficiency and FAME yield can reached 91.2% and 99.8%, respectively. This single step of reactive extraction process therefore can be a potential route for biodiesel production that reduces processing steps and cost. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  58. Reactive Extraction of Jatropha curcas L. Seed for Production of Biodiesel: Process Optimization Study
    Abstract

    Shuit, S. H.; Lee, K. T.; Kamaruddin, A. H.; Yusup, S. 2010. Reactive Extraction of Jatropha curcas L. Seed for Production of Biodiesel: Process Optimization Study. Environmental Science & Technology. 44(11) 4361-4367

    Biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. seed is conventionally produced via a two-step method: extraction of oil and subsequent esterification/transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), commonly known as biodiesel. Contrarily, in this study, a single step in situ extraction, esterification and transesterification (collectively known as reactive extraction) of J. curcas L seed to biodiesel, was investigated and optimized. Design of experiments (DOE) was used to study the effect of various process parameters on the yield of FAME. The process parameters studied include reaction temperature (30-60 degrees C), methanol to seed ratio (5-20 mL/g), catalyst loading (5-30 wt %), and reaction time (1-24 h). The optimum reaction condition was then obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with central composite design (CCD). Results showed that an optimum biodiesel yield of 98.1% can be obtained under the following reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, methanol to seed ratio of 10.5 mL/g, 21.8 wt % of H(2)SO(4), and reaction period of 10 h.
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  59. Two-step supercritical dimethyl carbonate method for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil
    Abstract

    Ilham, Z.; Saka, S. 2010. Two-step supercritical dimethyl carbonate method for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil. Bioresource Technology. 101(8) 2735-2740

    This study reports on a novel two-step process for biodiesel production consisting of hydrolysis of oils in sub-critical water and subsequent supercritical dimethyl carbonate esterification. This process found to occur optimally at the sub-critical water treatment (270 degrees C/27 MPa) for 25 min followed by a subsequent supercritical dimethyl carbonate treatment (300 degrees C/9 MPa) for 15 min to achieve a comparably high yield of fatty acid methyl esters, at more than 97 wt%. In addition, the fatty acid methyl esters being produced satisfied the international standard specifications for use as biodiesel fuel. This new process for biodiesel production offers milder reaction condition (lower temperature and lower pressure), non-acidic, non-catalytic and applicable to feedstock with high amount of free fatty acids such as crude Jatropha curcas oil. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  60. Life cycle assessment for the production of biodiesel: A case study in Malaysia for palm oil versus jatropha oil
    Abstract

    Lam, M. K.; Lee, K. T.; Mohamed, A. R. 2009. Life cycle assessment for the production of biodiesel: A case study in Malaysia for palm oil versus jatropha oil. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr. 3(6) 601-612

    One of the most promising forms of renewable energy is biodiesel produced from vegetable oils, such as rapeseed, soybean and palm oil. Malaysia, being the world's second-largest producer of palm oil, therefore begins to align herself as the potential world producer of palm biodiesel apart from exporting palm oil as feedstock for the food and oleochemical industries. However, due to the recent food versus fuel debate, Malaysian palm oil has received a lot of negative attention especially from non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The sustainability of palm biodiesel production and environmental issues are constantly being questioned. Many quarters have even claimed that the use of non-edible oils, such as Jatropha curcas L., should be promoted rather than palm oil for biodiesel production. Therefore, this study aims to compare and validate the production of biodiesel from palm and jatropha using the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The assessment encompasses the cultivation of the crop, the oil extraction stage and finally, the biodiesel production stage. We found that to produce 1 tonne of jatropha biodiesel, the land area requirement is 118% higher than to produce 1 tonne of palm biodiesel. The energy output-to-input ratio for palm biodiesel is 2.27, slightly higher than jatropha biodiesel at 1.92. Furthermore, CO(2) sequestration for the whole life cycle chain of palm biodiesel is 20 times higher than jatropha biodiesel. All these results show the superiority and sustainability of palm oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production (C) Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons. Ltd
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  61. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas by Microwave Irradiation
    Abstract

    Yaakob, Z.; Sukarman, I. S.; Kamarudin, S. K.; Abdullah, S. R. S.; Mohamed, F. 2008. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas by Microwave Irradiation. Res 08: Proceedings of the 2nd Wseas/Iasme International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources. 235-+

    Biodiesel is an potential fuel for diesel engine and is in demand nowdays due to several factors including price stability, limited reserve of carbon fuel, and environmental issue. Jatropha is one of the potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to its high oil content (about 40 - 65 %). It is nonedible, therefore it will not compete with food for fuel. In this study, transesterification process is chosen to transform Jatropha crude oil to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) or biodiesel. The transesterification was carried out using microwave irradiation with homogenous catalyst. Effects of various parameters such as catalyst ratio of (24%) NaOH, reaction time (3-9 minutes) and solvent molarity ratio (1:16, 24 and 30) on conversion have been studied. The FAME conversion was determined using gas chromatography following the ASTM D 6584 method. Compare with the conventional heating method, the process using microwaves irradiation has effectively shortened the reaction time. The optimum FAME production conversion is 86.3%.
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  62. Jatropha-Palm biodiesel blends: An optimum mix for Asia
    Abstract

    Sarin, R.; Sharma, M.; Sinharay, S.; Malhotra, R. K. 2007. Jatropha-Palm biodiesel blends: An optimum mix for Asia. Fuel. 86(10-11) 1365-1371

    Biodiesel, an alternative renewable fuel made from transesterification of vegetable oil with alcohol, is becoming more readily available for use in blends with conventional diesel fuel for transportation applications. Soybean and Rapeseed are common feedstocks for Biodiesel production in USA and Europe, respectively. However, Asian countries are not self sufficient in edible oil and exploring non-edible seed oils, like Jatropha and Pongamia as biodiesel raw materials. However there is a gestation period of few years before these crops start yielding seeds and oil. On the other hand, South Eastern countries like Malaysia and Thailand have surplus Palm crops. But due to substantial amount of saturated fats in Palm, the Palm biodiesel has poor low temperature properties. In order to exploit the proximity of South Asian and South-East Asian countries, blends of Jatropha and Palm biodiesel have been examined to study their physico-chemical properties and to get an optimum mix of them to achieve better low temperature properties, with improved oxidation stability. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  63. Repeated use of methanol and sulfuric acid to pretreat jatropha oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Wang, Z. M.; Wu, C. Z.; Yuan, Z. H.; Lee, J. S.; Park, S. C. 2007. Repeated use of methanol and sulfuric acid to pretreat jatropha oil for biodiesel production. Proceedings of Ises Solar World Congress 2007: Solar Energy and Human Settlement, Vols I-V. 2413-2417

    Large-scale plantation of jatropha will provide low-cost and reliable feedstock for biodiesel production, but jatropha oil has the tendency to degrade so that it often contains excessive free fatty acid (FFA). In this study, an efficient method was developed by repeated use of the mixture of methanol and sulfuric acid for the pretreatment of jatropha oil with an acid value of 10.4 mg KOH/g. A quadratic polynomial model was established by investigating the effect of water content on the conversion of FFA, while the molar ratio of methanol to FFA was 270:1 and the weight ratio of sulfuric acid to jatropha oil was 1.6%. This model was proved to be valid when the mixture of methanol and sulfuric acid had been used for twenty times. Total sulfuric acid and methanol used for these twenty experiments was 0.21% and 21% respectively, based on the weight of pretreated jatropha oil. Average reaction time of them was 26min; acid values of the pretreated jatropha oil were about 0.6 mg KOH/g, water contents of it were no more than 0.07%. Biodiesel with an ester content of 98.6% was produced through the following alkaline catalyzed biodiesel production process.
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  64. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Juan, J. C.; Binti Abdullah, N. F.; Nizah Mf, R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production. Chem Cent J. 830

    BACKGROUND: Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO). RESULTS: The chemical characteristic, textural properties, basicity profile and leaching test of synthesized catalysts were studied by using X-ray diffraction, BET measurement, TPD-CO2 and ICP-AES analysis, respectively. Transesterification activity of solid base catalysts showed that > 90% of palm biodiesel and > 80% of Jatropha biodiesel yield under 3 wt.% of catalyst, 3 h reaction time, methanol to oil ratio of 15:1 under 65 degrees C. This indicated that other than physicochemical characteristic of catalysts; different types of natural oil greatly influence the catalytic reaction due to the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs). CONCLUSIONS: Among the solid base catalysts, calcium based mixed metal oxides catalysts with binary metal system (CaMgO and CaZnO) showed capability to maintain the transesterification activity for 3 continuous runs at ~ 80% yield. These catalysts render high durability characteristic in transesterification with low active metal leaching for several cycles.
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  65. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Lee, H. V.; Juan, J. C.; Abdullah, N. F. B.; Nizah, M. F. R.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H. 2014. Heterogeneous base catalysts for edible palm and non-edible Jatropha-based biodiesel production. Chemistry Central Journal. 8

