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Canola, Rapeseed, or Mustard oil as biodiesel feedstock

This page lists articles published worldwide in journal, book, magazine or otherwise about canola, reapessed or mustard oil as feedstock to make biodiesel . Please provide us a feedback feedback if you see any error in this listing or you would like to report and articles that should have been in this section. Your help will make this a great place to find articles about biodiesel feedstock.

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  1. Biodiesel from rapeseed oil (Brassica napus) by supported Li2O and MgO
    Abstract

    Solis, J. L.; Berkemar, A. L.; Alejo, L.; Kiros, Y. 2017. Biodiesel from rapeseed oil (Brassica napus) by supported Li2O and MgO. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering. 8(1) 9-23

    Vegetable oils are a vast triglyceride source for biodiesel production; i.e. fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), with methanol and a catalyst via transesterification reaction. The aim of this work was to study heterogeneously catalysed biodiesel production with solid oxides such as mayenite (Ca12Al14O33) and alumina (Al2O3) as catalyst carriers using edible rapeseed oil as feedstock. These oxides were impregnated to have Li2O and MgO concentrations of 5-10 and 5-30 wt% on each carrier, respectively. The catalysts were characterized using N-2-physisorption (BET/BJH), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The synthesized catalysts were mesoporous ranging from 119 to 401 angstrom and their chemical phase composition was confirmed by the XRD. The catalyst coating (MgO/Li2O) was studied, along with the catalyst amount in the reactor and the assessment of the transesterification reaction kinetics. The reaction was studied at 60 degrees C, atmospheric pressure, agitation rate of 180 rpm, and a reaction time of 2 h in a 6:1 molar ratio of methanol to oil. For each catalyst, loadings of 2.5, 5, and 10 wt% relative to the oil weight were evaluated. The highest biodiesel yield was obtained by 5 wt% (relative to oil weight) impregnated mayenite catalyst coated with 10 wt% of Li2O. The kinetic data fits to a pseudo-first-order model having a reaction rate constant equal to 0.045 min(-1) under these mild reaction conditions.
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  2. Chemical/Structural Modification of Canola Oil and Canola Biodiesel: Kinetic Studies and Biodegradability of the Alkoxides
    Abstract

    Borugadda, V. B.; Somidi, A. K. R.; Dalai, A. K. 2017. Chemical/Structural Modification of Canola Oil and Canola Biodiesel: Kinetic Studies and Biodegradability of the Alkoxides. Lubricants. 5(2)

    Canola oil and canola biodiesel derived alkoxides are prepared in the present investigation through a series of structural modifications. Epoxidation of canola oil and canola biodiesel were carried out by hydrogen peroxide using IR-120 as an acidic catalyst. The alkoxylation of epoxidized feedstocks was promoted using 2-propanol and tert-Butyl alcohol in the presence of montmorillonite catalyst and optimum reaction conditions were obtained for complete epoxide conversion to alkoxylated products as follows: reaction temperature of 90 degrees C, epoxide to alcohol molar ratio of 1:6, and reaction time between 6 and 8 h. The products were identified with one- and two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques, and the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the alkoxylation reactions were also investigated. The thermo-oxidative stability, rheology, biodegradability and lubricity properties of the prepared alkoxides were determined using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and American Oil Chemists Society (AOCS) standard methods. Structural modification of the feedstocks enhanced the significant properties for lubrication and exhibited their potential application as gear and engine oils.
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  3. Nutrient Requirements of Camelina for Biodiesel Feedstock in Central Montana
    Abstract

    Mohammed, Y. A.; Chen, C. C.; Afshar, R. K. 2017. Nutrient Requirements of Camelina for Biodiesel Feedstock in Central Montana. Agronomy Journal. 109(1) 309-316

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) shows potential to provide an alternative renewable energy source and enhance crop diversifi cation in temperate semiarid regions. Information on the effect of N, P, K, and S on yield and quality of camelina for biodiesel feedstock in the northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States is limited. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of the above nutrients on seed and oil yields, test weight, oil concentration and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (ANUE) of camelina on a clay loam soil in central Montana. Results showed that fertilizer treatments significantly affected seed yield, oil concentration and oil yield of camelina. The seed and oil yields ranged from 677 to 1306 kg ha(-1) and from 234 to 445 kg ha(-1), respectively. Although the highest seed and oil yields were obtained from the application of 134-22-22-28 kg ha(-1) N-P2O5-K2O-S, they were statistically in the same group with yields achieved from the application of only 45 kg ha(-1) N. Application of P and S fertilizers increased camelina seed yield compared with the control treatment. Th ere was no response to K fertilization. Simultaneous application of N and S did not show synergistic effects in enhancing ANUE. The ANUE reduced with increasing N application rates. From trend analysis, application of 60 kg ha(-1) N produced agronomic maximum seed and oil yields. Therefore, optimizing camelina seed and oil yields production with regard to nutrient management using current variety should focus on N fertilization.
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  4. Preparation of Biodiesel with Liquid Synergetic Lipases from Rapeseed Oil Deodorizer Distillate
    Abstract

    Zeng, L.; He, Y.; Jiao, L.; Li, K.; Yan, Y. 2017. Preparation of Biodiesel with Liquid Synergetic Lipases from Rapeseed Oil Deodorizer Distillate. Appl Biochem Biotechnol.

    To reduce industrial production cost, cheap and easily available rapeseed oil deodorizer distillates were used as feedstock to prepare biodiesel in this study. As a result, liquid forms of Candida rugosa lipase and Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) were functioned as new and effective catalysts with biodiesel yield of 92.63% for 30 h and 94.36% for 9 h, respectively. Furthermore, the synergetic effect between the two lipases was employed to enhance biodiesel yield with a result of 98.16% in 6 h under optimized conditions via response surface methodology. The obtained conversion rate surpassed both yields of the individual two lipases and markedly shortened the reaction time. The resultant optimal conditions were ROL ratio 0.84, water content 46 wt% (w/w), reaction temperature 34 degrees C, and reaction time 6 h.
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  5. Production of Isopropyl and Methyl Esters from Yellow Mustard Oil/IPA Miscellas
    Abstract

    Sinichi, S.; Boocock, D. G. B.; Diosady, L. L. 2017. Production of Isopropyl and Methyl Esters from Yellow Mustard Oil/IPA Miscellas. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 94(3) 485-495

    Using an isopropyl alcohol (IPA):flour [volume:weight (ml:g)] ratio of 1.5:1 per stage of extraction resulted in an oil yield of 86.3%. The combined miscella (IPA + oil), which contained 90.6 wt% IPA, 9.8 wt% oil, and 2.1 wt% water, was used as a feedstock for biodiesel production by transesterification. Transesterification of the IPA/oil miscella dehydrated using adsorption on 4 molecular sieves with 1.2 wt% (based on oil) potassium hydroxide for 2 h at 72 A degrees C converted only 29% of the feed to esters. The addition of methanol (MeOH) resulted in an ester yield of 87%, consisting of 79% methyl ester and 7% isopropyl ester when starting with an IPA:oil:MeOH molar ratio of 146:1:30. By increasing the KOH catalyst to 3 wt%, the ester yield increased to 94%. To increase the ester yield, the miscella was pretreated with sulfuric acid. This resulted in a reduction of the IPA content, the removal of other impurities such as phospholipids, and reduction of the water mass fraction to less than 1%. When IPA was used as a cosolvent with methanol in the transesterification process, a very high ester conversion (> 99%) was achieved. The biodiesel produced was compliant with ASTM standards, showing that IPA can be used as a solvent for oil extraction from yellow mustard flour.
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  6. Tribological characterization of vegetal lubricants: Comparative experimental investigation on Jatropha curcas L. oil, Rapeseed Methyl Ester oil, Hydrotreated Rapeseed oil
    Abstract

    Ruggiero, A.; D'Amato, R.; Merola, M.; Valasek, P.; Muller, M. 2017. Tribological characterization of vegetal lubricants: Comparative experimental investigation on Jatropha curcas L. oil, Rapeseed Methyl Ester oil, Hydrotreated Rapeseed oil. Tribology International. 109529-540

    Biodegradability, good lubricating properties and low production costs, are the reasons to consider the plant oils a good alternative as reference to replace the petroleum-based oils that have limited resources. The based plant oils are very attractive as alternative lubricant source. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate on physicochemical and tribological performances of three plant seed based oils in the lubricating contact pair AISI E52100 steel sliding against X21OCr12 steel. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME), Hydrotreated Vegetable oil (HVO) from raw rapeseed oil and raw Jatropha curcas L. oil (JCL) were chosen. The oils were analysed for their chemical and physical properties such as viscosity, density flash point and TAN. The tribo-tests were carried out using ball-on-flat reciprocatory tribometer for several frequencies and normal loads. The oils exhibited good physicochemical properties and could be favourably used as lubricant feedstock in industrial application. The friction coefficient in all tests, for the HVO, stays in the range of 0.14-0.17, in the range of 0.11-0.14 for the Rapeseed Methyl Ester oil (RME) and in the range of 0.11-0.13 for the Jatropha curcas L. seed oil. JCL showed the lowest CoF among the three oils examined, followed by RME and HVO. Whereas, spheres lubricated with HVO underwent to the lowest wear but presented the highest roughness.
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  7. A comparison of particulate emission for rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester in perspective of their fatty ester composition
    Abstract

    Zhu, L.; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Z. 2016. A comparison of particulate emission for rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester in perspective of their fatty ester composition. Applied Thermal Engineering. 94249-255

