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Camelina as biodiesel feedstock

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  1. Agronomic Evaluation of Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) Cultivars for Biodiesel Feedstock
    Abstract

    Mohammed, Y. A.; Chen, C. C.; Lamb, P.; Afshar, R. K. 2017. Agronomic Evaluation of Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) Cultivars for Biodiesel Feedstock. Bioenergy Research. 10(3) 792-799

    Recent interest in renewable energy sources and the need to diversify cropping systems have triggered research interest in camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz). Camelina is well adapted to the temperate dryland climates and can be used as an energy crop. But information on agronomic evaluation of camelina cultivars for biodiesel feedstock are limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate six spring camelina cultivars (cv. Blaine Creek, Calena, Ligena, Pronghorn, Shoshone, and Suneson) on seed yield, oil concentration, and oil yield. The study was carried out from 2013 to 2015 at three locations (Havre, Moccasin, and Pendroy, MT). Over locations and years, mean seed yield differences among cultivars were significant (P < 0.05). The mean seed yield for cultivars ranging from 1295 kg ha(-1) (Suneson) to 1420 kg ha(-1) (Ligena). Ligena and Calena showed a combination of good seed yield performance and stability across environments. Environmental means for seed yield differences were substantial compared with cultivar means. The location Havre produced 45 and 32% more mean seed yield than Pendroy and Moccasin, respectively. There was no significant difference among cultivars in oil concentration and oil yield. The absence of variations in oil concentration and oil yield differences among these cultivars could indicate the need for further research to improve these qualities essential for biodiesel.
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  2. Improvement on oxidation and storage stability of biodiesel derived from an emerging feedstock camelina
    Abstract

    Yang, J.; He, Q. S.; Corscadden, K.; Caldwell, C. 2017. Improvement on oxidation and storage stability of biodiesel derived from an emerging feedstock camelina. Fuel Processing Technology. 15790-98

    Camelina is recognized as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. Similarly to biodiesel derived from other vegetable oils, the oxidative stability is not satisfactory. This issue can be addressed by treating biodiesel with synthetic antioxidants to increase its resistance to oxidation. This study examined the effectiveness of four commonly used antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA), tert-butylhydrooquinone (TBHQ) and propyl gallate (PrG) on both oxidation stability and storage stability of camelina biodiesel. The antioxidative activity of four antioxidants was found to be in the order of BHA < BHT < PrG < TBHQ; The oil stability index (OSI) of camelina biodiesel was increased (>= 8 h), meeting the stability requirement regulated in EN 14214:2014, through adding either 2000 ppm BHT, 1000 ppm PrG or 1000 ppm TBHQ, Regarding the long term storage, it was predicted that treating camelina biodiesel with 3000 ppm TBHQ was enable satisfactory oxidation stability to be maintained for one year. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  3. Nutrient Requirements of Camelina for Biodiesel Feedstock in Central Montana
    Abstract

    Mohammed, Y. A.; Chen, C. C.; Afshar, R. K. 2017. Nutrient Requirements of Camelina for Biodiesel Feedstock in Central Montana. Agronomy Journal. 109(1) 309-316

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) shows potential to provide an alternative renewable energy source and enhance crop diversifi cation in temperate semiarid regions. Information on the effect of N, P, K, and S on yield and quality of camelina for biodiesel feedstock in the northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States is limited. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of the above nutrients on seed and oil yields, test weight, oil concentration and agronomic nitrogen use efficiency (ANUE) of camelina on a clay loam soil in central Montana. Results showed that fertilizer treatments significantly affected seed yield, oil concentration and oil yield of camelina. The seed and oil yields ranged from 677 to 1306 kg ha(-1) and from 234 to 445 kg ha(-1), respectively. Although the highest seed and oil yields were obtained from the application of 134-22-22-28 kg ha(-1) N-P2O5-K2O-S, they were statistically in the same group with yields achieved from the application of only 45 kg ha(-1) N. Application of P and S fertilizers increased camelina seed yield compared with the control treatment. Th ere was no response to K fertilization. Simultaneous application of N and S did not show synergistic effects in enhancing ANUE. The ANUE reduced with increasing N application rates. From trend analysis, application of 60 kg ha(-1) N produced agronomic maximum seed and oil yields. Therefore, optimizing camelina seed and oil yields production with regard to nutrient management using current variety should focus on N fertilization.
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  4. Green Biodiesel Synthesis Using Waste Shells as Sustainable Catalysts with Camelina sativa Oil
    Abstract