    Background: Transesterification catalyzed by solid base catalyst is a brilliant technology for the noble process featuring the fast reaction under mild reacting condition in biodiesel production. Heterogeneous base catalysts are generally more reactive than solid acid catalysts which require extreme operating condition for high conversion and biodiesel yield. In the present study, synthesis of biodiesel was studied by using edible (palm) or non-edible (Jatropha) feedstock catalyzed by heterogeneous base catalysts such as supported alkali metal (NaOH/Al2O3), alkaline-earth metal oxide (MgO, CaO and SrO) and mixed metal oxides catalysts (CaMgO and CaZnO).
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  66. Heat-integrated reactive distillation for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil
    Abstract

    Phuenduang, S.; Chatsirisook, P.; Simasatitkul, L.; Paengjuntuek, W.; Arpornwichanop, A. 2012. Heat-integrated reactive distillation for biodiesel production from Jatropha oil. 11th International Symposium on Process Systems Engineering, Pts a and B. 31250-254

    Minimizing the biodiesel production cost by using inexpensive and inedible feedstock like Jatropha oil is more practical as it is readily available and also not competes with edible oils. However, Jatropha oil contains high free fatty acid content, which causes operational problems in biodiesel production via alkaline-based transesterification reaction. This study aims to design a biodiesel production process from Jatropha oil. A hydrolysis reactor is applied to convert triglyceride in Jatropha oil to fatty acid. The fatty acid obtained then reacts with methanol to produce methyl ester (biodiesel product) using an esterification process. A reactive distillation is employed to intensify reaction and separation tasks for the esterification process. In order to minimize energy consumption, the heat integration of a reactive distillation process is considered. The simulation result using a flowsheet simulator indicates that the heat-integrated reactive distillation can improve the biodiesel production by minimizing the energy requirements, compared with a conventional process.
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  67. Functional characteristics of jatropha biodiesel as a promising feedstock for engine application
    Abstract

    Nayak, S. K.; Behera, G. R.; Mishra, P. C.; Kumar, A. 2017. Functional characteristics of jatropha biodiesel as a promising feedstock for engine application. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 39(3) 299-305

    The current article elaborates the various emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester with fossil diesel in a direct injection (DI) diesel engine at various loading conditions for different volume proportions of test fuels. Results depicted that CO, HC, and NO emission were the lowest for jatropha biodiesel compared with diesel, while smoke opacity was more for pure biodiesel due to the high viscosity, low volatility, and low heat content compared with diesel. Jatropha biodiesel may be beneficial for reducing greenhouse gas emission without any engine modification.
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  68. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba
    Abstract

    Martin, C.; Moure, A.; Martin, G.; Carrillo, E.; Dominguez, H.; Parajo, J. C. 2010. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba. Biomass & Bioenergy. 34(4) 533-538

    A preliminary investigation on the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds for the integral utilisation of their fractions for production of biodiesel and other products was carried out. The oil seeds considered were jatropha (Jatropha curcas), neem (Azadirachta indica), moringa (Moringa oleifera), trisperma (Aleurites trisperma), castor beans (Ricinus communis) and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The highest oil content (62.0% (w/w)) was found in trisperma seeds, but the use of that oil for biodiesel production is restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oils of castor beans and moringa contained 86.0% of ricinoleic acid and 70.6% of oleic acid, respectively, while in the oils from the other seeds no predominance of any acid was observed. According to the oil yield and to the fatty acid composition of the oil, jatropha was identified as the most promising oil seed for biodiesel production in Cuba. All the press cakes were rich in protein, the highest content (68.6%) being detected in moringa cake. The investigation revealed that the husks of neem and moringa can be considered potential substrates for ethanol production due to their high cellulose content (approximately 30%). A high concentration (4.3%) of acetyl groups was found in neem husks, what is favourable for the hydrolytic conversion of polysaccharides to simple sugars. A high protein content (15.2%) was detected in moringa husks, which is a positive feature for lowering the cost of nutrient supplementation in ethanolic fermentation. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  69. Feasibility study of microalgal and jatropha biodiesel production plants: Exergy analysis approach
    Abstract

    Ofori-Boateng, C.; Keat, T. L.; JitKang, L. 2012. Feasibility study of microalgal and jatropha biodiesel production plants: Exergy analysis approach. Applied Thermal Engineering. 36141-151

    The exergy analyses performed in this study are based on three thermodynamic performance parameters namely exergy destruction, exergy efficiency and thermodynamic improvement potentials. After mathematical analysis with Aspen Plus software, the results showed that 64% and 44% of the total exergy content of the input resources into microalgal methyl ester (MME) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) production plants were destroyed respectively for 1 ton of biodiesel produced. This implies that only 36% and 56% (for MME and JME production plants respectively) useful energy in the products is available to do work. The highest and lowest exergy destructions were recorded in the oil extraction units (38% and 39% of the total exergy destroyed for MME and JME plants respectively) and transesterification units (5% and 2% of total exergy destroyed for MME and JME plants respectively) respectively for 1 ton biodiesel produced. Since sustainable biodiesel production depends on cultivation of feedstock, oil extraction and transesterification processes, exergy analysis which is carried out on only the transesterification unit cannot justify the thermodynamic feasibility of the whole biodiesel production plant unless a complete thermodynamic assessment has been done for the whole plant Thus, according to this study which considers all the biodiesel production processes. MME and JME production plants are not thermodynamically feasible. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  70. Feasibility study of jatropha shell gasification for captive power generation in biodiesel production process from whole dry fruits
    Abstract

    Maiti, S.; Bapat, P.; Das, P.; Ghosh, P. K. 2014. Feasibility study of jatropha shell gasification for captive power generation in biodiesel production process from whole dry fruits. Fuel. 121126-132

    Jatropha curcas seeds are a promising feedstock for production of high performance biodiesel. The triglyceride-rich seeds are obtained upon de-shelling of dried fruit. In the present study, the empty shells, having calorific value of 17.2 MJ kg (1), were utilized as solid fuel in a 15 kg h (1) downdraft gasifier. Producer gas having calorific value of 5.2 MJ m (3) was obtained upon gasification, with an efficiency of 64.8% over 8 h of continuous operation. The gasifier was interfaced to a 100% producer gas engine, and continuous power generation (ca. 10 kWe) was demonstrated with overall efficiency of 24.5%. Captive power obtained in this manner would obviate the need for external sources of power for the operations of deshelling, screw pressing, oil refining, transesterification, glycerol purification and soap making in the integrated biodiesel production process, starting from whole dry fruits. The intermediate producer gas can additionally provide thermal energy for the process. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  71. A facile and feasible method to evaluate and control the quality of Jatropha curcus L. seed oil for biodiesel feedstock: Gas chromatographic fingerprint
    Abstract

    Wang, R.; Song, B. A.; Zhou, W. W.; Zhang, Y. P.; Hu, D. Y.; Bhadury, P. S.; Yang, S. 2011. A facile and feasible method to evaluate and control the quality of Jatropha curcus L. seed oil for biodiesel feedstock: Gas chromatographic fingerprint. Applied Energy. 88(6) 2064-2070

    To establish a facile and feasible method to evaluate and control the quality of Jatropha curcus L. seed oil for biodiesel feedstock, Gas chromatographic (GC) fingerprint technology was introduced and employed. Initially, the chromatograms of the 13 oil samples from various plantation zones in Guizhou, China were obtained under optimized GC conditions. Ten common peaks were selected as the characteristic peaks for chemometrics, seven of which were identified and quantified by comparing with the standards. The mean chromatogram of S7 (n = 3) was selected as the reference spectrum for similarity analysis based on the influence of the fatty acid composition of the raw material on the fuel properties of resulting biodiesel. Furthermore, the result of SA was confirmed by hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. By this method, all samples can be classified into three groups. The similarity value of samples approaching 1.000 compared with sample 7 was indicative of the desired fuel properties of biodiesel, indicating the potential practical applications in the quality evaluation and control of biodiesel feedstock. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  72. An expatiate review of neem, jatropha, rubber and karanja as multipurpose non-edible biodiesel resources and comparison of their fuel, engine and emission properties
    Abstract

    Takase, M.; Zhao, T.; Zhang, M.; Chen, Y.; Liu, H. Y.; Yang, L. Q.; Wu, X. Y. 2015. An expatiate review of neem, jatropha, rubber and karanja as multipurpose non-edible biodiesel resources and comparison of their fuel, engine and emission properties. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 43495-520