    Three different kinds of biodiesel blended with baseline diesel fuel in 50% v/v were tested in a Cummins 4BTA direct injection diesel engine, with a turbocharger and an intercooler. Experiments were conducted under five engine loads of two steady speeds. The aim of this study is to identify the effects of fatty ester composition in the particulate emission of biodiesel from different feedstocks. The smoke opacity of SME50 (Soybean oil methyl ester) is higher than that of RME50 (Rapeseed oil methyl ester) and PME50 (Palm oil methyl ester). There is no obvious relationship between total unsaturate fraction and smoke opacity, while smoke opacity is linear with polyunsaturate fraction of fuel at all test modes, which means that the unsaturated ester with two or three double bonds have greater influence in smoke formation than the counterpart with only one double bond. The SOF (soluble organic fraction) proportion of RME50, PME50 and SME50 is 5 times or 4 times larger than that of diesel fuel and ultra-low-sulfur diesel respectively. The overall sequence of SOF is PME50 > SME50 > RME50. SOF fraction is linear with saturate fraction of fuel at all test modes. PME50 has higher nucleation particle number concentration than that of RME50 and SME50. Same with SOF, the increase in total nucleation number concentration depends on saturate fraction of fuel at all test modes. Thus, the feedstocks and composition of biodiesel could be selected and optimized during production process in order to improve the emission conditions of biodiesel. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  8. Agronomic performance for biodiesel production potential of Brassica carinata A. Braun in Mediterranean marginal areas
    Abstract

    Montemurro, F.; Diacono, M.; Sa, S. L. D. F. B. A.; D'Andrea, L.; Boari, F.; Santino, A.; Mastrorilli, M. 2016. Agronomic performance for biodiesel production potential of Brassica carinata A. Braun in Mediterranean marginal areas. Italian Journal of Agronomy. 11(1) 57-64

    Brassicaceae are promising oil feedstock for cultivation in central-southern Italy. Therefore, a two-year investigation on Brassica carinata A. Braun (cv. CT 204) was carried out in three sites of Apulia region [Site 1, Alberobello - Murgia foreland; Site 2, Troia (Foggia) - Daunian sub-Apennines; Site 3, Monteroni (Lecce) - Area of Salento], and in one site of Basilicata region (Site 4, Hill of Matera). The aim was to identify site-specific management practices [by comparing minimum vs conventional tillage, low sowing density vs high sowing density; different levels of nitrogen (N) supply and organic fertilisers] in the four different marginal areas, to achieve optimum yield performance for biodiesel prospective production. The crop showed a good adaptability in the study sites, and the highest N level positively influenced the yield performance in Sites 1, 2 and 3. Moreover, the reduction of mechanical operations (minimum tillage) did not negatively influence crop production and seed oil content. The highest density of sowing tested determined the best crop performance in Site 3, particularly showing the maximum seed oil content with the lowest N supply. Finally, in Site 4 the compost mixed with mineral N fertiliser as well as the sewage sludge from urban wastewater determined productive results comparable to those obtained with mineral fertiliser, evidencing that organic fertilisers could (partially or completely) substitute the mineral one for this crop in the study site. On the whole, seed yield and oil content showed a potential for biodiesel production of Brassica carinata cultivated with site-specific agronomic techniques in four different marginal areas of Southern Italy, suggesting it can be likely achieved the crop environmental adaptation.
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  9. The effects of long-term storage on the cold flow properties and viscosity of canola-based biodiesel
    Abstract

    Kanca, A.; Temur, H. 2016. The effects of long-term storage on the cold flow properties and viscosity of canola-based biodiesel. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 38(15) 2205-2210

    In this study, the effects of long-term storage on the viscosity and cold flow properties of biodiesel were investigated. Canola oil with a high content of unsaturated fatty acid was used to produce biodiesel in the experiments. Biodiesel sample was kept in ordinary atmospheric storage conditions for 6 months. The samples were taken from the biodiesel feedstock in every 30 days and cold flow properties and kinematic viscosity of the samples were measured. During 6-month storage, no significant deterioration was observed in cold flow properties and kinematic viscosity of biodiesel. Additionally, the same pour point (PP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) values (-11 degrees C) were obtained during this period.
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  10. Unusually low pour point of fatty acid methyl esters with low saturated fatty acid content
    Abstract

    Nie, J. Y.; Wang, S. M.; Emami, S.; Falk, K.; Shen, J. H.; Reaney, M. J. T. 2016. Unusually low pour point of fatty acid methyl esters with low saturated fatty acid content. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 118(10) 1486-1494

    Many oilseeds grown in Canada have unusual fatty acid profiles including Cruciferous oilseed varieties that have very low levels (<3%) of saturated fatty acid. In this study oil samples were obtained from five cultivars of Brassica rapa L., seven cultivars of Brassica napus L. and five cultivars from other oilseeds species namely Brassica juncea L., Sinapis alba L., Camelina sativa L. and Linum usitatissimum L. The fatty acid profile, cloud point (CP) and pour point (PP) were determined for each oil sample. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were synthesized from each oil sample. The saturated fatty acid content was highly correlated (R-2 = 0.93) with PP in methyl esters prepared from Brassica sp. oils. In addition, we identified three publications where PP was measured on fatty acid methyl esters and found that the correlation of PP with saturated fat content was consistent with data presented herein. Since B. rapa oil exhibited superior low temperature properties, it was chosen for further studies of oxidative stability. B. rapa cultivars, with less than 3.5% saturated fat and less than 20% polyunsaturated fat, can be an excellent feedstock for production of oils with improved cold fluidity and oxidative stability.
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  11. A comparative study of oilseed crops (Brassica napus L. subsp oleifera and Brassica carinata A. Braun) in the biodiesel production chain and their adaptability to different Italian areas
    Abstract

    Del Gatto, A.; Melilli, M. G.; Raccuia, S. A.; Pieri, S.; Mangoni, L.; Pacifico, D.; Signor, M.; Duca, D.; Pedretti, E. F.; Mengarelli, C. 2015. A comparative study of oilseed crops (Brassica napus L. subsp oleifera and Brassica carinata A. Braun) in the biodiesel production chain and their adaptability to different Italian areas. Industrial Crops and Products. 7598-107

    The Extravalore project aims to give added value to oilseed crops, considering them also for producing multiple products with the same economic value and being interesting for the market thanks to their various utilizations.
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  12. Biodiesel Production from Mustard Emulsion by a Combined Destabilization/Adsorption Process
    Abstract

    Tabtabaei, S.; Boocock, D. G. B.; Diosady, L. L. 2015. Biodiesel Production from Mustard Emulsion by a Combined Destabilization/Adsorption Process. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 92(8) 1205-1217

    Tetrahydrofuran, added to the oil-in-water emulsions formed by the aqueous processing of yellow mustard flour, produced oil/water/THF miscellas containing 1-2 % water. The high water content prevented the direct conversion of the system to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) through a single-phase base-catalyzed transmethylation process. Dehydration of these miscellas by adsorption on 4A molecular sieves at room temperature using either batch or continuous fixed-bed systems successfully reduced the water content to the quality standards needed for biodiesel feedstock (0.3 %). Equilibrium adsorption studies for the uptake of water from oil/THF/water miscella phases at room temperature allowed quantitative comparison of the water adsorption capacity based on the oil and THF concentrations of the miscellas. Batch contact was used to investigate the dominant parameters affecting the uptake of water including miscella composition, adsorbent dose and contact time. The adsorption of the water was strongly dependent on adsorbent dose and miscella oil concentrations. The regeneration of molecular sieves by heating under nitrogen at reduced pressure for 6 h at 275 A degrees C resulted in incomplete desorption of miscella components. The adsorption breakthrough curves in terms of flow rates, initial water and oil miscella concentrations were determined. The dehydrated miscella phases were reacted with methanol in a single-phase base-catalyzed transmethylation process with high yields (99.3 wt%) to FAME. The resulting FAME met the ASTM international standard in terms of total glycerol content and acid number.
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  13. Fuel properties of Brassica juncea oil methyl esters blended with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R.; Evangelista, R. L.; Jham, G. 2015. Fuel properties of Brassica juncea oil methyl esters blended with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. Renewable Energy. 7882-88

    Brassica juncea is a drought-tolerant member of the Brassicaceae plant family with high oil content and a short growing season that is tolerant of low quality soils. It was investigated as a feedstock for production of biodiesel along with evaluation of subsequent fuel properties, both neat and in blends with petroleum diesel fuel. These results were compared against relevant fuel standards such as ASTM D6751, EN 14214, ASTM D975, EN 590, and ASTM D7467. Crude B. juncea oil was extracted from unconditioned seeds utilizing a continuous tubular radial expeller. The oil was then chemically refined via degumming, neutralization and bleaching to render it amenable to direct homogeneous sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification. The principal fatty acid detected in B. juncea oil was erucic acid (44.1%). The resulting biodiesel yielded fuel properties compliant with the biodiesel standards with the exception of oxidative stability and kinematic viscosity in the case of EN 14214. Addition of tert-butylhydroquinone and blending with soybean oil-derived biodiesel ameliorated these deficiencies. The fuel properties of B5 and B20 blends of B. juncea oil methyl esters (BJME) in ultra-low sulfur (<15 ppm S) diesel (ULSD) fuel were within the ranges specified in the petrodiesel standards ASTM D975, EN 590 and ASTM D7467 with the exception of derived cetane number in the case of EN 590. This deficiency was attributed to the inherently low cetane number of the certification-grade ULSD, as it did not contain performance-enhancing additives. In summary, this study reports new fuel property data for BJME along with properties of B5 and B20 blends in ULSD. Such results will be useful for the development of B. juncea as an alternative source of biodiesel fuel. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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  14. Process sustainability of biodiesel production process from green seed canola oil using homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalysts
    Abstract

    Baroi, C.; Dalai, A. K. 2015. Process sustainability of biodiesel production process from green seed canola oil using homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalysts. Fuel Processing Technology. 133105-119

    In this study, the sustainability of homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalyzed biodiesel production process from green seed canola (GSC) is evaluated. The term "sustainability" is assessed based on four criteria, e.g. process economics, process safety, environmental impact and process energy efficiency. Based on the assessment, it is concluded that both the processes are economically profitable, when the cost of the feedstock is $ 0.35/kg. Heterogeneous add catalyzed process shows higher profitability. Comparatively, heterogeneous acid catalyzed process is a safer process and creates less environmental impact. Additionally, heterogeneous acid catalyzed process is more energy efficient and more environment friendly than homogeneous process. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  15. Study on Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed Oil through the Orthogonal Method
    Abstract