    Hangun-Balkir, Y. 2016. Green Biodiesel Synthesis Using Waste Shells as Sustainable Catalysts with Camelina sativa Oil. Journal of Chemistry.

    Waste utilization is an essential component of sustainable development and waste shells are rarely used to generate practical products and processes. Most waste shells are CaCO3 rich, which are converted to CaO once calcined and can be employed as inexpensive and green catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel. Herein, we utilized lobster and eggshells as green catalysts for the transesterification of Camelina sativa oil as feedstock into biodiesel. Camelina sativa oil is an appealing crop option as feedstock for biodiesel production because it has high tolerance of cold weather, drought, and low-quality soils and contains approximately 40% oil content. The catalysts from waste shells were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscope. The product, biodiesel, was studied by H-1 NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of methanol to oil ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature, and catalyst concentration were investigated. Optimum biodiesel yields were attained at a 12:1 (alcohol : oil) molar ratio with 1wt.% heterogeneous catalysts in 3 hours at 65 degrees C. The experimental results exhibited a first-order kinetics and rate constants and activation energy were calculated for the transesterification reaction at different temperatures. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced from Camelina sativa oil and waste shells were compared with those of the petroleum-based diesel by using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards.
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  5. Technoeconomic analysis of small-scale farmer-owned Camelina oil extraction as feedstock for biodiesel production: A case study in the Canadian prairies
    Abstract

    Mupondwa, E.; Li, X.; Falk, K.; Gugel, R.; Tabil, L. 2016. Technoeconomic analysis of small-scale farmer-owned Camelina oil extraction as feedstock for biodiesel production: A case study in the Canadian prairies. Industrial Crops and Products. 9076-86

    This study evaluated costs and profitability associated with small scale camelina oil extraction plant in the Canadian Prairies for the purpose of selling camelina oil for further biodiesel production. In this case, Camelina sativa is targeted for production on underutilized summerfallow land to avoid displacement of crop lands. Saskatchewan soil zone 7A has the capacity to provide camelina for oil extraction based on small scale capacities of 30,000-120,000 t annum(-1) and capital investment of $10-24 million. Oil production price is reduced with increased camelina oil content, field yield, plant scale, and camelina meal price. Oil production costs range from $0.39 to $1.88 L-1 when camelina meal has a market value of $0.30 kg(-1). These results provide an informative basis for investment decisions by farmers and investors vis-a-vis the advancement of farm-adoption of camelina as a dedicated industrial crop, as well as the development of an integrated camelina-to-processing oilseed value-chain. Crown Copyright (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  6. Determining the performance, emission and combustion properties of camelina biodiesel blends
    Abstract

    Ozcelik, A. E.; Aydogan, H.; Acaroglu, M. 2015. Determining the performance, emission and combustion properties of camelina biodiesel blends. Energy Conversion and Management. 9647-57

    In the present study, the effects of two different camelina biodiesel fuels obtained through transesterification on engine power and torque performance and emissions and fuel combustion characteristics of these fuels compared to diesel fuel were determined particularly focusing on new blend ratios of B7 and B100, which the European Union has been specifically studying on.
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  7. Life Cycle Analysis and Production Potential of Camelina Biodiesel in the Pacific Northwest
    Abstract

    Dangol, N.; Shrestha, D. S.; Duffield, J. A. 2015. Life Cycle Analysis and Production Potential of Camelina Biodiesel in the Pacific Northwest. Transactions of the ASABE. 58(2) 465-475