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. The limited reserve of the fossil fuels is also dwindling alongside escalation in the prices. The threats from these and food insecurity are, however, drawing the attention of researchers for alternative fuel which can be produced from renewable feedstocks. Biodiesel as the most promising alternate is currently produced from conventionally grown edible plant oils such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm. The use of the edible oils is worsening the current competition of oil for food and for fuel. Focus on the use of non-edible resources is presently directed to jatropha, mahua, pongamia, calophyllum tobacco, cotton oil, etc. Discrepancies between the expectation and realities regarding these non-edible oils are necessitating efforts for diversification of the feedstocks to resources that could guarantee energy production without affecting food security. Neem, karanja, rubber and jatropha are evergreen multipurpose non-edible plants that are widely available and can be grown in diverse socio-economic and environmental conditions. These plants are described as golden trees that have multiple uses such as for fuels, medicines, dyes, ornamentals, feeds, soil enrichment, afforestation, etc. This study was therefore undertaken to explore the multipurpose of these four non-edible tree plants. Among the highlights of this expatiate review include oil as feedstock for biodiesel, the need for non-edible feedstocks, neem, karanja, rubber, jatropha and their value chains, methods of modifying oil to biodiesel, factors affecting biodiesel production, application of the selected non-edible seed biodiesels to engines for performance and emission characteristics and the outlook. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  73. Exergetic analysis of a biodiesel production process from Jatropha curcas
    Abstract

    Blanco-Marigorta, A. M.; Suarez-Medina, J.; Vera-Castellano, A. 2013. Exergetic analysis of a biodiesel production process from Jatropha curcas. Applied Energy. 101218-225

    As fossil fuels are depleting day by day, it is necessary to find an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. Biodiesel is considered as an environmentally friendly renewable diesel fuel alternative. The interest in using Jatropha curcas as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel is rapidly growing. On the one hand, J. curcas' oil does not compete with the food sector due to its toxic nature and to the fact that it must be cultivated in marginal/poor soil. On the other, its price is low and stable.
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  74. Evaluation of biodiesel blending, engine performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha curcas methyl ester: Malaysian perspective
    Abstract

    Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H. H.; Kalam, M. A.; Atabani, A. E. 2013. Evaluation of biodiesel blending, engine performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha curcas methyl ester: Malaysian perspective. Energy. 55879-887

    Currently, the main crop for biodiesel in Malaysia is palm oil. Recently, Jatropha curcas has drawn the attention of the Malaysian Government. This paper aims to study the feasibility of Jatropha as a potential biodiesel feedstock for Malaysia. Physico-chemical properties of Jatropha biodiesel and its blends with diesel followed by engine performance and emissions characteristics of B-10, B-20 and B-0 were studied. The results show that viscosities of B-10 and B-20 are closer to diesel. Moreover, only the oxidation stability of B-10 and B-20 meet the European specifications (EN 590) of 20 h. Therefore, only B-10 and B-20 have been used to evaluate engine performance and emission. Compared to B-0, the average reduction in brake power (BP) is 4.67% for B-10 and 8.86% for B-20. It was observed that brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increases as the percentage of biodiesel increase. Compared to B-0, a reduction in hydrocarbon (HC) emission of 3.84% and 10.25% and carbon monoxide (CO) emission of 16% and 25% was reported using B-10 and B-20. However, the blends give higher nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission of 3% and 6% using B-10 and B-20. As a conclusion, B-10 and B-20 can be used in a diesel engine without any modifications. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  75. Ethyl biodiesel production from non-edible oils of Balanites aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, and Jatropha curcas seeds - Laboratory scale development
    Abstract

    Nitiema-Yefanova, S.; Coniglio, L.; Schneider, R.; Nebie, R. H. C.; Bonzi-Coulibaly, Y. L. 2016. Ethyl biodiesel production from non-edible oils of Balanites aegyptiaca, Azadirachta indica, and Jatropha curcas seeds - Laboratory scale development. Renewable Energy. 96881-890

    By starting first at the laboratory scale, optimal operating conditions for the reaction unit aimed at producing ethyl biodiesels from non-edible vegetable oils (NEVO) were determined with the ultimate objective of proposing an on-farm processing technology that should be sustainable for emerging countries. Three NEVO widely available in Burkina Faso were selected: Balanites aegyptiaca (BA), Azadirachta indica (AI), and Jatropha curcas (JC) oils. Their conversion to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) was conducted via a two-stage procedure under atmospheric pressure: an alkali-catalyzed ethanolysis at ambient temperature for the BA and AI oils (leading to 93 and 87 wt.% FAEE respectively) and an acid-catalyzed ethanolysis at the normal boiling of the alcohol for the JC oil (leading to 89 wt.% FAEE). Based on the intermediate addition of glycerol at ambient temperature, the two-stage procedure combines chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and phase equilibrium phenomena. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  76. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil: A comparative study of immobilized-whole cell and commercial lipases as a biocatalyst
    Abstract

    Tamalampudi, S.; Talukder, M. R.; Hama, S.; Numata, T.; Kondo, A.; Fukuda, H. 2008. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil: A comparative study of immobilized-whole cell and commercial lipases as a biocatalyst. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 39(1) 185-189

    The large percentage of biodiesel fuel (BDF) cost associated with feedstock oil and enzyme. In order to reduce the cost of BDF production, the lipase producing whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) immobilized onto biomass support particles (BSPs) was used for the production of BDF from relatively low cost non-edible oil from the seeds of Jatropha curcas. The activity of ROL was compared with that of commercially available most effective lipase (Novozym 435). Different alcohols as a hydroxyl donor are tested, and methanolysis of Jatropha oil progresses faster than other alcoholysis regardless of lipases used. The maximum methyl esters content in the reaction mixture reaches 80 wt.% after 60 h using ROL, whereas it is 76% after 90 It using Novozym 435. Both the lipases can be used for repeated batches and both lipases exhibit more than 90% of their initial activities after five cycles. Our results suggest that whole-cell ROL immobilized on BSP is a promising biocatalyst for producing BDF from oil. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  77. Environmental Impacts of Jatropha curcas Biodiesel in India
    Abstract

    Gmunder, S.; Singh, R.; Pfister, S.; Adheloya, A.; Zah, R. 2012. Environmental Impacts of Jatropha curcas Biodiesel in India. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology.

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations.
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  78. Environmental and Social Impacts of Jatropha-Based Biodiesel: a Case Study in Thailand
    Abstract

    Boonkum, P.; Nohtomi, M.; Mungkalasiri, J.; Thanangkano, W.; Nagata, K.; Onoda, H. 2014. Environmental and Social Impacts of Jatropha-Based Biodiesel: a Case Study in Thailand. Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference & Utility Exhibition on Green Energy for Sustainable Development (Icue).

    Thailand, with its abundant agricultural resources, is a well positioned to deploy biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel. To enhance the self-dependence on the energy and economy in rural areas, the government has implemented the "Alternative Energy Development Plan: AEDP 2012-2021", aiming to increase the amount of alternative and renewable energy utilization. To ensure the sustainability of the biodiesel production not only research on high efficient production technology improvement is need, but also studies on the impacts from promoting the non-food feedstock such as Jatropha. This study aims to evaluate environmental and social impacts of Jatropha-based biodiesel production by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) concept. The scope of this study is defined as "cradle-to-gate" which includesJatropha cultivation, harvesting, oil extraction and biodiesel production. Inventory data used in this study was developed byan on-site interview and consultation with Jatropha farmers and experts throughout the three provinces in the northern part of Thailand. The environmental impacts were analyzed by the modified LCA methodology called Environmental Load Point (ELP), formulated by the Nagata Laboratory of Waseda University. The weighting factor used in ELP developed by taking Thailand as a case study. The assessment of social impacts of Jatropha biodiesel systems referred to criteria indicated in the Global Bioenergy Partnership Sustainability Indicator for Bioenergy. The results show the environmental impacts of the Jatropha biodiesel production from a localized environmental viewpoint. The social impacts are focused on results of the change in income and job creation in the local community due to the establishment of biodiesel production system. These can be useful for the policy maker to promote the advantages of non-food biodiesel and enhance the cultivation areas and production plant to the rural in further.
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  79. Energy analysis of Jatropha plantation systems for biodiesel production in Thailand
    Abstract

    Prueksakorn, K.; Gheewala, S. H.; Malakul, P.; Bonnet, S. 2010. Energy analysis of Jatropha plantation systems for biodiesel production in Thailand. Energy for Sustainable Development. 14(1) 1-5