    Zhang, Y.; You, H. 2015. Study on Biodiesel Production from Rapeseed Oil through the Orthogonal Method. Energy Sources Part a-Recovery Utilization and Environmental Effects. 37(4) 422-427

    By using rapeseed oil as feedstock, methanol as esterifying agent, and sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide as the catalysts, effects of an orthogonal method on yield of biodiesel were researched. The experimental results showed that the activity of potassium hydroxide was better than that of sodium hydroxide. The best reaction temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, and ratio of methanol and rapeseed oil for sodium hydroxide were 75 degrees C, 60 min, 1.0%, and 7:1, respectively. The best reaction temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, and ratio of methanol and rapeseed oil were 65 degrees C, 90 min, 1.0%, and 7:1, respectively.
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  16. Where to produce rapeseed biodiesel and why? Mapping European rapeseed energy efficiency
    Abstract

    van Duren, I.; Voinov, A.; Arodudu, O.; Firrisa, M. T. 2015. Where to produce rapeseed biodiesel and why? Mapping European rapeseed energy efficiency. Renewable Energy. 7449-59

    Rapeseed is widely used to produce biodiesel, especially in Europe. In several studies, it has been shown that there is a good potential for growing this crop across the continent. However there is still little awareness that the energy efficiency of biofuel production from rapeseed is very low, Energy efficiency can be expressed in terms of Energy Return for Energy Invested (EROEI). We mapped EROEI values for all EU countries plus Switzerland based on expected yields derived from rapeseed suitability maps. We find that EU countries produce rapeseed biofuel with EROEI values of 2.2 and lower. We suggest that plans for biofuel cropping have to be supplemented by maps of EROEI. It is not only relevant to show where rapeseed can be grown, but we should also look at where its use for bioenergy can be efficient. In the area theoretically suitable for growing rainfed rapeseed (excluding unsuitable areas and water), 37.6% of the area can produce rape methyl ester (RME) biofuel only with an energy loss. We conclude that the energy efficiency of rapeseed biodiesel is low and spatially heterogeneous, and unless there are major technological improvements in the production process, replacing fossil fuels by biofuels from rapeseed is hardly a feasible option. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  17. Biodiesel Feedstock from Emulsions Produced by Aqueous Processing of Yellow Mustard
    Abstract

    Tabtabaei, S.; Boocock, D. G. B.; Diosady, L. L. 2014. Biodiesel Feedstock from Emulsions Produced by Aqueous Processing of Yellow Mustard. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 91(7) 1269-1282

    The multi-stage treatment of stable oil-in-water emulsions produced during non-enzymatic aqueous processing of dehulled yellow mustard flour with cyclic ethers [tetrahydrofuran (THF) and 1,4-dioxane] was investigated to produce a single-phase oil-solvent-water miscella suitable for biodiesel production. While the single-stage treatment of yellow mustard emulsion recovered 97 % and 95 % of the oil by using 4:1 THF:oil and 9:1 dioxane:oil weight ratios, respectively, miscella phases containing more than 7 % water formed, which made them unsuitable as biodiesel feedstock. Multi-stage treatments of the emulsion using lower THF:oil and dioxane:oil weight ratios were further developed to produce oil-solvent-water miscella phases with low water content. While three-stage extraction of emulsions using 0.5:1, 1:1, 1.5:1, and 2:1 dioxane:oil weight ratios did not destabilize the emulsion, three-stage extraction using 0.5:1 and 0.75:1 THF:oil weight ratios effectively recovered over 97 % of the oil, resulting in the production of oil-rich miscella phases containing only 1 % and 1.5 % water, respectively. These miscella phases were analyzed for free fatty acid and phosphorus contents and proved to be excellent feedstocks for the preparation of high-purity methyl esters through single-phase base-catalyzed transmethylation.
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  18. Biodiesel production from biobutanol. Improvement of cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Bouaid, A.; El Boulifi, N.; Hahati, K.; Martinez, M.; Aracil, J. 2014. Biodiesel production from biobutanol. Improvement of cold flow properties. Chemical Engineering Journal. 238234-241

    Experimental design methods have been successfully applied to develop and optimize the process of synthesis of butyl esters from rapeseed oil (RSO), the most common oil feedstock for biodiesel production in Europe and used frying oil (UFO), as a cheaper raw material, using biobutanol, and potassium methoxide (KOCH3) as catalyst. The optimum conditions were found to be a catalyst concentration of 1.1% and 0.9%, an operation temperature of 78 degrees C and 80 degrees C for rapeseed oil butyl esters (RSOBE) and used frying oil butyl esters (UFOBE), respectively, obtaining ester yields of 96.86% and 96.54% with 6:1 biobutanol/oil molar ratio. Results show that biodiesel produced using biobutanol as alcohol in the transesterification process improved cold flow properties in terms of cloud point (CP), pour point (PP) and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) without significantly affecting the other fuel properties.
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  19. Fractionation of Canola Biodiesel Sediment for Quantification of Steryl Glucosides with HPLC/ELSD
    Abstract

    Haagenson, D. M.; Perleberg, J. R.; Wiesenborn, D. P. 2014. Fractionation of Canola Biodiesel Sediment for Quantification of Steryl Glucosides with HPLC/ELSD. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 91(3) 497-502

    Steryl glucosides (SG) and other trace contaminants in biodiesel may cause filter plugging and engine performance issues, most notably in temperate regions that experience low temperatures. While sediments have been characterized from palm, soybean, and European rapeseed biodiesel, identification of the causative agents and sediment components derived from North American canola (Brassica napus) feedstocks is lacking. Analytic methods used to quantify sediment constituents are time consuming and sample heterogeneity may lead to decreased lab precision. The objectives of this research were to develop a method to fractionate biodiesel sediment in order to confirm and quantify the presence of SG in canola biodiesel. A reverse phase HPLC method with evaporative light scattering detection was modified to confirm the presence of SG from sediments collected at three North American canola biodiesel processing facilities. SG was confirmed in two of three sediment samples where 25.1 and 9.5 wt% of total sediment was SG. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of SG and provided a rapid method for qualitative confirmation of sediment composition. A third sediment had no detectable SG, but contained a clay filter aide as confirmed by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.
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  20. Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios
    Abstract

    Yang, Z. Y.; Hollebone, B. P.; Wang, Z. D.; Yang, C.; Brown, C.; Landriault, M. 2014. Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios. Forensic Science International. 23486-94

    A forensic identification method based on the chemical fingerprinting of the first generation of biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters as effective components), and several corresponding diagnostic ratios was developed and validated. The distribution of major fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and polar compounds (free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols) in several representative above biodiesel products commercially available in Canada were positively quantified and compared, a number of cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of target FAMEs and sterols were developed for biofuel correlation and differentiation. It was found that the cross-plots of FAME ratios, for example, the sum of the di-unsaturated relative to saturated homologues of FAMEs (D/S) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), and the sum of di-unsaturated to mono-saturated FAMEs (D/M) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), could cluster samples clearly into their individual feedstock. The cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of individual major sterols (cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, beta-stiosterol and stigmasterol) to the total sterols were also developed and proved to be effective in identifying biodiesel sources due to their self-normalizing effect on sterol data. The case study of a mystery biodiesel spill using this method showed that the two real samples can be tightly clustered into biodiesel from animal fat (B-an) group. However, the significant discrepancy of free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides and sterol concentrations between the two real samples indicated their different producing batches. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  21. Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios
    Abstract

    Yang, Z.; Hollebone, B. P.; Wang, Z.; Yang, C.; Brown, C.; Landriault, M. 2014. Method development for forensic identification of biodiesel based on chemical fingerprints and corresponding diagnostic ratios. Forensic Sci Int. 23486-94

    A forensic identification method based on the chemical fingerprinting of the first generation of biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters as effective components), and several corresponding diagnostic ratios was developed and validated. The distribution of major fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and polar compounds (free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides, and free sterols) in several representative above biodiesel products commercially available in Canada were positively quantified and compared, a number of cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of target FAMEs and sterols were developed for biofuel correlation and differentiation. It was found that the cross-plots of FAME ratios, for example, the sum of the di-unsaturated relative to saturated homologues of FAMEs (D/S) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), and the sum of di-unsaturated to mono-saturated FAMEs (D/M) versus the sum of the mono-saturated to saturated FAMEs (M/S), could cluster samples clearly into their individual feedstock. The cross-plots of diagnostic ratios of individual major sterols (cholesterol, brassicasterol, campesterol, beta-stiosterol and stigmasterol) to the total sterols were also developed and proved to be effective in identifying biodiesel sources due to their self-normalizing effect on sterol data. The case study of a mystery biodiesel spill using this method showed that the two real samples can be tightly clustered into biodiesel from animal fat (Ban) group. However, the significant discrepancy of free fatty acids, glycerol, monoacylglycerides and sterol concentrations between the two real samples indicated their different producing batches.
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  22. A comparative evaluation of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel synthesized from edible and non-edible oils and study on the effect of biodiesel blending
    Abstract

    Atabani, A. E.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Masjuki, H. H.; Badruddin, I. A.; Yussof, H. W.; Chong, W. T.; Lee, K. T. 2013. A comparative evaluation of physical and chemical properties of biodiesel synthesized from edible and non-edible oils and study on the effect of biodiesel blending. Energy. 58296-304