    Camelina sativa could be a potential feedstock to help meet the U.S. biodiesel production goal of 36 billion gallons by 2022, as set forth by Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. This research is focused on assessing the energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of camelina biodiesel production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the U.S. Field data were collected from a camelina farm in the region, and crushing and transesterification data were measured using facilities at the University of Idaho. It was estimated that use of camelina biodiesel reduces GHG emissions by 69% compared to 2005 baseline diesel. However, camelina biodiesel does not meet the ASTM D6751 specification for oxidative stability without an additive. Camelina has a smaller seed size compared to canola and required 23% more energy for crushing. The net energy ratio for camelina biodiesel was found to be 3.6, and the fossil energy ratio was found to be 4.2. From an agronomic standpoint, camelina can be incorporated into low rainfall areas of the PNW as a rotational crop. Wheat areas of the PNW with annual rainfall of 19 to 38 cm that currently incorporate fallow into their rotations were considered as potential areas for camelina production. There were 846,500 ha (2.1 million acres) of land meeting the criteria in the region that could potentially produce 443.0 million L of biodiesel (117.1 million gal) and 1.2 billion kg of meal per year. This is 12.1% of the approved amount of camelina meal that could be used in livestock feed within the PNW. It was concluded that camelina biodiesel qualifies as an advanced biofuel, and camelina meal has potential to be consumed locally as a feed mix for livestock.
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  8. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil
    Abstract

    Saez-Bastante, J.; Ortega-Roman, C.; Pinzi, S.; Lara-Raya, F. R.; Leiva-Candia, D. E.; Dorado, M. P. 2015. Ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from Camelina sativa oil. Bioresource Technology. 185116-124

    The main drawbacks of biodiesel production are high reaction temperatures, stirring and time. These could be alleviated by aiding transesterification with alternative energy sources, i.e. ultrasound (US). In this study, biodiesel was obtained from Camelina sativa oil, aided with an ultrasonic probe (20 kHz, 70% duty cycle, 50% amplitude). Design of experiments included the combination of sonication and agitation cycles, w/wo heating (50 degrees C). To gain knowledge about the implications of the proposed methodology, conventional transesterification was optimized, resulting in higher needs on catalyst concentration and reaction time, compared to the proposed reaction. Although FAME content met EN 14103 standard, FAME yields were lower than those provided by US-assisted transesterification. Energy consumption measurements showed that ultrasound assisted transesterification required lower energy, temperature, catalyst and reaction time. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  9. False flax (Camelina sativa L.) as an alternative source for biodiesel production
    Abstract

    Karcauskiene, D.; Sendzikiene, E.; Makareviciene, V.; Zaleckas, E.; Repsiene, R.; Ambrazaitiene, D. 2014. False flax (Camelina sativa L.) as an alternative source for biodiesel production. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture. 101(2) 161-168

    The current study hypothesizes that false flax (Camelina sativa L.), as a high-value biofuel feedstock, could be grown under humid conditions of western Lithuania and that nitrogen fertilisation could influence its seed yield and oil content. The following objectives were pursued: 1) to determine the optimum nitrogen fertiliser rate for winter (N-0, N-50, N-100, N-150) and summer (N-0, N-30, N-60, N-90, N-120) types of false flax, 2) to estimate false flax seed oil content, its composition and feasibility to use it for the production of biodiesel fuel. The experiments were conducted in 2008-2011 at the Vezaiciai Branch of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. It was revealed that the highest (1.28 t ha(-1), in 2010) and (1.29 t ha(-1), in 2011) as well as cost-efficient summer false flax seed yield was produced having fertilised with 90 kg ha(-1) of nitrogen. Significantly highest (1.2 t ha(-1), in 2011 and 1.6 t ha(-1), in 2010) winter false flax seed yield was obtained having fertilised with N-100. In our study, the seed oil content of summer false flax amounted to 40.3% and that of winter false flax was lower - 37.0%. Nitrogen fertilisation (N-150 and N-120) increased protein content in winter false flax seed from 22.98% to 26.97% and in summer false flax seed from 20.53% to 23.23% and did not reduce seed oil content. Methyl esters of false flax oil have a high iodine value and an especially high content of polyunsaturated linolenic acid: it reached 38.2% in winter false flax oil and 34.3% in summer false flax oil. Therefore false flax methyl esters can be used as fuel for diesel engines only in mixtures containing 40-50% of methyl esters of animal origin (used frying oil or pork lard). The most effective antioxidant Ionol BF200 (optimal dosage - 500 ppm) as well as the most effective depressants Wintron XC-30 (optimal dosage - 1500 ppm) and Infineum R-442 (optimal dosage - 1200 ppm) were selected for improvement of oxidation stability and cold flow properties of esters.
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  10. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies
    Abstract

