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Corn oil as biodiesel feedstock

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  1. Conversion of corn stover alkaline pre-treatment waste streams into biodiesel via Rhodococci
    Abstract

    Le, R. K.; Wells, T.; Das, P.; Meng, X. Z.; Stoklosa, R. J.; Bhalla, A.; Hodge, D. B.; Yuan, J. S.; Ragauskas, A. J. 2017. Conversion of corn stover alkaline pre-treatment waste streams into biodiesel via Rhodococci. Rsc Advances. 7(7) 4108-4115

    The bioconversion of second-generation cellulosic ethanol waste streams into biodiesel via oleaginous bacteria is a novel optimization strategy for biorefineries with substantial potential for rapid development. In this study, one-and two-stage alkali/alkali-peroxide pretreatment waste streams of corn stover were separately implemented as feedstocks in 96 h batch reactor fermentations with wild-type Rhodococcus opacus PD 630, R. opacus DSM 1069, and R. jostii DSM 44719T. Here we show using P-31-NMR, HPAEC-PAD, and SEC analyses, that the more rigorous and chemically-efficient two-stage chemical pretreatment effluent provided higher concentrations of solubilized glucose and lower molecular weight (similar to 70-300 g mol(-1)) lignin degradation products thereby enabling improved cellular density, viability, and oleaginicity in each respective strain. The most significant yields were by R. opacus PD 630, which converted 6.2% of organic content with a maximal total lipid production of 1.3 g L-1 and accumulated 42.1% in oils based on cell dry weight after 48 h.
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  2. Exploration of Carbon Based Solid Acid Catalyst Derived from Corn Starch for Conversion of Non-edible Oil into Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Witono, J. R. B.; Hashigata, K.; Santoso, H.; Noordergraaf, I. W. 2017. Exploration of Carbon Based Solid Acid Catalyst Derived from Corn Starch for Conversion of Non-edible Oil into Biodiesel. 3rd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress (Interm). 186157-164

    To avoid the problems caused by free fatty acids in the conversion of low cost vegetable oils to biodiesel, the use of solid acid catalyst for (trans-) esterification reaction is considered. Such a catalyst could be produced eco-friendly by using renewable raw materials such as biomass. The use of starch for this purpose it still very limited. In this paper, various methods were explored to produce a solid acid catalyst from corn starch. We investigated two different carbonization methods: complete pyrolysis in an oxygen-free environment and hydrothermal carbonization at milder conditions. Starch was used either in the native form or as pregelatinized starch. After the carbonization, acidic sites were introduced by sulfonating the materials. To characterize the catalysts, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was applied while the sulfonic content was determined by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). To test the performance of the catalysts, the conversion of free fatty acids was determined using oleic acid as a representative component of biodiesel feedstock. By both of the carbonization methods, a catalyst can be obtained that shows up to 84 % conversion of oleic acid. The hydrothermal treatment may then be preferred since it can be done at milder conditions. Differences between the performances of the respective catalyst samples could be well explained by structural features seen in the SEM-pictures. These also have their effect on the amount of sulfonic groups that was found (from EDS). The general trend is logical: the catalysts with a higher sulfonic load give a higher conversion of oleic acid.
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  3. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel
    Abstract

    Wang, Z. C.; Dunn, J. B.; Han, J. W.; Wang, M. Q. 2015. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel. Biotechnology for Biofuels. 8

    Background: Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller's grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production.
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  4. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel
    Abstract

    Wang, Z.; Dunn, J. B.; Han, J.; Wang, M. Q. 2015. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel. Biotechnol Biofuels. 8178

    BACKGROUND: Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller's grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. RESULTS: This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol's life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement credits, and energy consumption for corn oil production and corn oil biodiesel production. CONCLUSIONS: This study's results demonstrate that co-product treatment methodology strongly influences corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions and can affect how this fuel is treated under the Renewable Fuel and Low Carbon Fuel Standards.
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  5. Cold flow properties of biodiesel obtained from corn oil
    Abstract

    Rasimoglu, N.; Temur, H. 2014. Cold flow properties of biodiesel obtained from corn oil. Energy. 6857-60

    In this study, it is aimed to investigate the effects of parameters of transesterification on the cold flow properties of corn oil based biodiesel such as cloud point, pour point and cold filter plugging point. Reaction parameters examined were the transesterification temperature (in the range of 20-60 degrees C), reaction time (10-60 min), alcohol-to-oil ratio (3.15:1-12.85:1 in moles), amount of catalyst (0.25 2 g(catalyst)/100 mL corn oil) and stirring speed (300-800 rpm). As a result, it has been observed that when the transesterification reaction period is kept longer than 10 min, there were no changes in cold flow properties of the biodiesel obtained. In addition, better cold flow properties were monitored when alcohol-to-oil ratio was kept between 3.15:1 and 4.15:1. While no effect of reaction temperature on cold flow properties was observed above 20 degrees C, amount of basic catalyst used in the experiments gave the lowest cold flow properties at the percent of 0.75. Stirring speed has been ineffective in terms of cold flow properties in the transesterification process. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  6. The Optimization of the Production of Methyl Esters from Corn Oil Using Barium Hydroxide as a Heterogeneous Catalyst
    Abstract

    Mustata, F.; Bicu, I. 2014. The Optimization of the Production of Methyl Esters from Corn Oil Using Barium Hydroxide as a Heterogeneous Catalyst. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 91(5) 839-847