    Traditionally, biodiesel has been produced from edible oils due to their low free fatty acids. However, their use has elevated some issues such as food versus fuel and many other problems that have negatively affected their economic viability. Therefore, exploration of non-edible oils may significantly reduce the cost of biodiesel especially in poor countries which can barely afford the high cost of edible oils. This paper aims to produce biodiesel from several edible and non-edible oils that are readily available in the South East Asian market. These oils include; Jatropha curcas, Calophyllum inophyllum, Sterculia foetida, Moringa oleifera, Croton megalocarpus, Patchouli, Elaeis guineensis (palm), Cocos nucifera (coconut), Brassica napus (canola) and Glycine Max (soybean) oils. This was followed by an investigation of physicochemical properties of the produced biodiesel. This paper also discusses the concept of biodiesel blending to improve some of the properties of these feedstocks. For instance, blending of SFME and CoME improves the viscosity of SFME from 6.3717 mm(2)/s to 5.3349 mm(2)/s (3:1), 4.4912 mm(2)/s (1:1) and 3.879 mm(2)/s (1:3). The properties of other biodiesel blends were estimated using the polynomial curve fitting method. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  23. Biodiesel from rapeseed variety "Banacanka" using KOH catalyst
    Abstract

    Micic, R. D.; Tomic, M. D.; Simikic, M. D.; Zarubica, A. R. 2013. Biodiesel from rapeseed variety "Banacanka" using KOH catalyst. Hemijska Industrija. 67(4) 629-637

    This paper presents a complete characterization of rapeseed oil, of Banacanka variety, as well as the potential use of oil generated after filtering, in order to obtain biodiesel. The research interest was based on the fact that Banacanka is the oldest domestic rapeseed variety, a so-called "double-zero" or 00-rapeseed (low in erucic acid, below 5%, and glucosinolates below 30 mmol g(-1)), suitable for use in the region, since it is low-temperature tolerant, posseses high genetic potential for seed yield of about 5.2 t/ha and high oil content of around 45%. Transesterification was carried out in a Parr 4520 batch reactor, with KOH as a catalyst. Cold pressed oil without prior treatment was used as feedstock for transesterificataion. The paper analyses the effects of temperature, reaction duration, catalyst amount and rate of agitation on the synthesis of biodiesel at constant pressure and molar methanol/oil ratio.
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  24. De novo assembly of the pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) transcriptome provides tools for the development of a winter cover crop and biodiesel feedstock
    Abstract

    Dorn, K. M.; Fankhauser, J. D.; Wyse, D. L.; Marks, M. D. 2013. De novo assembly of the pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) transcriptome provides tools for the development of a winter cover crop and biodiesel feedstock. Plant Journal. 75(6) 1028-1038

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) has potential as an oilseed crop that may be grown during fall (autumn) and winter months in the Midwestern United States and harvested in the early spring as a biodiesel feedstock. There has been little agronomic improvement in pennycress through traditional breeding. Recent advances in genomic technologies allow for the development of genomic tools to enable rapid improvements to be made through genomic assisted breeding. Here we report an annotated transcriptome assembly for pennycress. RNA was isolated from representative plant tissues, and 203million unique Illumina RNA-seq reads were produced and used in the transcriptome assembly. The draft transcriptome assembly consists of 33873 contigs with a mean length of 1242bp. A global comparison of homology between the pennycress and Arabidopsis transcriptomes, along with four other Brassicaceae species, revealed a high level of global sequence conservation within the family. The final assembly was functionally annotated, allowing for the identification of putative genes controlling important agronomic traits such as flowering and glucosinolate metabolism. Identification of these genes leads to testable hypotheses concerning their conserved function and to rational strategies to improve agronomic properties in pennycress. Future work to characterize isoform variation between diverse pennycress lines and develop a draft genome sequence for pennycress will further direct trait improvement.
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  25. Development and Scale-up of Aqueous Surfactant-Assisted Extraction of Canola Oil for Use as Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Tuntiwiwattanapun, N.; Tongcumpou, C.; Haagenson, D.; Wiesenborn, D. 2013. Development and Scale-up of Aqueous Surfactant-Assisted Extraction of Canola Oil for Use as Biodiesel Feedstock. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 90(7) 1089-1099

    Aqueous surfactant-assisted extraction (ASE) has been proposed as an alternative to n-hexane for extraction of vegetable oil; however, the use of inexpensive surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the effect of ASE on the quality of biodiesel from the oil are not well understood. Therefore, the effects on total oil extraction efficiency of surfactant concentration, extraction time, oilseed to liquid ratio and other parameters were evaluated using ASE with ground canola and SDS in aqueous solution. The highest total oil extraction efficiency was 80 %, and was achieved using 0.02 M SDS at 20 A degrees C, solid-liquid ratio 1:10 (g:mL), 1,000 rpm stirring speed and 45 min contact time. Applying triple extraction with three stages reduced the amount of SDS solution needed by 50 %. The ASE method was scaled up to extract 300 g of ground canola using the best combination of extraction conditions as described above. The extracted oil from the scale-up of the ASE method passed the recommendation for biodiesel feedstock quality with respect to water content, acid value and phosphorous content. Water content, kinematic viscosity, acid value and oxidative stability index of ASE biodiesel were within the ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards.
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  26. Efficient production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate: One-pot esterification and transesterfication with compound lipases
    Abstract

    Zhu, Z. N.; Xu, L.; Zhang, H. J.; Yan, Y. J. 2013. Efficient production of biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate: One-pot esterification and transesterfication with compound lipases. Advances in Energy Science and Technology, Pts 1-4. 291-294267-275

    A novel concept and efficient method for producing biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate (RODD) was developed by using compound lipases for one-pot esterification of FFA and transesterification of triglyceride with methanol in a solvent-free system. Compound lipases Novozyme435 and immobilized Pseudomonas cepacia G63 at 1:1(wt/wt) gave FAME about 96% yield under optimal conditions, being better than that with single lipase or other compound lipases. Besides, the loss rate of vitamin E was 18% much lower than that of using chemical catalyst, which shows that the compound lipases Novozyme435 and immobilized P cepacia G63 can be ideal catalysts for biodiesel production from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate.
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  27. Fuel properties, performance testing and economic feasibility of Raphanus sativus (oilseed radish) biodiesel
    Abstract

    Chammoun, N.; Geller, D. P.; Das, K. C. 2013. Fuel properties, performance testing and economic feasibility of Raphanus sativus (oilseed radish) biodiesel. Industrial Crops and Products. 45155-159

    Oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus) was identified as a potential cool season cover and energy crop for the southern United States. The fatty acid profile of this oil shows high levels of erucic acid (C22:1), which has been linked to health issues. Its composition makes this oil an ideal candidate for industrial application as its use as feed or food is limited. Oilseed radish oil was extracted from seed using mechanical methods and yields were determined. The extracted oil was converted to fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) via transesterification. Fuel properties were analyzed including fatty acid profile, free and total glycerol, acid number, sulfur content, water content and cold filter plugging point (CFPP). Fuel properties of the biodiesel were found to meet or exceed ASTM standards for use in on-road vehicles. Biodiesel fuel produced here was also subjected to an engine performance stress test. The properties and engine performance of oilseed radish biodiesel were shown to be comparable with No. 2 diesel and other common biodiesel fuels. Additionally, a brief engineering based feasibility analysis was performed on the economics of on-farm production of biodiesel from oilseed radish. The analysis suggested economic feasibility of the system when priced against soybean oil, a common biodiesel feedstock. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  28. Perspectives of safflower oil as biodiesel source for South Eastern Europe (comparative study: Safflower, soybean and rapeseed)
    Abstract

    Mihaela, P.; Josef, R.; Monica, N.; Rudolf, Z. 2013. Perspectives of safflower oil as biodiesel source for South Eastern Europe (comparative study: Safflower, soybean and rapeseed). Fuel. 111114-119

    Biodiesel is a non-polluting alternative fuel produced from renewable resources whose chemical and physical properties closely resemble those of the petroleum diesel fuel. Recently studies are being carried out for biodiesel production from less common or unconventional oilseeds. This paper highlights the perspectives of using safflower oil for the biodiesel industry to promote it as an alternative fuel. The safflower is widely grown in semi-arid and arid regions of the world. Advantages of cultivating safflower like drought resistance and salt tolerance were taken into account. The field experiments were placed in Romania, one of the South-Eastern Europe countries with a big agricultural potential.
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  29. The effect of genotype and environment on biodiesel quality prepared from Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) grown in Australia
    Abstract

    Wilkes, M. A.; Takei, I.; Caldwell, R. A.; Trethowan, R. M. 2013. The effect of genotype and environment on biodiesel quality prepared from Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) grown in Australia. Industrial Crops and Products. 48124-132

    Two experiments were conducted in north-western New South Wales, Australia to determine the effect of genotype (G), growing site (S) and year (Y) on the suitability of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) as a biodiesel feedstock. The first experiment analyzed the effect of growing environment on six mustard genotypes while the second experiment analyzed the effect of sowing on the same genotypes across two seasons. The results demonstrate that late sowing forced maturity of the seed and decreased the yield whilst early sowing resulted in economically viable seed yields (>1.3 t/ha). The oil content of the seed ranged from 34 to 39.8% and the main fatty acids present in the oil were oleic (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2) in both experiments. The main factor that impacted on the fatty acid profile in a single season was the seed genotype while in the second experiment the growing year and interactions between year and the other parameters had a major impact on the fatty acid profile. The main fatty acids affected by the growing year were oleic, linoleic and erucic (C22:1). Oleic and linoleic acids were inversely correlated with erucic acid content which tended to be higher in cooler growing conditions. Two of the genotypes were processed into biodiesel and assessed for quality and the fuel met most requirements except for oxidation stability and kinematic viscosity. The relatively high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids was deemed to be responsible for the poor oxidation stability and higher amounts of erucic acid and glycerol would contribute to poor kinematic viscosity values. The mustard genotypes analyzed may prove to be both a viable break crop as well as providing a good feedstock for the establishment of a biodiesel industry in this area. Crown Copyright (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  30. Variation in soil carbon under contrasting biodiesel feedstock crops
    Abstract

    Koide, R. T.; Peoples, M. S.; Matheson, E. T. 2013. Variation in soil carbon under contrasting biodiesel feedstock crops. Pedobiologia. 56(2) 61-67