    Jatropha curcas L. has been considered as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production in several tropical countries. Two Jatropha plantation models currently being considered in Thailand, a perennial plantation for 20 years and annual harvesting, are compared vis-a-vis the energy benefits. The advantage of the perennial plantation is that fruit yield is low in the first 2 years but stabilizes after the second year; thus, the biodiesel production is maximized. On the other hand, the biodiesel yield for annual harvesting is low but substantial energy is gained from the wood which can be used for power production. The overall energy output from the annual system is about twice that of the perennial system whereas the biodiesel production is less than half. The energy values of both the systems are high and the net energy ratios as high as 6-7 indicating a substantial energy benefit. (C) 2009 International Energy Initiative. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  80. Effects of raw material composition of tung (Vernicia Montana) and jatropha (Jatropha Curcas L) oil methyl esters on their fuel properties: a comparative study in fuel quality perspectives
    Abstract

    Anantharaman, G.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Ramalingam, V. 2016. Effects of raw material composition of tung (Vernicia Montana) and jatropha (Jatropha Curcas L) oil methyl esters on their fuel properties: a comparative study in fuel quality perspectives. International Journal of Oil Gas and Coal Technology. 12(2) 210-230

    The effect of raw material (fatty acid) composition of tung oil methyl ester (TME) and jatropha oil methyl ester (JME) on their fuel properties was investigated. TME and JME contain high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. TME consists of larger amount of elaeostearic acid while JME contains higher amount of oleic and linoleic acids. The quality characteristics of feedstocks were also investigated. The allylic and bis-allylic position equivalents were calculated and related with oxidation stability. The measured properties were compared with EN 14214, ASTM D6751, and IS 15607 standard specifications. Results showed that JME met more of the standard specifications than TME. From the study, it was found that the biodiesel properties are significantly influenced by the fatty acid composition of parent oils.
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  81. Effective synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil using betaine assisted nanoparticle heterogeneous catalyst from eggshell of Gallus domesticus
    Abstract

    Teo, S. H.; Islam, A.; Masoumi, H. R. F.; Taufiq-Yap, Y. H.; Janaun, J.; Chan, E. S.; Khaleque, M. A. 2017. Effective synthesis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil using betaine assisted nanoparticle heterogeneous catalyst from eggshell of Gallus domesticus. Renewable Energy. 111892-905

    The recovery of waste as feedstock away from organizational limitations corresponds to a prospective supplementary revenue stream for the organization. A novel waste eggshell of Gallus domesticus derived superbasic nanocatalyst was synthesized through betaine amphoteric surfactant-assisted decomposition, adsorption and precipitation processes. By varied the duration synthesis of gel mixture, the morphology transformation from liquid-solid interconnected macro-size particles to regular spheroidal nano assemblies particles is detected. The surfactant at the liquid-solid interface facilitates the mono dispersion of nanoparticles by hindering growth of crystals. The average particle diameter of the produced superbasic nanocatalyst was in the range of 27-16 nm. The synthesized nanoparticle formation mechanism in the presence surfactant has also been addressed in this study. The catalytic activity of superbasic nanocatalyst was investigated for biodiesel production from crude Jatropha curcas oil KO) via glycerolysis and transesterification with methanol at atmospheric pressure. Artificial neural network (ANN) based on the genetic algorithm (GA) was applied for optimization of varied reaction parameters. It was observed that the reduction of acidity varied with varying reaction conditions. The highest fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield (97%) was obtained when the reaction was allowed to run at 60 degrees C for 300 min, while at 90 degrees C the maximal FAME yield of 98% was achieved after 120 min. The kinetic parameters of nanocatalyst were determined, and the reaction system followed pseudo first order kinetics. The results suggest that this two steps process using superbasic nanocatalyst affords a promising method to convert oils with high FFA level to biodiesel. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  82. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol
    Abstract

    Lau, P. C.; Kwong, T. L.; Yung, K. F. 2016. Effective heterogeneous transition metal glycerolates catalysts for one-step biodiesel production from low grade non-refined Jatropha oil and crude aqueous bioethanol. Scientific Reports. 6

    The utilization of bioethanol as the alcohol source for biodiesel production is more environmentally advantageous over methanol owing to its lower toxicity, lower flammability and its sustainable supply from renewable agricultural resources. However, as the presence of water in crude bioethanol is the critical factor limiting the biodiesel production process, the energy-intensive and costly purification of bioethanol is necessary for biodiesel application. Manganese glycerolate (MnGly) is reported the first time here as a robust heterogeneous catalyst that exhibited over 90% conversion by using aqueous ethanol containing 80 wt.% of water in the production of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE). The employment of 95 wt.% ethanol with respect to water could achieve 99.7% feedstock conversion in 6 hours under the optimal reaction conditions: reaction temperature (150 degrees C), feedstock-to-ethanol molar ratio (1:20) and catalyst loading (6 wt.%). Commercially available low grade crude bioethanol with the presence of impurities like sugars were applied which demonstrated remarkable catalytic activity in 24 hours. The high water tolerance of MnGly towards biodiesel production could eventually simplify the purification of bioethanol that consumes less energy and production cost.
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  83. Effect of Water on the Pre-Esterification of Jatropha curcas L. Oil for Biodiesel Production
    Abstract

    Liu, Y. Y.; Lu, H. F.; Liang, B. 2009. Effect of Water on the Pre-Esterification of Jatropha curcas L. Oil for Biodiesel Production. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 3(4) 342-347

    The pre-esterification process was used in the production of biodiesel to reduce the acidity of Jatropha curcas L. oil feedstock before the alkali catalyzed transesterification unit. The contents of water greatly affect the esterification reaction, in which sulfuric acid is often used as a catalyst. The equilibrium conversion and the kinetic data were measured. The results showed that the conversion of free fatty acid (FFA) increased rapidly with increasing molar ratio of methanol/FFA, but the increase slowed down when the molar ratio reached 10:1. Water remarkably lowered the catalytic activity of sulfuric acid due to the reduction of proton concentration and acid strength. According to the catalytic reaction routine, the protonation of carboxylic oxygen is a rate determining step and the rate is directly proportional to the proton concentration. The reaction rate can be expressed as: r = kc(FFA)
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  84. Effect of seed weight on seed vigour and early seedling growth of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel plant
    Abstract

    Zaidman, B. Z.; Ghanim, M.; Vaknin, Y. 2010. Effect of seed weight on seed vigour and early seedling growth of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel plant. Seed Science and Technology. 38(3) 757-766

    The effect of seed weight on germination and seedling growth was investigated in Jatropha curcas, a tree-borne oilseed species, currently developed worldwide as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Seed weight was highly variable, from 0.28 to 0.81 g. Seed germination rate was significantly affected by seed weight: 46.2, 79.3, 84.5, and 95.3% for seeds in weight ranges, <= 0.39, 0.4-0.49, 0.5-0.59, and >= 0.6 g, respectively. Seedling shoot-length and dry matter yield were significantly affected by seed weight. Seedlings grown from the heaviest seeds were 51% taller and 91% heavier than those from the lightest ones. Indirect analyses of seed vigour indicated a significant linear relationship between results of tetrazolium reduction and electrical conductivity assays and seed weight: as seed weight increased, tetrazolium reduction increased, and electrical conductivity decreased. Our results suggest that improved seed and seedling quality, as associated with greater seed weight, is attributed to better membrane integrity and increased availability of energy in the endosperm. Tetrazolium reduction and electrical conductivity assays were proven to be efficient methods to estimate J. curcas seed vigour and seedling performance and thereby to promote planting of higher quality transplants in the field.
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  85. Effect of biodiesel production parameters on viscosity and yield of methyl esters: Jatropha curcas, Elaeis guineensis and Cocos nucifera
    Abstract

    Ayetor, G. K.; Sunnu, A.; Parbey, J. 2015. Effect of biodiesel production parameters on viscosity and yield of methyl esters: Jatropha curcas, Elaeis guineensis and Cocos nucifera. Alexandria Engineering Journal. 54(4) 1285-1290

    In this study, the effect of H2SO4 on viscosity of methyl esters from Jatropha oil (JCME), palm kernel oil (PKOME) from Elaeis guineensis species, and coconut oil (COME) has been studied. Effect of methanol to oil molar mass ratio on yield of the three feedstocks has also been studied. Methyl ester yield was decreased by esterification process using sulphuric acid anhydrous (H2SO4). Jatropha methyl ester experienced a viscosity reduction of 24% (4.1-3.1 mm(2)/s) with the addition of 1% sulphuric acid. In this work palm kernel oil (PKOME), coconut oil (COME) and Jatropha oil (JCME) were used as feedstocks for the production of biodiesel to investigate optimum parameters to obtain high yield. For each of the feedstock, the biodiesel yield increased with increase in NaOH concentration. The highest yield was obtained with 1% NaOH concentration for all. The effect of methanol in the range of 4:1-8:1 (molar ratio) was investigated, keeping other process parameters fixed. Optimum ratios of palm kernel oil and coconut oil biodiesels yielded 98% each at methanol: oil molar ratio of 8:1. The physiochemical properties obtained for each methyl showed superior properties compared with those reported in published data. (C) 2015 Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.
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  86. An economic model for estimating the viability of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L.
    Abstract