    Li, X.; Mupondwa, E. 2014. Life cycle assessment of camelina oil derived biodiesel and jet fuel in the Canadian Prairies. Science of the Total Environment. 48117-26

    This study evaluated the environmental impact of biodiesel and hydroprocessed renewable jet fuel derived from camelina oil in terms of global warming potential, human health, ecosystem quality, and energy resource consumption. The life cycle inventory is based on production activities in the Canadian Prairies and encompasses activities ranging from agricultural production to oil extraction and fuel conversion. The system expansion method is used in this study to avoid allocation and to credit input energy to co-products associated with the products displaced in the market during camelina oil extraction and fuel processing. This is the preferred allocation method for LCA analysis in the context of most renewable and sustainable energy programs. The results show that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 1 MJ of camelina derived biodiesel ranged from 7.61 to 24.72 g CO2 equivalent and 3.06 to 31.01 kg CO2/MJ equivalent for camelina HRJ fuel. Non-renewable energy consumption for camelina biodiesel ranged from 0.40 to 0.67 MJ/MJ; HRJ fuel ranged from -0.13 to 0.52 MJ/MJ. Camelina oil as a feedstock for fuel production accounted for the highest contribution to overall environmental performance, demonstrating the importance of reducing environmental burdens during the agricultural production process. Attaining higher seed yield would dramatically lower environmental impacts associated with camelina seed, oil, and fuel production. The lower GHG emissions and energy consumption associated with camelina in comparison with other oilseed derived fuel and petroleum fuel make camelina derived fuel from Canadian Prairies environmentally attractive. Crown Copyright (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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  11. Optimization of high-energy density biodiesel production from camelina sativa oil under supercritical 1-butanol conditions
    Abstract

    Sun, Y. Q.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muppaneni, T.; Reddy, H. K.; Patil, P. D.; Li, C. Z.; Jiang, L. J.; Deng, S. G. 2014. Optimization of high-energy density biodiesel production from camelina sativa oil under supercritical 1-butanol conditions. Fuel. 135522-529

    Transesterification of camelina sativa oil to produce fatty acid butyl esters under supercritical 1-butanol conditions was systematically studied at alcohol to oil molar ratios of 20:1-60:1, reaction temperatures of 280-320 degrees C, and reaction times of 20-100 min. The response surface methodology was applied to evaluate the effects of process parameters on the transesterification yield and biodiesel quality. Two mathematic models for different time ranges of 20-60 min and 30-100 min were developed and combined to predict the response over a long reaction time range. The predicted responses agree well with the experimental yields. A maximum biodiesel yield of 87.6% was obtained at a reaction time of 305 degrees C, 1-butanol to camelina oil molar ratio of 40: 1, and reaction time of 80 min. The physical properties of butyl biodiesel were evaluated and compared with those of regular diesel. The good cold temperature property (pour point of -19 degrees C) and high calorific value (HHV of 39.97 MJ/kg) make the camelina oil butyl biodiesel an ideal liquid transportation fuel. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  12. Biodiesel from Camelina sativa: A comprehensive characterisation
    Abstract