    There is considerable interest in both soy and canola as biodiesel feedstock crops because of the net reduction in CO2 emissions resulting from the use of biodiesel in place of petroleum diesel. Whether these two crops differ in net CO2 savings is unknown, in part because of our ignorance of their impact on soil C. We, therefore, monitored soil C for three years in an experiment that included both soy and canola rotations. We found that soil C concentrations were significantly lower under canola than soy, and that the difference represented as much as 64% of the C savings of soy biodiesel over petroleum diesel. We tested two hypotheses that could explain this difference in soil C. First, because canola can acidify the soil, we determined whether a reduction in inorganic C (as carbonate) in canola plots could account for the soil C difference. Carbonate concentration did not differ significantly in soy and canola plots. Second, we determined whether soil organic matter concentration could account for the soil C difference. Soil organic matter concentration was significantly lower in canola than in soy plots, accounting for the difference in soil C. We further hypothesized that because soy is mycorrhizal and canola is not, soy soils should contain higher concentrations of glomalin, a recalcitrant substance produced by mycorrhizal fungi, and that this could help to explain the difference in soil organic matter. Glomalin concentrations were significantly lower in canola plots, but this difference accounted for only a fraction of the total soil C difference. Our results suggest that a proper accounting of life cycle C savings of biodiesel when used in place of petroleum diesel must consider soil C. (C) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
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  31. An experimental investigation of biodiesel synthesis from waste canola oil using supercritical methanol
    Abstract

    Lee, S.; Posarac, D.; Ellis, N. 2012. An experimental investigation of biodiesel synthesis from waste canola oil using supercritical methanol. Fuel. 91(1) 229-237

    Synthesis of biodiesel from waste canola oil using supercritical methanol is investigated under relatively moderate reaction conditions (240-270 degrees C/10 MPa) with residence time of 15-45 min and methanol to oil weight ratio of 1:1, 1.5:1 or 2:1. The effects of reaction conditions on the biodiesel yield were studied using design of experiments (DOE). The results showed that reaction time, temperature, and their interaction were the most significant factors on the yield. The highest biodiesel yield of 102% was achieved at 270 degrees C, 10 MPa, and methanol/oil weight ratio of 2 for 45 min reaction time. The GC-MS analysis of the reaction products showed that the by-product, glycerol, further reacted with methanol, generating methyl ethers of glycerol. Further confirmation of this side reaction was obtained by reacting glycerol and methanol at 270 degrees C/10 MPa for 15, 30, and 45 min. The experimental results showed these reactions could positively affect the overall biodiesel yield by providing oxygenated compounds such as 3-methoxy-1,2-propanediol, dimethoxymethane, and 2,2-dimethoxypropane as well as methyl palmitate and methyl oleate. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  32. Influence of Feedstock: Air Pollution and Climate-Related Emissions from a Diesel Generator Operating on Soybean, Canola, and Yellow Grease Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Lackey, L. G.; Paulson, S. E. 2012. Influence of Feedstock: Air Pollution and Climate-Related Emissions from a Diesel Generator Operating on Soybean, Canola, and Yellow Grease Biodiesel. Energy & Fuels. 26(1) 686-700

    Global use of biodiesel is increasing rapidly. Combustion of biodiesel changes the emissions profile of diesel engines, altering their impact on both urban air pollution and climate. Here, we characterize exhaust emissions from conventional petroleum diesel and three neat biodiesels manufactured from soybean, canola, and yellow grease feedstocks. Exhaust was sampled from a fixed-speed 4.8 kW diesel generator at idle and full loads, and mass emission rates were determined for nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, and NOx, particulate matter (PM), and elemental, organic, and black carbon (EC, OC, and BC). Additionally, particle size distributions were characterized. Largely consistent with a growing body of data on emissions from biodiesel, biodiesel emissions were cleaner by most metrics than those for conventional diesel. Emissions from the two primary-oil fuels, synthesized from soy and canola feedstocks, were cleaner by most metrics than emissions from diesel, producing approximately 55, 65, and 60% less PM, EC, and OC at engine idle and 40, 20, and 15% less at engine load. In addition, while primary-oil NOx emissions were 5% higher than diesel emissions at engine idle, they were more than 30% lower at engine load. Yellow grease emissions of PM, EC, and OC were reduced in comparison to diesel at engine idle by 60, 30, and 20%. However, at engine load, most yellow grease emissions were increased in comparison to diesel, resulting in approximately 5, 60, and 70% more PM, EC, and OC. Organic vapor emissions from primary-oil biodiesels were also lower, and aromatic emissions were much lower compared to diesel. Yellow grease NOx emissions were increased in comparison to diesel by approximately 5% at engine idle and 10% at engine load. Notably, NO2 accounted for a smaller fraction of NOx for all three biodiesels compared to diesel, a difference that may be more important than the somewhat higher NOx emissions in determining the impact of biodiesel on urban ozone formation. Taken together, our results suggest that widespread implementation of primary-oil biodiesels could result in improvements in urban ozone and PM pollution. In addition, by reducing both the mass and the EC content of those particles, primary-oil biodiesels may reduce anthropogenic climate forcing.
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  33. The effect of flux and residence time in the production of biodiesel from various feedstocks using a membrane reactor
    Abstract

    Falahati, H.; Tremblay, A. Y. 2012. The effect of flux and residence time in the production of biodiesel from various feedstocks using a membrane reactor. Fuel. 91(1) 126-133

    Biodiesel produced from lipid sources is a clean-burning, biodegradable, nontoxic fuel that is free of aromatic hydrocarbons. Current biodiesel production processes are tedious and involve two to three reaction steps each followed by separation and purification. Process integration of reaction and separation in a single step within a membrane reactor (MR) offers several advantages over conventional reactors.
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  34. The Significance of Pollination Services for Biodiesel Feedstocks, with Special Reference to Jatropha curcas L.: A Review
    Abstract

    Vaknin, Y. 2012. The Significance of Pollination Services for Biodiesel Feedstocks, with Special Reference to Jatropha curcas L.: A Review. Bioenergy Research. 5(1) 32-40

    The importance of pollination services for insect-pollinated crops in general, and for the major biodiesel crops, such as Jatropha curcas L., in particular, is reviewed. The dependence of the major biodiesel feedstocks on pollinators ranges from almost zero to low dependence in soybean, through low to medium dependence in rapeseed, and up to high dependence in the African oil palm and in J. curcas. Currently, the basic requirement of J. curcas for pollination services is largely neglected. In light of the enormous scale of existing and future plantations of J. curcas, and of the effective pollination by native pollinators in most commercial crops, it is clear that the local insect fauna of any given habitat, on any continent, will not be able to satisfy the pollination requirements of any plantation, once it becomes established and starts blooming. It is suggested that the best way to address the pending catastrophe of severely reduced yields in J. curcas plantations that would result from reduced reproductive success would be to use honeybees as the prime pollinators, regardless of the pollination services provided by the local insect fauna. Basic research on the contribution of honeybees to the reproductive success of J. curcas should be carried out and used as a guideline for planning future provision of proper honeybee pollination services in any given plantation, characterized by its specific size, age, planting density, soil type, irrigation, fertilization, and climatic conditions.
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  35. Alternative oilseed crops for biodiesel feedstock on the Canadian prairies
    Abstract

    Blackshaw, R. E.; Johnson, E. N.; Gan, Y. T.; May, W. E.; McAndrews, D. W.; Barthet, V.; McDonald, T.; Wispinski, D. 2011. Alternative oilseed crops for biodiesel feedstock on the Canadian prairies. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 91(5) 889-896

    Blackshaw, R. E., Johnson, E. N., Gan, Y., May, W. E., McAndrew, D. W., Barthet, V., McDonald, T. and Wispinski, D. 2011. Alternative oilseed crops for biodiesel feedstock on the Canadian prairies. Can. J. Plant Sci. 91: 889-896. increased demand for biodiesel feedstock has encouraged greater napus canola (Brassica napus L.) production, but there may be a need for greater production of other oilseed crops for this purpose. A multi-site field study was conducted to determine the oil yield potential of various crops relative to that of napus canola in the semi-arid, short-season environment of the Canadian prairies. Oilseed crops evaluated included rapa canola (Brassica rapa L.), juncea canola (Brassica juncea L.), Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata L.), oriental mustard (Brassica juncea L.), yellow mustard (Sinapis alba L.), camelina (Camelina swim L.), flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Max.]. Crop emergence and growth were generally good for all crops, but soybean did not fully mature at some locations. The number of site-years (out of a total of 9) that crops attained similar or greater yields compared to napus canola were camelina (6), oriental mustard (5), juncea canola (3), flax (3), soybean (3), rapa canola (2), yellow mustard (2), and Ethiopian mustard (1). The ranking of seed oil concentration was napus canola =rapa canola =juncea canola =flax >camelina =oriental mustard > Ethiopian mustard >yellow mustard >soybean. Considering yield and oil concentration, the alternative oilseed crops exhibiting the most potential for biodiesel feedstock were camelina, flax, rapa canola and oriental mustard. Oils of all crops were easily converted to biodiesel and quality analyses indicated that all crops would be suitable for biodiesel feedstock with the addition of antioxidants that are routinely utilized in biodiesel fuels.
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  36. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters
    Abstract

    Ozsezen, A. N.; Canakci, M. 2011. Determination of performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with canola and waste palm oil methyl esters. Energy Conversion and Management. 52(1) 108-116

    In this study, the performance, combustion and injection characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine have been investigated experimentally when it was fueled with canola oil methyl ester (COME) and waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at constant engine speeds under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME instead of petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF), the brake power reduced by 4-5%, while the brake specific fuel consumption increased by 9-10%. On the other hand, methyl esters caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO) by 59-67%, in unburned hydrocarbon (HC) by 17-26%, in carbon dioxide (CO(2)) by 5-8%, and smoke opacity by 56-63%. However, both methyl esters produced more nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions by 11-22% compared with those of the PBDF over the speed range. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  37. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels
    Abstract

    Fore, S. R.; Lazarus, W.; Porter, P.; Jordan, N. 2011. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(1) 193-202