    Navarro-Pineda, F. S.; Ponce-Marban, D. V.; Sacramento-Rivero, J. C.; Barahona-Perez, L. F. 2017. An economic model for estimating the viability of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L.. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. 92(5) 971-980

    BACKGROUND: At commercial level, the biodiesel production process is well established for many types of feedstock. However, economic feasibility depends on regional fluctuating data, making each case unique. A calculation model to analyze the economic feasibility of biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas was developed, along with an analysis of the energetic balance derived from this process.
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  87. Development and evaluation of biodiesel fuel and by-products from jatropha oil
    Abstract

    El Diwani, G.; Attia, N. K.; Hawash, S. I. 2009. Development and evaluation of biodiesel fuel and by-products from jatropha oil. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 6(2) 219-224

    Biodiesel is an environmentally friend renewable diesel fuel alternative. Jatropha seeds can be a feedstock to produce a valuable amount of oil to be converted to biodiesel using transesterification reaction. Jatropha plant has been successfully grown in southern Egypt using primary treated municipal wastewater for its irrigation. A bench scale production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil (using methyl alcohol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst) was developed with methyl esters yield of 98 %. Biodiesel was produced on a pilot scale basal on the bench scale experiment results with almost the same methyl esters yield of 98 %. The produced biodiesel was evaluated as a fuel and compared with petroleum diesel according to its physical and chemical parameters such as viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, carbon residue, acid value and calorific value. The experimental techniques and product evaluation results show that such properties of the produced biodiesel are near to that of petroleum diesel. A mass balance representing the transesterification process is presented in this study. Glycerol of 85 % purity was produced and evaluated as a valuable byproduct of the process. Free fatty acids and sodium phosphate salts which have industrial interesting are also produced and evaluated.
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  88. Detailed investigation of optimized alkali catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Ahmed, W.; Nazar, M. F.; Ali, S. D.; Rana, U. A.; Khan, S. U. D. 2015. Detailed investigation of optimized alkali catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil for biodiesel production. Journal of Energy Chemistry. 24(3) 331-336

    The non-edible oils are believed to be one of the major feedstock for the production of biodiesel in future. In the present study, we investigated the production of Jatropha oil methyl esters (JOMEs) via alkali-catalyzed transesterification route. The biophysical characteristics of Jatropha oil were found within the optimal range in accordance with ASTM standards as a substitute diesel fuel. The chemical composition and production yield of as-synthesized biodiesel were confirmed by various analytical techniques such as FT-IR, H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A high percentage conversion, similar to 96.09%, of fatty acids into esters was achieved under optimized transesterification conditions with 6:1 oil to methanol ratio and 0.9 wt% NaOH for 50 min at similar to 60 degrees C. Moreover, twelve fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) were quantified in the GC/MS analysis and it was interesting to note that the mass fragmentation pattern of saturated, monounsaturated and diunsaturated FAME was comparable with the literature reported values.
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  89. Comparison of palm oil, Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum for biodiesel: A review
    Abstract

    Ong, H. C.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.; Norhasyima, R. S. 2011. Comparison of palm oil, Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum for biodiesel: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(8) 3501-3515

    The world today is faced with serious global warming and environmental pollution. Besides, fossil fuel will become rare and faces serious shortage in the near future. This has triggered the awareness to find alternative energy as their sustainable energy sources. Biodiesel as a cleaner renewable fuel has been considered as the best substitution for diesel fuel due to it being used in any compression ignition engine without any modification. The main advantages of using biodiesel are its renewability and better quality of exhaust gas emissions. This paper reviews the production, performance and emission of palm oil, Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel. Palm oil is one of the most efficient oil bearing crops in terms of oil yield, land utilization, efficiency and productivity. However, competition between edible oil sources as food with fuel makes edible oil not an ideal feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, attention is shifted to non-edible oil like Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum. Calophyllum inophyllum oil can be transesterified and being considered as a potential biodiesel fuel. Compared to Palm oil and Jatropha biodiesel industry, biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum is still in a nascent state. Therefore, long term endurance research and tribological studies need to be carried out before Calophyllum inophyllum oil base biodiesel can become an alternative fuel in future. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  90. A Comparison of Life Cycle Assessment on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and Physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Indonesia
    Abstract

    Siregar, K.; Tambunan, A. H.; Irwanto, A. K.; Wirawan, S. S.; Araki, T. 2015. A Comparison of Life Cycle Assessment on Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and Physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.) as Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Indonesia. New and Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation, the 3rd Indo Ebtke-Conex 2014, Conference and Exhibition Indonesia. 65170-179

    The objective of this study was to perform and compare LCA of biodiesel production from crude palm oil and crude Jatropha curcas oil. The system boundary for LCA study from cradle to gate. The produced palm oil biodiesel has higher GWP value than Jatropha curcas biodiesel. Utilization of agrochemical, in form of fertilizer and plant protection, generate significant contribution to environmental impact of biodiesel production i.e. 50.46 % and 33.51 % for palm oil and Jatropha curcas oil, respectively. GWP emission up to five years of plantation is 1 695.36 kg-CO(2)eq./t-BDF and 740.90 kg-CO(2)eq./t-BDF for palm oil and Jatropha curcas, respectively. After production stabilised, CO2 emission of diesel fuel decreases up to 37.83 % and 63.61 % for BDF-CPO and BDF-CJCO, respectively. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
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  91. Chemical Characterization of Jatropha curcas L. Seed Oil and Its Biodiesel by Ambient Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry
    Abstract

    Fernandes, A. M. A. P.; El-Khatib, S.; Cunha, I. B. S.; Porcari, A. M.; Eberlin, M. N.; Silva, M. J.; Silva, P. R.; Cunha, V. S.; Daroda, R. J.; Alberici, R. M. 2015. Chemical Characterization of Jatropha curcas L. Seed Oil and Its Biodiesel by Ambient Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Energy & Fuels. 29(5) 3096-3103

    Biodiesel has become increasingly attractive because of its environmental benefits and production from renewable resources. The use of Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production has attracted growing interest because it is a non-edible oil. Herein, easy ambient sonic-spray ionization mass spectrometry (EASI-MS) was used to chemically characterize, at the molecular level, J. curcas L. oil and its biodiesel via monitoring its triacylglycerols (TAG), free fatty acids (FFA), and profiles of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The results provide further support for those obtained by the standard parameters of fuel quality. The EAST MS analysis described herein is simple, requires only a tiny droplet of the sample, and is conducted without any pre-separation or chemical manipulation steps.
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  92. Blending Feedstock - Fresh Approach in Biodiesel Development: Moringa and Jatropha Seed Oils
    Abstract

    Eloka-Eboka, A. C.; Inambao, F. L. 2014. Blending Feedstock - Fresh Approach in Biodiesel Development: Moringa and Jatropha Seed Oils. 2014 Proceedings of the Twenty Second Conference on the Domestic Use of Energy (Due).

    The search for improvement in the development of biomass and bio-fuels as renewable energy sources has continued for some time. Biodiesel fuels from different crude vegetable oils have been explored and evaluated as sustainable or unsustainable fuel energy sources. The fuel properties of feed stocks vary from sources, physico-chemical configuration and biological compositions and so with processes such as blending, these properties may be improved. In this study, two selected feed stocks "Moringa oleifeara" (MO) and "Jatropha curcas" (JC) seed oils and their methyl esters (biodiesel) were subjected to experimental processes in varying proportions. The s compositions were J(50)M(50), J(40)M(10), J(30)M(20), J(20)M(30), and J(10)M(40) from crude oil samples (in situ) and: BM(50)J(50), BM(40)J(10), BM(30)J(20), BM(20)J(30) and BM(10)J(40)from produced biodiesel by transesterification (ex-situ) using production variables and optimisation sequences. The produced results were evaluated for chemo-physical and thermal properties using ASTM and SANS standards for each specific test(s). Results disclosed the efficacy of splicing in improving specific biodiesel properties as fuels. Specific tests includes, viscosity, specific gravity, refractive index, cetane index, fatty acid composition, free and total glycerine, free fatty acid composition, flash point, pour and cloud points and calorific values. These were all higher and better than the single stock biodiesel fuels. MO biodiesel, which has proved itself an excellent fuel in the writers' previous studies having high oleic acid content (> 70%, impacted positively on JC in enhancing its potential with positive correlation at a 95% confidence level (alpha > 0.05) and on analysis of variation (ANOVA). This is a new approach in biodiesel development, as studies of this nature are scarce in literatures. Mixing biodiesel feedstock in situ and ex situ will no doubt give rise to new products of improved energy qualities that may bring about a much needed difference in the biodiesel industry.
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  93. Biophysicochemical Evaluation of Wild Hilly Biotypes of Jatropha curcas for Biodiesel Production and Micropropagation Study of Elite Plant Parts
    Abstract