    In recent years, vegetable oils, as renewable raw materials, became a promising feedstock for chemicals and biodiesel production. The main products derived from oils are esters of fatty acids, especially methyl esters, obtained by their transesterification with methanol, in presence of acid or alkaline catalysts. The use of such catalysts implies the need for washing operations, which leads to environmental pollution. In the present paper, the response surface methodology based on a central composite design, has been developed to optimize the process of transesterification of corn oil. Ba(OH)(2) in presence of diethyl ether was used as catalyst. A quadratic polynomial equation was obtained. It correlates the reaction parameters [methanol/oil molar ratio (x (r)), reaction time (x (t)) and catalyst concentration (x (c))] with methyl esters yield. Analysis of variance analysis showed that only methanol/oil molar ratio and catalyst concentration have had the most significant influences on the conversion. The maximum methyl esters yield was obtained using the following optimum parameters: methanol/corn oil ratio of 11.32, reaction time of 118 min and catalyst concentration of 3.6 wt%.
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  7. The Optimum Production Parameters of Methyl Ester From Acorn Kernel Oil
    Abstract

    Karabas, H. 2014. The Optimum Production Parameters of Methyl Ester From Acorn Kernel Oil. Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy. 33(2) 625-628

    In this article, the production of biodiesel through transesterification of acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) kernel oil was studied. Acorn kernel oil with high free fatty acid content was used as feedstock to produce biodiesel. Two stages were used to produce biodiesel after obtaining the acorn kernel oil in the presence of a base catalyst (KOH) to yield methyl esters of fatty acids and glycerin. The various process variables such as alcohol:oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time were optimized with the objective of producing acorn kernel oil biodiesel with maximum yield. The optimum conditions for transesterification of acorn kernel oil with methanol and KOH as catalyst were stated as 50 degrees C reaction temperature, 1 h reaction time, 8:1 molar ratio of acorn kernel oil to alcohol, and 1% catalyst (w/w). All of the other measured fuel properties of the acorn kernel methyl ester met the international standards EN 14214. Thus, the produced acorn kernel oil methyl ester was characterized to be used as a fuel in engines. (c) 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 33: 625-628, 2014
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  8. Acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) Kernel Oil as an Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Turkey
    Abstract

    Karabas, H. 2013. Acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) Kernel Oil as an Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production in Turkey. Journal of Energy Resources Technology-Transactions of the Asme. 135(1)

    The acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) kernel oil is extracted from the kernels of the acorn that is grown in Sakarya which is in the Marmara region, Turkey. Acorn kernel oil (AKO) is obtained in 10 wt. %, by solvent extraction. Acorn kernel oil is investigated as an alternative feedstock for the production of a biodiesel fuel. The fatty acid profile of the oil consists primarily of oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Before processing alkalin transesterification reaction, the high free fatty acid (FFA) of the crude acorn kernel oil is decreased by using acid esterification method. Biodiesel is prepared from acorn kernel (AK) by transesterification of the acid esterified oil with methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) as catalyst. The maximum oil to ester conversion was 90%. The viscosity of biodiesel is closer to that of diesel and the heating value is about 6.4% less than that of petroleum diesel No. 2. All of the measured properties of the produced acorn kernel oil methyl ester (AKOME) are being compared to the current quality requirements according to EN14214 and ASTM D 6751. The comparison shows that the methyl esters of acorn kernel oil could be possible used as diesel fuel replacements. [DOI: 10.1115/1.4007692]
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  9. Biodiesel production from crude acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) kernel oil: An optimisation process using the Taguchi method
    Abstract

    Karabas, H. 2013. Biodiesel production from crude acorn (Quercus frainetto L.) kernel oil: An optimisation process using the Taguchi method. Renewable Energy. 53384-388

    In this study, acorn kernel oil with high free fatty acid content is used as feedstock to produce biodiesel. Two stages are used to produce biodiesel after obtaining the acorn kernel oil. The 3.38% free fatty acid content is decreased to 0.14% in the first stage, whereas the acid ester biodiesel is produced using alkaline transesterification reaction in the second stage. The biodiesel production process parameters are the alcohol:oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction temperature and reaction time. Taguchi experimental design is used for acorn kernel oil methyl ester production via process parameter optimisation. The optimal process parameters are determined to be a catalyst concentration of 0.7 wt%, an 8:1 alcohol:oil molar ratio, a 50 degrees C reaction temperature and 40 min of reaction time using a KOH catalyst in experimental studies. According to the Taguchi method, the most efficient process parameter in acorn kernel oil methyl ester production. Finally, the acorn kernel oil methyl ester yield is 90% under the optimal process parameters obtained by the Taguchi method. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  10. Biodiesel from Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles: Preparation, Evaluation, and Properties
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R.; Vaughn, S. F. 2012. Biodiesel from Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles: Preparation, Evaluation, and Properties. Bioenergy Research. 5(2) 439-449

    A coproduct of dry-grind ethanol fermentation, corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represents a low-cost feedstock with potential to integrate production of biodiesel and ethanol. Oil extracted from DDGS was converted into distillers' grains methyl (DGME) and ethyl (DGEE) esters. Pretreatment using sulfuric acid was effective at lowering the acid value of the crude oil from 27.15 to less than 0.30 mg KOH g(-1), thus rendering it amenable to homogenous, base-catalyzed transesterification. Measurement of fuel properties and comparison to refined corn oil methyl (RCME) and ethyl (RCEE) esters revealed that the cold flow properties and oxidative stability of DGME and DGEE were deficient relative to RCME and RCEE. In the absence of antioxidants, DGME and DGEE did not meet the oxidative stability specifications of ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The cetane number of DGEE was below the minimum limit specified in EN 14214. DGEE exhibited more favorable cold flow properties, iodine value, and energy content than DGME. Evaluation of blends (B5 and B20) in petroleum diesel fuel revealed that antioxidants and cetane enhancers would be required to meet the specifications of the US and European diesel fuel standards. Other fuel properties of the petrodiesel blends were largely neutral with respect to alkyl ester type and conformed to the limits specified in the respective standards.
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