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L(-1) of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13$L(-1) and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83$L(-1) depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60$L(-1) and from 0.14 to 0.33$L(-1), respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39$L(-1) for soybean and 0.44$L(-1) for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25$L-1 (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  38. Effect of trace contaminants on cold soak filterability of canola biodiesel
    Abstract

    Lin, H. J.; Haagenson, D. M.; Wiesenborn, D. P.; Pryor, S. W. 2011. Effect of trace contaminants on cold soak filterability of canola biodiesel. Fuel. 90(5) 1771-1777

    A cold soak filtration test (CSFT; ASTM D 7501-09b) was included in B100 specifications under ASTM D 6751-09, bringing new challenges to biodiesel producers and researchers investigating B100 quality. For a plant breeding program evaluating canola biodiesel quality traits, rapid assessment of biodiesel quality is important. Typically, a limited amount of seed from new canola lines is available; therefore, obtaining the required volume of biodiesel for evaluating cold soak filterability (300 mL) is not possible. In order to rapidly screen canola breeding lines for B100 quality, cold soak filterability must be assessed with reduced volumes of biodiesel. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of saturated monoglycerides, glycerin, and soap on cold soak filterability. Biodiesel filtration time rapidly escalated when the SMG concentration was above 0.28%. The influence of saturated monoglycerides (0.04-0.46% w/w) on biodiesel precipitate formation was also evaluated. A regression model was generated to predict the filterability of biodiesel against the concentrations of trace contaminants. The results will be instrumental to scaling down biodiesel CSFT for a canola breeding program. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  39. Impact of the North Dakota Growing Location on Canola Biodiesel Quality
    Abstract

    Haagenson, D. M.; Wiesenborn, D. P. 2011. Impact of the North Dakota Growing Location on Canola Biodiesel Quality. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 88(9) 1439-1445

    Canola biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) may have superior cold flow properties when compared to other biodiesel feedstocks, which is attributed to canola's high unsaturated and low saturated fat content. The objective of this study was to evaluate canola biodiesel fatty acid composition, cloud point (CP) and oil stability index (OSI) among several ND locations and production years. In Experiment 1, bulked canola varieties from seven growing seasons (2003-2009) were analyzed and in Experiment 2 a single canola variety (Interstate Hyola 357RR) harvested at two locations (2003-2005, and 2007) were analyzed. FAME was produced directly from seed via in situ alkaline transesterification methods. CP ranged from -0.1 to -2.4 A degrees C and was significantly impacted by year and location. FAME generally met the ASTM B100 specification for OSI (3 h), but increased seed storage decreased stability. No significant differences were detected in FAME composition, and iodine value ranged from 108 to 123 g I(2)/100 g. A significant relationship between fat saturation and location with CP and stability was not detected among the samples in this study. Variation in fatty acid composition was small; thus, the significant variability in CP and OSI suggests either differences in minor constituents (antioxidants, waxes) or environmental seed stress impacted biodiesel quality. Our study supports the value of examining biodiesel quality in a canola breeding program.
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  40. Net energy balance of small-scale on-farm biodiesel production from canola and soybean
    Abstract

    Fore, S. R.; Porter, P.; Lazarus, W. 2011. Net energy balance of small-scale on-farm biodiesel production from canola and soybean. Biomass & Bioenergy. 35(5) 2234-2244

    One necessary criterion for a biofuel to be a sustainable alternative to the petroleum fuels it displaces is a positive net energy balance. This study estimated the net energy ratio (NER), net energy balance (NEB), and net energy yield (NEY) of small-scale on-farm production of canola [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel in the upper Midwest. Direct and embodied energy inputs based on well-defined system boundaries and contemporary data were used to estimate the energy requirement of crop production, oil extraction, and biofuel processing. The NER of canola biodiesel was 1.78 compared with 2.05 for soybean biodiesel. Canola biodiesel had a NEB of 0.66 MJ MJ(-1) of biofuel compared with 0.81 MJ MJ(-1) for soybean biodiesel. The NEY of soybean biodiesel was 10,951 MJ ha(-1) less than canola biodiesel which had a NEY of 11,353 MJ ha(-1). Use of soybean as a biodiesel feedstock was more energetically efficient than canola primarily due to reduced nitrogen fertilizer requirement. In terms of energetic productivity, canola was a more productive biodiesel feedstock than soybean due to its higher oil content. A best-case scenario based on optimal feedstock yields, reduced fertilizer input, and advanced biofuel processing equipment suggested that potential gains in energetic efficiency was greater for canola than soybean. According to our results, small-scale on-farm biodiesel production using canola and soybean can be an energetically efficient way to produce energy for on-farm use. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  41. Non Edible Oils: Raw Materials for Sustainable Biodiesel
    Abstract

    Bianchi, C. L.; Pirola, C.; Boffito, D. C.; Di Fronzo, A.; Carvoli, G.; Barnabe, D.; Bucchi, R.; Rispoli, A. 2011. Non Edible Oils: Raw Materials for Sustainable Biodiesel. Biodiesel - Feedstocks and Processing Technologies. 3-22

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  42. Effect of Canola Oil Quality on Biodiesel Conversion Efficiency and Properties
    Abstract

    Dunford, N. T.; Su, A. 2010. Effect of Canola Oil Quality on Biodiesel Conversion Efficiency and Properties. Transactions of the Asabe. 53(3) 993-997

    Many small-scale biodiesel producers use feedstocks in their operations that vary in quality and degree of refining, ranging from crude to degummed to highly refined oils. There have been claims that mechanically extracted oil makes better biodiesel as compared to that from hexane extracted oil. However, there is no comprehensive study evaluating the effects of oilseed extraction and refining techniques on biodiesel production efficiency and properties, specifically products derived from canola. This study examined biodiesel conversion efficiency of canola oil obtained by both hexane and mechanical extraction methods. Hexane extracted crude, degummed, and refined-bleached-deodorized and mechanically extracted crude canola oils were converted to biodiesel using a conventional transesterification method. Material balances for conversion of hexane and mechanically extracted oils to biodiesel were calculated. Physical and chemical properties for both oil and biodiesel samples were analyzed. Quality parameters of the biodiesel samples were compared to both ASTM and European standards. This study demonstrated that degummed canola oil produces biodiesel with acceptable yield and quality.
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  43. Feedstocks for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Bart, J. C. J.; Palmeri, N.; Cavallaro, S. 2010. Feedstocks for biodiesel production. Biodiesel Science and Technology: From Soil to Oil. (7) 130-225

    Globally dominating feedstocks for biodiesel production nowadays are mainly rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm oils; animal fats (tallow) and recycled frying oils are minor contributors. This chapter describes the main characteristics of the major and minor first-generation foodstocks for biodiesel production and the short-to medium-term prospects of second-generation, non-edible feedstocks (in particular Jatropha and algae) and various highly acidic, low-quality oils for the same purpose. Biodiesel outlooks are differing geographically as a result of the prevailing agronomic and climatic conditions. Important developments can be observed in various parts of the world.
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  44. Implementing an In Situ Alkaline Transesterification Method for Canola Biodiesel Quality Screening
    Abstract

    Haagenson, D. M.; Brudvik, R. L.; Lin, H. J.; Wiesenborn, D. P. 2010. Implementing an In Situ Alkaline Transesterification Method for Canola Biodiesel Quality Screening. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 87(11) 1351-1358

    Increasing demand for canola (Brassica napus) as an edible oil crop and biodiesel (B100) feedstock has encouraged genetic development for increased oil yields and expanded acreage in the US Northern Plains. Crop production environment and plant genetics influence metabolism and fatty acid composition, but the influence of this interaction on the resulting fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is not clearly understood. The objective of this study was to develop a canola in situ transesterification (TE) method for facilitating the identification of genetic, abiotic or biotic factors impacting B100 quality, and to evaluate FAME quality properties from conventional TE (degummed oil) and in situ TE methods. In situ reactions containing 40 g canola flour conducted for 6 h at 60 A degrees C with a 275:1:1.05 M ratio of methanol:triacylglycerol (TAG):KOH provided 80% conversion of seed lipid to FAME. Replicated reactions provided sufficient FAME volume for measuring several ASTM D6751-09 standards including cloud point, kinematic viscosity, acid value, moisture content, oxidative stability, and total glycerin, but adjustments are necessary to provide sufficient volumes for routine analysis of cold soak filtration test. The established in situ protocol would permit weekly analysis of 40 samples and the in situ TE method provides an opportunity to evaluate the impact of genetic or environmental factors on B100 quality.
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  45. The thermal cracking of canola and soybean methyl esters: Improvement of cold flow properties
    Abstract

    Seames, W.; Luo, Y.; Ahmed, I.; Aulich, T.; Kubatova, A.; Stavova, J.; Kozliak, E. 2010. The thermal cracking of canola and soybean methyl esters: Improvement of cold flow properties. Biomass & Bioenergy. 34(7) 939-946

    A study was performed to evaluate the use of thermal cracking to overcome cold flow and stability limitations of current biodiesel. Experiments were conducted in a batch cracking reactor system using soy methyl ester and canola methyl ester feedstocks. The amount of high-MW C(16)-C(24) FAMEs was reduced from nearly 100% in the original feedstock by an order of magnitude. Yields of desirable cracking product ranged from 70 to 85% while cloud and pour points decreased around 20 degrees C and 15 degrees C, respectively. The stability of the fuel was improved by converting all of the unsaturated esters into lower-MW saturated esters. This method may lead to an attractive process to produce an improved biodiesel that is more conductive to cold temperature utilization and more stable during storage. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  46. Artificial Neural Network Analysis of Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Biodiesel from Rapeseed Soapstock
    Abstract

    Ying, Y. J.; Shao, P.; Jiang, S. T.; Sun, P. L. 2009. Artificial Neural Network Analysis of Immobilized Lipase Catalyzed Synthesis of Biodiesel from Rapeseed Soapstock. Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture Ii, Volume 2. 2951239-+

    Refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high costs tender the resulting fuels unable to compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Artificial neural network (ANN) analysis of immobilized Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) on chitosan catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock with methanol was carried out. Methanol substrate molar ratio, enzyme amount, water content and reaction temperature were four important parameters employed. Back-Propagation algorithm with momentous factor was adopted to train the neural network. The momentous factor and learning rate were selected as 0.95 and 0.8. ANN analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. The coefficient of determination (R2) between experimental and predicted values was 99.20%. Biodiesel conversion of 75.4% was obtained when optimum conditions of immobilized lipase catalysed for biodiesel production were methanol substrate molar ratio of 4.4:1, enzyme amount of 11.6%, water content of 4% and reaction temperature of 45 degrees C. Methyl ester content was above 95% after short path distillation process. Biodiesel conversion was increased markedly by neural network analysis.
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  47. Biodiesel Fuel Quality of Canola Feedstock Grown on Saline Land
    Abstract

    Steppuhn, H.; Stumborg, M. A.; McDonald, T.; Dunn, R. 2009. Biodiesel Fuel Quality of Canola Feedstock Grown on Saline Land. 2009 Bioenergy Engineering Conference.