    Ciubota-Rosie, C.; Ruiz, J. R.; Ramos, M. J.; Perez, A. 2013. Biodiesel from Camelina sativa: A comprehensive characterisation. Fuel. 105572-577

    In order to evaluate the Camelina sativa biodiesel (CSB) as a viable biofuel alternative, a comprehensive characterisation was performed based on the European and the American standards (EN 14214 and ASTM D6751). For the first time, more than thirty parameters was analysed. The results show that C. sativa oil contains approximately 90% unsaturated fatty acids. This unusual fatty acid pattern is the result of the abundance of C18:1 (12.8-14.7%), C18: 2 (16.3-17.2%), C18: 3 (36.2-39.4%) and C20:1 (14.0-15.5%) fatty acids. The high C18: 3 content is incompatible with EN 14214 specifications and negatively affects biodiesel properties such as the cetane number, the iodine value, the oxidation stability and the linolenic acid methyl ester content. Other critical parameters are the atmospheric equivalent temperature (AET, 90% recovered) and the polyunsaturated (>= 4 double bonds) methyl ester content. For these reasons, C. sativa biodiesel presents serious drawbacks for biodiesel applications, although could be good biodiesel feedstocks if the high degree of unsaturation and the molecular weight of the oil are reduced. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  13. Evaluation of Biodiesel Derived from Camelina sativa Oil
    Abstract

    Soriano, N. U.; Narani, A. 2012. Evaluation of Biodiesel Derived from Camelina sativa Oil. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society. 89(5) 917-923

    Biodiesel derived from camelina as well as other feedstocks including palm, mustard, coconut, sunflower, soybean and canola were prepared via the conventional base-catalyzed transesterification with methanol. Fatty acid profiles and the fuel properties of biodiesel from different vegetable oils were analyzed and tested in accordance with ASTM D6751. Camelina biodiesel contains 10-12%, 37-40%, and 48-50% saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated components, respectively. Some fuel properties of camelina biodiesel are comparable to that of sunflower biodiesel including kinematic viscosity (40 degrees C), flash point, cloud point, cold filter plugging point, and oil stability index. However, camelina biodiesel exhibited the poorest oxidative stability, highest distillation temperature and has the highest potential to form coke during combustion, all of which are attributed to the high amounts of n-3-fatty acids in camelina oil. While neat camelina biodiesel may exhibit undesirable fuel properties, it is very comparable with soybean biodiesel at the B20 level.
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  14. Possibilities of Using Camelina Sativa Oil for Producing Biodiesel Fuel
    Abstract

    Zaleckas, E.; Makareviciene, V.; Sendzikiene, E. 2012. Possibilities of Using Camelina Sativa Oil for Producing Biodiesel Fuel. Transport. 27(1) 60-66

    Biofuels for diesel engines are produced mainly from rapeseed oil in Lithuania and the Member States of the European Union. In order to minimise an adverse impact of biodiesel fuel on the food sector, it is necessary to look for alternative feedstocks for producing biodiesel fuel including the potential utilisation of the new kinds of oilseed crops and various fatty waste. Camelina (Camelina sativa) could be one of the kinds of such oilseed crops, and therefore the physical and chemical parameters of Camelina sativa oil and biodiesel fuel produced from this oil were determined and the conformity of quality parameters with the requirements of biofuel standard was evaluated. It was found that fatty acid methyl esters made from Camelina sativa oil had a high iodine value (164.6 divided by 169.6 g I-2/100 g oil), and therefore could be used as fuel for diesel engines only in the mixtures with methyl esters produced from animal fat or used for frying oil. It has been established that similar mixtures can contain 50 divided by 60% of Camelina sativa oil methyl esters. The possibilities of increasing oxidation stability as well as improving the cold flow properties of ester mixtures were investigated. The most effective antioxidant - Ionol (optimal dosage of 500 ppm) and the most efficient depressants Wintron XC-30 (optimal dosage - 1500 ppm) and Infineum R-442 (optimal dosage - 1200 ppm) were selected.
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