    Verma, K. C.; Verma, S. K. 2015. Biophysicochemical Evaluation of Wild Hilly Biotypes of Jatropha curcas for Biodiesel Production and Micropropagation Study of Elite Plant Parts. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 175(1) 549-559

    Depleting reserves of fossil fuel and increasing effects of environmental pollution from petrochemicals demands eco-friendly alternative fuel sources. Jatropha curcas oil, an inedible vegetable oil, can be a substitute feedstock for traditional food crops in the production of environment-friendly and renewable fuel. Jatropha oil is looked up in terms of availability and cost and also has several applications and enormous economic benefits. The seed oils of various jatropha biotypes from hilly regions were screened out and evaluated for their physiochemical parameters, viz, seed index(520-600 g), oil content (15-42 %), biodiesel yield (71-98 %), moisture content (2.3-6.5 %), ash content (3.2-5.6 %), acid value (4.2-26), density (0.9172-0.9317 g/cm(3)), viscosity (5-37 mm(2)/s), saponification value (195.8-204.2 mg/g), iodine value (106.6-113.6 mg/g), flash point (162-235 degrees C), cetane value (46.70-50.06 degrees C), free fatty acid value (2.5-10.2 %), and refractive index (1.4600-1.4710). Fatty acid profiling of jatropha resembles as edible oilseeds. NAA with BAP was found to be superior for callus induction (up to 87 %), as well as for shoot regeneration (up to 12 shoots). Root induction (90-100 %) was successfully obtained in MS medium with or without phytoregulators. Grown plantlets were successfully transferred from lab to field with a survival rate of 80 %.
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  94. Biofuels: Jatropha curcas as a Novel, Non-edible Oilseed Plant for Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Kohli, A.; Raorane, M.; Popluechai, S.; Kannan, U.; Syers, J. K.; O'Donnell, A. G. 2009. Biofuels: Jatropha curcas as a Novel, Non-edible Oilseed Plant for Biodiesel. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Crops. 296-324

    The negative environmental impacts, the limited sources and rising prices of fossil fuels pose significant environmental and socio-economic challenges. Globally, major national and international initiatives are under way to identify, revive, research and recommend renewable sources of energy. One such renewable source is esterified vegetable oil, i.e. biodiesel. Crop plants yielding edible oilseeds can be diverted to the biodiesel market only to a limited extent due to their value in the food sector. One route to meeting the gap between the demand for food oils and the need for alternative fuel oils is the use of non-edible oilseed plants such as Jatropha curcas. J. curcas or physic nut is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family and has been the subject of much interest as a source of biodiesel due to a number of perceived advantages. For example, the by-products of J. curcas-based biodiesel production have potential as a nutritious seed cake for fodder, as a soil amendment or as a biogas feedstock. Glycerol can be used in a variety of industrial applications and J. curcas leaf, stem and bark extracts have uses in the medicinal, cosmetics, plastics and insecticide/pesticide industries. As an aid to sustainable rural development, J. curcas grows on marginal and wastelands promoting effective land use, gender empowerment and soil rehabilitation. However, neither J. curcas nor any other potentially useful non-edible oilseed plant is currently grown commercially. In fact, such plants are generally undomesticated and have yet to be subject to any genetic improvement with respect to yield quality or quantity. Also, many J. curcas accessions can be toxic to humans and animals due to the presence of toxic compounds such as curcins and phorbol esters. Thus, despite the enthusiasm in some countries for widespread plantation cropping, J. curcas is currently not commercially viable as a biodiesel feedstock without genetic improvement either through conventional breeding or molecular engineering because of unpredictable yield patterns, varying, but often low, oil content, the presence of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, high male to female flower ratio, asynchronous and multiple flowering flushes, low seed germination frequency, plant height and its susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stresses. This paper reviews the potential of Jatropha as a model, non-edible, oilseed plant and the research needed to realize its potential as a bioenergy crop.
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  95. Biodiesel production under subcritical solvent condition using subcritical water treated whole Jatropha curcas seed kernels and possible use of hydrolysates to grow Yarrowia lipolytica
    Abstract

    Go, A. W.; Sutanto, S.; Phuong, L. T. N.; Ismadji, S.; Gunawan, S.; Ju, Y. H. 2014. Biodiesel production under subcritical solvent condition using subcritical water treated whole Jatropha curcas seed kernels and possible use of hydrolysates to grow Yarrowia lipolytica. Fuel. 12046-52

    In this work, whole Japropha curcas L. seed kernels were firstly treated in subcritical water (448 K, 2.0 MPa initial N-2, 15 min, kernel to water ratio 0.5 g g(-1)) and then the treated kernels were used in the in situ production of biodiesel using a solvent mixture of 75% methanol and 25% acetic acid. It was found that hydrolysate collected from subcritical water treatment of seed kernels contained reducing sugars and can be used to grow Yarrowia lipolytica without the need of detoxification. The in-situ (trans)esterification was successfully optimized using Taguchi design of experiments and a high yield of 101.7 and 65.1 g FAME per 100 g of extractable lipid and dry kernel, respectively could be achieved under optimized conditions (523 K, 3.0 MPa initial CO2 and 7.5 cm(3) g (-1) solvent to solid ratio). The developed process can tolerate high FFA and moisture content in feedstock. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  96. Biodiesel production from one-step heterogeneous catalyzed process of Castor oil and Jatropha oil using novel sulphonated phenyl silane montmorillonite catalyst
    Abstract

    Negm, N. A.; Sayed, G. H.; Yehia, F. Z.; Habib, O. I.; Mohamed, E. A. 2017. Biodiesel production from one-step heterogeneous catalyzed process of Castor oil and Jatropha oil using novel sulphonated phenyl silane montmorillonite catalyst. Journal of Molecular Liquids. 234157-163

    The present study describes the preparation of novel modified montmorillonite clay in highly acidic form and its evaluation as a heterogeneous catalyst in the production of biodiesel from castor oil and jatropha oil by a one-step catalyzed transesterification reaction. The prepared catalyst was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET surface area and HRTEM. The study showed that the optimized conditions of castor oil transesterification were: 5% catalyst by weight, 1:12 oil to methanol molar ratio, at 60 degrees C for 300 min at 800 rpm; in case of jatropha oil: 5% catalyst by weight, 1:6 oil to methanol ratio, at 110 degrees C for 150 min at 800 rpm. The obtained biodiesels properties were agreed with the ASTM standard specifications. Blending of castor oil and jatropha oil biodiesels with petroleum diesel improved their fuel properties according to engine test parameters. The prepared catalyst exhibited highest activity in the transesterification reactions, and showed good stability during the reaction with a reusability for seven rounds of transesterification without considerable decrease in its activity. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  97. Biodiesel Production from Low Quality Crude Jatropha Oil Using Heterogeneous Catalyst
    Abstract

    Kay, K. H.; Yasir, S. M. 2012. Biodiesel Production from Low Quality Crude Jatropha Oil Using Heterogeneous Catalyst. 2nd International Conference on Chemistry and Chemical Process (Icccp 2012). 323-27

    In this study, transesterification of low quality crude jatropha oil (acid value > 4mgKOH/g & water content > 1000ppm) to biodiesel using modified natural zeolite as a solid catalyst was carried out. The effects of various factors consist of the reaction time, molar ratio of methanol to oil, reaction temperature, mass ratio of catalyst to oil and catalyst reusability were investigated. The experimental treatments of a 20: 1 molar ratio of methanol to oil, addition of 5wt% catalyst, 70 degrees C reaction temperature using low quality crude jatropha oil resulted in optimum yield in which the biodiesel content exceeded 96.5% at 6 h. Along with, the recycling experiment results showed modified natural zeolite catalyst had a long catalyst lifetime which maintained sustainable activity (at least 96.5wt% of ester content according to EN14214 limitations) even after being reused for 3 cycles on low quality raw feedstock. The present finding is potential to simplify the biodiesel production and refining process in rural area. This study simplified method of biodiesel production from low quality raw feedstocks with economic and high efficiency catalyst. (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier B. V. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Asia-Pacific Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society
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  98. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil in a closed system
    Abstract