    Vegetable oil from canola-grade feedstock ranks among the best in the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME or biodiesel). FAME produced from canola-quality oilseed grown on salt-affected lands offer new opportunities for increased production and counter fuel-versus-food concerns provided the biodiesel product meets quality standards. The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) has set the North American fuel quality standards (D6751) for 100% biodiesel (B100) to be blended with petrodiesel fuel. Canola-quality feedstock yield oil low in free fatty acids, acids which are not bonded to parent oil molecules. These free acids may negatively affect diesel engine components, especially at biodiesel oil blends greater than 20%. Also, solid and dissolved impurities, alkali/alkaline earth metals, and oxidation stability are of concern to fuel injection equipment manufacturers. Ultimately, purity, composition, and biodiesel utility depend on the quality of the feedstock supplied. Processing can improve purity, but not composition. Contaminants in biodiesel fuel may include water, sediment, S, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, carbon residue, and various other constituents in its sulphated ash. Canterra 1818 canola feedstock grown on negligibly, slightly, moderately, and severely salinized soil were crushed and tested for biodiesel fuel quality. All samples from saline soil yielded biofuel within the ASTM International specifications.
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  48. Biodiesel production from rapeseed deodorizer distillate in a packed column reactor
    Abstract

    Liu, Y.; Wang, L. 2009. Biodiesel production from rapeseed deodorizer distillate in a packed column reactor. Chemical Engineering and Processing. 48(6) 1152-1156

    In this study, a technical method investigating biodiesel production in a column reactor packed with cation exchange resin from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate (RODD) was addressed. The results showed that D002 cation exchange resin presented more efficiently catalytic activity than 002CR and 732 resins in a packed column reactor. Biodiesel yield achieved over 96% under the optimal conditions: D002 resin catalyst dosage 18 wt.% (based on oil weight), oil to methanol molar ratio 1:9, reaction temperature 60 degrees C. and reaction time 4 h. When the packed resin catalyst was recovered, biodiesel yield was over 88% after 10 repeated batch cycles (40 h). The comparison of biodiesel production in a packed column reactor and catalyzed by traditional sulfuric acid from RODD was also studied. It was concluded that biodiesel synthesis in a packed column reactor would be a potential way for biodiesel production from RODD. (C) 2009 Elsevier BIN. All rights reserved.
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  49. Biodiesel synthesis combining pre-esterification with alkali catalyzed process from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate
    Abstract

    Liu, Y.; Wang, L.; Yan, Y. J. 2009. Biodiesel synthesis combining pre-esterification with alkali catalyzed process from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate. Fuel Processing Technology. 90(7-8) 857-862

    A two-step technique combining pre-esterification catalyzed by cation exchange resin with transesterification catalyzed by base alkali was developed to produce biodiesel from rapeseed oil deodorizer distillate (RDOD). The free fatty acids (FFAs) in the feedstock were converted to methyl esters in the pre-esterification step using a column reactor packed with cation exchange resin. The acid value of oil was reduced from the initial 97.60 mg-KOH g(-1) oil to 1.12 mg-KOH g(-1) oil under the conditions of cation exchange resin D002 catalyst packed dosage 18 wt.% (based on oil weight), oil to methanol molar ratio 1:9. reaction temperature 60 degrees C, and reaction time 4 h. The biodiesel yield by transesterification was 97.4% in 1.5 h using 0.8 wt.% KOH as catalyst and a molar ratio of oil to methanol 1:4 at 60 degrees C. The properties of RDOD biodiesel production in a packed column reactor followed by KOH catalyzed transesterification were measured up the standards of EN14214 and ASTM6751-03. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  50. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Sesame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing
    Abstract

    Balan, V.; Rogers, C. A.; Chundawat, S. P. S.; Sousa, L. D.; Slininger, P. J.; Gupta, R.; Dale, B. E. 2009. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Sesame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 86(2) 157-165

    We have come up with a novel, integrated approach for making biodiesel by in-house producion of ethanol after fermentation of hexane extracted edible oil cake fiber. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from commonly available oil cakes (such as canola, sunflower, sesame, soy, peanut) and dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). The edible oil cakes and DDGS were hexane extracted, ammonia fiber expansion pretreated, enzymatically hydrolysed and fermented to produce ethanol. From all the oil cakes tested in this work, DDGS and peanut oil cake showed the most promising results giving more than 180 g of glucose/kg of oil cake. These two feedstock's were hydrolyzed at 15% solids loading and fermented by a native strain of Pichia stipitis. Most sugars were consumed during the first 24 h, with no pronounced inhibition of P. stipitis by the degradation products in the hydrolysate. Xylose consumption was more effective for peanut cake hydrolyzate compared to DDGS.
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  51. Development and evaluation of biodiesel fuel and by-products from jatropha oil
    Abstract

    El Diwani, G.; Attia, N. K.; Hawash, S. I. 2009. Development and evaluation of biodiesel fuel and by-products from jatropha oil. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 6(2) 219-224

    Biodiesel is an environmentally friend renewable diesel fuel alternative. Jatropha seeds can be a feedstock to produce a valuable amount of oil to be converted to biodiesel using transesterification reaction. Jatropha plant has been successfully grown in southern Egypt using primary treated municipal wastewater for its irrigation. A bench scale production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil (using methyl alcohol and sodium hydroxide as catalyst) was developed with methyl esters yield of 98 %. Biodiesel was produced on a pilot scale basal on the bench scale experiment results with almost the same methyl esters yield of 98 %. The produced biodiesel was evaluated as a fuel and compared with petroleum diesel according to its physical and chemical parameters such as viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, carbon residue, acid value and calorific value. The experimental techniques and product evaluation results show that such properties of the produced biodiesel are near to that of petroleum diesel. A mass balance representing the transesterification process is presented in this study. Glycerol of 85 % purity was produced and evaluated as a valuable byproduct of the process. Free fatty acids and sodium phosphate salts which have industrial interesting are also produced and evaluated.
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  52. Pan-European regional-scale modelling of water and N efficiencies of rapeseed cultivation for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    van der Velde, M.; Bouraoui, F.; Aloe, A. 2009. Pan-European regional-scale modelling of water and N efficiencies of rapeseed cultivation for biodiesel production. Global Change Biology. 15(1) 24-37

    The energy produced from the investment in biofuel crops needs to account for the environmental impacts on soil, water, climate change and ecosystem services. A regionalized approach is needed to evaluate the environmental costs of large-scale biofuel production. We present a regional pan-European simulation of rapeseed (Brassica napus) cultivation. Rapeseed is the European Union's dominant biofuel crop with a share of about 80% of the feedstock. To improve the assessment of the environmental impact of this biodiesel production, we performed a pan-European simulation of rapeseed cultivation at a 10 x 10 km scale with Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC). The model runs with a daily time step and model input consists of spatialized meteorological measurements, and topographic, soil, land use, and farm management practices data and information. Default EPIC model parameters were calibrated based on literature. Modelled rapeseed yields were satisfactory compared with yields at regional level reported for 151 regions obtained for the period from 1995 to 2003 for 27 European Union member countries, along with consistent modelled and reported yield responses to precipitation, radiation and vapour pressure deficit at regional level. The model is currently set up so that plant nutrient stress is not occurring. Total fertilizer consumption at country level was compared with IFA/FAO data. This approach allows us to evaluate environmental pressures and efficiencies arising from and associated with rapeseed cultivation to further complete the environmental balance of biofuel production and consumption.
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  53. Performance and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with waste palm oil and canola oil methyl esters
    Abstract

    Ozsezen, A. N.; Canakci, M.; Turkcan, A.; Sayin, C. 2009. Performance and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with waste palm oil and canola oil methyl esters. Fuel. 88(4) 629-636

    This study discusses the performance and combustion characteristics of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine fueled with biodiesels such as waste (frying) palm oil methyl ester (WPOME) and canola oil methyl ester (COME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at the constant engine speed mode (1500 rpm) under the full load condition of the engine. The results indicated that when the test engine was fueled with WPOME or COME, the engine performance slightly weakened; the combustion characteristics slightly changed when compared to petroleum based diesel fuel (PBDF). The biodiesels caused reductions in carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions and smoke opacity, but they caused to increases in nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) emissions. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  54. Process optimisation for the production of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock by a novel method of short path distillation
    Abstract

    Shao, P.; He, J. Z.; Sun, P. L.; Jiang, S. T. 2009. Process optimisation for the production of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock by a novel method of short path distillation. Biosystems Engineering. 102(3) 285-290

    Refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high production costs make it difficult for the resulting fuels to compete with petroleum-derived fuels. An effective method involving a short path distillation pretreatment followed by appropriate esterification and transesterification was proposed. A short path distillation process was developed to separate free fatty acids (FFAs) and esterified fatty acids from rapeseed soapstock (SS). Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis was carried out on the process of FFA esterification catalysed by an acid catalyst (sulphuric acid) to prepare biodiesel from rapeseed SS using methanol. Methanol substrate, acid concentration and reaction time were the three important parameters investigated. RSM analysis showed close agreement between experimental and predicted values. It was found that the most effective parameter was methanol quantity, which was in agreement with the results. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the model was 99.80%. A probability value (P < 0.0001) demonstrated a very high significance for the regression model. A biodiesel yield of 96.45% was obtained when optimum conditions of catalysed biodiesel production were used. Optimum performance occurred with a methanol to oil ratio of 0.33 v/v, an acid catalyst of 1.44% v/v and a reaction time 1.42 h at 60 degrees C. Transesterification with glycerides was also carried out with a methanol to oil molar ratio of 6.3:1 and a KOH catalyst 1.0% w/v to produce biodiesel of 98% purity. (C) 2008 IAgrE. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  55. Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oil
    Abstract

    Moser, B. R.; Knothe, G.; Vaughn, S. F.; Isbell, T. A. 2009. Production and Evaluation of Biodiesel from Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) Oil. Energy & Fuels. 23(8) 4149-4155

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 82 wt % yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst at 60 degrees C and an alcohol to oil molar ratio of 6:1. Acid-catalyzed pretreatment to reduce the acid value of crude field pennycress oil resulted in a yield after methanolysis of 94 wt %. Field pennycress oil had high contents of erucic (13(Z)-docosenoic; 32.8 wt %) and linoleic (9(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic; 22.4 wt %) acids with other unsaturated fatly acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibited a high cetane number of 59.8 and excellent low temperature properties, as evidenced by cloud, pour, and cold filter Plugging points of - 10, - 18, and - 17 degrees C. respectively. The kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability (Rancimat method) of field pennycress oil methyl esters were 5.24 mm(2)/s (40 degrees C) and 4.4 h (110 degrees C), respectively. Other fuel properties Such Is acid value, lubricity, free and total glycerol content. surface tension, as well as sulfur and phosphorus contents were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Also reported for the first time are cetane numbers of methyl esters of erucic and gondoic (methyl 11(Z)-eicosenoate) acids, which were found to be 74.2 and 73.2, respectively. In summary, field pennycress oil appears to an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  56. Wild Brazilian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Jham, G. N.; Moser, B. R.; Shah, S. N.; Holser, R. A.; Dhingra, O. D.; Vaughn, S. F.; Berhow, M. A.; Winkler-Moser, J. K.; Isbell, T. A.; Holloway, R. K.; Walter, E. L.; Natalino, R.; Anderson, J. C.; Stelly, D. M. 2009. Wild Brazilian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 86(9) 917-926

    Wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.) oil is evaluated as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Biodiesel was obtained in 94 wt.% yield by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and sodium methoxide catalyst. Wild mustard oil had a high content of erucic (13(Z)-docosenoic; 45.7 wt.%) acid, with linoleic (9(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic; 14.2 wt.%) and linolenic (9(Z),12(Z),15(Z)-octadecatrienoic; 13.0 wt.%) acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. The cetane number, kinematic viscosity, and oxidative stability (Rancimat method) of the methyl esters was 61.1, 5.33 mm(2) s(-1) (40 A degrees C) and 4.8 h (110 A degrees C), respectively. The cloud, pour and cold filter plugging points were 4, -21 and -3 A degrees C, respectively. Other properties such as acid value, lubricity, free and total glycerol content, iodine value, Gardner color, specific gravity, as well as sulfur and phosphorous contents were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Also reported are the properties and composition of wild mustard oil, along with identification of wild mustard collected in Brazil as Brassica juncea L. (2n = 36) as opposed to the currently accepted Sinapis arvensis L. (2n = 18) classification. In summary, wild mustard oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel production.
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  57. Analysis of immobilized Candida rugosa lipase catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock
    Abstract

    Shao, P.; Meng, X. H.; He, J. Z.; Sun, P. L. 2008. Analysis of immobilized Candida rugosa lipase catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 86(C4) 283-289

    Refined vegetable oils are the predominant feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. However, their relatively high costs render the resulting fuels unable to compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Response surface methodology (RSM) analysis of immobilized Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) on chitosan catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from rapeseed soapstock with methanol was carried out. Methanol substrate molar ratio, enzyme amount, water content and reaction temperature were four important parameters employed. RSM analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values. It was found that the most effective parameter was water content, which was in good agreement with the experimental value. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the model was 92.86%. Probability value (P < 0.0001) demonstrated a very high significance for the regression model. Methyl conversion of 63.6% was obtained when optimum conditions of immobilized lipase catalyzed for biodiesel production were methanol substrate molar ratio of 4:1, enzyme amount of 8%, water content of 6% and reaction temperature of 45 degrees C. Methyl ester content was above 95% after molecular distillation process. (C) 2008 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  58. Biodiesel production from mixtures of canola oil and used cooking oil
    Abstract

    Issariyakul, T.; Kulkarni, M. G.; Meher, L. C.; Dalai, A. K.; Bakhshi, N. N. 2008. Biodiesel production from mixtures of canola oil and used cooking oil. Chemical Engineering Journal. 140(1-3) 77-85

    Used cooking oil (UCO) was mixed with canola oil at various ratios in order to make use of used cooking oil for production of biodiesel and also lower the cost of biodiesel production. Methyl and ethyl esters were prepared by means of KOH-catalyzed transesterification from the mixtures of both the oils. Water content, acid value and viscosity of most esters met ASTM standard except for ethyl esters prepared from used cooking oil. Canola oil content of at least 60% in the used cooking oil/canola oil feedstock is required in order to produce ethyl ester satisfying ASTM specifications. Although ethanolysis was proved to be more challenging, ethyl esters showed reduced crystallization temperature (-45.0 to -54.4 degrees C) as compared to methyl esters (-35.3 to -43.0 degrees C). A somewhat better low-temperature property of ester was observed at higher used cooking oil to canola oil ratio in spite of similar fatty acid compositions of both oils. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  59. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor
    Abstract

    Cao, P. G.; Dube, M. A.; Tremblay, A. Y. 2008. High-purity fatty acid methyl ester production from canola, soybean, palm, and yellow grease lipids by means of a membrane reactor. Biomass & Bioenergy. 32(11) 1028-1036

    High-purity fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was produced from different lipids, such as soybean oil, canola oil, a hydrogenated palm oil/palm oil blend, yellow grease, and brown grease, combined with methanol using a continuous membrane reactor. The membrane reactor combines reaction and separation in a single unit, provides continuous mixing of raw materials, and maintains a high molar ratio of methanol to lipid in the reaction loop while maintaining two phases during the reaction. It was demonstrated that the membrane reactor can be operated using a very broad range of feedstocks at highly similar operating conditions to produce FAME. The total glycerine and free glycerine contents of the FAME produced were below the ASTM D6751 standard after a single reaction step. Under essentially the same reaction conditions, a conventional batch reaction was not able to achieve the same degree of FAME purity. The effect of the fatty acid composition of the lipid feedstocks on the FAME purity was also shown. it was demonstrated that, due to the fatty acid composition, FAME from virgin soybean oil and virgin canola oil was produced in the membrane reactor within ASTM specifications even without a water washing step. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  60. Optimization of conversion of waste rapeseed oil with high FFA to biodiesel using response surface methodology
    Abstract

    Yuan, X.; Liu, J.; Zeng, G.; Shi, J.; Tong, J.; Huang, G. H. 2008. Optimization of conversion of waste rapeseed oil with high FFA to biodiesel using response surface methodology. Renewable Energy. 33(7) 1678-1684

    In the present study, waste rapeseed oil with high free fatty acids (FFA) was used as feedstock for producing biodiesel. In the pretreatment step, FFA was reduced by distillation refining method. Then, biodiesel was produced by alkaline-catalyzed transesterification process, which was designed according to the 2(4) full-factorial central composite design. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the conditions for the maximum conversion to biodiesel and understand the significance and interaction of the factors affecting the biodiesel production. The results showed that catalyst concentration and reaction time were the limiting conditions and little variation in their value would alter the conversion. At the same time, there was a significant mutual interaction between catalyst concentration and reaction time.
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  61. Potential of Brassica napus L. for industrial biodiesel
    Abstract

    Pandey, N. S.; Shukla, D. S. 2008. Potential of Brassica napus L. for industrial biodiesel. Plant Archives. 8(1) 429-430

    The Brassica napus is a main feedstock for biodiesel production in India. On an average, Brassica yield in India is 760 kg per hectare. The average high yields are so far 1100 kg per hectare. The most important factor influencing the economic viability of biodiesel is seed yield. Other important product can be mentioned here as high protein meal and glycerin obtained from rapeseed.
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  62. Rhizopus oryzae IFO 4697 whole cell catalyzed methanolysis of crude and acidified rapeseed oils for biodiesel production in tert-butanol system
    Abstract

    Li, W.; Du, W.; Liu, D. H. 2007. Rhizopus oryzae IFO 4697 whole cell catalyzed methanolysis of crude and acidified rapeseed oils for biodiesel production in tert-butanol system. Process Biochemistry. 42(11) 1481-1485

    Whole cell Rhizopus oryzae (R. oryzae) IFO4697 immobilized within biomass support particles (BSPs) was used as catalyst for biodiesel production in tert-butanol, in which the stability of the catalyst could be enhanced significantly. Different feedstocks (refined, crude and acidified rapeseed oils) were adopted further for biodiesel production in tert-butanol system and it was found that when acidified rapeseed oil was used as feedstocks, the reaction rate and final methyl ester (ME) yield were significantly higher than that of refined and crude rapeseed oil. Major differences among the aforementioned oils were found to be the contents of free fatty acid (FFA), water and phospholipids, which showed varied influences on whole cell mediated methanolysis for biodiesel production. The reaction rate increased with the increase of free fatty acid content in oils; water content had varied influence on reaction rate and biodiesel yield; using adsorbent to remove excessive water could increase biodiesel yield significantly (from 73 to 84%); it was also found interestingly that phospholipids contained in oils could increase the reaction rate to a certain extent. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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