    Shaaban, W.; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F.; Ohshima, M. 2016. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil in a closed system. 2016 5th International Conference on Chemical and Process Engineering (Iccpe 2016). 69

    The use of biodiesel as an alternative fuel is becoming increasingly popular nowadays due to global energy shortage. The interest in using Jatropha as a non-edible oil feedstock is rapidly growing. Biodiesel produced from crude Jatropha oil with NaOH as a catalyst is investigated. Transesterification by methanol is carried out in a closed vessel as a batch system. Factors affecting the process which included the reaction temperature and pressure, reaction time, the molar ratio of methanol to oil and catalyst amount are investigated. The maximum conversion ratio of methyl ester yield of 97.7% was recorded under the conditions of 65 degrees C, 1% (by mass) NaOH of the oil mass and 6:1 methanol to oil ratio.
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  99. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase on modified attapulgite
    Abstract

    You, Q. H.; Yin, X. L.; Zhao, Y. P.; Zhang, Y. 2013. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil catalyzed by immobilized Burkholderia cepacia lipase on modified attapulgite. Bioresource Technology. 148202-207

    Lipase from Burkholderia cepacia was immobilized on modified attapulgite by cross-linking reaction for biodiesel production with jatropha oil as feedstock. Effects of various factors on biodiesel production were studied by single-factor experiment. Results indicated that the best conditions for biodiesel preparation were: 10 g jatropha oil, 2.4 g methanol (molar ratio of oil to methanol is 1:6.6) being added at 3 h intervals, 7 wt% water, 10 wt% immobilized lipase, temperature 35 degrees C, and time 24 h. Under these conditions, the maximum biodiesel yield reached 94%. The immobilized lipase retained 95% of its relative activity during the ten repeated batch reactions. The half-life time of the immobilized lipase is 731 h. Kinetics was studied and the V,a of the immobilized lipases were 6.823 mmol L-1. This immobilized lipase catalyzed process has potential industrial use for biodiesel production to replace chemical-catalyzed method. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  100. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil by catalytic and non-catalytic approaches: An overview
    Abstract

    Juan, J. C.; Kartika, D. A.; Wu, T. Y.; Hin, T. Y. Y. 2011. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil by catalytic and non-catalytic approaches: An overview. Bioresource Technology. 102(2) 452-460

    Biodiesel (fatty acids alkyl esters) is a promising alternative fuel to replace petroleum-based diesel that is obtained from renewable sources such as vegetable oil, animal fat and waste cooking oil. Vegetable oils are more suitable source for biodiesel production compared to animal fats and waste cooking since they are renewable in nature. However, there is a concern that biodiesel production from vegetable oil would disturb the food market. Oil from Jatropha curcas is an acceptable choice for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and can be easily grown in a harsh environment. Moreover, alkyl esters of jatropha oil meet the standard of biodiesel in many countries. Thus, the present paper provides a review on the transesterification methods for biodiesel production using jatropha oil as feedstock. Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  101. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: A review
    Abstract

    Parawira, W. 2010. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: A review. Scientific Research and Essays. 5(14) 1796-1808

    Biodiesel has attracted considerable attention during the past decade as a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel alternative to fossil fuels. Biodiesel can be obtained from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and from animal fat. Jatropha curcas Linnaeus, a multipurpose plant, contains high amount of oil in its seeds which can be converted to biodiesel. J. curcas is probably the most highly promoted oilseed crop at present in the world. The availability and sustainability of sufficient supplies of less expensive feedstock in the form of vegetable oils, particularly J. curcas and efficient processing technology to biodiesel will be crucial determinants of delivering a competitive biodiesel. Oil contents, physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition of J. curcas reported in literature are provided in this review. The fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel are comparable to those of fossil diesel and confirm to the American and European standards. The objective of this review is to give an update on the J. curcas L. plant, the production of biodiesel from the seed oil and research attempts to improve the technology of converting vegetable oil to biodiesel and the fuel properties of the Jatropha biodiesel. The technological methods that can be used to produce biodiesel are presented together with their advantages and disadvantages. The use of lipase as biotechnological solution to alkali and acid catalysis of transesterification and its advantages is discussed. There is need to carry out research on the detoxification of the seed cake to increase the benefits from J. curcas. There is also need to carry out life-cycle assessment and the environment impacts of introducing large scale plantations. There is also still a dearth of research about the influence of various cultivation-related factors and their interactions and influence on seed yield. Many other areas that need to be researched on Jatropha curcas L. are pointed out in this review.
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  102. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: a critical review
    Abstract

    Abdulla, R.; Chan, E. S.; Ravindra, P. 2011. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: a critical review. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 31(1) 53-64

    The fuel crisis and environmental concerns, mainly due to global warming, have led researchers to consider the importance of biofuels such as biodiesel. Vegetable oils, which are too viscous to be used directly in engines, are converted into their corresponding methyl or ethyl esters by a process called transesterification. With the recent debates on "food versus fuel," non-edible oils, such as Jatropha curcas, are emerging as one of the main contenders for biodiesel production. Much research is still needed to explore and realize the full potential of a green fuel from J. curcas. Upcoming projects and plantations of Jatropha in countries such as India, Malaysia, and Indonesia suggest a promising future for this plant as a potential biodiesel feedstock. Many of the drawbacks associated with chemical catalysts can be overcome by using lipases for enzymatic transesterification. The high cost of lipases can be overcome, to a certain extent, by immobilization techniques. This article reviews the importance of the J. curcas plant and describes existing research conducted on Jatropha biodiesel production. The article highlights areas where further research is required and relevance of designing an immobilized lipase for biodiesel production is discussed.
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  103. Biodiesel production from Jatropha Curcas oil using strontium-doped CaO/MgO catalyst
    Abstract

    Sudsakorn, K.; Saiwuttikul, S.; Palitsakun, S.; Seubsai, A.; Limtrakul, J. 2017. Biodiesel production from Jatropha Curcas oil using strontium-doped CaO/MgO catalyst. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering. 5(3) 2845-2852

    The synthesis of methyl ester (ME) as biodiesel from Jatropha oil and MeOH was investigated using CaO/MgO doped with strontium catalyst (Sr2+- CaO/MgO). This catalyst was prepared by co-precipitation method and compared with its uni-or bi-corresponding component catalysts in terms of physical properties and catalytic activities. The results indicated that the Sr2+ dopant played a key role in enhancing the catalytic performance of CaO and MgO components while MgO reduced the overall particle size and improved the catalyst reusability. The synthesized Sr2+-CaO/MgO catalyst was also studied at various transesterification conditions to determine the optimal conditions. The maximum ME content of 99.6% was obtained at 65 degrees C for 2 h and the MeOH-to-oil molar ratio of 9: 1 with the catalyst amount of 5 wt%. At these conditions, the Sr2+- CaO/MgO catalyst could be reused up to four times while maintaining high activity with the ME content higher than 90%.
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  104. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas Oil Using Potassium Carbonate as an Unsupported Catalyst
    Abstract

    Baroi, C.; Yanful, E. K.; Bergougnou, M. A. 2009. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha curcas Oil Using Potassium Carbonate as an Unsupported Catalyst. International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. 7

    Jatropha curcas (JTC) oil, an inedible vegetable oil, can be a substitute feedstock for traditional food crops in the production of environment friendly and renewable fuel (biodiesel). In the present study, unsupported potassium carbonate was used as a catalyst to provide an understanding of the catalytic activity in the transesterification reaction. Researching the potential and the behavior of potassium carbonate is very important because every biomass ash contains this compound in a significant amount. It can be extracted by using classical extraction or leaching technologies. During the biodiesel production reaction, the formation of soap as a byproduct was also monitored using the FTIR-ATR method. From this study it was observed that the transesterification of JTC oil to JTC biodiesel appeared to be complete within 15 minutes when a 5 wt% (based on the wt. of the oil) potassium carbonate, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 degrees C or a 4 wt% potassium carbonate, 9:1 methanol to oil molar ratio and 60 degrees C reaction temperature were used.
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  105. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas Oil and Palm Oil by Using Undirect Ultrasonic Assisted
    Abstract

    Widayat; Satriadi, H.; Baharsyah, A.; Supriyandi 2016. Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Curcas Oil and Palm Oil by Using Undirect Ultrasonic Assisted. 2016 4th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application (Icseea). 127-131

    The limitation of unrenewable energy required alternative renewable energy and environmental friendly. Biodiesel as one renewable energy that production from vegetable oil. The main reactions are on biodiesel production esterification and transesterification. Nevertheless, this reaction is slow, requires a lot of alcohol and a catalyst, the reaction has not been perfect. a mixing of vegetable that contain jatropha curcas oil and palm oil as feedstock. The objective of this research to optimumize of triglyceride conversion for three variable; include weight ratio jatropha curcas oil to palm oil catalyst concentration and molar ratio of methanol to oil. The experiments were carried out with ultrasonic undirect assisted.. The operation condition was included ultrasonic frequency of 40 kHz and temperature of 60 degrees C. The results showed that optimum condition was obtained in weight ratio jatropha and palm oil 2:1, 1.5 wt% catalyst, and mole ratio of 6:1 with a mixture of methanol-oil and conversion is 95.341%, where product are qualified SNI and ASTM.
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  106. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas Oil
    Abstract

    Jain, S.; Sharma, M. P. 2010. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas Oil. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 14(9) 3140-3147

    In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable, looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation sector, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The vegetable oils, fats, grease are the source of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Significant work has been reported on the kinetics of transesterification of edible vegetable oils but little work is reported on non-edible oils. Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstocks for biodiesel production in India and limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high FFA containing oil. The present study reports a review of kinetics of biodiesel production. The paper also reveals the results of kinetics study of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 and 50 degrees C for esterification and transesterification process, respectively, under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H(2)SO(4) and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind dealing with simplified kinetics of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried at optimum temperature of both the steps which took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  107. Biodiesel production from crude oil of Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata by transesterification process
    Abstract

    Siddiqui, M. H.; Kumar, A.; Farooqui, A.; Kesari, K. K.; Arif, J. M. 2011. Biodiesel production from crude oil of Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata by transesterification process. International Journal of Oil Gas and Coal Technology. 4(2) 192-206

    The present study is aimed to produce biodiesel from non-edible oil sources such as crude oil of Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata by transesterification process which can occur at different temperatures (45 degrees C to 70 degrees C), depending on the oil used. For the transesterification off. curcas oil (methanol 15% of oil and 12 g NaOH/litre), the reaction was studied with different temperatures. It was found that much of the process complexity originates from contaminants in the feedstock, such as water and free fatty acids, or impurities in the final product, such as methanol, free glycerol and soap. Results shows that purified ester yields at 45 degrees C were 76% for 1 hr and 80% for 2 hr. At 50 degrees C, purified ester yields were 79% for 4 hr and 76.75% for 6 hr. In case of Pongamia pinnata, purified ester yields at 50 degrees C were 79% for 4 hr and 83% for 6 hr. Further, when the fuel was tested for its authenticity to be used in diesel engine based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), it was found that the fuel was coming within the prescribed standards. The study concludes that temperature clearly influenced the reaction rate and yield of esters. [Received: May 6,2010; Accepted: August 12, 2010]
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  108. Biodiesel Processes and Properties from Jatropha curcas L. Oil
    Abstract

    Lu, H. F.; Chen, M. Y.; Jiang, W.; Liang, B. 2011. Biodiesel Processes and Properties from Jatropha curcas L. Oil. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 5(4) 546-551

    Jatropha curcas L. oil is a promising feedstock of biodiesel. Different processes to produce biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. oil with different acid numbers were compared. The results showed that a pre-treatment was necessary when the crude oil contained high free fatty acids (FFAs). A two-step process including pre-esterification with acid catalyst and transesterification with alkali catalyst was used for the conversion of oil with acid number of 13.5 mg KOH/g. It achieved a high yield of biodiesel (>97%). Pretreatment with alkali refining could improve the operation of transesterification, but it led to losses of FFAs and oil. The losses increased with FFAs content. When the crude oil contained low FFAs, such as the oil with acid number of 3.1 mg KOH/g, a single transesterication process could be adopted, which achieved a biodiesel yield of 94%. The properties of biodiesel were independent of production method.
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  109. Biodiesel Preparation from Jatropha curcas Oil Catalyzed by Hydrotalcite Loaded With K2CO3
    Abstract

    Teng, G. Y.; Gao, L. J.; Xiao, G. M.; Liu, H.; Lv, J. H. 2010. Biodiesel Preparation from Jatropha curcas Oil Catalyzed by Hydrotalcite Loaded With K2CO3. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 162(6) 1725-1736

    This paper discusses the synthesis of biodiesel catalyzed by solid base of K2CO3/HT using Jatropha curcas oil as feedstock. Mg-Al hydrotalcite was prepared using co-precipitation methods, in which the molar ratio of Mg to Al was 3:1. After calcined at 600 degrees C for 3 h, the Mg-Al hydrotalcite and K2CO3 were grinded and mixed according to certain mass ratios, in which some water was added. The mixture was dried at 65 degrees C, and after that it was calcined at 600 degrees C for 3 h. Then, this Mg-Al hydrotalcite loaded with potassium carbonate was obtained and used as catalyst in the experiments. Analyses of XRD and SEM characterizations for catalyst showed the metal oxides formed in the process of calcination brought about excellent catalysis effect. In order to achieve the optimal technical reaction condition, five impact factors were also investigated in the experiments, which were mass ratio, molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst amount and reaction time. Under the best condition, the biodiesel yield could reach up to 96%.
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  110. Biodiesel conversion from high FFA crude jatropha curcas, calophyllum inophyllum and ceiba pentandra oil
    Abstract

    Silitonga, A. S.; Ong, H. C.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.; Chong, W. T. 2014. Biodiesel conversion from high FFA crude jatropha curcas, calophyllum inophyllum and ceiba pentandra oil. International Conference on Applied Energy, Icae2014. 61480-483

    Biodiesel is a renewable energy that has great potential as an alternative fuel to fossil diesel in diesel engine. The potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel is now being taken into careful consideration for the purpose of continuing biodiesel production while not negatively affecting the food issue. The crude jatropha curcas, calophyllum inophyllum and ceiba pentandra oil have free fatty acid value which is above 2%. Therefore, a pretreatment acid catalyzed esterification process is required to reduce the free fatty acid content. It was found that jatropha curcas, calophyllum inophyllum and ceiba pentandra oil at 9:1 M ratio (methanol to oil) with preheat at 60 degrees C and reaction at temperature 55 degrees C for 60 minutes in the presence of 1% KOH in order to get lower acid values (0.39 mg KOH/g, 0.45 mg KOH/g and 0.40 mg KOH/g) and obtained high methyl ester yield (98.23%, 98.53% and 97.72%). This study had shown that improvement in biodiesel properties by using two stage esterification-transesterification methods. The major fuel characteristics such as kinematic viscosity, density, flash point and calorific value of biodiesel fulfilled American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) biodiesel standards. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  111. Applications of biotechnology and biochemical engineering for the improvement of Jatropha and Biodiesel: A review
    Abstract

    Ceasar, S. A.; Ignacimuthu, S. 2011. Applications of biotechnology and biochemical engineering for the improvement of Jatropha and Biodiesel: A review. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(9) 5176-5185

    Jatropha has drawn the attention of researchers in recent years due to its emergence as a highly suitable feedstock plant for Biodiesel production. Efforts have been made to improve the Jatropha plant material and Biodiesel production. Tissue culture, transformation and molecular marker based studies were conducted to improve the plant material. Biochemical engineering were undertaken to improve both the process and product of Biodiesel from Jatropha. Various approaches were taken up to improve the oil extraction process from seeds, enhance the quality and quantity of Biodiesel and analyze the engine performance of Jatropha Biodiesel. Most of the studies have been carried out in recent years due to the growing interest in energy security and global warming posed by fossil fuels. In this review we give details of various biotechnological and biochemical engineering efforts related to Jatropha and Biodiesel. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  112. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from biodiesel plant Jatropha curcas embryos at different developmental stages
    Abstract

    Chen, M. S.; Wang, G. J.; Wang, R. L.; Wang, J.; Song, S. Q.; Xu, Z. F. 2011. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from biodiesel plant Jatropha curcas embryos at different developmental stages. Plant Science. 181(6) 696-700

    Jatropha curcas is considered a potential biodiesel feedstock plant whose seeds contain up to 40% oil. However, little is currently known about the seed biology of Jatropha. Therefore, it would be valuable to understand the mechanisms of development and lipid metabolism in Jatropha seeds. In the present study, three cDNA libraries were constructed with mRNA from Jatropha embryos at different stages of seed development. A total of 9844 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were produced from these libraries, from which 1070 contigs and 3595 singletons were obtained. One hundred and seven unigenes were found to be differentially expressed in the three cDNA libraries of Jatropha embryos, indicating that these genes may play key roles in seed development. We have identified 59 and 61 unigenes that might be involved in the development and lipid metabolism in Jatropha seeds, respectively. Some of these genes may also play important roles in embryogenesis, morphogenesis, defense response and adaptive mechanisms in plants. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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